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					   OSS Essentials

TTY, Automaatioverkkojen
   erityiskysymyksiä
       Leo Sutinen

     Terplan; OSS Essentials, TTY/ Leo   1
             Sutinen 22.9.2003
                       3SS
• OSS Operating support system
• BSS Business support system
• MSS Marketing support system




             Terplan; OSS Essentials, TTY/ Leo   2
                     Sutinen 22.9.2003
                       Contents
• Classification of Service Providers

• Industry issues of Support systems

• Market Drivers for Support Systems

• The Service Delivery Cycle




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      Classification of Service Providers


• Due to the opportunities given by deregulation in many
  countries. there are a number of new entrants in the
  telecommunications services industry.
• Product and service portfolios need some fine tuning in
  most cases because customers are faced with overlapping
  offers from various service providers.
• Service creation and provisioning are becoming more
  dynamic and provider-customer-interconnections are
  getting simpler by using Internet technology.


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     Classification of Service Providers
    ASP (applications service provider)
• Emerging service provider who must
  combine:

• Application
• Systems
• Network management

• Service level expectations are
  extremely high; the whole business of a
  customer may rely on this provider.
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     Classification of Service Providers
    CAP (competitive access provider)
• Facilities-based or non-facilities-
  based;
• Similar to the ILEC, but bas carefully
  selected local loops for high-profit
  commercial customers




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   Classification of Service Providers
CLEC (competitive local-exchange carrier)
• Smaller, flexible provider who owns
  little or no telecommunications
  facilities (facilityless).
• By offering excellent customer care and
  new services, they try to build the
  support structure step-by-step.
• Their support systems are state-of-the-
  art, lightweight, and less expensive to
  operate.
• In certain cases, they use service
  bureaus for billing and provisioning.
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     Classification of Service Providers
       CSP (cable service provider)
• Emerging service providers with offers
  for access networks.
• They still face technological
  challenges, which can be overcome.
• Support systems are practically
  nonexistent.
• In terms of support systems, they buy
  instead of build; occasionally, they
  use service bureaus for billing and
  provisioning.

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   Classification of Service Providers
    CSP (content service provider)
• Emerging service providers
  who concentrate on the value,
  Quality, and timeliness of
  content in eCommerce
  environments.
• They strongly co-operate with
  ISPs and ASPs.

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     Classification of Service Provider
    ESP (enterprise service provider)

• Emerging service provider from the
  enterprise environment.
• They offer services for a limited user
  community with similar attributes to
  the provider.
• They use and customize their existing
  support systems that may not scale
  well.



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     Classification of Service Providers
ICP (integrated communications provider)
• Emerging provider with integrated
  services offer, concentrating on next
  generation, high-speed data and
  wireless services, in particular for
  profitable business users.
• Their acceptance in the market space is
  expected to be high.
• In terms of support systems, they buy
  instead of build; occasionally, they
  use service bureaus for billing and
  provisioning.                   >>>
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     Classification of Service Providers
ICP (integrated communications provider)
• >>> They take advantage of the fact
  that intranet, extranet, virtual
  private networks, eCommerce, and
  multimedia applications require more
  bandwidth than is available over
  traditional circuit-switched voice
  networks




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     Classification of Service Providers
       IEX (interexchange carrier)
• Primarily responsible for long-distance
  services with stepwise penetration of
  the local-exchange area.
• They can be both incumbent and
  competitive providers with the result
  of the need for very heterogeneous
  support systems.




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    Classification of Service Providers
 ILEC (incumbent local-exchange carrier)
• Strong provider who owns a considerable
  amount of telecommunications facilities
  and doesn't want to give away this
  position easily.
• Most likely, has a number of legacy
  support systems with little
  interoperability and integration in
  use.
• The result is high operating costs.


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     Classification of Service Providers
      ISP (Internet service provider)
• Wide variety of sizes of these
  providers.
• Their main goal is to provide Internet
  access to business and private
  customers.
• Major challenges include peering to
  each other and to other carriers,
  managing quality, and offering
  acceptable performance.


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     Classification of Service Providers
     NSP (network service provider)
• They are responsible for providing a
  highly reliable networking
  infrastructure, consisting of equipment
  and facilities.
• Their responsibilities are usually
  limited to the physical network, but
  element management systems are usually
  included in their offers.




