MEdu-Dissertation by qihao0824

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									The Cultural Contents of the Secondary School

 Music Curricula in Hong Kong and Taiwan:

A Comparative Study of Four Sets of Textbooks




                                     by

                           LAU Kai-chi, Anthony




    A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for

                     the Degree of Master of Education

                      at the University of Hong Kong



                                August, 1998
                                 Abstract of dissertation entitled

The Cultural Contents of the Secondary School Music Curricula in Hong Kong

            and Taiwan: A Comparative Study of Four Sets of Textbooks

                                           submitted by

                                      LAU Kai-chi, Anthony

                              for the degree of Master of Education

                                 at the University of Hong Kong

                                           August, 1998



     This dissertation analyzes and compares the cultural contents of songs, repertoires of music

appreciation and introduced musicians from four sets (thirteen volumes) of music textbooks in

Hong Kong and Taiwan. It is intended to examine the nature and extent of cultural contents

reflected in these music textbooks and the reason and implications behind them. The main part of

this research is a survey on four sets of textbook that are commonly and currently used in Hong

Kong and Taiwan. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The technique of content

analysis is used in collecting data. The subsequent analysis of data followed a comparative model,

the Bereday Modified Model by Yu Chung Ching in 1996. Specifically, the following aspects were

examined: first the nature and extent of cultures (Western, Chinese and Other) which appear in

songs, repertoires of music appreciation and introduced musicians; second, the reflection of

integrated cultures from the lyrics of the songs; third, the appearances of common songs and

repertoires of music appreciation among the four sets of textbooks; fourth, the musical periods of

the introduced musicians.

     The results showed an imbalance of emphasis of cultures in both Hong Kong and Taiwan.

Hong Kong music textbooks favour Western cultures, especially that of the USA and Britain. In

contrast, Taiwanese textbooks focus on Chinese cultures, especially their local cultures. This can be

explained by the fact that Hong Kong has been a colony for over one hundred and fifty years.
                                                  2
Therefore, the influence by the Western world is deep. Also, the cultural contents reflected from the

Hong Kong music textbooks are the same as that summarized by Leung, Y. M. (1996) for the

characteristics of a colony. They are Western-dominant and despise the indigenous majority,

citizens unsure of their real identity and a „culture of silence‟ with low political aspirations etc. In

contrast, in Taiwan, due to the lack of relationship between Taiwan and the world under the

pressure from Mainland China, Taiwan‟s recent curriculum focuses on exploring Chinese cultures,

especially their local cultures. Much cultural contents of songs and introduced musicians in Taiwan

textbooks are local. But, many contemporary Taiwanese folk songs or Taiwanese contemporary

composers are also influenced by the Western world. Therefore, can this large amount of Taiwanese

contemporary songs and contemporary Taiwan musicians in textbooks truly reflect the cultures of

Taiwan? It is questionable. It is hoped that this research would help educators understand more the

different nature and extent of cultural contents in recently published music textbooks.




                                                   3
                                      DECLARATION




I hereby declare that this dissertation represents my own work and that it has not been previously

submitted to this University or any other institution in application to a degree, diploma or other

qualification.




                                                                           LAU Kai-chi, Anthony

                                                                                       August, 1998




                                                4
                                  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     The undertaking of the research and writing of a dissertation in Master degree is by no means a

simple endeavor, and for me, such a task would have been well nigh impossible were it not for the

continuous guidance, support, advice and encouragement of a number of people of whom I must

mention. I owe them so much that I will be forever in debt. I only hope that the completion of this

project is at least a „partial payment‟ for those I owe so much. Chief among them is my chief

supervisor as well as co-ordinator of this course, Professor Mark Bray, who gives me chance to

recognise the field of comparative education and influence upon my intellectual life and

development. The dedication that he has demonstrated to his profession has been a constant source

of inspiration to me throughout my study at the University of Hong Kong. It was in fact his

unceasing support, careful guidance and constant encouragement that were of invaluable worth in

the successful conclusion of this study, and for this I express my most sincere gratitude. Thanks to

my classmates in this course, Master of Education, Felix Du, Lawrence Law, Maggie Ma, Jacky

Tseng, Christina Wong, Cindy Yung, Yuen Siu Wah and Tsin Tak Shun of the times of questions

and support.

     The researcher is extremely grateful to Dr. Fanny Ng, a teacher in Northcote College of

Education, currently senior curriculum officer in Curriculum Development Institute and Miss

Amanda Chan, assistant education officer in the Education Department, for their timely advice and

invaluable criticism in the preliminary drafting of the dissertation. Specials thanks and appreciation

are due to Dr. Victor Fung, lecturer of the Baptist University, who permitted me to use his survey

results of music syllabuses in Hong Kong secondary schools. I thank to my colleagues in Queen‟s

College, Yu Chung Ching and Sally Willsher, who gave me much academic guidance in doing this

dissertation. A very special thank to my friends, Br. William Ng, Chang Pao Yueh and Su Kai-i,

whose support me in collecting information from Taiwan were given unstintingly. I also wish to

thank my referees in this course, Mr Lee Kar Hung, Principal of Queen‟s College, Dr. Fong Chung

Yan and Rev. Fr. Joseph Chow.

                                                  5
     Much appreciation are to my students in Queen‟s College, Chan Pak Hung (tabulating and

editing), Kom Chun Hay and Leo Seto (English typing), Tam Yiu Ting (Chinese typing), Samuel

Leung, Jimmy Pang and Cheung Chi Keung (categorizing), Chan Tsz Fung and Yiu Wai Kin

(illustrating), Sit Ho Chi (transliterating), and my past students in St. Louis School, Benny Lo

(proofreading) and Chan See Wai (books borrowing), who, not only encouraged my pursuit of

graduate studies and supported my efforts throughout this crucial period of my academic study, but

also spent their time assisting me to finish this dissertation.

     I extend my sincere appreciation for the constant support and encouragement from my parents

who had allowed me to persist with this study and their belief in me had given me extra strength at

the most difficult time during this study. To all others whose names I forgot, I offer my

immeasurable thanks.

     Finally, all thanks ultimately belong to the Lord who gave us life in such a variety of forms

and such richness of meaning, providing music, the power of thought, interesting places and people,

mentors, fellow scholars, and technology. To Him goes the highest honour.

     This dissertation, I dedicate to the memory of my preliminary enlightened music teachers, Rev.

Fr. Bruno Gelosa (伊思高神父), Rev. Fr. G. Carpella (家思齊神父) and Rev. Fr. Anthony Tcheong

(張志誠神父); the lyricists, Rev. Fr. W. Joyce (曹文植神父) and Mr. Law Yin Shun (羅延信老師)

for my preliminary music compositions; and my spiritual directors, Rev. Fr. Joseph Wong Hak Piu (

黃克鑣神父) and Sr. Gabriel Hung.




                                                     6
                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

          ABSTRACT                                                             i

          DECLARATION                                                          iii

          ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                      iv

          TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                    vi

          LIST OF TABLES                                                       x

          LIST OF CHARTS AND FIGURES                                           xii

Chapter

    1.    THE STUDY AND ITS CONTEXT                                            1

             1.0 Introduction                                                  1

             1.1 Purpose of the Study                                          3

             1.2 Research Question                                             3

                  Research Sub-Questions

             1.3 Definitions of Terms                                          4

             1.4 Significance of the Study                                     5

    2.    LITERATURE REVIEW                                                    6

             2.0 Introduction                                                  6

             2.1 Curriculum                                                    6

                  Music Curriculum

                  Hong Kong Secondary Schools Curriculum

                  Taiwan Secondary Schools Curriculum

             2.2 Culture                                                       12

                  Cultural Contents in Education

                 Cultural Contents in Hong Kong Secondary Schools Curriculum

                 Cultural Contents in Taiwan Secondary Schools Curriculum

             2.3 Culture and Music                                             16

                                              7
           Cultural Contents in Music Curriculum

           Multi-cultural Contents in Music Curriculum

       2.4 Ethnomusicology                                    20

           Why there is a need in studying ethnomusicology?

