Biomass production from willow agroforestry

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					      Biomass production from willow
              agroforestry

                       Charlottetown, PEI
                         March 29, 2010
                         Brian J. Murray
                   Soil & Water Technologist




Agriculture and    Agriculture et
Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada
                            Project Team


– AAFC-Agri-Environment Services Branch
  • Bill Schroeder, John Kort (Saskatchewan)
  • Chris Pharo, Brian Murray (PEI)
– PEI Soil and Crop Improvement Assoc.
  • Tyler Wright (PEI)
– Willard Waugh & Sons
    Wilmot Valley (PEI)
– Aike & Hans Wilting and Hans Hovingh
    Meadow Bank (PEI)


  Agriculture and    Agriculture et
  Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada
                            Project Objectives



1. Investigation of biomass production in riparian
   areas
2. Quantification of associated environmental
   benefits including protection of soil and water,
3. Productivity and adaptation of native and
   introduced willow cultivars




    Agriculture and    Agriculture et
    Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada
                PEI Site 2- (Wilting & Hovingh)
         Comparison of native vs introduced willows

                         Rep 3

                                                   Rep 2




                                                                           Rep 1




                      Riparian Area Treatments
          Grass           Grass        Grass           Grass       Grass
        S. discolor      Salix SV1   S.viminalis     eriocephala   Shrub

Grass   S. discolor      Salix SV1   S.viminalis     eriocephala   Shrub

        eriocephala      Salix SV1   S.viminalis     eriocephala   Tree

        S. discolor      Salix SV1   S.viminalis     eriocephala   Tree
    PEI Site 2- (Wilting & Hovingh)
Comparison of native vs introduced willows




  Agriculture and    Agriculture et
  Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada
            PEI Site 1- (Waugh)
Monitoring Nutrient Removal & Biomass Yields




        Agriculture and    Agriculture et
        Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada
                             Data Collection
•   After four growing seasons willow biomass was harvested from coppice treatments
    by removing all willow top growth leaving a 15 cm stump. Harvest occurred in early
    December. Select numbers of willow were harvested annually at the both sites after
    year 1 to determine annual biomass accumulation and impact of coppicing on nutrient
    uptake.

•   Shallow groundwater samples, along with surface runoff water samples were
    collected to measure attenuation of the concentration of nitrate, ammonium and
    phosphorous.

•   Willow nutrient status was determined by sampling stem and leaf tissue. Sampling of
    above ground leaf and stem tissue were combined with root cores to estimate the
    total standing biomass and the pool of N and P in plant tissue.

•   Shallow groundwater samples were taken weekly from stainless steel lysimeters and
    surface runoff water samples were taken from an automated ISCO portable water
    samplers, triggered by flow, using a 60 degree portable trapezoidal flume.

•   A weather station was installed at both sites to collect, air temperature, rainfall, soil
    moisture & temperature, ET and solar radiation.



          Agriculture and    Agriculture et
          Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada
            PEI Site 1- (Waugh)
Monitoring Nutrient Removal & Biomass Yields




                 Runoff sample nests

                                                                                       Subsurface sample nest



Non-Coppiced
 viminalis/SV1


                 Grass buffer
                                                                                                 Subsurface sample
                                                Non-Coppiced                                           nests
                                Coppiced
                                                 SV1/viminalis
                                viminalis/SV1


                                                                   Coppiced
                                                                 SV1/viminalis
                                                                                   Coppiced
                                                                                 viminalis/SV1


                       Runoff sampling nest
Sampling of sub surface water for the Biomass
          Riparian Projects on PEI
                                                  STAINLESS STEEL LYSIMETER


                                                            Surface Layer
                                                             ‘A’ Horizon




                                                                              Depth to compact layer may vary
                                             Plastic
                                             Tubes

                                                              ‘B’ Horizon
                                             Electrical
                                             Conduit


                                             Porous
                                             Stainless
                                             Steel



                                              Collection    Parent Material
                                              Cup             ‘C’ Horizon
                                                            Compact Layer


 Agriculture and    Agriculture et
 Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada
Sampling of surface water for the Biomass Riparian
                 Projects on PEI




   Agriculture and    Agriculture et
   Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada
                         Willow Nutrient Removal - 2009 Harvest

         60

         50


         40

                                                                            Dasyclados 'SV1'
 Kg/ha




         30
                                                                            Viminalis '5027'

         20

         10


         0
              Total N         Total P        Total N              Total P

                   Not Coppiced                        Coppiced




Agriculture and     Agriculture et
Agri-Food Canada    Agroalimentaire Canada
                     Riparian Area Design – PEI

                                           Agricultural land

            100 cm




                                                               250cm


                                                                       750cm
                                                   River

4000 stems/ha
Planted 2006




       Agriculture and    Agriculture et
       Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada
                                PEI Riparian Buffer




June 2006


                                                            July 2009




                 April 2007



                                                        Dec 2009

            Agriculture and    Agriculture et
            Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada
                                                   PEI Riparian Buffer
                                       2009 Harvested Biomass Yield (4000 stems/ha)

                   60

                                                                         49.1
                   50

                                                                 38.3
Biomass (tDM/ha)




                   40                       36.2
                                                                                      Dasyclados 'SV1'
                   30            27.9                                                 Viminalis '5027'


                   20


                   10


                   0
                                  Not Coppiced                     Coppiced




                    Agriculture and     Agriculture et
                    Agri-Food Canada    Agroalimentaire Canada
                    Riparian Area Recommendations
                             Agricultural land
             75cm
      50cm




                                                    200cm


                                                            600cm
                             River/Wetland

8000 stems/ha (4 double rows)
Plastic mulch for weed control
Coppice after year 1
Harvest on four year cycle
Viminalis or ???
                   Some Harvesting Methods




                   Naarva
                                            Willow Baler in action




One Row Willow Harvester
                                                   Tub Grinder

Agriculture and    Agriculture et
Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada
                   Willow Fuel Characteristics
Ash Content                                           1.65%
Calorific Value                                       19.6 GJ/DT


                              Energy Equivalent
     1 tonne willow (3 bales)                       400 litres heating fuel




                                                ≈


    Agriculture and    Agriculture et
    Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada
                                 Conclusions



– High nutrient and moisture conditions lead to high
  biomass productivity
– Nutrient interception and removal opportunity
– Coppicing increased biomass productivity
– Yield: Viminalis ‘5027’ > Dasyclados ‘SV1’
– Increase planting density to 8000 stems/ha




   Agriculture and    Agriculture et
   Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada
    Thank You



                                            Questions???




Agriculture and    Agriculture et
Agri-Food Canada   Agroalimentaire Canada

				
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