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    Classification of Service Providers
  PTT (Post, Telegraph, and Telephone)
• strong provider who owns a considerable
  amount of telecommunications facilities
  and doesn't want to give away this
  position easily.
• Most likely, has a number of legacy
  support systems with little
  interoperability and integration in
  use.
• The result is high operating costs. >>>


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    Classification of Service Providers
  PTT (Post, Telegraph, and Telephone)
• >>> It represents service providers
  prior to liberalization of
  telecommunications services.




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       Classification of Service Providers
       WSP (wireless service provider)
•   Carrier who provides:
•   cellular,
•   personal, and
•   mobile communications services.




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     Industry issues of Support systems
  Convergence and telecom consolidation
• It accelerates the use of advanced
  support systems.
• Creates advantage for support systems
  targeting multiple end markets.
• It increases the complexity of telecom
  networks and the demand for the
  integration of support systems.




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     Industry issues of Support systems
   Developing support systems markets
• Growth is dominated by new carrier
  adoptions and incumbent upgrades.
• Developing markets, such as data
  solutions, and carrier
  interconnections, are likely to justify
  the next wave of support systems
  spendings.




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    Industry issues of Support systems
  Emergence of complex, multiplatform
              environments
• Reliability and scalability of large
  centralized systems remain excellent.
• Service providers incorporate a
  multiplatform strategy augmenting
  existing investments in legacy
  solutions with newer technologies
  targeted at profitable customer market
  sectors.




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     Industry issues of Support systems
 Emphasis on telecom systems integration
• Complex multiplatform, multivendor
  telecom networks require substantial
  systems integration for
  interoperability.
• With multiple client server and legacy
  support systems in place, integration
  capabilities of vendors are in high
  demand.




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     Industry issues of Support systems
Growth of support systems is tied to share-
  shift among telecom end markets and
                  carriers

• The strongest near-term growth bas been
  achieved by vendors targeting the
   – fast-growing telecom end markets,
   – emerging local-exchange carriers
     (LECs),
   – wireless carriers.



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     Industry issues of Support systems
                Outsourcing.
• Ongoing structural changes in the
  telecom industry will place new
  requirements on support systems.
• In order to concentrate on customer
  management, some back-office functions
  may be outsourced to service bureaus.
• These service bureaus might use support
  systems from the same vendors, but they
  use them in a shared fashion among
  multiple service providers.

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     Industry issues of Support systems
  Product-based vendor-driven solutions
• Carriers increasingly demand solutions
  rather than raw technology and
  development kits for custom-developed
  support systems solutions.
• The advent of technology standards
  encourages the use of best-of-breed
  vendor solutions.




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     Industry issues of Support systems
    Upgrade cycles in support systems
• As a result of global deregulation,
  carrier competition is driving the
  demand for new, more efficient back-
  office solutions.
• In addition to reducing operating
  expenses, advanced support systems
  improve time-to-market and often
  facilitate the introduction of new,
  revenue-producing solutions.


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   Market Drivers for Support Systems

• The market is changing very rapidly.
• Support systems should be positioned
  well and should meet providers'
  expectations in a timely fashion.
• Principal market drivers are addressed
  in this segment.




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    Market Drivers for Support Systems
         Growth of the Global
     Telecommunications Market
• Explosive telecom expansion driven by
  internal growth and acquisition is
  forcing telecommunications providers to
  assess the productivity of their
  current support systems
• Number of subscribers grows for
  existing services; new services are
  provisioned on existing
  infrastructures; and completely new
  services on new infrastructures are
  deployed or acquired.               >>>
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    Market Drivers for Support Systems
         Growth of the Global
     Telecommunications Market
• Several support system vendors have
  striven to capitalize on this
  opportunity with solutions that reduce
  complexity
• These vendors do not usually replace
  existing systems, but add functionality
  to accommodate new services, such as...




