Aerobic training by jlhd32


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									Aerobic training
- low, moderate and intense training

By: Lene Gilkrog
Aerobic training - by Lene Gilkrog                                                                                         page 2

Someone’s performance skills are determined by                          Your heart rate as helping aid
many different factors, e.g. someone’s technical,                       The heart rate gives a good impression of the
tactical, psychological and physical abilities. The
                                                                        training capacity, which you can use to plan
physical performance skill is particularly depending
                                                                        your training. Especially when you train hard,
on heart/vessel system and the muscle’s build
                                                                        the heart rate can give you valuable information
in combination with the nerve system, which is
                                                                        about the training effect.
primarily determined by genetic factors. But you
can highly affect your physical skills by training.
                                                                        The workload is related to a proportional

The performance skills also depend on gender, age                       increase of both the heart rate and the rate of
and other factors like surroundings and nutrition.                      oxygen uptake. You can use your heart rate to
This article describes the different forms of aerobic                   calculate the relative workload:
training. You also get examples of different training
principles and ideas to improve the aerobic factors.                    Relative workload (%) = (heart rate – heart rate
                                                                        rest) / (heart rate max – heart rate rest)
What does ”aerobic training”
mean?                                                                   By monitoring heart rate you can follow your
Every time you move, the body uses energy. The                          physiological development – not just your
body can procure this energy in two different ways:                     heart’s work, but also your oxygen uptake.
                                                                        The reason for this is the aforementioned
• Without oxygen (anaerobic) – when there is not
                                                                        proportional relationship between heart rate and
  enough oxygen, waste products will pile up in
                                                                        oxygen uptake.
  the muscles
• With oxygen (aerobic) – this means that the
  exercise is performed under circumstances                                    % of max                   % of max
  where there is enough oxygen in the muscles.                                 heart rate             oxygen uptake
  When you wish to improve your endurance                                           50                        28
  fitness, you should train your aerobic system                                     60                        40
  and move your lactate threshold.                                                  70                        58
                                                                                    80                        70
Purpose of aerobic training                                                         90                        83
Aerobic training can be divided into three                                         100                        100
overlapping training intensity areas: low, moderate
                                                                        The table shows the relationship between the heart
and high intensity training. The overall purpose of                     rate and oxygen uptake. The values are average values
aerobic training is to:                                                 calculated from scientific research. The inaccuracy is ±
                                                                        10%. (Michalsik, 2002: 160 and McArdle, 2001: 242)

 » improve the oxygen transport in your
   circulation                                                          Low intensity training
 » improve the muscle’s ability to use the                              This form of training is also called restitution
   available oxygen                                                     training, as the purpose is to achieve a faster
 » improve the ability to recuperate after hard                         restitution after hard exercise. The average
   exercise                                                             heart rate should be 60-70% of the maximum

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Aerobic training - by Lene Gilkrog                                                                                         page 3

heart rate (HRmax), which is why we talk about
light intensity physical activity like jogging.
You should just make sure that your exercise
pattern is the same as in your primary sport.

Restitution training is suitable the day after a
                                                                 Maxim Energy Drink – it is
hard training session or race/competition. The                   important that you drink both
idea behind low intensity training is that the                   before, during and after
                                                                 exercise. With Maxim Energy
muscles recuperate better and that possible                      Drink you maintain your fluid
                                                                 balance and energy levels.
soreness wears off faster. You can read more
about muscle soreness in the article “DOMS
– muscle soreness”.
                                                                        contains sport-specific exercises. A runner
                                                                        runs, a swimmer swims, a cyclist cycles, etc.
     RESTITUTION TRAINING                                               Because you train at a moderate intensity, you
                                                                        can train several hours. Should you wish to
• Day after hard training session
                                                                        train differently, you could divide the training
• 60-70% HRmax
                                                                        into several training bouts with a higher
• Involves both physical and mental
                                                                        A cyclist could for example choose to do a
• Remember stretching
                                                                        short and fast ride as well as a longer and
                                                                        slower ride, where the speed varies, but the
                                                                        heart rate stays within 70-80% HRmax.
Moderate intensity training
This form of training is also known as                                  You could also choose interval training, where
endurance training, as the purpose is to                                you work 3 minutes (preferably longer) and you
improve your muscles’ ability to work for a                             rest for maximum 1 minute (preferably shorter).
longer time (that is the aerobic capacity) as well
as to increase the body’s ability to recuperate
after hard training.
                                                                                ENDURANCE TRAINING
Endurance training can be done continuously
                                                                         • Often carried out continuously
or in intervals at 70-80% HRmax. If you choose
                                                                         • When using intervals, minimum
interval training, the exercise time should be at
                                                                           3 minutes work, maximum 1 minute
least 3 minutes with short breaks. It is, however,
most common to exercise continuously as the
                                                                         • 70 - 80% HRmax
intensity is relatively low.
                                                                         • Very long training sessions
                                                                         • Remember stretching
How to train at a moderate intensity
Make sure that your endurance training

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Aerobic training - by Lene Gilkrog                                                                                        page 4

