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CREATIVITY_ INVENTION_ INNOVATION_ AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP

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CREATIVITY_ INVENTION_ INNOVATION_ AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP Powered By Docstoc
					                   Learning from Failure
        Innovation occurs when organizations function
       as effective learning systems, and learning comes
              through experimentation and failure.

           Truly innovative organizations are those
        where people can take risks, reap the rewards of
          success, and survive constructive failures!

                    Michael Tushman and David Nadler
                      How Organizations Learn, 1996



Edward Lumsdaine                                       Univ. of Pretoria
               Learning Requirements for
                      Innovation
The learning requirements for major innovation are high
 for everyone affected by the innovation. This is one
 factor why change is difficult.
Teamwork and communication are key in this
 organizational learning.
This is the crucial link between knowledge creation and
 innovation in the context of problem solving.

                         Lumsdaine, Lumsdaine and Shelnutt
       Creative Problem Solving and Engineering Design, 1999

Edward Lumsdaine                              Univ. of Pretoria
          Supportive Organizational Climate
 Creative Thinking                    Overcome mental blocks.
                                      Learn skills; apply as individual.

 Creative Problem Solving             Learn the process.
                                      Apply in teams and as individual.

 New Ideas/Solutions/Inventions       Learn tools that enhance these.
                                      Learn about IP protection.

 Organizational Constraints           Overcome barriers to innovation.
                                      Improve communication.
 Entrepreneurship
 Intrapreneurship                     Change agents, managers, and
 Technopreneurship                    champions enable innovation by
                                      sustaining a supportive climate.

Innovation is more likely to occur!

Edward Lumsdaine                                     Univ. of Pretoria
     Pillar 4      COMMUNICATION
                   Important Aspects
                   • It links education, application, and climate pillars.
                   • It links individuals, teams, and management.
                   • Ideas become incorporated into business plans.
                   • With info, one person’s failed experiment can
                             become another’s idea generator.
                   Formal & Informal Channels & Networks
                   • People are resources; should be given time to
                           respond to call for help or information.
                   • Formal communication is involved in patenting
                           and in cost, feasibility, and risk analyses.
                   • Committees, technical and management groups
                           can be set up to formally evaluate ideas.
                   • “Creativity clubs” and “technology user groups”
                           are excellent forums to exchange ideas for
Edward Lumsdaine
                           continuous improvement and innovation.
                                                          Univ. of Pretoria
   Key Factors for Encouraging Innovation
 • Creative Thinking
                          Vision, Imagination

 • Creative Problem Solving
                                 Idea Development




                                                                            Communication
 • New Ideas/Solutions/Inventions
                                       Plan for Success

 • Organizational Constraints
                                  Work for Acceptance

 • Entrepreneurship
 • Intrapreneurship         Fast Action, On-Time
 • Technopreneurship



  Then innovation is more likely to occur!

Edward Lumsdaine                                        Univ. of Pretoria
           How Do Large Organizations
                   Innovate?

 INTERNALLY THROUGH
 • Continuous Improvement
 • ―Intrapreneurship‖ (i.e. skunk works)
 EXTERNALLY THROUGH
 • Licensing (―borrowed‖ innovation)
 • Acquisition (imported innovation)

Edward Lumsdaine                 Univ. of Pretoria
             Continuous Improvement
 Popular belief has it that all innovation
  comes from small companies,
  especially startups.
 Continuous improvement of an invention
  is the internal vehicle used in most
  large corporations and organizations to
  achieve innovation.


Edward Lumsdaine                   Univ. of Pretoria
                   Imported Innovation
 Companies don’t have to innovate from within
  if they are creative enough to recognize and
  open enough to import innovation (and are
  the first to do so).
 Famous case of purchased innovation:
   Bill Gates – Disk operating system (DOS)
 Famous cases of not recognizing innovation:
   Windows by Xerox
   Quartz watch by the Swiss
Edward Lumsdaine                     Univ. of Pretoria
     Motorola: History of Internal Innovation
       Based on data presented by C.W. Stanley, Vice President, May 2000

Cumulative
Innovation




                                           Five innovations in the next 42 years




                     Six innovations in the first 13 years



1930          1940     1950       1960        1970       1980         1990          2000

 Edward Lumsdaine                                               Univ. of Pretoria
    Motorola: History of Internal Innovation
      Based on data presented by C.W. Stanley, Vice President, May 2000

             •   1930: The first automobile radio
             •   1936: The first police car radio receiver
             •   1937: The first pushbutton tuning of car radios
             •   1940: The first 2-way handheld radio
             •   1941: The first 2-way police radio
             •   1943: The first FM 2-way radio ―Walkie-Talkie‖
             •   1956: The first pager
             •   1964: The first rectangular picture tube
             •   1969: The first communications from the moon
             •   1982: The first portable cellular phone
             •   1998: The first handheld satellite radio system

 ―This list is typical for an innovative, relatively long-lived, large company.
  It may be that any company which lives beyond the biblical three score
     and ten years may either be particularly innovative or a monopoly.‖


Edward Lumsdaine                                                   Univ. of Pretoria
                   Innovation Often Comes from
                        Small Companies
    Motorola acquired over 250 new
     technologies from small firms and
     universities in two years (1998-2000).
    These include
        • Gel-based biochip
        • SiGe-C semiconductor technology
        • Methanol fuel cells
        • V92 voice-band modem
        • Machine vision
Edward Lumsdaine                           Univ. of Pretoria
                       FINAL TIP

                To innovate successfully,
           you must hire, work with, and promote
                people who are unlike you.


        Dorothy Leonard and Susaan Straus, “Putting Your
        Company’s Whole Brain to Work,” Harvard Business
        Review, July-August 1997.



Edward Lumsdaine                              Univ. of Pretoria
 A Changing World


                   The U.S. Department of
                   Labor estimates that
                   today’s learner will have
                   10-14 jobs ... by age 38




Edward Lumsdaine                  Univ. of Pretoria
                                                      63
A Changing World
                   More than 1 out of 2 are
                   working for a company ...
                   for whom they have
                   worked less than 5 years




Edward Lumsdaine                  Univ. of Pretoria
                                                      64
 A Changing World
                   According to former Secretary of
                   Education Richard Riley, the top
                   10 jobs that will be in demand in
                   2010 ... didn’t exist in 2004




Edward Lumsdaine                         Univ. of Pretoria
                                                             65
 A Rapidly Changing World

  The pace of change is accelerating, driven by
  changes in technology and global competition.
  Change and innovation help us to survive and
  succeed in such a world—but they require new
  thinking which is hard work.


                   ―It is not necessary to change.
                      Survival is not mandatory.‖
                    W. Edwards Deming, quality expert

Edward Lumsdaine                                   Univ. of Pretoria
                                                                       66
                   A changing world
                   ... so what does this all mean?

We are currently preparing students for jobs
 ... that don’t yet exist

using technologies
  ... that haven’t yet been invented

in order to solve problems
   ... we don’t even know are problems yet.
Edward Lumsdaine                       Univ. of Pretoria
                                                           67
                   What else does it mean?
                    Competitive Advantage
  The competitive advantage of businesses
   and individuals will be derived from their
      ability to solve problems creatively
                 and to innovate

  As an entrepreneur:
                    IF YOU … DON’T INNOVATE,
                    YOU WILL …   STAGNATE,
                    THEN … DISINTEGRATE
Edward Lumsdaine                          Univ. of Pretoria
                                                              68
Edward Lumsdaine   Univ. of Pretoria

				
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