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     Market Drivers for Support Systems
          Growth of the Global
      Telecommunications Market
• >>>    new services, such as
• - Internet, intranets, and extranet
• - Special data services on top of voice
  networks
• - Wireless services
• - Cable and video services
• - Voice and fax services on top of IP
• - Storage area networks
• - Web hosting
• - Content management
• - Support of ASPs
• - eCommerce services
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    Market Drivers for Support Systems
    Increasing Network Complexity
• As a result of customer expectations,
  the time-to-market of new services is
  extremely short.
• New telecommunicatious services
  providers do not have the time to build
  anew, but instead combine existing and
  new infrastructures, such as copper,
  fiber, and wireless.
• They are deploying new services on the
  basis of a mixture of infrastructures.

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      Market Drivers for Support Systems
      Increasing Network Complexity
• - Emerged technologies
  – Voice networks, Integrated Services Digital
    Network (ISDN), circuit switching, packet
    switching, message switching, frame relay,
    Fast Ethernet, Fast Token Ring, and Fiber
    Distributed Data Interface/Copper
    Distributed Data Interface (FDDI/ CDDI)]
• - Emerging technologies
  –    (Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), mobile
      and wireless, SMDS, SONET /SDH, cable, xDSL,
      and Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN)].


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    Market Drivers for Support Systems
    Increasing Network Complexity
• Each of these technologies bas its own
  support system solutions. In a PSTN,
  the element that should be managed are
  the switches themselves.
• Multiple elements per subscriber in
  digital loop carrier systems, digital
  cellular networks, or hybrid fiber-coax
  systems may cause an explosion in terms
  of managed elements. As a result, the
  size of configuration databases have
  grown exponentially over last 20 years.
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    Market Drivers for Support Systems
    Increasing Network Complexity
• Growth in the number of network
  elements bas been accompanied by an
  increase in the complexity of items to
  be managed. SONET /SDH, ATM, and
  digital wireless are highly complex,
  with a high degree of interdependence
  among network elements.
• This makes service activation and fault
  isolation a challenge.
• Support systems must adapt to this new
  situation.
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    Market Drivers for Support Systems
           Emerging standards
    for Telecommunications Providers
• When services are offered in
  combination, support systems should be
  modified and connected to each other.
• This opens new business opportunities
  for support systems vendors
• The introduction of standards for
  support systems is accelerating the
  demand for third-party support systems.



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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        TMN

• The introduction of technology standards,
  – Telecommunication Management Network (TMN)
  – Distributed Common Object Model (DCOM
  – Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
  – Telecommunication Information Network Architecture
    (TINA)
  – Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM)


• have begun to gain critical support by new
  support systems vendors.




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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        TMN

• Telecommunication Management Network
  (TMN) is a special network that is
  implemented to help manage the
  telecommunication network of the
  service provider.
• It interfaces to one or more individual
  networks at several points in order to
  exchange information. It is logically
  separate from the networks it manages,
  and may be physically separate as well.

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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        TMN

• Telecommunication Management Network is
  an extension of the Open Systems
  Interconnection (OSI) standardization
  process.
• It attempts to standardize some of the
  functionality and many of the
  interfaces of the managed networks.
• When fully implemented, the result will
  be a higher level of integration.
• TMN is usually described by three
  architectures:
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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        TMN

• 1 The functional architecture
  – describes the appropriate distribution of
    functionality within TMN.
• 2 The information architecture
  – gives the rationale for the application of
    OSI systems management principles to the TMN
    principles.
• 3 The physical architecture
  – describes interfaces that can actually be
    implemented together with examples of
    physical components that make up the TMN.

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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        TMN

• Telecommunication Management Network
  distributes management responsibilities
  into several layers, such as
  –   business management layer (BML),
  –   service management layer (SML),
  –   network management layer (NML),
  –   element management layer (EML),
  –   and into the actual network element layer
      (NEL).




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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        DCOM

• Distributed Common Object Model (OCOM)
  is the heart of Microsoft's ActiveOSS
  suite.
• DCOM is an integration framework
  infrastructure designed to facilitate
  communication between software
  components operating on the same host
  or with DCOM on multiple-networked
  hosts.
• It was originally developed to create
  interoperability between components.
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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        DCOM

• ActiveOSS acts as a centralized
  management and translation point for an
  OSS network.
• Conceptually, applications ride on top
  of the framework, but communicate
  through it.
• The common model allows the various
  applications to communicate in a
  uniform manner within the framework or
  across multiple-networked frameworks

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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…

• The framework is intended to create
  uniformity among application services
  without any modifications to source
  code.
• Application services are built into and
  managed by the framework. The overall
  architecture also incorporates the
  Smart TMN business process model and
  related work by TINA.


