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San Francisco State University
History 535 - History of Women In Latin America
Prof. Julyana Peard
Fall 2010: Th. 4:10- 6:55; T – A1
Office: Science 272 ; Tel: 338-1280; e-mail: jpeard@sfsu.edu
Office Hours: T-Th: 11:30-12:30;Th: 3-4, and by appointment

This course is on the history of gender and women in Latin America from the colonial period to the present. We will
compare and contrast the roles of women from different classes, ethnic groups, and regions . We will consider
women’s history through individual life stories and by looking at the social, cultural, and institutional contexts of
their lives. The focus will be on women as historical actors, influenced by history and influencing history.

There are three required books, a Reader, and one on-line book.
It is essential that you do the required reading every week. A good deal of the class will be dedicated to a
discussion of the readings, so the course will only be successful to the extent that you contribute to it.

Required books:
1. Patricia Owen Steiner,Trans & ed., Victoria Ocampo: Writer, Feminist, Woman of the World (this book is out of
print so it is not available at SFSU bookstore; see link in week 9)
2. Susan Migden Socolow, The Women of Colonial Latin America (Cambridge)
3. Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Poems, Protest, and a Dream (Penguin)
4. A Reader, which you can access on-line. The password will be given in class.

Course requirements and due dates:
-In class essay (30%)   Th, Sept 30
-Term paper (30%)       Th, Dec 9
-Final (30%)            Th, Dec 16, 4:10-6:55
-Participation (10%)

Other due dates:
-idea for paper topic              Sept 16
-annotated bibliography for paper Oct 7
-draft of paper (at least 3 pages) Nov 18

A NOTE ON DUE DATES AND INCOMPLETE POLICIES:
Consideration of work not handed in on the due dates will be given only if the student presents a written excuse from
a physician, counselor, or sports team coach. An incomplete means you have completed all the course requirements
except one. If you cannot complete the course requirements by the end of term, it is your responsibility to withdraw
from the course.

                                           INTRODUCTION TO COURSE

Week One:         Why study the history of women and gender?
Aug 26            The construction of a Latin American feminine/feminist identity
                          Reader: Evelyn Stevens, “Marianismo: The Other Face of Machismo,” in Marguerite
                          Yeager, Confronting Change, Challenging Tradition: Women in Latin Amer. History.


TO GO FURTHER: Craske, Chap 2: “Women and political identity in Latin America, Women and Politics in Latin
America (1999);” Tracy Ehlers, “Debunking Marianismo: Economic Vulnerability and Survival Strategies Among
Guatemalan Wives,” Ethnology (Jan 1991), 1-16; Josefina Zoraida Vasquez, “Women’s Liberation in Latin America,”
in Marguerite Yeager, Confronting Change, Challenging Tradition: Women in Latin American History ; Marysa
Navarro-Aranguren, "The Construction of a Latin American Feminist Identity," ed. A. Stepan, Americas: New
Interpretive Essays (1992)
                                                                                                                     2



                                        COLONIAL PERIOD (c. 1492-1824)

Week Two:                  Gender in Pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica and South America
Sept 2                     Socolow, Women of Colonial Latin America, “Introduction” and Chaps 1-4, pp. 1-59.

                           Reader: Inga Clendinnen, “Yucatec Maya Women and the Spanish Conquest: Role and
                           Ritual in Historical Reconstruction,” Journal of Social History, 15 (1992), 427-441.

                           Reader: Susan Kellogg, “From Parallel and Equivalent to Separate but Unequal: Tenochca
                           Mexica Women, 1500-1700,” in Susan Schroeder, et. al., eds., Indian Women of Early
                           Mexico

                           Paper topics suggestions and discussion

Week Three:                Indian women in Conquest and colonial society
Sept 9                     Film: “Blossoms of Fire” (#81709)

                           Reader: Kartunnen, Frances, “Rethinking Malinche,” in Susan Schroeder, et. Al., Indian
                           Women of Early Mexico. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997, pp. 291-312

                           Reader: Karen Vieira Powers, “Colonial Sexuality: Of Women, Men, and Mestizaje,”The
                           History of the Conquest of New Spain, ed. David Carrasco