           Comparative music education

       2.5 Background of China                                22

           Background of Chinese Music

           Background of Chinese Traditional Music

       2.6 Background of Hong Kong and Taiwan                 26

           Background of Hong Kong and its music

           Background of Taiwan and its music

           Music Relationship between Hong Kong and Taiwan

           Educational Background of Music in Hong Kong

           Educational Background of Music in Taiwan

       2.7 Textbooks                                          31

           Textbooks in Hong Kong

           Textbooks in Taiwan

       2.8 Summary                                            34

3.   METHODOLOGY                                              35

       3.0 Research Framework                                 35

       3.1 Purposes and Advantages of Comparative Education   35

           Purposes of this Comparative Study in Education

           The Advantages of Comparative Education

       3.2 Content Analysis in Research                       37

           What is Content Analysis

           Content Analysis in Research

                                          8
        3.3 Bereday‟s Model and Bereday Modified Model                              39

             The Procedures of Bereday‟s Model

             The Procedures of Bereday Modified Model

             An Integration of Technique of Content Analysis in Bereday

             Modified Model

        3.4 Data Collection and Data Analysis                                       41

             Introduction of Data Collection and Analysis

             Procedures of Data Collection and Analysis

        3.5 Problems Involved and Limitations                                       42

4.   DATA FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS                                                44

        4.0 Introduction                                                            44

        4.1 Stage of Description                                                    44

             Description of the Song

             Description of the Music Appreciation

             Description of the Introduced Musicians

        4.2 Stage of Interpretation                                                 49

             Interpretation of Data Findings in Hong Kong

             Interpretation of Data Findings in Taiwan

        4.3 Stage of Juxtaposition                                                  58

             Similarities and Differences of Song in the two places

             Similarities and Differences of Music Appreciation in the two places

             Similarities and Differences of Introduced Musicians in the two places

             General Question Raised after Juxtaposition

        4.4 Stage of Comparison                                                     63

             A Comparison of Cultural Contents from Music Textbooks in

             Hong Kong and Taiwan

                                          9
5.   CONLCUSION                                                                   67

        5.0 Introduction                                                          67

        5.1 Similarities and Differences of the Cultural Contents in the Music

           Textbooks of Hong Kong and Taiwan                                      67

        5.2 Conclusion                                                            69

        5.3 Implications and Significance                                         71

        5.4 Recommendations                                                       72

     REFERENCES                                                                   74

     APPENDICES                                                                   85

        Abbreviation of Textbooks                                                 86

        Tables                                                                    87

        Charts and Figures                                                       149




                                            10
                                   LIST OF TABLES



Table

 1      Description of Four Sets of Textbooks                                           87

 2      A Comparison of Cultural Contents in Hong Kong and Taiwan Secondary

        Schools Curricula of Music                                                      88

 3      The Inclusion of Political and Cultural Items within the Guidelines on Civic

        Education in Schools                                                            89

 4      A Comparison of Textbooks Inspection in Hong Kong and Taiwan                    90

 5      Explanations of „Chinese Music‟                                                 90

 6      Research Procedures Based on Bereday Modified Model                             91

 7      Song: Integrated Music Book 1/2/3                                               92

 8      Song: New Course in Music Book 1/2/3                                            95

 9      Song: Guo Zhang Yin Yue Book 1a/1b/2/3                                         101

 10     Song: Guo Min Zhang Zhi Yin Yue Book 1/2/3                                     105

 11     Frequency of Songs in Western Cultures within Textbooks                        108

 12     Percentage of Songs in Western Cultures within Textbooks                       110

 13     Frequency of Songs in Chinese Cultures within Textbooks                        111

 14     Percentage of Songs in Chinese Cultures within Textbooks                       113

 15     Frequency of Songs in Other Cultures within Textbooks                          114

 16     Percentage of Songs in Other Cultures within Textbooks                         115

 17     Common Songs in Textbooks                                                      116

 18     Frequency & Percentage of Melody with Foreign Lyrics                           118

 19     Music Appreciation: Integrated Music Book 1/2/3                                119

 20     Music Appreciation: New Course in Music Book 1/2/3                             122

 21     Music Appreciation: Guo Zhang Yin Yue Book 1a/1b/2/3                           127

                                             11
22   Music Appreciation: Guo Min Zhang Zhi Yin Yue Book 1/2/3                   131

23   Frequency of Music Appreciation in Western Cultures within Textbooks       134

24   Percentage of Music Appreciation in Western Cultures within Textbooks      136

25   Frequency of Music Appreciation in Chinese Cultures within Textbooks       137

26   Percentage of Music Appreciation in Chinese Cultures within Textbooks      139

27   Frequency of Music Appreciation in Other Cultures within Textbooks         140

28   Percentage of Music Appreciation in Other Cultures within Textbooks        140

29   Common Repertoires of Music Appreciation in Textbooks                      141

30   Introduced Musicians: Integrated Music Book 1/2/3                          143

31   Introduced Musicians: New Course in Music Book 1/2/3                       144

32   Introduced Musicians: Guo Zhang Yin Yue Book 1a/1b/2/3                     145

33   Introduced Musicians: Guo Min Zhang Zhi Yin Yue Book 1/2/3                 146

34   Frequency & Percentage of Introduced Musicians within Textbooks            148

35   Frequency & Percentage of Each Musical Area in Different Cultures within

     Textbooks                                                                  148




                                         12
                        LIST OF CHARTS AND FIGURES

Chart

 1       Percentage of Songs of Different Cultures in Textbooks                149

 2       Percentage of Songs in Western Cultures                               149

 3       Percentage of Songs in Chinese Cultures                               150

 4       Percentage of Songs in Other Cultures                                 150

 5       Percentage of Melody with Different Lyrics                            151

 6       Frequency of Vocal and instrumental Works in Textbooks                151

 7       Percentage of Music Appreciation of Different Cultures in Textbooks   152

 8       Percentage of Music Appreciation in Western Cultures                  152

 9       Percentage of Music Appreciation in Chinese Cultures                  153

 10      Percentage of Musicians of Different Cultures in Textbooks            153

 11      Percentage of Musicians of Different Periods in Textbooks             154

Figure

 1       „A Triangular Approach‟ of a Balanced Music Curriculum                154

 2       A Map of China (Chinese-political)                                    155

 3       Musicians and Periods                                                 156




                                              13
                     Chapter 1 THE STUDY AND ITS CONTEXT

1.0 Introduction

         For historical and practical reasons, Hong Kong is very much influenced by Western

    culture; but, at the same time, it maintains a very strong Chinese culture because the large

    majority of its population is Chinese. Students should therefore be trained to be open-minded

    about different cultures. Education should help them to develop an appreciation of the Chinese

    culture, respect for all people and their differences in values and ways of life (CDC 1993:10).

         Music is a human phenomenon. All over the world and throughout history, music has

    been sung, played, composed, improvised, danced to, and listened to. It is at once

    cross-cultural as it is also culture-specific: it is universally embraced as a meaningful part of

    life, and yet its components vary greatly from one culture to the next. Because it is a way of

    thinking and expressing ideas and feelings, music has appeared as an important symbol of

    people and culture through the ages (Campbell 1991:3).

         Therefore, curriculum of music in education plays an important role for students in

    understanding of various cultures of the world. As the official syllabus in Hong Kong stated

    students with the help of singing folks songs of Chinese and other lands as well as listening to

    different styles, forms and genres of music appreciation, will understand and appreciate their

    own musical heritage as well as that of other lands (CDC 1983:3). In Hong Kong music

    curricula especially in different cultures is needed.

         The main part of this study is a survey of secondary music textbooks that are currently

    used in Hong Kong and Taiwan. As Morris said, one of the ways to check textbooks is trying

    to measure a text‟s cultural biases (Morris 1996b: 97). This dissertation examines the nature

    and extent of cultural contents in Taiwan‟s & Hong Kong‟s secondary school music textbooks,

    a subject on which very little research has been done in Hong Kong and Taiwan so far. The

    method of content analysis is employed to examine the different cultural music which appear

    in these textbooks.

                                                  14
     Whilst there is obvious value in reading about music education in any country, simply to

bring an awareness of these areas and broaden perspectives, educators go further and provide

positive help for their own music education by looking at some aspects of music education in

other countries more systematically. The perspective educators gain comparatively may assist

them in adapting some of the ideas used in another country to our own circumstances (Lepherd

1985:47). Therefore, the significance of comparison of cultures to other countries is obvious.

     As a result, the nature and extent of cultural contents in the reflection of four sets of

music textbooks in Hong Kong and Taiwan are chosen as the objects in this comparative

study. Taiwan is chosen because, as in Hong Kong, almost all of its people are Chinese;

secondly, though not all Chinese are the same, Hong Kong and Taiwan people are populated in

coastal and southern China such that cultural and sociological differences amongst Chinese are

relatively small (Chin 1991:4); thirdly, it is expected that Hong Kong and Taiwan will have

closer economic and cultural links as a result of the modernization and open door policy of the

Mainland China; fourthly, Hong Kong and Taiwan have similar historical and political

backgrounds changes due to that their cultures have been more or less influenced by the ruling

under British before 1997 and Japan during World War II respectively; finally, their musical

cultures have been influenced much by USA, Britain and Western religious organizations since

World War II. A comparative study of cultural contents in music curricula for Hong Kong and

Taiwan is therefore worthwhile.

     In order to focus on cultural contents, the music in the textbooks were analyzed according

to Western, Chinese and Other cultures. The researcher attempted to identify such patterns

through examinations of the contents of songs, repertoires of music appreciation and

introduced musicians in those four selected sets of music textbooks. Also, it should be

emphasized that the intent of this research was not to evaluate the quality of music textbooks

or the significance of the various cultures in music textbooks. Instead, the purpose was to

examine what educators have accomplished in a general way so that they may proceed

                                            15
    positively and productively toward an ever-expanding knowledge of the various cultures of

    music in the world.



1.1 Purpose of the Study

        The intent of this research has been to explore the cultures of Hong Kong and Taiwan

    through examining the similarities and differences of the cultural contents among the music

    curricula in the secondary schools of Hong Kong and Taiwan. As a result, particularly, a better

    understanding of, the augmentation of British influence in a past colony, Hong Kong as well as

    the national education system in Taiwan and its promotion of her local culture, can be

    achieved. Also, through studying this research, the findings give teachers and different kinds

    of educators more opportunities to develop some awareness of the social, historical or cultural

    content of some of the music they read, perform or listen from various sources especially from

    music textbooks.



1.2 Research Question

        What and why are these nature and extent of cultural contents reflected from four sets of

    textbooks in Hong Kong and Taiwan?

1.2.1Research Sub-Problem

    1. What is the nature and extent of cultural contents among the music curricula of Hong Kong

      and Taiwan?