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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        CORBA

• Common Object Request Broker
  Architecture (CORBA) is a generic
  communication framework to connect
  various network management
  applications.
• The object request broker (ORB) is the
  coordinator between distributed
  objects. The broker receives messages,
  inquiries, and results from objects,
  and routes them to the right
  destination.
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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        CORBA

• If the objects are in a heterogeneous
  environment, multiple brokers are
  required.
• They will talk to each other in the
  future by a new protocol based on
  Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
  Protocol (TCP/IP).




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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        CORBA

• There is no information model
  available; no operations are predefined
  for objects.
• But an object does exist containing all
  the necessary interfaces to the object
  request broker. For the description,
  the Interface Definition Language (IDL)
  is being used.
• There are no detailed management
  information bases (MIBs) for objects.

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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        CORBA

• The functional model consists of the
  Object Services Architecture.
• It delivers the framework for defining
  objects, services, and functions.
• Examples of services are instantiation,
  naming, storing objects' attributes,
  and the distribution/receipt of events
  and notification.



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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        TINA

• Telecommunications Information
  Networking Architecture (TINA) is is
  actually a concept integrator from
  intelligent network (IN), TMN, open
  distributed processing (ODP) from ISO
  and CORBA from object management group
  (OMG).




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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        TINA

• The core is OSI-based network
  management, expanded by the layered
  structure of TMN.
• The emphasis with TINA is not on the
  management of network elements, but on
  the network and services layers.
• TINA is going to be standardized by a
  consortium consisting of
  telecommunications suppliers and
  computer and software vendors.

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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        WBEM

• Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM)
  is a joint initiative of many
  manufacturers led by Compaq, Microsoft,
  and Cisco.
• The initial announcement called for
  defining the following specifications:




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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        WBEM

• HyperMedia Management Schema (HMMS). It
  was to be further defined by the
  Desktop Management Task Force (DMTF).
• HyperMedia Object Manager (HMOM). C++
  reference implementation and
  specification, defined by Microsoft and
  Compaq, to be placed in the public
  domain.




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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        WBEM

• HyperMedia Management Protocol (HMMP) A
  communication protocol embodying HMMS.
  running over HTTP, and with interfaces
  to SNMP and DMI.
• Common Information Model (CIM). It is
  the basis of the information exchange
  between various management
  applications.




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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Emerging standards…        WBEM

• Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM)
  is helpful to unify and simplify
  network management.
• The combination of CIM and eXtensible
  Markup Language (XML) is going to set
  the basics of a new standard that
  significantly facilitates the
  interoperability between various
  support, documentation, and management
  systems.

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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Deregulation and Privatization

• Telecommunications service competition
  began in the 1980s in the USA led by
  MCI with 3SSs playing a key role.
• Under the pressure of the European
  Commission (EC), Europe is in the
  process of deregulation and
  privatization.




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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Deregulation and Privatization

• Key issues are:
  – Local Number Portability (LNP) It
    allows customers to retain their
    telephone numbers even if they change
    service providers.
  – Customers also typically want to
    retain access to advanced features
    they have come to expect from an
    intelligent network.


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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Deregulation and Privatization

• Key issues are:
   – Extranets connecting support systems
     of ILECs and CLECs. ILECs are
     required to provide access to
     information on five classes of
     support systems. They are
     preordering, ordering, provisioning,
     repair, and maintenance. This is now
     the principal focus of local and
     access service providers.

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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Deregulation and Privatization

• Key issues are:
   – Directory services. Real-time service
     processing requires additional
     customer-related data. The expanded
     directory role includes end-user
     authorization and authentication.
   – Directory enabled networks (DENs) are
     tackling the standardization of
     directory information.


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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Deregulation and Privatization

• Innovation and reengineering on behalf
  of the incumbent carriers show a trend
  toward:
• Better customer care. Based on call
  detail record (CDR) and other resource
  utilization-related data,
  unsophisticated customer analysis can
  be accomplished. It includes
  discovering trends in customer behavior
  and traffic patterns, etc.

