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Abu Bakr Siddiq r.a

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					Abu Bakr al-Siddiq r.a
Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (Abdallah ibn Abi Quhafa) ‫ أﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ اﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ‬or ;‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﷲ ﺑﻦ أﺑﻲ ﻗﺤﺎﻓﺔ‬ 573 CE – 23 August 634 / 13 AH, was an early person to convert to Islam and a senior companion (Sahaba)of the Islamic prophet Muhammad s.a.w, the Prophet’s intimate friend after Allah, greatest supporter, closest confidant, first spiritual inheritor, first of the men who believed in him and the only one who did so unhesitatingly, first of his four Rightly-Guided successors, first of the ten promised Paradise, and first of the Prophet’s community to enter Paradise. Alone among the companions, Abu Bakr repeatedly led the community in prayer in the life time of the Prophet. The latter used to call him by his patronyms of Abu Bakr and Ibn Abi Quhafa, and he named him with the attributes "The Most Truthful" (al-Siddîq) and "Allah’s Freedman From the Fire" (`Atîq Allâh min al-nâr). When the Quraysh confronted the Prophet after the Night Journey, they turned to Abu Bakr and said: "Do you believe what he said, that he went last night to the Hallowed House and came back before morning?" He replied: "If he said it, then I believe him, yes, and I do believe him regarding what is farther than that. I believe the news of heaven he brings, whether in the space of a morning or in that of an evening journey." Because of this Abu Bakr was named al-Siddîq: the Very Truthful, the One Who Never Lies. Among the companions who narrated from him: Anas, `A’isha, Jabir, Abu Hurayra, the four `Abd Allahs (Ibn `Abbas, Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Amr), `Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, `Umar, `Uthman, and `Ali. The latter is one of the narrators of the Prophet’s hadith cited by Abu Bakr: "We [Prophets] do not leave anything as inheritance. What we leave behind is charity (sadaqa)." `Umar said: "Abu Bakr’s faith outweighs the faith of the entire Umma." This is confirmed by the following hadith: The Prophet asked: "Did any of you see anything in his dream?" A man said to the Prophet: "O Messenger of Allah, I saw in my dream as if a balance came down from the heaven in which you were weighed against Abu Bakr and outweighed him, then Abu Bakr was weighed against `Umar and outweighed him, then `Umar was weighed against `Uthman and outweighed him, then the balance was raised up." This displeased the Prophet who said: "Successorship of prophethood (khilâfa nubuwwa)! Then Allah shall give kingship to whomever He will." `Umar also said: "The best of this community after its Prophet is Abu Bakr." `Ali named him and `Umar the Shaykh al-Islam of the community and said: "The best of this community after its Prophet are Abu Bakr and `Umar," "The most courageous of people is Abu Bakr," and "The greatest in reward among people for the volumes of the Qur’an is Abu Bakr, for he was the first of those who gathered the Qur’an between two covers." He was also the first to name it mushaf. Abu Bakr’s high rank is indicated, among other signs, by the fact that to deny his companionship to the Prophet entails disbelief (kufr), unlike the denial of the companionship of `Umar, `Uthman, and `Ali to the Prophet. This is due to the mention of this companionship in the verse: "The second of two when the two were in the cave, and he said unto his companion: Grieve not" (9:40) which refers, by consensus, to the Prophet and Abu Bakr. Allah further praised him above the rest by saying: "Those who spent and fought before the victory are not upon a level (with the rest of you)." (57:10) The Prophet confirmed his high rank in many of his sayings, among them: "Allah gave one of His servants a choice between this world and what He has with Him, and that servant chose what Allah has with Him." Abu Bakr wept profusely and we wondered why he wept, since the Prophet had told of a servant that was given a choice. The Prophet himself was that servant, as