    2. Do the contents of music textbooks match the music curricula stated?

    3. What kinds (Western/Chinese/Hong Kong/Taiwan) of cultural contents have been shown in

      the music textbooks?

    4. How much of cultural contents have been shown in the music textbooks?

    5. Why does the above phenomenon happen?

    6. Does the above phenomenon also happen in other countries?

                                                16
1.3 Definitions of Terms

    The following definitions were used:

    Cultural Contents: Things related to culture.

    Nature of Cultural Contents: The geographical and musical origin of the culture.

    Extent of Cultural Contents: Frequency and percentage of cultural contents.

    Cultural Contents of Secondary School Music Curricula: Cultural contents of CDC (1983)

    from Hong Kong; MOE (1986) and MOE (1994) from Taiwan (table 2).

    Four Sets of Textbooks: The four sets of textbook in Table 1.

    Specific Area Culture: Cultural contents of a definite area.

    Integrated Area Culture: Merging of cultural contents of different areas.

    Western Cultures: Cultural contents of Western world (Europe, USA, Canada and Australia).

    Chinese Cultures: Cultural contents of China (Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong).

    Other Cultures: Those cultural contents do not belong to Western or Chinese cultures.

    English Melody: Melody of which the nationality of the composer is English.

    Foreign Melody: Melody of which the nationality of the composer is neither English nor

    Chinese.

    Introduced Musician: Musician who is introduced in textbooks.

    Music Appreciation: Listening repertoire in music lessons.

    Song: Song sung during music lessons.

    Baroque Period: Approximately about 1600 – 1750

    Classical Period: Approximately about 1750 – 1820

    Romantic Period: Approximately about 1820 – 1900

    Contemporary Period: Approximately about 1900 – present

    Unknown: Subjects (places or people) that the researcher does not know.




                                                    17
1.4 Significance of the Study

         A culture group may develop an elaborate system of historical roots, traditions, arts and

    behaviour patterns which identify that group. Music is one of the most powerful and

    conspicuous cultural markers (Geisler 1990:5).

         Western music is the chief focus in the music curriculum in Hong Kong because it has

    been influenced by the British and the Western world. Due to the return of sovereignty of

    China on 1st July,1997, and the status of Hong Kong has been changed from a colony to a

    special administrative region, there has been a trend of incorporating more Chinese music and

    its cultural materials in the curriculum. On the other hand, there are many similar backgrounds

    between Hong Kong and Taiwan. But the content of the curricula in Taiwan including its

    music curriculum contains more Chinese cultural material as compared to Hong Kong ones.

    Furthermore, both places strongly recommend the understanding and acceptance of different

    cultures, including Other cultures. The significance of this comparative study is to understand

    what and why are the nature and extent of cultural contents reflected from four sets of

    textbooks in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Therefore, a better understanding not only of Western

    music, but also of Chinese music as well as world musics is needed.

         Furthermore, this comparative study gives a broader understanding of the present

    situations of Western cultures, Chinese cultures as well as Other cultures in music textbooks of

    Hong Kong and Taiwan. Then the music educators can decide on what is possible and what

    can be done to make the music curriculum with a more balanced understanding, recognition

    and acceptance of different cultures, especially the Chinese cultures and their local cultures.




                                                 18
                           Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

         In order to provide a historical and cultural understanding of the current approach to

    compose the multi-cultural contents in music textbooks, appropriate literature was reviewed

    providing historical and cultural perspectives of educational background, curricula and music

    both broadly and more specifically in Hong Kong and Taiwan. An examination of comparative

    music education and ethnomusicology contributed to the research process and impacted the

    development of comparative music study. Moreover, there is an introduction of the purposes

    of textbooks in education and their contents in Hong Kong and Taiwan.



2.1 Curriculum

         The term „curriculum‟ may have various interpretations. In the broadest meaning of the

    term, school curriculum includes all the learning experiences provided by the school. Or, as it

    has once been defined in „The Yearbook of Education, 1958‟ the curriculum is the sum-total of

    all the activities which a school, by its existence, encourages and promotes (Wong 1969: 3).

      Trained evaluators or administrators view the curriculum as an area of ongoing activities

    that are actually occurring in the classroom, rather than thinking of it as a static, established

    course of study. This administrative perspective is sometimes defined as an „operational‟

    curriculum (Abeles, Hoffer, Klotman 1994:271).

         The contemporary concept of a curriculum is much more than a set body of subject matter

    or a course of study. It consists of all the experiences that the school sponsors or for which it is

    responsible -- in or out of the regular classroom, in or out of normal school hours, and on or off

    the school campus. Thus, guidance services, assemblies, clubs, sports events, field trips,

    exchange concerts, dramatics, student government programs, and after-school activities are all

    part of the curriculum (Bessom, Tatarunis, Forcucci 1980:301).

         Curriculum can include a consideration of the purposes of schooling, what teachers teach,

                                                  19
how they teach, both what is planned and unplanned, and it can focus on the product of

schooling or on its processes.      Each of these different emphases has to be taken into

consideration if we are to study and improve the curricula (Morris 1996b: 1).

       Curriculum can be defined as „content‟ and it brings into question another term, namely

the „syllabus‟ (Marsh 1997:4). A curriculum is not the same thing as a „syllabus‟. A syllabus is

a list of the content which should be taught or examined. A curriculum is much more than this.

Syllabuses are actually official plans of what the curriculum for a specific school subject is

intended to achieve (Morris 1996b: 2; Marsh 1997:3-4).But, too many teachers stick rigidly to

a syllabus, forgetting that a syllabus is only a guide (Money 1973:3).

       In planning a curriculum school administrators make decisions about the content, skills

and attitudes we want pupils to learn. As time is limited, they also make decisions about what

should not be included. The content, skills and attitudes that we decide not to include in the

curriculum is termed the „null curriculum‟. This concept is important in Hong Kong because

the curriculum of many subjects has coincided the inclusion of topics which were seen to be

politically sensitive (Stimpson 1991 cited in Morris 1996b:3).

       The purposes which curricula are attempting to achieve and by which they are achieved

are substantially affected by a range of social, economic and political factors. The main factors

are:

(i) Political: Schools are frequently used to support and promote the political ideology of those

persons in power. For example, in Hong Kong, the return of sovereignty to the PRC has

resulted in a number of changes to the school curriculum.

(ii) National Identity and Unity: The curriculum is frequently used to promote a sense of

national pride. For example, in Taiwan the promotion of a sense of national identity and an

essentially Confucian set of moral values are centre goals of the school curriculum.

(iii) Economic: The attempt to achieve certain economic goals can also has an effect on the

curriculum (Marsh 1991: 3-4). For example, the high economic returns for educational

                                            20
    qualifications in Hong Kong put schools and teachers under substantial pressures to obtain

    good examination results. This is the most pervasive influence on how the curriculum is

    implemented (Morris 1996a: 121).

2.1.1Music Curriculum

         Educators must know that there are many important sources from other countries. They

    must broaden their knowledge to observe new ideas and combine the traditional and foreign

    education system into a practical and useful system for their own society. Therefore, only a

    highly diversified curriculum can possibly function; such difference are culture, individual

    learning, diversified goal learning environments and professional resources (Shuji and Mason

    1990: 77).

    The components of music teaching can be stated as questions:

         (1) Why have music in the schools?

         (2) What should be taught in the music class?

         (3) How will it be taught?

         (4) To whom will it be taught?

         (5) What are the results (Hoffer 1991: 3)?

         The answer of „what should be taught in the music class?‟ can be found on music

    curricula or music syllabuses.

         According to music philosopher and educator, Reimer (1989), there are seven

    fundamental points of view in the music curriculum, namely ,

         (1) Values;

         (2) Conceptualized;

         (3) Systematized;

         (4) Interpreted;

         (5) Operational;

         (6) Experienced, and

                                                21
     (7) Expectational.

     These points are the most important views in the studying of the frame of work of music

curriculum (Wu 1995: 44-45).

     It is perhaps unwise to think of the music curriculum too definitely in terms of such things

as „singing‟, „literacy‟, „appreciation‟, „creative work‟, etc. Balance is not achieved by seeing

that all the recognised and accepted bits have been included, but rather by a unifying principle

which will release musical potential in various directions and still ensure a general grasp of

musical concepts (Paynter 1982: 65).

     A balanced music curriculum proposed in the shape of a triangle is illustrated in Figure 1

on the grounds that composing, performing and listening are of equal weight and that each one

can be the basis for the other two to build upon. This design takes into account the diversity of

schools in Hong Kong in terms of teachers expertise, time and resources, school priorities and

pupils‟ interest and so forth.

     Music teachers are encouraged to develop a music curriculum most suitable for their

pupils that no matter which perspective is used as the „foundation‟ (the „base‟ of the triangle),

the other two areas of music training however must go alongside and be given adequate

attention (CDC 1997: 2-3).

     A quality music curriculum results not only from drawing up a list of courses but also

from providing a varied and quality program of music education. Deciding what to teach

requires thoughtful attention to subject matter validity, relevance, and the selection of music

(Hoffer 1991: 71).