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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Deregulation and Privatization

• Convergent billing.
  – The customer may expect to receive one bill
    for all services, such as voice, data,
    video, and Internet. The minimal requirement
    is to receive multiple bills with electronic
    staples.




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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Deregulation and Privatization

• Rapid provisioning of new services.
  Based on additional support systems,
  provisioning can be expedited by better
  interfaces and more accurate data.




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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Deregulation and Privatization

• Service differentiation. Still using
  the same infrastructures, new services
  can be created and deployed. By
  carefully defining the value-added
  nature, they may be considered by
  customers as differentiators




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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Deregulation and Privatization

• Offering new services, such as Internet
  access, xDSL, VPN, and VoIP. Also,
  incumbent service providers are
  expected to react rapidly to new
  communication needs, including offering
  Internet access for reasonable money,
  the deployment of xDSL, digital
  subscriber line, virtual private
  networks (VPNs), and voice over IPs
  (VoIP).

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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Communication Convergence
• Advanced technology, coupled with
  deregulation, is driving communications
  convergence.
• Customers prefer to get all types of
  services, such as long-distance and
  local voice, data/Internet cable/video,
  and wireless access from the same
  service provider.
• Deregulation meant to encourage
  competition through the proliferation
  of new entrants.
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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Customer Orientation
• Competition is driving
  telecommunications service providers to
  emphasize customer management.
• Driven by global competition. carriers
  are likely to focus on improving the
  total value of their services-quality,
  support, and price-as a means to retain
  customers.




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Market Drivers for Support Systems
Customer Orientation
• Many of these improvements will come
  from advanced support systems
• Besides improving the customer
  interface (e.g.. offering Web access).
  granular data available with new
  support systems can be utilized to
  retain key customers and reduce the
  amount of customer churn.
• Further differentiation is expected
  High-margin customers may receive
  special treatment.
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Market Drivers for Support Systems
ASP Model
• There is an industry trend that shows a
  number of of companies teaming up in an
  attempt to meet the market demand for
  streamline OSS applications.
• OSS APSs pull together applications
  rather than create their own, and more
  companies are entering this space.
• Their success depends on their value to
  the network service providers and on
  how their solutions integrate across
  each OSS application.
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Market Drivers for Support Systems
ASP Model

• BusinessNow from NetworkOSS is a good
  example of an ASP model.
• An unbiased collection of OSS
  applications from a number of suppliers
  enables NetworkOSS to form partnerships
  with its customers.
• The buy or build dilemma for service
  providers.


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The Service Delivery Cycle

• The telecommunications industry today
  is experiencing a number of changes and
  challenges. Deregulation, new services,
  new technologies. reengineering
  business processes and acquisitions are
  just a few that demand attention.
• Also, multiple concepts such as service
  differentiation, quality of service,
  time-to-market, customer care. return
  on investment, and total cost of
  ownership request attention.
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The Service Delivery Cycle

• Quality of processes, automation of
  processes, and integration of support
  and management tools may mean the
  difference between business success and
  failure.
• Business processes may be organized in
  several ways,such as
  – Customer care, service development, order
    processing, provisioning, network and
    systems management,and billing
  – Fulfillment, service assurance, and billing.

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Customer Care and Billing Process
The customer interface management process
• These are the processes of directly
  interacting with customers and
  translating customer requests and
  inquiries into appropriate events.
• Process logs customer contacts, and
  tracks the status to completion.




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Customer Care and Billing Process
The sales process
• This process encompasses learning about
  the needs of each customer.
• It includes working to create a match
  between the customer's expectations and
  the service provider's ability to
  deliver.
• Depending on the service provider
  process, it can be purely selling or
  can include various levels of support.


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Customer Care and Billing Process
The sales process
• The sales process may include preorder
  work and interfaces.
• The aim is to sell the correct service
  to suit the customer's need and to set
  appropriate expectations with the
  customer.
• Service level agreement (SLA)
  negotiation, request for proposal
• (RFP) management, and negotiation are
  led from this process.