Abu Bakr later told us. The Prophet continued: "Among those most dedicated to me in his companionship and property is Abu Bakr. If I were to take an intimate friend other than my Lord, I would take Abu Bakr. But what binds us is the brotherhood of Islam and its love. Let no door [of the Prophet’s mosque] remain open except Abu Bakr’s." "I am excused, before each of my friends, of any intimate friendship with anyone. But if I were to take an intimate friend, I would take Ibn Abi Quhafa as my intimate friend. Verily, your companion is the intimate friend of Allah!" "You [Abu Bakr] are my companion at the Basin and my companion in the Cave." "Call Abu Bakr and his son so that I will put something down in writing, for I fear lest someone ambitious forward a claim, and Allah and the believers refuse anyone other than Abu Bakr." `Amr ibn al-`As asked: "O Messenger of Allah, who is the most beloved of all men to you?" He replied: "Abu Bakr." "It is impermissible for a people among whom is Abu Bakr, to be led by other than him." "Take for your leaders those who come after me: Abu Bakr and `Umar." "O`Ali! Abu Bakr and `Umar are the leaders of the mature inhabitants of Paradise and its youth among the first and the last, except for Prophets and Messengers." "The sun never rose nor set over anyone better than Abu Bakr." "The Prophet used to hold nightly conversations with Abu Bakr in the latter’s house, discussing the affairs of Muslims, and I [`Umar] was present with them." `Umar was angered by Abu Bakr one day and left him in anger. Abu Bakr followed after him, asking his forgiveness, but `Umar refused and shut his door in his face. Abu Bakr then went to the Prophet and took hold of his garment until his knee showed. The Prophet said: "Your companion has been arguing!" Abu Bakr greeted him and said: "There was a dispute between me and `Umar, then I felt remorse and asked him to forgive me but he would not, so I came to you." The Prophet said, repeating three times: "Allah forgives you, O Abu Bakr! Allah forgives you, O Abu Bakr! Allah forgives you, O Abu Bakr!" Then `Umar felt remorse and went asking for Abu Bakr at his house without finding him. He came to the Prophet and greeted him, but the Prophet’s face changed with displeasure. Seeing this, Abu Bakr sat up on his knees in fear before the Prophet, saying twice: "O Messenger of Allah! I am the one who trangressed. O Messenger of Allah! I am the one who transgressed." The Prophet said to the people: "Allah sent me to you and you all said: ‘You are lying!’ But Abu Bakr said: ‘He said the truth.’ Abu Bakr gave me solace

with his person and property. Will you leave my companion alone once and for all? Will you leave my companion alone once and for all?!" After this Abu Bakr was never harmed again. "Jibril came to me, took me by the hand, and showed me the gate through which my Community shall enter Paradise." Abu Bakr said: "Would that I were with you to see it!" The Prophet said: "Did you not know? You will be the first of all my Community to enter it." Al-Suyuti relates through Ibn Sa`d’s report from `A’isha her description of Abu Bakr: "He was a man with fair skin, thin, emaciated, with a sparse beard, a slightly hunched frame, sunken eyes and protruding forehead, and the bases of his fingers were hairless." He was the foremost genealogist of the Quraysh and the best of them at interpreting dreams after the Prophet according to Ibn Sirin. `A’isha related that both he and `Uthman had relinquished drinking wine even in the Time of Ignorance. His caliphate lasted two years and three months in which he opened up the lands of Syria and Iraq for the Muslims, suppressed apostasy among the Arab tribes, fought the pseudo-Prophets al-Aswad al-`Ansi, Tulayha al-Asadi who recanted and declared his prophethood in Najd, and Musaylima the Liar who was killed in the devastating battle of al-Yamama. Imam al-Nawawi pointed out that Abu Bakr’s genealogical tree alone regroups four successive generations of companions of the Prophet: his father Abu Quhafa, himself, his daughter Asma’, and her son `Abd Allah, in addition to Abu Bakr’s son `Abd al-Rahman and his grandson Abu `Atiq. Nawawi states that only one hundred and forty-two hadiths of the Prophet are narrated from Abu Bakr. He comments: "The reason for this scarcity, despite the seniority of his companionship to the Prophet, is that his death pre-dated the dissemination of hadiths and the endeavor of the Followers to hear, gather, and preserve them." Among Abu Bakr’s sayings: "Whoever fights his ego for Allah’s sake, Allah will protect Him against what He hates." Abu Bakr's dakwah brought many people to Islam. He persuaded his intimate friends to convert to Islam. He presented Islam to others in such a way that many of his friends opted for Islam. Among those who converted at earlier day of Islam in the instance of Abu Bakr were: • • • • • • • • • • • Uthman Ibn Affan (the 3rd Caliph) Al-Zubyr Talhah Abdul rahman bin Auf Saad ibn Abi Waqqas Umar ibb Masoan Abu Ubaidah ibn Al-Jarrah Abdullah bin Abdul Asad Abu Salma Khalid ibn said Abu Hudhaifah ibn Al-Mughirah

