1. Local socio-economic and demographic context

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					1. Local socio-economic and demographic context
      Borough Context

1.1   The Borough of Hammersmith & Fulham is situated on the western edge of Inner
      London, in a strategic location on the transport routes between the City and Heathrow.
      Excluding the City of London, it is the fourth smallest of the 32 London boroughs in
      geographical area (1,641 hectares or 6.34 square miles) and the third smallest in
      population (174,200 at mid 2003). It has the fourth highest population density of any
      London borough or indeed Local Authority in England and Wales. The borough
      measures five and a half miles from north to south and is one and a half miles at its
      widest. Figures 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 show the regional, London and local contexts of the
      borough, while Figure 1.4 shows the borough Structure Diagram taken from the
      Council’s Unitary Development Plan (UDP).


1.2   The rate of population growth has increased in recent years and the borough’s
      population is projected to rise to 212,000 by 2021. Most of the increase in population in
      the last ten years is the result of natural change (i.e. an excess of births over deaths).

1.3 The borough’s age structure is higher in younger adults than London as a whole. Nearly
    half the population is aged between 17 and 39. All age groups are projected to increase
    by 2021, with the largest increases in the 40-64 and 11-24 groups. The principal
    household types are single persons under pensionable age and couples without children,
    each comprising 27% of all households. Single parent families have increased in recent
    years and now make up 9% of all households.

1.4 The proportion of the population consisting of ethnic groups other than white has
    increased from 18% in 1991 to 23% in 2000. The main ethnic groupings are black - 10%
    of the population, Irish - 6% and Asian - 6%. More than 130 languages are spoken in the
    borough. The main languages used by residents for whom English is not their first
    language are Portuguese, Polish, French, Somalian, Spanish and Albanian.


1.5 The borough is an important employment location, with 105,000 jobs plus 14,500 self-
    employed. This has increased from the 80,300 shown in the 1991 census. Job increases
    overall are in line with London as a whole and occur mainly in business services. Office
    jobs predominate and the borough contains over 1 million square feet of office space,
    42% of which has been built since 1981.

1.6 The three town centres (Hammersmith, Fulham and Shepherd’s Bush) are the main
    retail centres and important employment locations of which Hammersmith is the largest.
    All three centres have recently enhanced, or are in the process of enhancing, their retail
    attraction. Shepherds Bush will be greatly expanded by the building of the White City
    shopping centre, due to open in 2007/8.

1.7 One in five jobs in the borough are part-time and half the borough’s paid jobs are
    undertaken by women. The estimated unemployment rate was 5.4% in January 2002,
    one of the lowest in inner London. Shepherds Bush Green ward had the highest rate,
    nearly 10%, while Palace Riverside in Fulham had the lowest rate, 2.2%, underlining the
    north-south divide in the borough. Four in ten benefit claimants had been claiming for

   more than six months. Most jobs vacancies are in two sectors: distribution, hotels and
   restaurants and banking, finance and insurance.


1.8 The borough’s housing stock totals 76,300 dwellings, and there are estimated to be
    76,206 households. 44% of households are owner- occupiers, 18% council renters, 22%
    private renters, and 16% Housing Association tenants. Three quarters of the housing
    built in the 1998-2001 period is affordable housing provided by housing associations.

1.9 Continuing high numbers of people are presenting themselves to the council as
    homeless and increasingly these are single people. At the same time there has been a
    decrease in available housing to use for temporary accommodation because of inflation
    in property prices, so numbers in bed & breakfast have risen.

1.10 The housing register currently stands at over 7,000 applicants, more than double the
   1998 figure. A housing needs survey in 2004 estimated an existing housing need of
   1,017 households plus a newly arising need of 4,234 households per annum. 91% of
   those living in unsuitable housing in the borough could not afford to buy or rent locally.
   The net annual shortfall of affordable housing in the borough is estimated to be 3,659
   dwellings. Hammersmith & Fulham has the fourth highest residential property prices of
   any London borough, and 117% higher than for England and Wales as a whole.

1.11 Just over a third of the Council housing stock is rated as in “poor” or “unfit” condition.
   The proportion is a little lower for housing association properties. Half the private rented
   stock is “poor” or “unfit”. There are around 2,200 units of special needs housing provided
   in the borough. Two thirds of both council and housing association tenants receive
   housing benefit/council tax benefit. By contrast, house prices increased by 180%
   between 1998 and 2003.