     The Report on Review of 9-year Compulsory Education stated that to ensure an all round

education, schools should be encouraged to review and report to parents their pupils‟

development in a wider range of aspects including Art, Music, Physical Education etc (ED

1997:32). For example, music, a long established curriculum subject, is designed to achieve a

broad range of goals as well as provide a wide range of experiences to students. Goals such as

                                            22
    learning practical skills in music, acquiring musical knowledge and developing personal

    qualities of self-expression have been widely recognized and promoted (Ng & Morris 1995:

    273). A good music curriculum can attain what the requirement of above report stated.

2.1.2Hong Kong Secondary Schools Curriculum

         In Hong Kong, the general aims of secondary curriculum, are fourfold. First, the

    curriculum continues to promote students‟ all-round development in the intellectual,

    communicative, social and moral, personal and physical, and aesthetic spheres. Secondly, it

    provides a general and worthwhile education at the junior secondary level, in particular by

    enabling students to achieve optimum levels of attainment against targets to be set from time to

    time in specified curriculum areas.

         Thirdly, it prepares students for education beyond secondary 3 and secondary 5 as

    required.   Fourthly, it prepares students for the world of work after completion of the junior

    secondary level and the senior secondary level education, and helps them to become

    well-balanced and responsible individuals capable of coping with the needs and demands of

    the community (CDC 1993: 11).

         The curriculum of Hong Kong schools is controlled by two central organizations. The

    Curriculum Development Council (CDC), which is administered by the government Advisory

    Inspectorate, are responsible for designing curricula and for approving school textbooks. In

    addition, the Hong Kong Examination Authority (HKEA), which is an independent statutory

    body, administers all of Hong Kong‟s public examinations and produces the syllabuses for all

    subjects that are publicly examined (Morris 1996a: 120- 121). Both the CDC and HKEA are

    centralized educational agencies, insofar as they perform a system-wide function, but their

    effect on school curricula was seen to be different (Morris 1996a: 143). In recent years,

    curriculum development in Hong Kong seemed wedded to the center- periphery model

    (Sweeting 1996: 59).

         On the other hand, the curriculum guidelines on civic education, published by the

                                                23
    Education Department, contain the most direct attempt by the government to influence the

    curriculum with regard to Hong Kong„s political future.     It recommends that civic education

    be taught across the curriculum rather than in separate courses. This was a direct response by

    the Education Department to the concern expressed within Hong Kong over the general lack of

    political awareness and the need to increase that awareness if Hong Kong were to exist as a

    relatively autonomous part of China in the future (Table 3) (Morris 1996a: 130).

2.1.3Taiwan Secondary Schools Curriculum

         The curriculum is also highly centralised in Taiwan. The Ministry of Education takes

    responsibility to ensure that the curriculum covers the same, approved material throughout all

    schools of the same type. Many sets of heavy books define the „curriculum and equipment

    standards‟ for all subjects in the curriculum and for all levels of schools (Kimbell 1997: 170).

    The secondary school education of Taiwan is a continuity of the primary school education. Its

    educational aims center on acquisition of knowledge and skill for a better life and the

    development of good citizens (Galatioto 1987: 41).

         Though there have been many goals of education or aims in its curricula, the important

    ones have been the following four:

         (a) The fulfillment of the Three Peoples‟ Principles of Sun Yat-sen;

         (b) The development of national morality;

         (c) The protection of the nation;

         (d) The development of scientific knowledge and the ability to learn a living (MOE 1994:

         1, Song 1984: 199-200).

         The curriculum development in Taiwan is going to be localized. The main focus of

    Education is from „re-establishing and rehabilitating country‟ to „promoting the recognition of

    Taiwan‟. For example, at the past, Mainland China was called „a conquered place‟ but now, it

    is called as „Mainland‟ by Taiwanese. From the above, it can be seen that political culture has a

    degree of significance in influencing on curriculum (Law 1996: 22).

                                                24
2.2 Culture

         Culture can be explained as (1) advanced development of the human powers,

    development of the body, mind and spirit by training and experience; (2) evidence of

    intellectual development (of arts, science etc.) in human society; (3) state of intellectual

    development among a people or particular form of intellectual development; or (4) all the arts,

    beliefs, social institutions etc., and characteristic of a community, race etc. (Oxford Advanced

    Learner‟s English- Chinese Dictionary 1993: 288- 289).

         The Chinese traditional culture, all students are expected to be all-rounders. There is the

    notion of five aspects of education: moral, intellectual, physical, social and aesthetic, and these

    were still basic educational objectives in other Chinese societies such as Taiwan and Hong

    Kong (Cheng 1994: 70). Common Confucian thoughts and values in Chinese places, for

    example Hong Kong and Taiwan, are some of the common characteristics of Chinese culture.

    Furthermore, „how East Asian students learn?‟ has also become increasingly common for

    writers to regard the commonality among some East Asian places (for example, Hong Kong

    and Taiwan) as a matter of culture (Cheng 1994: 67).

2.2.1Cultural Contents in Education

         The significance of culture in development has been recognised by Unesco. The

    conviction of the Conference on Culture/ Policies (1982) was that culture constitutes a

    fundamental part of the life of each individual and of each communities and development

    whose cultural aims should be focused on men must therefore have a cultural dimension

    (UNESCO 1987: 14 cited in Shah 1994: 231).

         What is culture? According to Weinberg and Shabat, culture can be defined as „people‟s

    way of life.‟ That is comprised of a society‟s custom, traditions, tools, and ways of thinking.

    Culture is society‟s collective directive to its own members. It contains commands as to

    approval forms of working, eating, loving, and countless other activities. The difference in

    culture may be the differences in customs, traditions, ways of thinking, value system and

                                                 25
attitudes. Different cultures can create different forms of value systems / attitudes toward

education. Therefore, if different persons in a society have different forms of value system/

attitudes for their lives, they can create their different cultures. In studying the norms and

values of education in a society, we can, in effect, see culture in the society in which has

produced the norms and values for education. Thus, the legacy of education stems from

traditional culture (Song 1984: 81-82). Culture in other definitions has another dimension such

as that culture is a patterned system of knowledge, embodied in symbolic and non-symbolic

communication modes, which a society has evolved from the past, and progressively modifies

and arguments to give meaning to and cope with the present and anticipated future problems of

its existence (Bullivant 1981: 3 cited in Shah 1994: 232).

     An alternative view is that the content of the curriculum should be based on a selection

from the culture in which it is set. By culture is meant the main features of the way of life of a

particular society (Morris 1996b: 25). Lawton, for example, identifies the following as

important aspects of all cultures:

     (a) Social structure/ system;

     (b) Economic system;

     (c) Communication system;

     (d) Technology system;

     (e) Morality system;

     (f) Belief system;

     (g) Aesthetic system

     (Lawton 1983 cited in Morris 1996b: 25).

     In a culturally pluralist or heterogeneous society various groups, hand over their children

to the State school system to learn the cultural norms, common language and history of the

dominant culture. This common curriculum has as its basis an ideological belief in the

efficiency of this position. However, it is also important to reflect on the cultural conflict

                                             26
    experienced by minority group within this process. The reality is that not all students (or

    groups) have equal access to the opportunities provided by the State education system, nor do

    minority cultures have recognition of acceptances within the standard school curriculum. To

    understand the socialisation of youth and the relationship between youth and society, it is

    necessary to go beyond the school and view how other social institutions operate to influence

    children‟s academic decisions and life destinations (Claydon, Knight, Rado 1977: 48).

      A group of people in a nation is which a group of individuals sharing a common culture

    (Kandel 1933: 7). Okafor also draws attention to the fact that cultural assimilation, where one

    stronger cultural group may unconsciously absorb another (Okafor 1988: 10 cited in Kemp &

    Lepherd 1992: 782).

         Culture can be an effective unifier especially in terms of cultural identity, cultural

    autonomy, and social unity. Thus, the role of education is reproducing culture becomes as main

    role of education in economic development (Postiglione & Lee 1995: 11). A nation possesses

    the key to its future if it understands the purposes and inner logic of its own culture. Education,

    when used intelligently, is the means for obtaining that key (Moehlman & Roveck 1951: 1).

2.2.2Cultural Contents in Hong Kong Secondary Schools Curriculum

         The specific aims (social and moral) of Hong Kong secondary schools education about

    the cultural elements in curriculum are the following:

         (a) To support students in identifying and cultivating personal ethical values and in

         applying these values to contemporary social issues;

         (b) To train students in the habit of acquiring information and understanding about matters

         of concern for Hong Kong, China and the world and in making personal contributions

         towards the resolution of these places within the limitations of their circumstances;

         (c) To make students aware of the noteworthy aspects of Chinese culture, to strengthen

         their esteem for it, and to help them develop a positive attitude towards other peoples,

         cultures, values and ways of life;

                                                 27
        (d) To help students appreciate the cultural richness of Hong Kong‟s international life and

        to help them acquire the habit of adapting it for their personal development (CDC 1993:

        59).

         The Committee of Report on review of 9-year Compulsory Education, considers that the

    success of promoting aesthetic and cultural values in pupils relies very much on the motivation

    from teachers and support from other sectors in the community. On the other hand,

    incorporating cultural and aesthetic activities in the school curriculum, and strengthening

    relevant manpower support in CDI should also help bring about such success (ED 1997: 27).

         The CDC thinks that the music curriculum should also take into consideration societal

    change, in particular the change of sovereignty to Mainland China. Music plays an important

    role in transmitting culture, the promotion of Chinese music and songs should be given

    attention. This provides a balance is well in the subject matter between music of the West and

    the East (Chinese music and local compositions). In effect, world music of all kinds should be

    promoted (CDC 1997: 3).