                           Paper topics suggestions and discussion

TO GO FURTHER: Look at other essays in Schroeder book (above). Rosemary Joyce, Gender and Power in Pre-
hispanic Mesoamerica. Karen Bruhns, Women in Ancient America; Irene Silverblatt, Moon, Sun, and Witches; Karen
Viera Powers, Women in the Crucible of Conquest. Susan Kellogg, Weaving the Past.
On Virgen de Guadalupe: S. Poole, Our Lady of Guadalupe: Origins and Sources of a Mexican National Symbol,
1531-1797 (1995); Woodrow Borah, “Queen of Mexico and Empress of the Americas: La Guadalupana of Teyepec,”
Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, 12, 2 (summer 1996), 327-339; Eric R. Wolf, “The Virgin of Guadalupe: A
Mexican National Symbol,” Journal of American Folklore, 71, pp. 34-39; William B. Taylor, “The Virgin of Guadalupe
in New Spain,” American Ethnologist, 14, 1, pp. 9-.


Week Four:                 Nuns and other religious women in colonial society
Sept 16
                                             Hand in idea for paper topic

                           Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Introduction and “The Answer” in Poems, Protest, and a
                           Dream: Selected Writings. Also some poems.

                           Socolow, Women of Colonial Latin America, chap 7, “Brides of Christ”

TO GO FURTHER: Octavio Paz, The Traps of Faith; and many essays on Sor Juana in various journals; Aunción
Lavrin, “Women in convents: Their Economic and Social Role in Colonial Mexico” in Berenice Carroll, ed .,
Liberating Women’s History; Ann Miriam Gallagher, “The Indian Nuns of Mexico City’s Monasterio of Corpus
Christi, 1724-1821,” A. Lavrin, ed., Latin American Women: Historical Perspectives, 150-172; Lavrin, Asuncion.
Brides of Christ: Conventual’s Life in Colonial Mexico (2008); Margaret Chowning, Rebellious Nuns: The Troubled
History of a Mexican Convent, 1752-1863 (2006); Kathryn Burns, Colonial Habits (1999); Kathleen Ann Myers,
Neither Saints nor Sinners (2003). There is a large and growing literature on nuns in Latin America; Electa Arenal and
Stacey Schlau, eds., Untold Sisters: Hispanic Nuns in their Own Works (2008); Film: “Yo, la Peor de Todas.” (I, the
Worst of All) directed by María Luisa Bemberg.
                                                                                                                     3



Week Five:                Order and disorder in colonial society
Sept 23                   Reader: Linda A. Curcio-Nagy, “Josefa Ordóñez: The Scandalous Adventures of a
                          Colonial Courtesan,” in Jeffrey Pilcher, ed., The Human Tradition in Mexico (2002.)

                          Reader: Josephine Holler, “Spiritual and Physical Ecstasies of a 16th century beata,” in
                          Richard Boyer, ed., Colonial Lives.

                          Reader: Selections from Catalina de Erauso, Memoir of a Basque Lieutenant Nun:
                          Transvestite in the New World. Norman: Beacon Press, 1996.

                          Socolow, Women of Colonial Latin America, chap 5, “Women, Marriage, and Family;”
                          chap 6 “Elite Women;” Chap10, Women and Social Deviance.”.

TO GO FURTHER: Patricia Seed, To Love, Honor, and Obey in Colonial Mexico( 1988); Ann Twinam, Public Lives,
Private Secrets (1999); selected essays in Asunción Lavrin, Marriage and Sexuality in Colonial Latin America
(1989), especially one by Ruth Behar on witchcraft; Lyman L. Johnson and Sonya Lipsett -Rivera, eds., The Faces of
Honor: Sex, Shame and Violence in Colonial Latin America (1998); see essays in Susan Schroeder, et. al., eds.,
Indian Women of Early Mexico (1997); Inez de Suarez (1507-1572) See Ten Notable Women of Latin America, James
D. Henderson & Linda R. Henderson, eds.; Luis Martin, Daughters of the Conquistadores; A.J.R. Russell-Wood,
“Female and Family in the Economy and Society of Colonial Brazil,” Asunción Lavrin, Latin Ame. Women: Historical
Perspectives, 60; Ann Twinam, Public Lives, Private Secrets: Gender, Honor, Sexuality (1999); Susan Socolow,
Women in Colonial Latin America (a good source for colonial period and good bibliographies.)