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Customer Care and Billing Process
The problem handling process
• Responsible to receive service
  complaints from customers, resolve them
  to the customer's satisfaction, and
  provide meaningful status on repair or
  restoration activity.
• Responsible to be aware of any service-
  affecting problems, including notifying
  customers in the event of a disruption.
• The aim is to have problems proactively
  identified and communicated to the
  customer, and to resolve.
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Customer Care and Billing Process
The customef QoS management process
• This process encompasses monitoring,
  managing,reporting quality of service
  (QoS) as defined in service
  descriptions, SLAs, and other service-
  related document.
• It includes network performance, but
  also performance across all service
  parameters (e.g., orders completion on
  time).
• Outputs of this process are standard
  (predefined) and exception reports.
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Customer Care and Billing Process
The call rating and discounting process
• The process encompasses the following
  functional areas
  – Applying the correct rating rules to usage
    data a customer-by-customer basis
  – Applying any discount agreed
  – Applying promotional discount and charges
  – Applying outage credits
  – Applying rebates ( SLAs were not met)
  – Resolving unidentified usage(predefined) and
    exception reports.


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Customer Care and Billing Process
The invoicing and collection process
• This process encompasses sending
  invoices to customers and performing
  collections.
• The aim is to provide a correct bill
  and, if there is a billing problem,
  resolve it quickly.




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Customer Care and Billing Process
The consulting and supporting process
• The collaboration between providers and
  customers includes establishing a
  special team of consultants for the
  customer, arranging periodic status and
  planning meetings, and defining the
  interfaces between provider and
  customer.




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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The inventory management process
• This process encompasses physical
  equipment and the administration of
  this equipment:
  – installation and acceptance of equipment,
    with the physical configuration of the
    network, and handling of spare parts and the
    repair process.
  – Software upgrades, implementing IP-based
    services, the number of managed objects is
    going to grow.
  – Physical assets also include servers, access
    servers, gateways, gatekeepers, routers, and
    new connections.
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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The service creation, planning and
development process
• This process encompasses the following
  functional areas
  – Designing technical capability to meet
    specified market need at desired cost
  – Ensuring that the service (product) can be
    properly installed, monitored, controlled,
    and billed
  – Initiating appropriate process and methods
    modifications, as well as initiating changes
    to levels of operations personnel and
    training required


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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The service creation, planning and
development process
  – Initiating any modifications to the
    underlying network or information systems to
    support the requirements
  – Performing preservice testing
  – Ensuring that sufficient capacity is
    available to meet forecasted sales
  – Developing IP-based services.




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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The network planning and development
process
• This process encompasses development
  and acceptance of strategy, description
  of standard network configurations for
  operational use, and definition of
  rules for network planning,
  installation, and maintenance.
• It is about the planning of boundary
  nodes, routes, and capacity.




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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The network planning and development
process
• Considering IP-based services, multiple
• alternatives for the implementation are
  available.
• Popular solutions are
  – IP over ATM
  – IP over frame relay
  – IP over SONET/SDH




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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The network planning and development
process
• Special modelling tools are very useful
  to predict future performance under
  various load conditions.
• These tools utilize what-if scenarios
  to emulate performance under various
  load conditions.
• These tools depend today on the
  protocols used. Many providers work
  with multiple tools; there are
  practically different tools for each
  service.
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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The network planning and development
process
• This process also deals with designing
  the network capability to meet a
  specified service need at the desired
  cost and for ensuring that the network
  can be properly installed, monitored,
  controlled, and billed.
• The process is also responsible for
  ensuring that enough network capacity
  will be available to meet the
  forecasted demand.

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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The network provisioning process
• This process encompasses the
  configuration of the network to ensure
  that network capacity is ready for
  provisioning of services.
• Provisioning IP-based services involves
  a large number of nodes and servers
  that are completely unknown in a voice
  environment.
• Provisioning requires experienced
  subject matter experts.

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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The service ordering process
• Includes all the functions accepting a
  customer's order for service, tracking
  the progress of the order, and notifyig
  the customer when the order is
  complete.
• Orders can include new,change, and
  disconnect orders for all or part of a
  customer's service.
• The aim is to order the service the
  customer requested, and keep the
  customer informed.
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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The service configuration process
• This process encompasses the
  installation and/or configuration of
  services for specific customers,
  including the installation/
  configuration of customer premises
  equipment.
• Offering IP-based services, additional
  functions must be considered. In
  particular, firewalls, application
  services such as e-mail, Web hosting,
  and their configurations are important.
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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The service configuration process
• Also the setting of parameters to
  support QoS and SLA requirements is
  important.
• The more that can be automated, the
  better service providers do in the
  competitive market.