2.2.3Cultural Contents in Taiwan Secondary Schools Curriculum

         In Taiwan, one of the most important article of the Constitution of the Republic of China

    (Taiwan) pertaining to education and culture is that education and culture shall aim at the

    development of the sense of nationalism, sense of autonomy, national moralities, healthy

    physique, science knowledge, and earn-a-living ability of the national citizens (Article 158)

    (MOE 1997: 3). The Ministry of Education (MOE) is the department which in charge of

    administrative affairs in connection with academic, cultural and educational matters in Taiwan

    (MOE 1997: 9).




2.3 Culture and Music

                                                28
     Music has been studied as the product of societies or of individuals, but rarely as the

product of individuals in society. Music‟s styles are based on what people have chosen to

select from nature as a part of their cultural expression rather than on what nature has imposed

on them (Bohlman & Nettl: 32-33). Trimillos maintains that all music no matter what its

culture should recognize the presence of truth, beauty, politics, and applause, with the

fundamental recognition that there will be a commensurate human reward (Trimillos 1984: 1-

9 cited in Kemp & Lepherd 1992: 783).

     Usually music is founded on a number of traditional elements inherited from previous

generations, just as other aspects of culture are pressed on from one generation to the next

(Abeles, Hoffer, Klotman 1994:122).

     Each culture has a unique musical system, it is natural that the people should ask why

there are these differences and what it is that determines the particular music that a culture has.

     Music has often been associated with expressions of resistance and a celebration of

cultural roots, events and significant figures. Western music often led to re-discovery of

indigenous music or was adapted to modern manifestations of cultural pride (Massey 1996: 7).

Many people believe that people of different cultures are more likely to be able to relate forms

of expression, particularly language (Boyce-Tillman 1996: 44-45).

     Music is a phenomenon present in all cultures, primitive and civilized. In primitive

societies, music frequently plays a far more important role than in Western civilization. The

stylistically simple music of a primitive tribe often has great prominence within its culture

because of its prevailing functionality: most primitive music serves a particular purpose other

than providing pure entertainment or aesthetic enjoyment (Nettl 1956: 6).

     The „art‟ music in the western sense, where the cultivation and appreciation of great

masterpieces and the skills relating to these are considered to have high cultural value, and

where educational institutions seek to promote and preserve these as an aspect of civilization

(Ryan 1985: 4). But, on the other hand, one reason why pop music-making is deemed

                                              29
somehow less „cultured‟ than classical music-making (by low as well as high cultural theorists)

is because it is described by the wrong criteria: pop musicians are taken to be a counter- form

of classical musicians, proudly untaught and semi-skilled (Frith 1992: 175). But some pop

music, for example, Canto-pop songs in Hong Kong which some of them are pop or rock

versions of traditional Chinese folk tunes (Lee 1992a: 1). These traditional Chinese traditional

folk tunes are considered as high „cultured‟ music.

     Many of the handy distinctions between folk and classical music do not help us when the

notion of popular music is introduced. In traditional societies, it may be useful, for example, to

distinguish folk music from art music by regarding the latter as the music of the dominant

classes in a society, but the appeal of modern popular music may fall across a wide spectrum of

classes. Similarly, popular music has distinguished from art music with some sort of subsidy,

whether from state or private sources, whereas popular music is able to survive commercially

(Manuel 1988: 1).

     Moreover, material culture refers to the tangible, material „things‟- physical objects that

can be seen, held, felt, used - that a culture produces. Examining a culture‟s tools and

technology can tell us about the group‟s history and way of life. Similarly, research into the

material culture of music can help us to understand the music-culture. The four components of

music-culture are

(a) Ideas about music:

     (i) music and the belief system,

     (ii) aesthetics of music,

     (ii) contexts of music and

     (iv) history of music;

(b) Social organisation of music;

(c) Repertories of music:

     (i) Styles,

                                             30
         (ii) Genres,

         (iii) Texts,

         (iv) Composition,

         (v) Transmission and

         (vi) Movement;

    (d) Material culture of music (Slobin and Titon 1992: 6-14).

         Communication between cultures of various peoples was always one of the most

    important conditions of the progress of culture of the entire world. Prominent musicians of the

    past always displayed a keen interest in life and music not only of their own nation, but also of

    other people (Kabalevsky 1988: 123). As a human activity, then, music is culturally defined

    (Herndon & Mcleod 1981: 5).

              In many cultures, traditional styles and genres of music has been transformed. Early

    ethnomusicologists distinguished Western music from non-Western music by its harmony,

    equal-tempered scale system, and notation. These Western musical traits spread rapidly into

    colonized regions, largely due to the efforts of missionaries and the military. For example, in

    the China, missionaries converted souls through the hymns they taught, first by rote and later

    through notation (Nettl 1985:16 cited in Campbell 1991:192).

2.3.1Cultural Contents in Music Curriculum

         Education must go beyond the transmission of culture go so as to allow pupils to explore

    all kinds of cultural possibilities (Burtonwood 1986: 160). „Music‟ is not only reflexive; it is

    also generative, both as cultural system and as human capability, and an important task of

    musicology is to find out how people make sense of „music‟ in a variety of social situations

    and in different cultural contexts, and to distinguish between the innate human capabilities that

    individuals use in the process of making sense of „music‟ and the cultural conventions that

    guide their actions (Bohlman & Nettl 1991:223).

         Songs from other times and other lands (whether or not sung in the original language)

                                                31
    widen the repertoire and give children insight into different life styles. The cosmopolitan

    features of song is readily enjoyed and shared by pupils from different cultures; and

    participation in them can lead to a greater awareness of musical similarities and differences

    between cultures and of the enrichment which can come from sharing them (Her Majesty‟s

    Inspectorate 1985: 7-8).

2.3.2Multi-cultural Contents in Music Curriculum

         The culture concept has also been used as a form of curriculum justification in the areas

    of multicultural and community education (Burtonwood 1986: 1).

         The aim of multicultural education as „developing in children the ability to deal with the

    diversity of ideas, achievements and experiences and to use them in the creation or re-creation

    of their own cultures and ways of life (James 1982: 226 cited in Burtonwood 1986: 156).

         Although cross-cultural comparison is an aim of analysis of different music, and a step

    towards understanding „music‟ as a human capability, a musical system should first be

    analyzed not in comparison with music, but rather in relation to other social and symbolic

    system within the same society (Bohlman & Nettl 1991: 228).

         The music curriculum orders have stressed that children should be given opportunities to

    be aware of the music of other times and lands. We are asking them to experience music other

    than those of their home cultures (the sounds with which they were brought up) (Deeble

    1996:97).

         The National Curriculum and Equality Assurance in evaluation the school‟s provision for

    pupil‟s spiritual, moral, social and cultural development, it focuses on the contribution music

    can make to pupils cultural development. It advises that „in music pupil should experience and

    response to a range of musical styles and senses, including music from a variety of cultural

    traditions. In addition, schools should ensure that young children learn to be at ease with their

    own cultural background and respect different cultures and customs. Many aspects of the

    curriculum such as art and music contribute to social and cultural development‟ (Massey 1996:

                                                32
      19). The general requirements for programmes of study for music in the National Curriculum

      is that pupils should perform and listen to music in a variety of genres and style, from different

      periods and cultures. The repertoire chosen should be broad and should include examples of

      works taken from a variety of cultures, Western and non-Western (Floyd 1996: 25).

           The Cultural Studies Programme was developed in 1987 for Primary and Junior

      Secondary Schools in Ghana regards music as one of important basic components of their

      culture. The general course objectives of the Junior Secondary Schools Syllabus is that the

      pupils should be able to understand that culture is a way of life and develop the awareness that

      music permeates our way of life. According to Omibiyi (1972), music education in Africa

      should be able to alter the attitude of African school children from one of cultural inferiority to

      that of cultural relativism (Flolu 1996: 159-167).



2.4   Ethnomusicology

           Foreign musics were discussed at conferences on music education at Yale University in

      1963 and at Tanglewood in 1967, both promoting musics of all periods, styles, forms and

      cultures in curricular development. As a result of this renewed emphasis on music of other

      cultures by professionals in music education and the blossoming field of ethnomusicology,

      textbooks publishers employed consultants on music from foreign countries and increased the

      use of authentic versions of both vocal and instrumental music examples. In addition, several

      research studies resulted in which secondary students were introduced to the music of various

      cultures --- May & Hood (1962) and Larson & Anderson (1966) (Jordan 1992: 736).

           Ethnomusicology is the study of music, wherever it may be found, and can be historical

      as well. In addition, the concept of music in culture is embodied in the definition (Herndon &

      Mcleod 1982: 14).

           The field of Ethnomusicology, in which may be defined as the comparative study of the

      music of the world and the studying of music as an aspect of culture. Ethnomusicologists

                                                   33
    customarily regard themselves as either members of the discipline of musicology (the

    scholarly study of music from historical and social viewpoints) or of socio-cultural

    anthropology (the study of humans with emphasis on culture). Ethnomusicology can also be

    regarded as the anthropological study of music (Nettl 1992: 9-12).

         Ethnomusicologists study music in different cultural settings, which creates two major

    questions: „What is music ?‟ and „What is ethnomusicologists ?‟ (Herndon & Mcleod 1982: 1).