     Social Conditions

1.12 A survey in 1998 showed that 26% of households were entirely dependent on
   benefits and a further 10% had earned income of less than £5,000 a year. Some 11% of
   the borough’s adult population receive income support.

1.13 There are extremes of wealth and poverty in the borough. It is the 42nd most deprived
   borough in the country on the Government’s Index of Multiple Deprivation. Wards in the
   north and centre of the borough have the highest deprivation scores while the more
   prosperous wards are in the south (see Figure 1.5). On the other hand, the proportion of
   residents who are employers, managers or professionals is rising. Half of all households
   have an income of less than £19,500 per year but 15% of households have incomes
   over £60,000 a year.

1.14 There was a 1.3% reduction in total crime between 1999/00 and 2000/1. Incidents of
   violence and harassment, racially motivated crime and burglary have fallen but theft from
   cars has risen. The majority of crime is either theft or criminal damage, with the main
   areas of criminal activity being the three main town centres.


1.15 In the borough there are 3 nursery schools, 2 early years centres, 36 primary schools
   and 9 secondary schools with a total of 17,700 pupils.

1.16 At Key Stage 2, Hammersmith & Fulham performs better than the national average in
   English and mathematics. At GCSE, 51% of pupils gain 5 or more grade A* to C, which
   is slightly above the national average of 50%.

1.17 Almost 27% of nursery age pupils, over 43% of primary age pupils and almost 35%
   of secondary pupils are eligible for free school meals.

       Health and Social Care

1.18 Overall life expectancy has improved and is 73.5 years for men and 80.1 years for
   women. Mortality rates are higher in the north of the borough where poverty and
   deprivation rates are higher. Death rates from heart disease, cancer, cirrhosis and liver
   disease, accidents and suicides are higher in the borough than the national average.

1.19 Hammersmith & Fulham has the highest rate of alcohol dependency in London and
   the seventh highest drug dependency rate. The rate of teenage pregnancy in the
   borough is higher than the national or London figures. HIV rates are high and projected
   to rise. Long term illness or disability affects nearly one in seven of the population and
   the rate is highest in the north of the borough.

1.20 It is estimated that there are 17,500 carers in the borough. Hammersmith & Fulham
   has a high rate of children in need compared to other London boroughs.

       Environment and Leisure

1.21 Although air quality has generally improved in recent years, a detailed air quality
   review and assessment process carried out during 1998/99 identified that further action
   was required in order to meet the government’s and the Mayor’s air quality objectives.
   The first step was taken in 2000, when the whole borough was designated as an Air
   Quality Management Area for 2 pollutants – nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and small particles
   (PM10). Since then, the Air Quality Action Plan has been developed and was adopted in
   2003. This outlines a range of actions intended to help reduce emissions and improve air
   quality, focussing strongly on encouraging cleaner transport. Figures 1.6 and 1.7 show
   clearly the impact of road traffic on NO2 and PM10s in the borough.

1.22  The current household recycling rate (2004) is 19%. The council aims to reach its
   24% target by 2005/6.

1.23 There are 227 hectares of parks and open spaces in the borough including the
   largest and most popular parks – Ravenscourt Park and Bishops Park. St Paul’s Green
   in Hammersmith is a relatively new park that was created in 1999 on land formerly
   occupied by a car park. The Thames riverside is an important attraction, as is
   Wormwood Scrubs in the north of the borough – the largest open space for miles

1.24 Hammmersmith and Fulham has many world famous sporting and cultural
   attractions. It is unique in having three professional football clubs in the borough –
   Chelsea, Fulham and Queen’s Park Rangers. The borough is also home to the Queen’s
   Club that hosts the annual Stella Artois tennis tournament, and most of            'The
   Championship Course' on the River Thames that hosts the annual University Boat Race.
   The BBC’s headquarters are in the borough at White City, and we have several famous

entertainment venues such as Hammersmith Apollo, Hammersmith Palais, Shepherds
Bush Empire and the Lyric Theatre. Kensington Olympia and part of Earls Court
exhibition centres are located in the borough.

Figure 1.5

Fig 1.6   Forecast annual mean nitrogen dioxide (ppb) for 2005 (based on 1999




   176000                                                                 26

                  522000              524000               526000         20

(40ppb and above represents an exceedence of the air quality objective)

Fig 1.7 Forecast number of days with daily mean PM10 >50(μg/m3) for 2004
(based on 1996 meteorology)





 176000                                                                     46

                  522000                 524000                526000

(35 days and above represents an exceedence of the air quality objective)