Spatial Data Infrastructure by wanghonghx

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									Spatial Data Infrastructure

     Introduction and Practice


         Dr. Francis Harvey
           SDI or NSDI
• National Spatial Data Infrastructure
  (NSDI) in US is where concept
  originates
• It has since evolved (mainly in Europe)
• Elements remain the same
• Principles have changed
• Still very complex
              NSDI in America
            The Political Culture


▪ From DC Beltway to “Main Street”
▪ Jeffersonian Democracy
▪ Federalism
▪ Enfranchised, pluralistic, participative
populace
▪ Participative Democracy
            Dimensions of American
                Government
▪ In mid-1990s non-defense Federal agencies
employed about 2.1 million people and spent about
$1.6 trillion
▪ State and local governments employed 19.5 million
people and spent about $1.3 trillion (1994)
▪ There are about 39,000 general purpose units of
local government
 ▸ 3000 counties
 ▸ 19,000 cities
 ▸ 16,000 towns
 ▸ 14,000 school districts
 ▸ 31,000 special districts
Minneapolis, St. Paul Metropolitan Area

         General
 7 700 km2
 around 1 million residents
 about 900 000 parcels


 293 independent local
  units of government
7     counties
188   Other governm. units
59    school districts
39    water boards
                              From Randy Johnson, MetroGIS
     NSDI originates in U.S. Federal
             Government
▪ Executive Order 12906 (1994) calls for sharing
 ▸ Avoid duplicate efforts
 ▸ More efficient use of resources
▪ This only involves Federal Agencies
 ▸ Coordinated through Federal Geographic Data
 Committee
▪ Framework should provide foundation
 ▸ No master blueprint
              NSDI to serve many needs
                        At all levels of government

▪ Transportation, Navigation & Commerce
▪ Public Land & Marine Sanctuary Management
▪ Agriculture & Natural Resource Development
▪ Environmental Protection and Ecosystem Management
▪ Community and Economic Development
▪ Emergency Management
▪ Public Service Delivery
▪ National Defense
▪ Earth System Science & Geographic Information Technologies
▪ Public Information
▪ Property & Voting Rights
▪ Revenues                                   Source: National Academy of Public
                                                Administration, 1997
                  What is the NSDI?

▪ Infrastructure for Institutions
 ▸ Big vision:
   – From local citizen to Federal Secretaries
 ▸ Builds on locally distinct institutions and
 infrastructures
   – Mainstreet
 ▸ Not a template, but a framework to guide
 development
 ▸ Not a uniform code, only guidelines and standards
            NSDI Components


▪ Framework
▪ Framework Cone
▪ Involvement and data sharing
▪ Metadata
▪ Clearinghouses
Three Key NSDI Components




                                                               Vertical and Horizontal
                                Application Users
                                                                     Integration
                              Added Application-Specific
                                       Data



   Transportation   Traffic         Framework                           Development
                                                           Population
   Planning         Loads                                               Planning
                                       Data




                                        Soils


                              Land Suitability Analysis


                    Free Data Sharing
NSDI starts with Framework Data
    Federal Government Project/Proposal
Framework Cone
         Involvement and Data Sharing
  Federal, Regional, State, Tribal, Local, Private Companies,
                            Utilities
                             Application Users


                           Added Application-Specific
                                    Data



Transportation                                                       Development
                 Traffic         Framework
Planning
                                                        Population   Planning
                 Loads              Data




                                     Soils


                           Land Suitability Analysis
NSDI Iceberg

                                                             Appl icati on Us ers




                                                                  Added Application-Specific Data




                           T r anspor tation   Traffic                                                           Dev elopm ent
                           P l anning          Loads                 Framework                      Population   P l anning

                                                                        Data




               Concepts                                                        Soils




                                                         Land Sui tabilit y Analysis




               Practices




                           ?
                Recognized Issues

▪ Data Sharing (level 1 interoperability)
 ▸ How is data exchanged?
▪ Defining geographic objects (semantics)
 ▸ What is a road?
▪ Sharing costs (financial)
 ▸ Who pays?
▪ Involving local governments (participation)
 ▸ More bureaucracy?
▪ Vertical Integration (control, use, and distribution)
 ▸ Data and Organizations
 The two sides of data sharing are the
       two sides of integration
       Simplistic: Technical and Institutional Issues