Abu Bakr's acceptance proved to be a milestone in Muhammad's mission. Slavery was common in Mecca ( and all around the world that time), and many slaves accepted Islam. When an ordinary free man accepted Islam, despite opposition, he would enjoy the protection of his tribe. For slaves however, there was no such protection, and were subjected to persecution. He gave 40.000 dinar for the sake of Islam. Abu Bakr felt for these slaves, so he purchased them and set them free. Most of the slaves liberated by Abu Bakr were either women or old and frail men. The father of Abu Bakr asked him to for why doesn't he liberate strong and young slaves who could be a source of

strength for him, Abu Bakr replied that he was freeing the slaves for the sake of Allah,and not for his own sake. According to Sunni tradition the following verses of the Quran were revealed due to this: He who gives in charity and fears Allah And in all sincerity testifies to the Truth; We shall indeed make smooth for him the path of Bliss {92:5-7}. Those who spend their wealth for increase in self-purification; And have in their minds no favor from any one For which a reward is expected in return, But only the desire to seek the Countenance, Of their Lord, Most High; And soon they shall attain complete satisfaction {92:8-21}.

The Qur'an — preservation
Abu Bakr was instrumental in preserving the Qur'an in written form. It is said that after the hardwon victory over Musaylimah in the Battle of Yamama fought in 632, Umar (the later Caliph Umar), saw that many of the Muslims who had memorized the Qur'an had died in battle. Fearing that the Qur'an may be lost or corrupted, Umar requested the Caliph Abu Bakr to authorize the compilation and preservation of the Book in written format. After initial hesitation, Abu Bakr made a committee headed by Zayd ibn Thabit which included the memorizers of the Qur'an and Umar and to collect all verses of the Book. After collecting all Qur'anic verses from texts in the possession of various sahaba, Zayd ibn Thabit and members of his committee verified the reading by comparing with those who had memorized the Qur'an. After they were satisfied that they had not missed out any verse or made any mistakes in reading or writing it down, the text was written down as one single manuscript and presented in a book form to the Caliph Abu Bakr. This process happened within one year of the death of Muhammad when most of his sahaba (companions) were still alive, ensuring that the text would not be corrupted in any form. Prior to his death, Abu Bakr gave this authorized copy of the Qur'an to Umar - his successor. It remained with him throughout his tenure as Caliph (10 years). Prior to his death, Umar gave this Book to his daughter Hafsa bint Umar, who was one of the wives of Muhammad. Umar did not nominate his successor on his deathbed, and thus preferred to leave this copy with Hafsa so as not to indicate his personal preference of who would be the next caliph. Later on, it became the basis of Uthman Ibn Affan definitive text of the Qur'an which was published far and wide merely 18 years after the death of the Prophet. Later historians give Uthman Ibn Affan the principal credit for reverification and publishing the Qur'an.

– Some hadith relate to Abu bakr in Muslim translation.
(1) It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) breathed his last and Abu Bakr was appointed as his successor (Caliph), those amongst the Arabs who wanted to become apostates became apostates. 'Umar b. Khattab said to Abu Bakr: Why would you fight against the people, when the Messenger of Allah declared: I have been directed to fight against people so long as they do not say: There is no god but Allah, and he who professed it was granted full protection of his property and life on my behalf except for a right? His (other) affairs rest with Allah. Upon this Abu Bakr said: By Allah, I would definitely fight against him who severed prayer from Zakat, for it is the obligation upon the rich. By Allah, I would fight against them even to secure the cord (used for hobbling the feet of a camel) which they used to give to the Messenger of Allah (as zakat) but now they have withheld it. Umar b. Khattab remarked: By Allah, I found nothing but the fact that Allah had opened the heart of Abu bakr for (perceiving the

justification of) fighting (against those who refused to pay Zakat) and I fully recognized that the (stand of Abu Bakr) was right. (Book #001, Hadith #0029)

(2) Abu Huraira narrated on the authority of Abu Bakr that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Three are the persons with whom Allah would neither speak on the Day of Resurrection, nor would He look towards them, nor would purify them (from sins), and there would be a tormenting chastisement for them: a person who in the waterless desert has more water (than his need) and he refuses to give it to the traveller and a person who sold a commodity to another person in the afternoon and took an oath of Allah that he had bought it at such and such price and he (the buyer) accepted it to be true though it was not a fact, and a person who pledged allegiance to the Imam but for the sake of the world (material gains). And if the Imam bestowed on him (something) out of that (worldly riches) he stood by his allegiance and if he did not give him, he did not fulfil the allegiance. (Book #001, Hadith #0196)

