To speed up the recovery of strength at home and abroad have been many research results show that the role of good nutrition articles. Present to practice quite a number of nutrients, such as ginseng, Schisandra, yellow, honey, etc. have been applied to practice, and to demonstrate good results. For example, ginseng has been shown to increase brain power and delay fatigue and improve work capacity, and can lower blood cholesterol, iron metabolism and promote gastrointestinal health, and improve durability. Schisandra, yellow and other drugs have also been shown to accelerate the elimination of fatigue.
Aerobic training - low, moderate and intense training By: Lene Gilkrog Aerobic training - by Lene Gilkrog page 2 Someone’s performance skills are determined by Your heart rate as helping aid many different factors, e.g. someone’s technical, The heart rate gives a good impression of the tactical, psychological and physical abilities. The training capacity, which you can use to plan physical performance skill is particularly depending your training. Especially when you train hard, on heart/vessel system and the muscle’s build the heart rate can give you valuable information in combination with the nerve system, which is about the training effect. primarily determined by genetic factors. But you can highly affect your physical skills by training. The workload is related to a proportional The performance skills also depend on gender, age increase of both the heart rate and the rate of and other factors like surroundings and nutrition. oxygen uptake. You can use your heart rate to This article describes the different forms of aerobic calculate the relative workload: training. You also get examples of different training principles and ideas to improve the aerobic factors. Relative workload (%) = (heart rate – heart rate rest) / (heart rate max – heart rate rest) What does ”aerobic training” mean? By monitoring heart rate you can follow your Every time you move, the body uses energy. The physiological development – not just your body can procure this energy in two different ways: heart’s work, but also your oxygen uptake. The reason for this is the aforementioned • Without oxygen (anaerobic) – when there is not proportional relationship between heart rate and enough oxygen, waste products will pile up in oxygen uptake. the muscles • With oxygen (aerobic) – this means that the exercise is performed under circumstances % of max % of max where there is enough oxygen in the muscles. heart rate oxygen uptake When you wish to improve your endurance 50 28 fitness, you should train your aerobic system 60 40 and move your lactate threshold. 70 58 80 70 Purpose of aerobic training 90 83 Aerobic training can be divided into three 100 100 overlapping training intensity areas: low, moderate The table shows the relationship between the heart and high intensity training. The overall purpose of rate and oxygen uptake. The values are average values aerobic training is to: calculated from scientific research. The inaccuracy is ± 10%. (Michalsik, 2002: 160 and McArdle, 2001: 242) » improve the oxygen transport in your circulation Low intensity training » improve the muscle’s ability to use the This form of training is also called restitution available oxygen training, as the purpose is to achieve a faster » improve the ability to recuperate after hard restitution after hard exercise. The average exercise heart rate should be 60-70% of the maximum Maxim International | Industrigrenen 15 | 2635 Ishøj | Denmark | +45 43565770 | Fax: +45 43565780 | firstname.lastname@example.org Aerobic training - by Lene Gilkrog page 3 heart rate (HRmax), which is why we talk about light intensity physical activity like jogging. You should just make sure that your exercise pattern is the same as in your primary sport. Restitution training is suitable the day after a Maxim Energy Drink – it is hard training session or race/competition. The important that you drink both idea behind low intensity training is that the before, during and after exercise. With Maxim Energy muscles recuperate better and that possible Drink you maintain your fluid balance and energy levels. soreness wears off faster. You can read more about muscle soreness in the article “DOMS – muscle soreness”. contains sport-specific exercises. A runner runs, a swimmer swims, a cyclist cycles, etc. RESTITUTION TRAINING Because you train at a moderate intensity, you can train several hours. Should you wish to • Day after hard training session train differently, you could divide the training • 60-70% HRmax into several training bouts with a higher • Involves both physical and mental intensity. restitution A cyclist could for example choose to do a • Remember stretching short and fast ride as well as a longer and slower ride, where the speed varies, but the heart rate stays within 70-80% HRmax. Moderate intensity training This form of training is also known as You could also choose interval training, where endurance training, as the purpose is to you work 3 minutes (preferably longer) and you improve your muscles’ ability to work for a rest for maximum 1 minute (preferably shorter). longer time (that is the aerobic capacity) as well as to increase the body’s ability to recuperate after hard training. ENDURANCE TRAINING Endurance training can be done continuously • Often carried out continuously or in intervals at 70-80% HRmax. If you choose • When using intervals, minimum interval training, the exercise time should be at 3 minutes work, maximum 1 minute least 3 minutes with short breaks. It is, however, break most common to exercise continuously as the • 70 - 80% HRmax intensity is relatively low. • Very long training sessions • Remember stretching How to train at a moderate intensity Make sure that your endurance training Maxim International | Industrigrenen 15 | 2635 Ishøj | Denmark | +45 43565770 | Fax: +45 43565780 | email@example.com Aerobic training - by Lene Gilkrog page 4 High intensity training disadvantage of this method