▪ Technical issues
 ▸ Multiple scales
 ▸ Data exchange
▪ Institutional Issues
 ▸ Cost-sharing
 ▸ Maintenance
 ▸ Metadata
Cone of Vertical Integration
              Vertical Integration
            Technical Issues can be resolved


▪ Products and levels
 ▸ Multiple producers, multiple users, multiple
 products
 ▸ State, Federal, Local
▪ NSDI operates like a federation
 ▸ Distributed production
 ▸ Diffused use
 ▸ Multiple production and use arrangements
    Institutional Issues for Integration


▪ Relevance
 ▸ Scale related
▪ Partnerships to provide resources
 ▸ Joint funding
 ▸ Cost sharing
 ▸ Work sharing
     Underlying Organizational Issues
                        Difficult to assess

▪ “Pride of Authorship”
▪ Adequacy for use
▪ Duplication of effort
▪ Reprocessing costs
▪ Not easily automated
▪ Political and public pressures
▪ Disparate data
▪ Lack of time
▪ Legal issues
            Evolution of the NSDI
      Development of Capabilities and Political Turf


▪ FGDC
 ▸ Coordinating (federal) actvities
 ▸ 19 member interagency committee
▪ Geospatial One-Stop
 ▸ Access way to geospatial information
▪ The National Map
 ▸ Partnerships to provide integrated geographic data
 (synthesis)
                        FDGC
                     www.fgdc.gov

▪ In existence since 1990
 ▸ Big push came after 1994 Executive Order to
 develop the NSDI
▪ Develops and promotes standards
 ▸ Notably for metadata
  – The CSDGM, Content Standard for Digitial Geographic
  Metadata
▪ Promotes inter-governmental activities
▪ Responsible for clearinghouses
              GeoSpatial OneStop
                        Geodata.gov

▪ What is it?
 ▸ Federal agencies (24) continuing NSDI activities
 ▸ Part of Bush‟s e-government agenda
   – Strong private sector involvement
 ▸ Focus: Spatially enable the delivery of government
 services
▪ Technology is a portal
 ▸ A gateway to gateways and data
                    National Map
                http://nationalmap.usgs.gov/


▪ What is it?
 ▸ “a seamless, continuously maintained set of public
 domain geographic base information that will serve
 as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using
 other data easily and consistently”
▪ Linked to the National Atlas
 ▸ National Map has data
 ▸ National Atlas has maps
          Is this all just a mess?


▪ No, simply what happens when politics and
bureaucracy intersect with technologies
                       Materials
                     A Brief Selection

▪ The best starting web site is www.fgdc.gov
 ▸ From this site you will be able to find links to all
 sorts of information on the NSDI
 ▸ Global SDI information is at www.gsdi.org
▪ For technical issues start out with
www.opengis.org
▪ For operational examples go to nsdi.usgs.gov
or search for „NSDI‟
NSDI Practices
                In the beginning...
  Aligning scientific communities with policy communities

▪ Re-inventing government
 ▸ Gore-lead initiative: National Performance Review
  – Management for results
  – Inter-government activities
  – Performance-based organizations
 ▸ Activities (relevant)
  – G-Gov
  – NSDI
  – Reinventing government
▪ Continued under Bush e-government
      Government Needs for the 21st
               Century
▪ Interoperable systems that are trusted and secure
▪ Methods and measures of citizen participation in democratic
processes
▪ Models of electronic public service transactions and delivery
systems
▪ New models for public-private partnerships and other
networked organizational forms
▪ Intuitive decision support tools for public officials
▪ Archiving and electronic records management
▪ Better methods of IT management
▪ Matching research resources to government needs
                NSDI ... a verb?