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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The security management process
• Due to factors such as opening
  networks, connecting partners, and
  using a public domain such as the
  Internet security risks increase
  considerably.
• Virtual private networks (VPNs) are one
  of the possible answers to combining
  existing infrastructure with acceptable
  protection.
• Security management procedures are
  identical or at least very similar.
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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The security manamagement process
• Security management is in charge of
  protecting all systems solutions.
• Process includes a planning and
  controlling function - In particular,
  three basic threats are considered:
• (1) loss of availability of services,
• (2) loss of integrity, and
• (3) loss of privacy.



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Network Operational Management Processes
The service problem resolution process
• Process encompasses isolating the root
  cause of service-affecting and non-
  service-affecting failures and acting
  to resolve them. Typically, failures
  affect multiple customers. Actions may
  include immediate reconfiguration or
  other corrective actions.
• Aim is to understand the causes
  impacting service performance and to
  implement immediate fixes or initiate
  quality improvement efforts.
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Network Operational Management Processes
The service quality management process
• This process supports monitoring
  service or product quality on a service
  class basis in order to determine
  whether
• Service levels are being met
  consistently
• There are any general problems with the
  service or product
• The sale and use of the service is
  tracking to forecasts

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Network Operational Management Processes
The service quality management process
• This process also encompasses taking
  appropriate action to keep service
  levels within agreed targets for each
  service class and to either keep ahead
  of demand or alert the sales process to
  slow sales.
• The aim is effective service-specific
  monitoring and to manage service levels
  to meet SLA commitments and standard
  commitments for the specific service.

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Network Operational Management Processes
The service quality management process
• There have been quality metrics for
  voice services for a long time.
• For IP-based services, the term quality
  is relatively new.
• Philosophy behind IP-based services is
  to offer best-effort quality depending
  on the capacity constraints of
  networking infrastructures-but there
  are no guarantees even for that.


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Network Operational Management Processes
The service quality management process
• There are two alternatives with IP-
  based services:
• - Integrated Services (IntServ): this
  alternative supports RSVP and, as a
  result, bandwidth is guaranteed for
  application network ingress and egress
  points.
• - Differentiated Services (DiffServ):
  This alternative analyzes the type of
  service (ToS) header of IPv4 and
  assigns priorities.
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Network Operational Management Processes
The network maintenance and restoration
process
• This process encompasses maintaining
  the operational quality of the network
  in accordance with required network
  performance goals.
• Network maintenance activities can be
  – preventative-such as scheduled routine
    maintenance or
  – or corrective. Corrective maintenance can be
    in response to faults or to indications that
    problems may be developing (proactive).


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Network Operational Management Processes
The network maintenance and restoration
process

• Supervisory functions should be
  extended for IP-based services- In most
  cases, distributed monitoring
  capabilities must be implemented.
• Voice networks use Transaction Language
  1 (TL 1), Common Management Information
  Protocol (CMIP), and TMN as the basis
  of supervising status and resource
  utilization.

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Network Operational Management Processes
The network maintenance and restoration
process

• The IP world brings Simple Network
  Management Protocol (SNMP) and Remote
  Monitoring (RMON) into the supervisory
  scenario.
• Powerful filters and correlation
  engines are required for the reduction
  of the total amount of data generated
  by the supervisory function.


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Order Processing and provisioning Process
The inventory management process
• This process encompasses physical
  equipment and the administration of
  this equipment:
  – installation and acceptance of equipment,
    with the physical configuration of the
    network, and handling of spare parts and the
    repair process.
  – Software upgrades, implementing IP-based
    services, the number of managed objects is
    going to grow.
  – Physical assets also include servers, access
    servers, gateways, gatekeepers, routers, and
    new connections.
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Order Processing and provisioning Process
Closing (finally!)
• Below these business processes, there
  are many support, documentation, and
  management systems; most of them are
  legacy applications.
• Some of them are best-of-breed. and
  just a few of them are integrated with
  each other.




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