High intensity training                                                disadvantage of this method is precisely the
This form of training could also be called
                                                                       large amount of time that most people do not
”fitness” training, as the goal is to improve
your body’s ability to work at a high intensity
for a long period of time, as well as to improve
                                                                       How to train at a high intensity
the body’s ability to recuperate after intense
                                                                       Due to the high intensity this training should
                                                                       take between 10 and 30 minutes. You should
                                                                       take cake that the intensity does not get too
                                                                       high, so you do not switch to anaerobic training.
                                                                       Moreover, you should be aware that your heart
                                                                       rate can go up with 8-12 beats per minute, even
                                                                       if you keep the same speed. This means that
                                                                       the heart rate increases, even though the work
            Maxim Energy Bar – provides immediate
            and continuous energy.                                     load and oxygen uptake are the same. This
                                                                       increased heart rate is due to fluid loss which
                                                                       leads to thicker blood. The body does not get
High intensity training could be done
                                                                       as much oxygen per heart rate as before the
continuously or at intervals at 90% HRmax.
                                                                       fluid loss.
Most athletes choose interval training, because
you gain a greater total of intense work. Several
                                                                       Training at high intensity intervals
research projects have shown that this is the
                                                                       There are 2 types of interval training:
most optimal way to improve the maximum
                                                                       1) long intervals
oxygen uptake. High intensity in the training
                                                                       2) short intervals
is the most substantial factor for an improved
fitness, but you do not need to train until
                                                                       The long intervals consist of 2-10 minute work
                                                                       intervals and 1-6 minute rest intervals with
                                                                       light exercise. Exercise bouts of 2 minutes are
Research shows that in very well trained
                                                                       sufficient to get the circulation up to a stationary
athletes the fitness can be improved by
                                                                       level close to the maximum levels and thus
exercising at a high intensity and thus a shorter
                                                                       there are great fitness effects to achieve with
period of time. Research also shows that the
                                                                       this type of training. The length of the pause is
greatest effect in relation to fitness is achieved
                                                                       less important. It should, however, be that long
by training at 90-100% HRmax intensity four
                                                                       so that you can continue at (almost) the same
times a week, 35-45 minutes per session.
                                                                       level. The more well-trained you are – and the
                                                                       better your restitution ability is - the shorter the
Moreover, it has been shown that untrained
and moderately trained athletes can
achieve improvements in fitness at a lower
                                                                       The principle is that you should train with as
intensity during a longer period of time. The
                                                                       high an oxygen uptake as possible. The quantity

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Aerobic training - by Lene Gilkrog                                                                                          page 5

of intervals depends likewise on the athlete’s                          Conclusion
fitness. Trained athletes could e.g. train 10 x 3/3                     To achieve the greatest effect of aerobic
minutes.                                                                training, it is important to control the intensity to
                                                                        ensure that you do the right training. The more
    80-90% of max               90-100% of max                          experience you have with the aerobic training
       heart rate                    heart rate                         forms, the easier it is to control the intensity.
     2 min / 40 sek                2 min / 1 min                        Fortunately you can use a heart rate monitor,
      3 min / 1 min                3 min / 3 min                        which makes it a lot easier.
      6 min / 2 min                6 min / 4 min

Examples of ratio between exercise bouts and recovery                   Due to the large amount of training in endurance
periods for aerobic training at a high intensity with long              sports, it is very important to have variation in
intervals. (Michalsik, 2002: 176).
                                                                        training. By switching between different forms
                                                                        of training you avoid one-sided strains and
The short intervals consist of work intervals                           thus injuries. Moreover it is motivating to vary
of 10-120 seconds and recovery periods, after                           training. And remember: the largest part of your
which light exercise is done for 15-60 seconds.                         training should be sport-specific.
The short intervals do not necessarily mean
that the oxygen uptake can reach the maximum                            References:
                                                                        Bangsbo, J. (2000): Physiology of Intermittent Exercise.
level so it is the length of the break that is                          I: Exercise: Basic and Applied Science. Ed. Garret &
decisive for the training effect. Due to the short                      Kirkendall, USA.

time of the break, the oxygen uptake just drops                         Billat, V. L. et al (2000): Intermittent runs at the velocity
a little, and is therefore relatively higher at the                     associated with maximal oxygen uptake enables subjects
                                                                        to remain at maximal oxygen uptake for a longer time than
next interval than at the start of the exercise.                        intense but submaximal runs. I: European Journal Applied
                                                                        Physiology, Feb. 81(3).

The number of intervals is equally dependent                            Helgerud, J. et al (2007): Aerobic High-Intensity Intervals
on the athlete’s fitness. Trained athletes can for                      Improve VO2max More Than Moderate Training. I:
                                                                        Medicine Science Sports Exercise. Vol. 39, No. 4, 2007(4).
example train 20 x 90/45 sec.
                                                                        McArdle, W.D., Katch, F. & Katch, V. (2001): Exercise
                                                                        Physiology: Energy Nutrition and Human Performance. 6.
    80-90% of max               90-100% of max
       heart rate                    heart rate                         Larsen, H. B. (2001) Training principles in distance running.
                                                                        I: Running & Science – in an Interdisciplinary Perspective.
    20 sek / 10 sek               20 sek / 15 sek
                                                                        Eds.: Bangsbo & Larsen. Munksgaard.
    45 sek / 15 sek               45 sek / 25 sek
                                                                        Laursen, P. & Jenkins, D. (2002): The Scientific Basis
    120 sek / 40 sek             120 sek / 60 sek
                                                                        for High-Intensity Interval Training: Optimising Training
                                                                        Programmes and Maximising Performance in Highly
Examples of ratio between working intervals and recovery
                                                                        Trained Endurance Athletes. I: Sports Medicine, 32.
periods for aerobic training at a high intensity with short
intervals. (Michalsik: 2002: 179)
                                                                        Michalsik, L. & Bangsbo, J. (2002): Aerob og anerob
                                                                        træning. Danmarks Idræts-Forbund.

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