is precisely the This form of training could also be called large amount of time that most people do not ”fitness” training, as the goal is to improve have. your body’s ability to work at a high intensity for a long period of time, as well as to improve How to train at a high intensity the body’s ability to recuperate after intense Due to the high intensity this training should exercise. take between 10 and 30 minutes. You should take cake that the intensity does not get too high, so you do not switch to anaerobic training. Moreover, you should be aware that your heart rate can go up with 8-12 beats per minute, even if you keep the same speed. This means that the heart rate increases, even though the work Maxim Energy Bar – provides immediate and continuous energy. load and oxygen uptake are the same. This increased heart rate is due to fluid loss which leads to thicker blood. The body does not get High intensity training could be done as much oxygen per heart rate as before the continuously or at intervals at 90% HRmax. fluid loss. Most athletes choose interval training, because you gain a greater total of intense work. Several Training at high intensity intervals research projects have shown that this is the There are 2 types of interval training: most optimal way to improve the maximum 1) long intervals oxygen uptake. High intensity in the training 2) short intervals is the most substantial factor for an improved fitness, but you do not need to train until The long intervals consist of 2-10 minute work exhaustion. intervals and 1-6 minute rest intervals with light exercise. Exercise bouts of 2 minutes are Research shows that in very well trained sufficient to get the circulation up to a stationary athletes the fitness can be improved by level close to the maximum levels and thus exercising at a high intensity and thus a shorter there are great fitness effects to achieve with period of time. Research also shows that the this type of training. The length of the pause is greatest effect in relation to fitness is achieved less important. It should, however, be that long by training at 90-100% HRmax intensity four so that you can continue at (almost) the same times a week, 35-45 minutes per session. level. The more well-trained you are – and the better your restitution ability is - the shorter the Moreover, it has been shown that untrained breaks. and moderately trained athletes can achieve improvements in fitness at a lower The principle is that you should train with as intensity during a longer period of time. The high an oxygen uptake as possible. The quantity Maxim International | Industrigrenen 15 | 2635 Ishøj | Denmark | +45 43565770 | Fax: +45 43565780 | firstname.lastname@example.org Aerobic training - by Lene Gilkrog page 5 of intervals depends likewise on the athlete’s Conclusion fitness. Trained athletes could e.g. train 10 x 3/3 To achieve the greatest effect of aerobic minutes. training, it is important to control the intensity to ensure that you do the right training. The more 80-90% of max 90-100% of max experience you have with the aerobic training heart rate heart rate forms, the easier it is to control the intensity. 2 min / 40 sek 2 min / 1 min Fortunately you can use a heart rate monitor, 3 min / 1 min 3 min / 3 min which makes it a lot easier. 6 min / 2 min 6 min / 4 min Examples of ratio between exercise bouts and recovery Due to the large amount of training in endurance periods for aerobic training at a high intensity with long sports, it is very important to have variation in intervals. (Michalsik, 2002: 176). training. By switching between different forms of training you avoid one-sided strains and The short intervals consist of work intervals thus injuries. Moreover it is motivating to vary of 10-120 seconds and recovery periods, after training. And remember: the largest part of your which light exercise is done for 15-60 seconds. training should be sport-specific. The short intervals do not necessarily mean that the oxygen uptake can reach the maximum References: Bangsbo, J. (2000): Physiology of Intermittent Exercise. level so it is the length of the break that is I: Exercise: Basic and Applied Science. Ed. Garret & decisive for the training effect. Due to the short Kirkendall, USA. time of the break, the oxygen uptake just drops Billat, V. L. et al (2000): Intermittent runs at the velocity a little, and is therefore relatively higher at the associated with maximal oxygen uptake enables subjects to remain at maximal oxygen uptake for a longer time than next interval than at the start of the exercise. intense but submaximal runs. I: European Journal Applied Physiology, Feb. 81(3). The number of intervals is equally dependent Helgerud, J. et al (2007): Aerobic High-Intensity Intervals on the athlete’s fitness. Trained athletes can for Improve VO2max More Than Moderate Training. I: Medicine Science Sports Exercise. Vol. 39, No. 4, 2007(4). example train 20 x 90/45 sec. McArdle, W.D., Katch, F. & Katch, V. (2001): Exercise Physiology: Energy Nutrition and Human Performance. 6. udgave. 80-90% of max 90-100% of max heart rate heart rate Larsen, H. B. (2001) Training principles in distance running. I: Running & Science – in an Interdisciplinary Perspective. 20 sek / 10 sek 20 sek / 15 sek Eds.: Bangsbo & Larsen. Munksgaard. 45 sek / 15 sek 45 sek / 25 sek Laursen, P. & Jenkins, D. (2002): The Scientific Basis 120 sek / 40 sek 120 sek / 60 sek for High-Intensity Interval Training: Optimising Training Programmes and Maximising Performance in Highly Examples of ratio between working intervals and recovery Trained Endurance Athletes. I: Sports Medicine, 32. periods for aerobic training at a high intensity with short intervals. (Michalsik: 2002: 179) Michalsik, L. & Bangsbo, J. (2002): Aerob og anerob træning. Danmarks Idræts-Forbund. Maxim International | Industrigrenen 15 | 2635 Ishøj | Denmark | +45 43565770 | Fax: +45 43565780 | email@example.com
Pages to are hidden for
"Aerobic training"Please download to view full document