▪ Nancy Tosta‟s commentary
 ▸ A key figure in 1990s NSDI work
 ▸ Politics and bureaucracy
▪ Troubles
 ▸ “diverse interpretations”
 ▸ “broad management options”
▪ Failures
 ▸ No nationally consistent data sets
 ▸ Slow development of standards
                  Research


▪ Interactions among levels of government and
public and private sectors
▪ Policy guidelines, organizational forms, and
technology tools constantly interact
    Institutional Issues for Integration


▪ Relevance
 ▸ Scale related
▪ Partnerships to provide resources
 ▸ Joint funding
 ▸ Cost sharing
 ▸ Work sharing
         Critical Organizational Issues
                        Difficult to assess

▪ “Pride of Authorship”
▪ Adequacy for use
▪ Duplication of effort
▪ Reprocessing costs
▪ Not easily automated
▪ Political and public pressures
▪ Disparate data
▪ Lack of time
▪ Legal issues
       Decentralizing Infrastructure
            Neo-liberalizationof governance


▪ Does Decentralization = Devolution?
▪ Different strategies
 ▸ Shift dissatisfaction
 ▸ Shift economic and political powers to increase
 local revenue
 ▸ Shift of expenditures w/o revenues
              Economic Explanation


▪ Shift expenditures decisions to the level of
government that best incorporates a community
of common interests
▪ Central government concessions to maintain
political stability
 ▸ Very fluid structure of governance
  – Network
                   No easy Job
   Changing the relationship between central and local
                      governments

▪ Problems of public service delivery
 ▸ Local service provision cannot be changed in
 isolation
 ▸ Different degrees of political, economic, and
 decision making powers
       Three Elements of Success


▪ Clear distinction of functional responsibilities
▪ Financial rules governing local governments
reward good performance
▪ System of accountability that balances central
regulation and local political participation
                  Assumptions


▪ Difficulties of defining the beneficiaries of a
particular service (benefit-jurisdiction model)
▪ Many services have local and wider benefits
▪ Administrative costs associated with service
provision are not factored in
▪ Data sharing occurs to share data
       Successful Decentralization
               Finances and Politics


▪ Democratic local decision process with
transparent costs and benefits and all
stakeholders have an equal opportunity to
influence the decision
▪ Costs of local decisions are borne by those
who make decisions
▪ Benefits stay in the jurisdiction
              Policy Guidelines
               Does NSDI fulfill these?


▪ Who benefits, pays?
▪ Transparent lines of accountability
▪ Provide enforcement mechanism

 Technology and Organizations are inseperable
              NSDI Awareness
               What is the NSDI????

▪ For “small” local
                                  Do you know what the National Spatial
governments the NSDI                  Data Infrastructure is? (Y/N)

has no relevance
                             Unsure (6.90%)
▪ They don‟t know what                                Yes (43.10%)

it is                     No (50.00%)

▪ They can‟t imagine
what it is

         Results from 2001 Kentucky Survey
        Informal data sharing dominates
Results for local governments from 1996 Framework Survey




 Share Data




 Have Policy




               0   20                  40                  60                       80                  100
                                                        in percent

                   Ken tucky (n =15)    Kansas (n=20)     Nor th Carolina (n =70)        Wash ing ton (n=31)
                   Data Distribution
    Are there conditions [e.g., "no use", "no distribution"]
 stipulated upon the sharing, use, or redistribution of data?
▪ Regional differences
 ▸ Established regional agencies
 ▸ With colleges and tribal authorities
▪ Specific Issues
 ▸ “liability disclaimer required”              Yes   No   N/A etc


 ▸ “data only used for requested purpose &
 not shared w/ others w/o permission”
 ▸ "the only data we want to "protect" is the
 cadastral layer”
             Results from Best Practices Research
           Limits to the Effectiveness of
                    Standards
 Do you rely on any standards in your geographic information
                         activities?
▪ What does “yes” mean?
  ▸ “when I'm aware of standards that I can meet”
  ▸ “standards??? Order of priorities-real time
  needs first”
  ▸ “ArcView shapefiles, UTM or County
  coordinates for basemap purposes”
  ▸ “occasionally we will use the National Spatial
  Accuracy Standards (when create metadata)”
                                                     Yes   No   NA n/a etc



Terminological Problem: standard can mean little more than using
         what is available when there is only one choice
                Results from Best Practices Research
Resources
Questions?

								
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