(3) Ubaidullah b. Abdullah reported: I visited 'A'isha and asked her to tell about the illness of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). She agreed and said: The Apostle (may peace be upon him) was seriously ill and he asked whether the people had prayed. We said: No, they are waiting for you, Messenger of Allah. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Put some water in the tub for me. We did accordingly and he (the Holy Prophet) took a bath;and, when he was about to move with difficulty, he fainted. When he came round, he again said: Have the people said prayer? We said: No, they are waiting for you, Messenger of Allah. He (the Holy Prophet) again said: Put some water for me in the tub. We did accordingly and he took a bag, but when he was about to move with difficultyhe fainted. When he came round, he asked whether the people had prayed. We said: No, they are waiting for you, Messenger of Allah. He said: Put some water for me in the tub. We did accordingly and he took a bath and he was about to move with difficulty when he fainted. When he came roundhe said: Have the people saidprayer? We said: No, they are waiting for you, Messenger of Allah. She ('A'isha) said: The people were staying in the mosque and waiting for the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) to lead the last (night) prayer. She ('A'isha) said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent (instructions) to Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer. When the messenger came, he told him (Abd Bakr): The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) has ordered you to lead the people in prayer. Abu bakr who was a man of very tenderly feelings asked Umar to lead the prayer. 'Umar said: You are more entitled to that. Abu Bakr led the prayers during those days. Afterwards the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) felt some relief and he went out supported by two men, one of them was al-'Abbas, to the noon prayer. Abu Bakr was leading the people in prayer. When Abu Bakr saw him. he began to withdraw, but the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) told him not to withdraw. He told his two (companions) to seat him down beside him (Abu bakr).They seated him by the side of Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr said the prayer standing while following the prayer of the Apostle (way peace be upon him) and the people Bald prayer (standing) while following the prayer of Abu Bakr. The Apostle (may peace be upon him) was seated. Ubaidullah said: I visited 'Abdullah b. 'Abbas, and said: Should I submit to you what 'A'isha had told about the illness of the Apostle (may peace be upon him)? He said: Go ahead. I submitted to him what had been transmitted by her ('A'isha). He objected to none of it, only asking whether she had named to him the man who accompanied al-'Abbas. I said: No. He said: It was 'Ali. (Book #004, Hadith #0832) (4) 'A'isha, the wife of the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him), said: I tried to dissuade the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) from it (i. e. from appointing Abu bakr as the Imam.) and my insistence upon it was not due to the fact that I entertained any apprehension in my mind that the people would not love the man who would occupy his (Prophet's) place (i. e. who would be appointed as his caliph) and I feared that the people would be superstitious about one who would