    A major goal of ethnomusicology has always been to discover how music is shaped, and how

    music shapes the way people live. In order to place music within the social matrix of the

    people who create and produce it, it is necessary to document the totality of that social matrix,

    and to work in many different societies (Herndon & Ziegler 1990: 9).

2.4.1Why there is a need in studying ethnomusicology?

         Comparative studies have demonstrated that a considerable and increasing degree of

    uniformity across cultural regions exists in the states objectives of national educational

    systems and in the contents of curricula (Fiala & Gordon Lanford 1987; Meyer et al 1992 cited

    in Takala 1994: 10). Each culture has strengths and weakness. This is as true in the field of arts

    as it is in any other. To be able, therefore, to draw upon a diversity of cultural traditions is to be

    in a position of considerable strength (Burtonwood 1986: 157). It is by studying other

    possibilities that we can raise awareness of our own cultural limitations or indeed crises. We

    study other music in cultural context and in so doing come to see our own music, our own

    society, more clearly (Small 1980 cited in Burtonwood 1986: 157).

2.4.2 Comparative music education

         The term, comparative music education, implies that its subject matter deals with the

     various aspects of music education as these are pursued in various countries and cultures all

     over the world (Kemp & Lepherd 1992: 786). Cykler‟s goals for the comparative music study

     were quite clear. He said that the goals of music education at elementary and secondary levels

     vary between countries obviously. However, a comparison may help to point out strengths as

                                                   34
    well as weaknesses in the various systems in music education (Cykler 1960: 31 cited in Kemp

    & Lepherd 1992: 780).

         Although there have been achievements in international and comparative music

    education, greater emphasis needs to be placed on the development of comparative theories,

    conceptual frameworks, and methods specifically appropriate to music education and

    music-cultural transmission to enable more rigorous, reliable, valid, and beneficial

    comparisons to take place (Kemp & Lepherd 1992: 773). For example, George Bereday

    developed a comparative method. His principles is that the data to be described are interpreted

    in the light of the variety of factors that influence the education process, which can include

    sociological, economic, historical and geographical considerations. It is appropriate to review

    these factors before examining the provisions for music education by including an overview

    of the context for music education in a report that addresses the nature of contemporary

    society of a particular country and its history, geography, and economy (Kemp & Lepherd

    1992: 778).



2.5 Background of China

         China has a recorded history of about 4000 years, traceable and verifiable by

    archaeological and written documentation. Modern China, including the island of Taiwan has

    waxed and waned in size throughout the centuries. Racially and culturally the Chinese are for

    from homogeneous: they comprise many distinct groups, among which the Han constitute

    about 95% of the population today and since antiquity, have been dominant not only by

    number, but also culturally and, except for brief periods, politically. Nevertheless, some of

    minority groups even today retain distinct linguistic, cultural and musical identities, sometimes

    exhibiting stronger affinities with neighboring peoples such as those of Central Asia and

    Mainland Southeast Asia, than with the Han.

         The concept of „the Chinese people‟ as a cultural entity probable should also include

                                                35
    millions of expatriate Chinese who have emigrated overseas in the last few centuries and

    settled in Southeast Asia, North America, Europe and other parts of the world. They have

    retained to different degrees the tradition and culture of their native land, including the aural,

    physical, and conceptual behaviour of music. Some of the overseas Chinese are more retentive

    of their musical tradition than their counterparts at home (Yung 1998: 1- 2).

2.5.1Background of Chinese Music

         Chinese music from the high art tradition is based on firm aesthetic and philosophical

    principles (Deeble 1996: 109). The term „Chinese music‟, therefore, should not be understood

    to refer to a single unified tradition, but to a network of related traditions of great diversity.

    Even within the limited scope, the range of music is enormous: the musical genres are

    extremely numerous and the styles, greatly varied. The differences both stem from and reflect

    important contextual factors: the uses of music, the social class the music serves, regional

    differences including linguistic and other cultural characteristics, varying degrees of

    innovation and conservatism through the ages. There is, naturally, a great variety of structural

    and stylistic features of the music sound as well (Yung 1998: 1-2).

         Among the Chinese people in general there is often certain ambivalence toward their

    traditional music. This is perhaps best explained in terms of the historic role music has played

    in promoting government-sanctioned social norms. Perhaps because music, more than the

    other arts or literature, was seen as being closely related to the emotive aspects of behaviour, it

    absorbed a larger percentage of these conservative, essentially Confucian values. In

    determining the role of music in Chinese life, we must accommodate these various traditions

    by first considering the key factors of social stratification, function and regional preference

    (Thrasher 1985: 3).

         Many Chinese composers, no matter in what corner of Asia they live in or how sharply

    they demarcate between one another‟s local traditions basically share the same objective and

    encounter may similar problems in their careers as artists. Politics has played a tremendous and

                                                 36
often paradoxical role in their lives. And most of these composers try to combine Chinese and

non-Chinese elements in their music. In doing so, they may find inspiration in elements of

Western avant-garde which were in turn originally borrowed from Asian traditional music - the

„double mirror effect‟, To those who have argued that music in China was (and is) nothing but

political music, it may appear paradoxical that music which emerges from three politically

opposed areas such as Taiwan, Hong Kong and the PRC, under Nationalist, Colonial (past) and

Communist rule respectively, should be able to form a shared cultural tradition (Mittler 1996:

4-7).

        The Chinese have long been supportive of music in education for its aesthetic and moral

values, but major changes have occurred in the means by which students are musically

educated. Where music was once a subject of study for the elite or scholarly, music instruction

for the general public is presently under discussion on the mainland. The traditional Chinese

methods of music teaching were embellished with those of the British colonists in the

nineteenth century. The notated hymnbooks in four-part harmony of the British and their

solemnization practices were widely adopted in Hong Kong and throughout many of the larger

cities of China. Taiwan continues the use of British- and American- styled techniques in

teaching both Western and traditional music (Campbell 1991: 193-194).

        The living folk traditions of instrumental music in China is related to temple, courtly, and

literati traditions of imperial times, it continues to play an important part in the cultural life of

the villages and small towns which are home to the great majority of China‟s people. In China,

there has been a long and persistent neglect of popular culture in favour of official, elite culture

(Jones 1995: Preface).

        Several factors are involved in determining which response a culture may adopt. The

presence of Western influences in much of modern Chinese music illustrates some of the

complexities at work. In many respects the Westernization in Chinese music is paradoxical.

China has a rich musical heritage, which includes one of the great non-Western classical

                                               37
    traditions, with a well-developed theory and pedagogy.

         The Chinese have had for millennia a strong sense of cultural identity, regarding

    foreigners as barbarians and their won land as „the middle kingdom‟. China was never

    intensively colonized by Europe that as were, for example, Latin America or even India.

    Moreover, Chinese nationalism has been a pervasive and intense force in shaping national

    destiny in the twentieth century (Manuel 1988: 222).

         In describing Chinese music, then, we emphasize the integration of music with the social

    and cultural life of the people. In traditional Chinese music was imbedded in social and

    ideological contexts. Music was mostly programmatic or symbolic: programmatic in that it

    evoked other sensory forces; symbolic in that it expressed philosophical ideas, ritual and social

    behaviour (Han and Mark 1980:10).

         The essence of Chinese music lies in the hidden meaning whereas the essence of

    European music lies in the sound and form. Therefore, Chinese music possess something

    which European music does not possess, such as „the process of tone containing the

    suprasegmental elements‟, but it also possesses similar characteristics which European music

    possesses, such as the programmatic music of impressionism (Liu 1997: 5).

2.5.2Background of Chinese Traditional Music

         Many people always confuse and mix up the terms, „Chinese music‟, „National Chinese

    music‟ and „traditional Chinese music‟. Also, these terms appear in the syllabuses of music in

    Taiwan which change regularly and do not explained correctly and systematically on each

    edition (Lai 1995: 622). On the other side, these terms confuse people not only in syllabuses

    but also in the name of courses in universities and colleges of education (Huang 1996: 94).

         Chinese traditional music is which between the Xia Dynasty (ca 27th - 16th centuries BC)

    and the Qing Dynasty (1644- 1911). It has more or less different from „Chinese music‟,

    „Contemporary Chinese music‟ and „national music‟ (Table 5) (Liu 1997: 6).

    There are some points about „Chinese traditional music‟ in the view of culture.

                                                38
    (1) This music is a musical language of people, and is not for individual.

    (2) This music reflects the emotions of peoples in a long time rather than reflect them in a

    short period.

    (3) This music relates to the life of groups of people. They have cultivated value rather than

    have appreciated value (Xu 1991: 8).

         We need to appreciate and to support more about traditional Chinese music. At least, these

    music are created from our culture. Therefore, they have a closer relationship with us (Guo

    1993: 3).



2.6 Background of Hong Kong and Taiwan

         Hong Kong consists of three distinct geographical areas: Hong Kong Island, Kowloon

    Peninsula and the New Territories. Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula were

    permanently ceded to Britain in 1842 and 1860 respectively. However, the New Territories

    were leased to the Britain in 1898 for ninety-nine years, therefore prompting the issue of

    sovereignty of Hong Kong after 1997. In 1976, when the People‟s Republic of China was

    admitted into the United Nations, one of its first proclamations was that Hong Kong was

    matter of Chinese internal affairs (Lee 1992a:8).