                          NATIONAL PERIOD: The Nineteenth Century

Week Six:                 In-class essay (first half of class)
Sept 30                   Lecture and discussion (second half of class) :
                          Women in new nations; change or continuity?
                          Slave women, Indian women, white women after the Wars of Independence

                          Socolow, Women of Colonial Latin America, chap. 11, Women and Enlightenment.”

TO GO FURTHER: Elizabeth Dore and Maxine Molyneux, Hidden Histories of Gender and the State in Latin
America. Duke UP, 2000; Christine Hunefeldt, Liberalism in the Bedroom: Quarrelling Spouses in 19 th Century
Lima.


Week Seven:               Nineteenth-Century slave women in urban Brazil
Oct 7
                                     Hand in annotated bibliography for paper

                          Reader: Fayette Wimberley, “The Expansion of Afro-Bahian Religious Practices in
                          Nineteenth-Century Cachoeira,” Henrik Kraay, ed., Afro-Brazilian Culture and Politics:
                          Bahia, 1790s to 1990s. M.E. Sharpe, 1998

                          Reader: “Urban Slavery in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil…” Read the introduction by Henry
                          Kraay and the will of Rosa Maria (not the other wills.)

                          Reader: “A Master Abuses His Adolescent Slave Girl: A Court Case of 1882-1884,”
                          Robert E. Conrad, Children of God’s Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in
                          Brazil.

                          Socolow, Women of Colonial Latin America, chap. 8-9, “Women and Work,” “Women
                                                                                                                     4

                          and Slavery.”

TO GO FURTHER: Sandra Lauderdale Graham, House and Street; ---- , Caetana Says No; Mary Karasch, “Suppliers,
Sellers, Servants, and Slaves,” in Louisa Schell Hoberman & Susan M. Socolow, eds., Cities and Society in Colonial
Latin America; Maria Odila Silva Dias, Power and Everyday Life: The Lives of Working Women in Nineteenth -
Century Brazil (1995); Ruth Landes, City of Women (1947 and 1992); Patricia Lerch, “An Explanation of the
Predominance of Women in Umbanda,” Urban Anthropology (1982)

Week Eight:               Women writers; women, education, suffrage and revolution (Mexico)
Oct 14                    Reader: selections from Bonnie Frederick, Wily Modesty: Argentine Women Writers,
                          1860-1910. Arizona State University, 1998.

                          Reader: Juana Manuela Gorriti: Writer in Exile,” Judith Ewell and William Beezley, eds.,
                          The Human Tradition in Latin America

                          Reader: Francesca Miller, “Women and education in Latin America,” in Latin American
                          Women and the Search for Social Justice.

                          Reader: Francesca Miller, “The Suffrage Movement in Latin America,” in Gertrude Yeager,
                          ed., Confronting Change, Challenging Tradition. SR Books, 1994.

                          Reader: Stephanie J. Smith, “Educating the Mothers of the Nation: The Project of
                          Revolutionary Education in Yucatán,” Stephanie Mitchell and Patience A. Schell, eds,
                          The Women’s Revolution in Mexico, 1910-1933 (2007)

                          Reader: Martha Eva Rocha, “The Faces of Rebellion: From Revolutionaries to Veterans in
                          Nationalists Mexico,” Mitchell and Schell, eds, The Women’s Revolution in Mexico

