ipa_in_word by xiangpeng

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									Using the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet in your
assignments

No doubt at some point you will need to use the symbols of the IPA in your
coursework assignments. This document explains how to do this. It is very important
that you follow these instructions, or else the phonetic symbols on the electronic
version of your assignment will not work. If that happens, we will not be able to
return the hard copy of your assignment to you, but must keep it in case the external
examiner wants to look at it at the end of the year. If you follow these instructions
carefully, then the fonts will work on the electronic version and you can have the hard
copy back.


Why do the symbols not work sometimes?

Because it depends on the font that is installed on the computer that the file is printed
out on. There are a large number of phonetic fonts available, and while they all do the
same job and look pretty much the same on paper, a computer that does not have the
particular font you use installed will not display them correctly. For example, if you
use a particular font on your home computer, and then print out your assignment on a
University machine that does not have that font installed, your symbols will not
display, or print, correctly. The symbols will only behave themselves on computers
with exactly the same font already installed. So, it’s important that everyone does the
same thing, to ensure the fonts work on the Departmental computers.


This document assumes you are using Microsoft Word to word process your
assignment.




1. Make sure you have a font installed

Explore the list of fonts already available to you. With a new Word document open,
scroll down the font box, the one that reads "Times New Roman" (unless you have
changed it). Have you got a font called Lucida Sans Unicode or Arial Unicode MS?

If so, select it.

If not, go here: http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/ipa-unicode.htm and download
either of them (Lucida Sans Unicode is smaller in file size but has all the symbols
you’ll need) and install it (see below). When you have done this, open a new Word
document and select it (if it’s not there, you might have to close down all Word
windows and load up the program again.
           Installing fonts

           Note: you may not be able to install fonts on University machines, as you
           probably won’t have the relevant permissions. Campus machines should
           already have these fonts installed, though. You may have to install them
           on your own machine at home.

           To do this, once you have downloaded the fonts from the website above:
           go to Control Panel (it’s in the Start menu), and double click on fonts. Go
           to File then select Install New Fonts. You’ll see a dialogue box like this:




           Select the folder into which you have saved your new fonts, and they will
           appear in the ‘List of Fonts’ box. Select them by clicking on them (to
           select more than one keep CTRL pressed while you click on them, or click
           ‘Select All’), and then click on OK and make sure the ‘copy fonts to Fonts
           folder’ box is ticked. This will install the fonts to your machine. You only
           have to do this once.


2. Using the fonts in a Word document

There are two ways to do this, and both of them are a bit fiddly. You’ll find you get
quicker at it once you have had some practice.

2(i) Insert > symbol

With your Word Document open, go to the Insert menu, and select Symbol. A
dialogue box like the one below will appear.
Make sure it says ‘Arial Unicode M’S or ‘Lucida Sans Unicode’ in the ‘Font’ box
(that is, it must say the name of the font you downloaded and installed in Step 1
above).

If you scroll down the available symbols (there are many!) you’ll find the one you
need. Double click it, and it will appear in your document. Note, you don’t have to
do this with all symbols, because you can get many of them just by typing the letter on
the keyboard (e.g. /a/, /b/, /t/ etc). Make sure the font you use to do this is the same as
the font you use when you use the Insert > Symbol method, or your transcription will
look uneven and strange.

You will become more and more aware of where the fonts are in the box the more you
do it.
2(ii) Using Hex codes

The second way of putting symbols in your Word document seems more complicated
than the first (and it’s got a scary name and involves scary codes) but in many ways
it’s easier.

However, it only works in Word 2002 or later.

It involves typing in a code, and then converting that code (automatically) to the
symbol. This works because every symbol has its own code, and Word knows what
this is. However, it means you must know what the code is too. But – you do not
have to remember this, because there is a special list, prepared by John Wells of UCL,
which lists all the codes for all the symbols you will need.

I’ve converted John Wells’ webpage to a PDF document and saved it along with this
information, so download it from the FAQ page and you’ll see.

First, you need to make sure your phonetics font is selected in your document (e.g. by
changing the box that says ‘Times New Roman’ to ‘Lucida Sans Unicode’ or ‘Arial
Unicode MS’.

Then, in the PDF file called phoneticsfonts_hexcode.pdf (on the FAQ page –
download it), look from page 3 and find the symbol you want to insert into your Word
document, and look in the column that says ‘hex’. This is the hexadecimal code for
that symbol.

Type in the code into your Word document, exactly as it appears in the list.

Select the code, by dragging your mouse and selecting the numbers and/or letters as
you would select any other type of text. When the characters are selected (make sure
you’ve got all four of them), keep your finger on the ALT key and then press X. And,
as if by magic, the code should turn itself into the symbol you need. Check it’s the
right one, as you may have typed in the code incorrectly.

An example

If I want to use the symbol for sound at the beginning of the word ‘judge’, I would
first make sure a phonetic font is selected (I’ll use Arial Unicode MS in this example).

Then I’d type:
$                    (which is the code for the voiced post-alveolar affricate)

Then I’d select the code, and press Alt-X, and the following would appear:



Then for the rest of the word ‘judge’ I’d put the code for the symbol I need next
directly after the symbols that has just appeared, and repeat the process. So, for
‘judge’ (as spoken by me), I’d have:
   $                       press Alt-X with 028A selected and I’d get       

   $                       (press Alt-X with 02A4 selected and I’d get           


This gets much easier with practice.

Tip:
You can copy and paste the symbols themselves from one place in the document to
another, so it might be useful to put a range of symbols that you will use often at the
top of the page, copy and paste them to the relevant places in your transcription, and
then delete them from the top of the page when you hand in your assignment. That
way, you’ll only have to use the codes once.




Unclear? Doesn’t work?
Feel free to ask me a question via email
(k.d.watson@lancaster.ac.uk) or come and see me about it.




                                                                        Kevin Watson
                                                                       November 2006

								
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