         Taiwan is an island in which lies approximately 150 km off the eastern coast of China,

    across the Taiwan Straits. There is a complex relationship between Taiwan and China. China

    claims Taiwan as one of its provinces. But increasingly Taiwan sees itself as an independent

    nation (Kimbell 1997:165). In 1971, when Taiwan was expelled from the United Nations, the

    Taiwan state began to adopt the policy of Taiwanisation to promote the idea of Taiwan as

    homeland of, for and by Taiwan‟s people (Lao 1997:54).

2.6.1Background of Hong Kong and its Music

         Some people say that Hong Kong, according to many who live there, is a transitional

    stopover where money is easily made, and from which to depart to a „permanent country‟.

                                                39
    According to them, Hong Kong is not a permanent home, and no roots are to be left. However,

    the events in China in the spring of 1989 became the catalyst for many in Hong Kong in their

    search for an identity (Lee 1992b: 130).

         As a society, Hong Kong has been going through a lot of transition. The British

    colonization of Hong Kong began on January 20, 1841. The Hong Kong residents have been a

    conglomeration of Hong Kong-born Chinese, Chinese who came from Mainland China, and

    two percent British and other foreigners. Until twenty or so years age, Hong Kong was a city

    of Chinese refugees who established themselves away from Communism. Within a century and

    a half, Hong Kong has transferred itself phenomenally from a serene Chinese fishing village

    into an internationally known modern capitalistic city with a population of 6 million. It ranks

    among the top five financial centres in the world (Wong 1990: 20).

         Hong Kong is a metropolitan city, and in the last ten to fifteen years has steadily grown in

    prosperity. With increased income, higher living standard and rise in expectations, it is a

    common aspiration among parents for their children to continue education as far as possible

    regardless of academic aptitude. The demand for higher and more varied tertiary education is

    tremendous (CDC 1993: 5).

         Hong Kong, the Colonial China, for many a place of business rather than of culture

    (Mittler 1996: 9). The Music Office in Hong Kong define one of its goal that is through music

    providing young people with more cultural exchange opportunities (Urban Council & Regional

    Council 1997: 11). But, the local folk music tradition is very weak, since Hong Kong does not

    truly posses its own cultural traditions, but only inherits forms of art and entertainment from

    China and the West (Lee 1992b: 132).

2.6.2Background of Taiwan and its music

         The history of Taiwan can be roughly divided into three periods. The first period begins

    with early history (approximately 200 B. C.) and leads up to 1624.

         Scanty and ambiguous accounts report on certain lands and tribes off the China coast. The

                                                40
second period encompasses Han Chinese migration under various rules beginning with the

Dutch and Spanish occupation (1624-1662), Zheng family rule (1662-1683), Manchu rule

(1684-1842), and ending with the joint rule by several western powers (1842-1895). The

third period, being the most recent, begins with the cession of Taiwan to Japan (1895-1945)

and continues with its return to the Republic of China, to which it belongs today (Yeh 1985: 9).

     With the exception of about 300,000 aborigines, the 20 million population in Taiwan are

ethnic Chinese. There is no doubt that Taiwan is a Chinese community and its cultural identity

is built upon the Confucian heritage (Young 1995: 125).

     So, even though Mainland China and Taiwan have been controlled by different regimes

since 1895, in terms of culture, two groups of the Chinese-Mainlanders and Taiwanese- have

kept the same legacy of culture, the Mainlanders and the Taiwanese had the same background

before they were separated by different regimes in 1949 (Song 1984: 347-8).

     After World War II in 1949 the Nationalist government moved to Taiwan and took over

the education system established by the Japanese. The school system was further developed

and changes to the policies and curriculum. The six-year primary education system was

enforced in 1946. In 1968 the government imposed a significant reform policy and extended

compulsory education the nine years to be in live with increasing need for more human

resources for the country‟s growing economy (Hsieh 1995: 208). From 1945 to present,

education in Taiwan stresses aspects such as national morality, cultural traditions, scientific

knowledge and vocational training (Yao 1997: 87).

     Recent forty years, there is a lot of succeeds in political, economic, education and

cultures. Also, the improvement of democracy gives people to have chances to develop their

talents. Music is one of forms that people develop their personal talent, therefore, there is a

trend to pay more attention on music education (Dai & others 1995:181). Chen considered that

there is a great different between the philosophy of Chinese music and Western music. He said

that Chinese music focus on the influences on cultures from music but Western music normally

                                            41
    considered as an art (Chen 1995:137). At the past, Taiwan music education mainly paid

    attention on Western music and despise traditional and local Chinese music. Because most

    people always look down their local music (Wong 1993:26). Therefore, Ministry of Education

    emphasizes the promotion of Chinese music especially local music (MOE 1994). However, the

    musical traditions in Taiwan are alive at present in varying degrees that are (1) aboriginal

    music; (2) Taiwanese music, that is, traditional music of the Taiwanese performed in Taiwan;

    (3) Japanese-influenced music; (4) music of the latest Chinese settlers; and (5) music in

    Western styles (Yeh 1985:14-15).

2.6.3Music Relationship between Hong Kong and Taiwan

         Hong Kong, being the gateway to China, is strategically well placed to act as a

    springboard for Taiwan‟s private investment in the Mainland. Many scholars and businessmen

    describe Hong Kong as the pivot of economic integration among the trio-China, Taiwan and

    Hong Kong (Chan 1992: Preface).

         To those who have argued that music in China was (and is) nothing but political music, it

    may appear paradoxical that music which emerges from three politically opposed areas such as

    Taiwan, Hong Kong and the PRC under Nationalist, Colonial (before 1997) and Communist

    rule respectively, should be able to form a shared cultural tradition (Mittler 1996:7).

         Many composers from the PRC and from Taiwan have remarked on their similarities in

    their pursuit of tradition. By contrast, Hong Kong is frequently cited as a negative example,

    rootless and (often willingly and almost totally) Westernized (Mittler 1996: 10).

2.6.4Educational Background of Music in Hong Kong

         Hong Kong, as elsewhere, has enacted laws, such as the Education Ordinance (1971) to

    ensure that its children are educated. That the education should be broad is specified in the

    White Paper of 1974, where Art and Music are specifically mentioned, and that of 1978

    recommends broader perspectives and appreciation of the world‟s cultural heritage. In Hong

    Kong, education is free and compulsory from primary level up to the third year of secondary

                                                 42
school. After that, further opportunities are available to those who can pass the selection

examination to upper forms. Some classroom music lessons are provided in most schools,

often by qualified teachers and in rooms set aside for the teaching of music. The curriculum

consists mainly of class singing and the music reading and theory activities associated with if.

Instrumental playing, mainly recorder and music appreciation are often also included (Ryan

1987: 38-39).

     The syllabus for music in the Junior Secondary forms (Form 1-3) is divided into three

stages. The planners state that the arrangement „recognizes the differing musical experiences

and levels of attainment of children entering secondary school‟, and need not be adhere to

rigidly (Hiebert 1993: 78). Music in the Hong Kong school curriculum is very similar to the

situation described by Akrofi (1982) in his study of music education in Ghana, formerly a

British colony. He found that:

     (i) The elementary music program is geared to the singing of Western songs and hymns;

     (ii) Secondary school music is intellectually based and geared towards British

        examinations; and

     (iii) Western- style music and concepts form the basics of music education (Ryan 1987:

          39).

     Music teachers in Hong Kong have clear consensus on the current aims of the music are

appropriate at it is (CDC 1998a: 17). Western-art music seem to dominate over other types of

music in the current syllabus. Music education of contemporary concerns should be more

visible in the next syllabus: technology, creativity, Chinese music and world music. The basis

for listening should extend beyond Western classical music. Folk music, popular music,

Chinese music world music, and others should be considered as valid forms of music for

listening. Although Chinese music areas are perceived as one of the most important areas,

Chinese music areas are consistently the least frequently taught. This contradiction shows an

obvious gap between need and competence (CDC 1998a: 26-28).

                                            43
2.6.5Educational Background of Music in Taiwan

         General education should be based on the teachings of Dr. Sun Yat-sen so as to train

    children and youths in the eight national moral virtues: loyalty, filial piety, kindness, love,

    faith, righteousness, harmony and peace (Galatioto 1987: 13). The junior high school is the last

    three years of the nine-year free education in Taiwan. It is a compulsory education for every

    citizen, therefore, the qualification and the academic achievement are manifested difference

    among the students (Chen 1989:258). Traditionally in Taiwan, secondary education includes

    three kinds of schools, namely, general high school, normal schools and vocational schools.

    Since secondary education is the connecting link between elementary and higher education, its

    importance is monumental (Galatioto 1987: 10).

         In recent history, Western culture has influenced the Eastern world greatly, and Western

    music has been a part of it. Chinese music education has followed the trend to adopt Western

    music. Chinese culture and tradition have indigenous national qualities and elements in which

    are important (Wu 1987: 11-12). In Taiwan‟s publication, Yue Chi Piao Shiang, much emphasis

    has been on the revival of traditional Chinese music. The author, professor Huang, Y.C.

    reported that in order to achieve this goal, Western music should be studied. A composer

    himself, Huang felt that the scientific approach in Western music will function as a basic tool

    for the future development in Contemporary Chinese music. He stressed that inherited culture

    is an invaluable resource; the recognition of this heritage would be important for the revival of

    Chinese music (Wu 1987: 33).