TO GO FURTHER: Sara Castro-Klarén, et. Al., eds., Women’s Writing in Latin America (1991); Jean Franco, Plotting
Women; Silvia Arrom, “Changes in Mexican Family Law in the Nineteenth Century,” Yeager, ed., Confronting
Change, Challenging Tradition; Elena Poniatowska, Here’s To You, Jesusa; Elizabeth Dore and Maxine Molyneux,
Hidden Histories of Gender and the State in Latin America. Duke UP, 2000; Asunción Lavrin, Women, Feminism,
and Social Change in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay (1995); Carmen Ramos Escandón, “Challenging Legal and
Gender Constraints in Mexico: Sofía Villa de Buentello’s Criticism of Family Legislation, 1917-1927; Donna Guy,
“Emilio and Gabriela Coni: Reformers, Public Health, and Working Women,” in Ewell and Beezley, eds., The Human
Tradition in Latin America; Donna Guy, Women Build the Welfare State (2009); Nikki Craske, Women and Politics in
Latin America, ,chap. 3: “Setting the scene.”
On suffrage: Lynn Stoner, From the House to the Streets: The Cuban Women’s Movement for Legal Change (1991);
June Hahner, Emancipating the Female Sex: The Struggle for Women’s Rights in Brazil (1991); Marifran Carlson,
Feminismo: The Women’s Movement in Argentina From its Beginnings to Evita Perón (1987); Ana Macías, Against
all Odds: The Feminist Movement in Mexico (1982); Shirley Ann Soto, Emergence of the Modern Mexican Woman:
Her Participation in Revolution and Struggle for Social Equality, 1910 -1940 (1990); Nicholas Frasier and Marysa
Navarro, Evita (1996); Film: “Evita” (#81786).
                            .

                                    NATIONAL PERIOD: Twentieth Century


Week Nine:                Writers and artists; women of privilege
Oct 21                    Victoria Ocampo: Writer, Feminist, Woman of the World (pp. 3-132): online book
                          http://www.questia.com/library/book/victoria-ocampo-writer-feminist-woman-of-the-
                          world-by-victoria-ocampo-victoria-ocampo-patricia-owen-steiner.jsp

                          Film: “Frida” film written by Hayden Herrera
                                                                                                                    5

TO GO FURTHER: Sara Castro-Klarén, et. Al., eds., Women’s Writing in Latin America (1991); Elizabeth Horan &
Doris Meyer, eds., This America of Ours: Letters of Gabriela Mistral and Victoria Ocampo (2003); Marjorie Agosin,
ed., Gabriela Mistral: A Reader (1995); Myriam Ivonne Jejenson, Latin American Women Writers (SUNY, 1995);
Hayden Herrera, Frida: A Biography of Frida Kahlo (1983); The Dirary of Frida Kahlo: An Intimate Self-Portrait
(1995.)

Week Ten:                 Women and revolution: Cuba
Oct 28                    Reader: Craske, Chap 7: “Revolutionary empowerment?”

                          Film: “Portrait of Teresa” (Pastor Vega, Cuba, 1979, 103 minutes)
                          Discussion: What have women gained in Cuba?

TO GO FURTHER: Gioconda Belli, The Country Under my Skin; Karen Kampwirth, Feminism and Legacy of
Revolution: Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chiapas (2004); --------, Women and Guerrilla Movements: Nicaragua, El
Salvador, Chiapas, Cuba (2002); Alma Guillermoprieto, Dancing with Cuba: A Memoir of the Revolution (2005);
Margaret Randall, Gathering Rage: The Failure of 20th Century Revolutions to Develop a Feminist Agenda (1992);
Helen Collinson, Women and Revolution in Nicaragua (1990); T. David Mason, “Women’s Participation in Central
American Revolution,” Comparative Political Studies, 25, 1 (April 1992): 63-89;Jo Fisher, Out of the Shadows:
Women, Resistance and Politics in South America. (1993); Margaret Randall, Gathering Rage; Lois Smith & Alfred
Padula, Sex and Revolution; Maxine Molyneau, “Mobilization without Emancipation? Women’s Interests, the State,
and Revolution in Nicaragua,” Feminist Studies, 2 (Summer 199?), 232; Florence E. Babb, After Revolution: Mapping
Gender and Cultural Politics in Neoliberal Nicaragua (2001)