occupy his place. I, therefore, desired that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) should leave Abu Bakr aside in this matter. (Book #004, Hadith #0835) (5) Abu Huraira reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who has observed fast among you today? Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) replied: It is I. He (the Holy Prophet again) said: Who among you follow. ed the bier today? Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) replied: It is I. He (the Holy Prophet again) said: Who among you led a poor man today? Abu Bakr (Allah he pleased with him) replied: It is I. He (again) said: Who among you visited an invalid today? Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) said: It is I. Upon this the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Anyone in whom (these good deeds) are combined will certainly, enter paradise. (Book #005, Hadith #2242) (6) Abu Huraira reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) went out (of his house) one day or one night, and there he found Abu Bakr and 'Umar also. He said: What has brought you out of your houses at this hour? They said: Allah's Messenger, it is hunger. Thereupon he said: By Him in Whose Hand is my life, what has brought you out has brought me out too; get up. They got up along with him. and (all of them) came to the house of an Ansari, but he was not at home. When his wife saw him she said: Most welcome, and Allah's Messenger (may peace be Upon him) said to her: Where is so and so? She said: He has gone to get some fresh water for us. When the Ansari came and he saw Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and his two Companions, he said: Praise be to Allah, no one has more honourable guests today than I (have). He then went out and brought them a bunch of ripe dates, dry dates and fresh dates, and said: Eat some of them. He then took hold of his long knife (for slaughtering a goat or a sheep). Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to him: Beware of killing a milch animal. He slaughtered a sheep for them and after they had eaten of it and of the bunch and drank, and when they had taken their fill and had been fully satisfied with the drink, Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to Abu Bakr and Umar: By Him in Whose Hand is my life, you will certainly be questioned about this bounty on the Day of judgment. Hunger brought you out of your house, then you did not return until this bounty came to you. (Book #023, Hadith #5055) (7) 'Abd al-Rabman b. Abu Bakr reported that the people of Suffa were very poor. Once the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said (to his Companions): He who amongst you has food for two persons should take three (guests with him). and he who has with him food for four persons should take five or six (guests with him for entertaining them). It was (in accordance with these instructions of the Holy Prophet) that Abu bakr brought three persons, and the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) brought ten persons (as guests to their respective houses). Abu Bakr had brought three persons (he himself, and myself), my father and my mother (along with therm). He (the narrator) said: I do not know whether he also said: My wife and one servant who was common between our house and that of Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr had had his evening meal with Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him). He stayed here until night prayer had been offered. He then came back (to the house of Allah's Apostle) and stayed there until Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) felt drowsy and (Abu Bakr)hen came (back to his own house) when (a considerable) part of the night had been over, as Allah had desired. His wife said to him: What held you back from your guests? He said: Oh! have you not served them the evening meal (by this time)? She said: It was in fact served to them. but they refused to eat until you came. He ('Abd al-Rahman) said: I slunk away and bid myself. He (Abu Bakr) said: O, you stupid fellow, and he reprimanded me, and said to the guests: Eat, though it may not be pleasant now. He said: By Allah. I will never eat it He ('Abd alRahman) said: By Allah. we did not take a morsel when from beneath that (there appeared) more until they had eaten to their fill, and lo! it was more than what it was before. Abu Bakr saw that and found that it was so or more than that. He said to his wife: Sister of Band Firis, what is th-is? She said: By the coolness of my eyes. it is in excess by three times over the previous one. Then Abu Bakr ate saying: That was from the Satan (viz. his vow for not eating the food). He then took a

morsel out of that and then took it (the rest) to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), and it was kept there until morning, and during (those days) there was a covenant between us and some other people, and the period of covenant was over, and we had appointed twelve officials with every person amongst them. It is Allah only Who knows as to how many people were there with each of them. He sent (this food to them) and all of them ate out of it. (Book #023, Hadith #5106) (8) 'Abdullah b. 'Amr. b. al-'As reported that some persons from Banu Hisham entered the house of Asma' daughter of 'Umais when Abu bakr also entered (and she was at that time his wife). He (Abu Bakr)aw it and disapproved of it and he made a mention of that to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: I did not see but good only (in my wife). Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Verily Allah has made her immune from all this. Then Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) stood on the pulpit and said: After this day no man should enter the house of another person in his absence, but only when he is accompanied by one person or two persons. (Book #026, Hadith #5403) (9) Ibn Sirin reported: I asked Anas b. Malik whether Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) dyed his hair. He said: He had not reached the stage when (he needed) dyeing (of his white hair). He had a few white hair in his beard. I said to him: Did Abu Bakr dye his hair? He said: Yes, with hina' (henna). (Book #030, Hadith #5780) (10) Abu Sa'id reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sat on the pulpit and said: Allah gave a choice to His servant that he may opt the beauties of the world or that which is with Him and the servant chose that which was with Him. Thereupon Abu Bkr wept and he wept bitterly and said: Let our fathers and our mothers be taken as ransom for you. It was Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) who had been given the choice and Abu bakr knew it better than us, and Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) is reported to have said: Behold, of all people the most generous toward me in regard to his companionship and his property was Abu Bakr and were I to choose anyone as my bosom friend, I would have chosen Abu Bakr as my dear friend, but (for him) I cherish Islamic brotherliness and love. There shall be left open no window in the mosque except Abu Bakr window. (Book #031, Hadith #5869)


				
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Description: Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (Abdallah ibn Abi Quhafa) أبو بكر الصديق or عبد الله بن أبي قحافة;� 573 CE – 23 August 634 / 13 AH, was an early person to convert to Islam and a senior companion (Sahaba)of the Islamic prophet Muhammad s.a.w, the Prophet’s intimate friend after Allah, greatest supporter, closest confidant, first spiritual inheritor, first of the men who believed in him and the only one who did so unhesitatingly, first of his four Rightly-Guided successors, first of the ten promised Paradise, and first of the Prophet’s community to enter Paradise.