Marginalized women as leaders: Domitila Barrios de Chungara, Let me Speak ; Carolina Maria de Jesus, Child of the
Dark; Benedita da Silva, An Afro-Brazilian Woman’s Story of Love and Politics; Ruth Behar, Translated Woman:
Crossing the Border with Esperanza’s Story; Daphne Patai, Brazilian Women Speak; Muchachas No More; Sarah
Levine, Dolor y Alegría: Women and Social Change in Urban Mexico; Elizabeth Burgos-Debray, ed., I, Rigoberta
Menchú:An Indian Woman in Guatemala (1984)


Week Eleven:              Women and political activism
Nov 4                     Reader: Craske, chap 6: “Social movements”

                          Reader: Marysa Navarro, “The Mothers of Plaza de Mayo …”

                          Reader: Jane S. Jaquette, “Feminist Activism and the Challenges of Democracy,” in Jane
                          S. Jaquette, ed., Feminist Agendas and Democracy in Latin America (2009)

                          Film: “Mothers of Plaza de Mayo” (Susana Muñoz Lourdes Portillo, #82345)
                          Discussion: What has happened to women’s social movements since?

TO GO FURTHER: M. Guzman Bouvard, Revolutionizing Motherhood: The Mothers of Plaza de Mayo. (1994); Rita
Arditti, Searching for Life; some readings from Nunca Más; Maria del Carmen Feijoo and M.M.N. Nari,”Women &
Democracy in Argentina,” in Jane Jaquette,, ed., The Women’s Movement in Latin America; Nikki Craske, Women and
Politics in Latin America; Marjorie Agosin, Surviving Beyond Fear: Women, Children, and Human Rights in Latin
America (1993); Jo Fisher, Out of the Shadows: Women, Resistance and Politics in South America. (1993); Jo Fisher,
Mothers of the Disappeared (1995); Gaby Kuppers, ed., Compañeras: Voices from the Latin American Women’s
Movement (1994); Valeria Fabj, “Motherhood as Political Voice: The Rhetoric of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo,”
Communication Studies, 44,1, (Spring 1993); Sylvia Chant and Nikki Craske, Gender in Latin America (2003);Linda S.
Stevenson, “Fragmented Feminisms and Disillusion with Democracy,” Latin American Research Review, 42, 3
(October 2007), 205-332; Jane S. Jaquette, ed., Feminist Agendas and Democracy in Latin America (2009).


Week Twelve:
Nov 11                    No class: Veteran’s Day
                                                                                                                    6




Week Thirteen:             Women and the lure of “El Norte”
Nov 18
                           Hand in paper draft

                           Reader: ********

                           Film: “Maria Full of Grace” (Joshua Marston, Colombian-US, 2004, 101 mins)
                           Discussion: What are the push factors? What are the pull factors? How far are
                           expectations fulfilled? Personal stories?

TO GO FURTHER: Film: “Sin Nombre” (US-Mexican, 2009); Film: “El Norte” (1983, 139 mins). Donald F. Stevens, ed.,
Based on a True Story: Latin American History at the Movies 1997); Julianne Burton (ed.): Cinema and Social
Change in Latin America. Conversations with Filmmakers (1986); --------, (ed.): The Social Documentary in Latin
America (1990); Deborah Shaw (ed.): Contemporary Latin American Cinema: Breaking Into the Global Market
(2007);


                                       November 23-25: Thanksgiving Break

Week Fourteen:             The post-modern Latin American woman?
Dec 2                      Reader: *****
                           Film: “Lion’s Den” or “Leonera” (Pablo Trapero, Argentina, 2008, 113 mins)
                           Discussion: Reproductive rights in Latin America. Women in prisons.


Week Fifteen:              Legacies of violence
Dec 9                      Reader: *******
                           Film: “The Milk of Sorrow”/ “La Teta Asustada” (Claudia Llosa, Peru, 2009, 95 mins)

                           Wrapping up
                           Guide for final examination

                           Final paper due: Thursday 9

TO GO FURTHER: Gustavo Gorriti, The Shining Path: A History of the Millenarian War in Peru (1999); David Scott
Palmer, The Shining Path of Peru (1994); Lynne Lurie, Corner of the Dead (fiction, 2008); Orin Starn, Ivan Degregori,
Robin Kirk, eds., The Peru Reader: History, Culture, Politics (2005); Peter Klarén, Peru: Society and Nationhood in
the Andes (1999); Jeffrey Middens, Writing National Cinema: Film Journals and Film Culture in Peru (2009)

                                Final Examination Tuesday, December 16, 4:10-6:55
                                                                                            7

               On E-Reserve Reader Contents

Reader: Evelyn Stevens, “Marianismo: The Other Face of Machismo,” in Marguerite
Yeager, Confronting Change, Challenging Tradition: Women in Latin Amer. History.

Reader: Inga Clendinnen, “Yucatec Maya Women and the Spanish Conquest: Role and
Ritual in Historical Reconstruction,” Journal of Social History, 15 (1892), 427-441.

Reader: Susan Kellogg, “From Parallel and Equivalent to Separate but Unequal: Tenochca
Mexica Women, 1500-1700,” in Susan Schroeder, et. al., eds., Indian Women of Early
Mexico Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997.

Reader: Kartunnen, Frances, “Rethinking Malinche,” in Susan Schroeder, et. Al., Indian
Women of Early Mexico.

Reader: Selections from Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, “The Answer” in Poems, Protest, and
a Dream: Selected Writings.

Reader: Josephine Holler, “Spiritual and Physical Ecstasies of a 16th century beata,” in
Richard Boyer, ed., Colonial Lives.

Reader: Linda A. Curcio-Nagy, “Josefa Ordóñez: The Scandalous Adventures of a
Colonial Courtesan,” in Jeffrey Pilcher, ed., The Human Tradition in Mexico (2002.)

Reader: Selections from Catalina de Erauso, Memoir of a Basque Lieutenant Nun:
Transvestite in the New World. Norman: Beacon Press, 1996.

Reader: Fayette Wimberley, “The Expansion of Afro-Bahian Religious Practices in
Nineteenth-Century Cachoeira,” Henrik Kraay, ed., Afro-Brazilian Culture and Politics:
Bahia, 1790s to 1990s. M.E. Sharpe, 1998

Reader: “Urban Slavery in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil…” Read the introduction by Henry
Kraay and the will of Rosa Maria (not the other wills.)

Reader: “A Master Abuses His Adolescent Slave Girl: A Court Case of 1882-1884,”
Robert E. Conrad, Children of God’s Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in
Brazil.

Reader: selections from Bonnie Frederick, Wily Modesty: Argentine Women Writers,
1860-1910. Arizona State University, 1998.

Reader: “Juana Manuela Gorriti: Writer in Exile,” Judith Ewell and William Beezley, eds.,
The Human Tradition in Latin America.

Reader: Francesca Miller, “Women and education in Latin America,” in Latin American
Women and the Search for Social Justice.

Reader: Francesca Miller, “The Suffrage Movement in Latin America,” in Gertrude
Yeager, ed., Confronting Change, Challenging Tradition. SR Books, 1994.

Reader: Marysa Navarro, “Mother of Plaza de Mayo …”

Reader: Stephanie J. Smith, “Educating the Mothers of the Nation: The Project of
Revolutionary Education in Yucatán,” Stephanie Mitchell and Patience A. Schell, eds,
The Women’s Revolution in Mexico, 1910-1933 (2007)
                                                                                      8



Reader: Martha Eva Rocha, “The Faces of Rebellion: From Revolutionaries to Veterans in
Nationalists Mexico,” Mitchell and Schell, eds, The Women’s Revolution in Mexico, 1910-
1933 (2007)

Reader: Jane S. Jaquette, “Introduction,” and “Feminist Activism and the Challenges of
Democracy,” in Jane S. Jaquette, ed., Feminist Agendas and Democracy in Latin America
(2009)

Craske, Chap 7: “Revolutionary empowerment?” Women and Politics in Latin America
(1999)

Reader: Craske, Chap 6: “Social movements” Women and Politics in Latin America
(1999)

Reader: Karen Vieira Powers, “Colonial Sexuality: Of Women, Men, and Mestizaje,”The
History of the Conquest of New Spain, ed. David Carrasco

				
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