2.7 Textbooks

         Textbooks, as the most traditional materials, are still widely used by educators in schools

    (Howard 1995: 59). In the great majority of the world‟s classrooms, the most reliable indicator

    or what is taught is the textbook (Thomas 1995: 318). Throughout the world, most classroom

    teachers base their instruction on the content of textbooks. As a result, the most convenient

                                                44
    source of information about detailed objectives of typical educational programs is the set of

    textbooks students use, especially if the texts are accompanied by a teacher„s guidebook that

    describes the objectives (Thomas 1995: 43).

         Textbooks are a major influence on the horizontal and vertical integration of the content

    of the curriculum. They are also often the only resource to which the pupil has easy access --

    except, of course, the teachers. It is, therefore, important to evaluate carefully the textbooks

    pupils use. One of the ways to check them is trying to measure a text„s cultural biases (Morris

    1996b: 97). The relation between textbook and ideology is very close. Because of every kind

    of textbook consists with ideology. According to the principle of Wilhelm von Humboldt

    (German educator), the textbook has been edited with the principle of culture, one of the

    ideology.

         There are two kinds of textbooks in classrooms: national and approved by nation. The

    approved textbooks are compiled by individual publishers and then published after passing

    through government inspection (Huang 1989: 103). The nature of government decides the

    nature of textbooks used.

         Textbooks are one of the most important educational inputs: texts reflect basic ideas about

    a national culture, and, as noted textbooks are often a flashpoint of cultural struggle and

    controversy (Altbach 1991:257).

2.7.1Textbooks in Hong Kong

         While the people of both Hong Kong and Taiwan use basically the same written Chinese

    language characters, they actually speak two very different dialects- Cantonese and Mandarin,

    respectively. Hong Kong is an important publishing centre for Asia, both in English and in

    Chinese. All the major British educational publishers- such as Longman, Heinemann, Oxford

    University Press, and Macmillan- use Hong Kong as their base of operations in Asia. English

    publishers, of course, were on hand when educational systems were established in British

    colonies during the last century. Most colonies adopted English syllabi and then began

                                                  45
    translations into the local language (Taylor 1995 :519). Publishers in Hong Kong produce

    secondary-school texts that are used not only in local schools but also in Southeast Asia and

    sometimes in other Third World regions. It is because Hong Kong offers a low-cost printing

    (Altbach 1991:249).

         On educational view, the Hong Kong government announced the proposal to remove the

    textbook approval system in April, 1990, which originated in 1930 to ensure that school

    textbooks are not subjected to Communist influence. This could be interpreted as a government

    decision to Communist influence and to relax its political control over education and a skip

    toward democratization. However, the suggestion was attacked in a leaflet newspaper as a way

    of weakening the authority of the SAR government (Leung 1996: 269).

2.7.2Textbooks in Taiwan

         Textbooks can be useful sources of information about an educational programs„specific

    instructional objectives. Thus, the analysis of texts from various societies can reveal likenesses

    and differences in the outcomes the societies‟ educational programs are expected to foster

    (Thomas 1995: 45). For example, because the competition for „university entrance‟ is great in

    Taiwan, therefore, the relationship between students both in primary and secondary schools

    with textbooks more closely. The textbooks can imply a very high and important standard in

    the education (Lai 1995: 56).

         Taiwan is still in an awkward position, unable to join any international copyright

    conventions (Taylor 1995: 518- 520). Also, publishers of textbooks in Taiwan always do not

    follow the copyright. For example, many selected folk songs from other foreign countries in

    both primary and secondary schools are translated into another meanings. It makes the

    contents of these folk songs lack of their own original ideas (Shi 1993: 81). Because of Taiwan

    which until recently how not been part of the international copyright network – there has been

    much adapting or sometimes translating from foreign (largely British or American) textbooks,

    without payment or attribution (Altbach 1991:251).

                                                 46
        The National Institute for Compilation and Translation is an important academic

   educational and cultural organization. Its aim is to promote the education standard of the

   people of the Republic of China (Tseng 1989: 136).

        Ministry of Education, a government supported and politically controlled agency, is

   responsible to the Legislative Yuan. The Ministry has its main function in supervising the

   development and the control of national education. Within the Ministry of Education, there are

   many departments; each department is assigned a specific set of responsibilities, for example:

   the Department of Secondary Education would be in charge of most phases involving

   Secondary Education, and so on (Wu 1987: 64). The curriculum is set by the ministry of

   education, of which monitors its application in classrooms. Schools are allowed to choose from

   ministry- approved textbooks (McGinn 1995: 122).



2.8 Summary

        This literature review provides a frame of reference for understanding the issue of

   reflection of multi- cultural contents between curricula, societies (e.g. Hong Kong and Taiwan)

   and textbooks. Studies on the nature of ethnomusicology and comparative music education

   help a wider understanding the relationship between culture and music in the world as well as

   in schools. Finally, the selected literatures come from Western, Chinese and Other cultures

   provides a reduction of bias.




                                               47
                               Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY

3.0 Research Framework

         This study employed a mixture of primarily qualitative and quantitative methods. The

    researcher was the primary instrument for collecting data and interpreting the meaning of the

    data. The songs and repertoires analyzed were collected in form of tables, and the analysis was

    done inductively.

         The methodology used in this study consists of an integration of content analysis

    technique in Bereday‟s comparative model. The procedures to assign qualitative content to

    specific categories represent the qualitative aspects of this study. The set of categories as

    defined in data findings in which represent the different kinds of cultural contents in the music

    textbooks of Hong Kong and Taiwan. The counting of content units in each category and the

    comparative statistical analysis of the data to bring out the specific features of the four sets of

    textbooks constitute the quantitative aspects of this study. Moreover, the used model provides a

    systematic framework, (i) description, (ii) interpretation, (iii) juxtaposition and (iv)

    comparison, for data collection and comparison. As a freshman in the field of comparative

    education, the researcher found that both technique and model as above are easier to

    understand and be used by him.



3.1 Purposes and Advantages of Comparative Education

3.1.1Purposes of this Comparative Study in Education

         The objectives of this comparative study are, through systematic analysis of the cultural

    contents in textbooks of Hong Kong and Taiwan, to compare and identify the influences by

    different cultures and to highlight differences in cultural reflection of the four sets of textbooks

    in two places that have common or very similar cultural background. It is hoped that this

    comparative study will reveal some common features found in developing an appreciation of

    different cultures of the two successful Chinese societies and any specific characteristics

                                                  48
    associated with each society that account for its extent and nature of acceptance of different

    cultures.

3.1.2The Advantages of Comparative Education.

         What do we mean by a comparative study of education? It is the systematic examination

    of cultures and in particular, their systems of education in order to discover resemblance and

    differences (Moehlman & Rovcek 1951:3). Another reasons for studying comparative

    education is for its cultural value. It tells us how different countries have experimented on

    education and ultimately come to their present patterns of education (Mukherjee 1964:4).

         The term „comparative‟ in comparative education requires the identification and detailed

    explication of both the similarities and differences between things - in this case certain features

    of education in selected countries or regions. The term also suggests the need to show that like

    is being compared with like. Thus some justification is required for the selection of particular

    countries or regions for comparison (Nicholas 1983:4). The use of comparative education can

    deepen the understanding of our own education and society. It can be of assistance to policy

    makers and administrators, as well as to the most valuable part of the education of teachers

    (Noah 1986:154).

         Comparative education analysis makes no suggestion that one country or another is

    superior or inferior with regard to education - that one country „succeeds‟ more through its

    policies than others and should thus be seen as an exemplar (Nicholas 1983:11).           Like all

    applied fields, comparative education is open to potential abuse by those who wish to use its

    results to support (or oppose) a specific program of change (Noah 1986:161).

         One aim of comparative education is theoretical. It is to improve researchers‟ as well as

    educators‟ understanding of education as such; and in particular of our national problems in

    education. Comparative education has a practical purpose, too. It should help administrators to

    reform their schools more effectively and efficiently (Jones 1969: Foreword).

         Comparative research that is designed to formulate generalizations and explanations asks

                                                 49
    such questions as „Does the relationship hold in another country or another cultural setting?

    The primary task of a comparative researcher is to identify an acceptable level of conceptual

    equivalence across cases regarding the idea, institution, or process being studied. The second

    task focuses on measurement. Both highly structured data-gathering techniques (such as

    questionnaires), and less structured ones (such as participant observation), are subject to

    comparability problems. The more obvious, more easily manipulated stumbling blocks include

    comparable linguistic translations, standardization of statistical information, uniform

    administration procedures, and temporal equivalency (Theisen & Adams 1995: 278-279)

         Intra-educational and intra-cultural analysis, which investigates education by its various

    levels and also systematically researches the historical, social, cultural, political, religious,

    economic and philosophical forces that partly determine and are partly determined by the

    character of education systems, it also compares the resultant outcomes in two or more systems

    or even globally. The approach may also be thematic (Halls 1990:24).

         .

3.2 Content Analysis in Research

3.2.1What is Content Analysis?

         Many different research methods are used in comparative studies, with each one

    appropriate for investigating particular types of questions. This point can be illustrated by a

    brief overview of representative research techniques and of typical titles of studies to which

    these techniques might be applied. One of the main sampling approaches is content analysis.

    Content analysis is a technique in which is applied both in historical studies and in certain

    forms of contemporary research. A typical way of performing content analysis is for the

    researcher to prepare a list of questions to be answered, then to read selected documents -

    school books, journal articles - to learn what answers can be inferred from the materials.

    Content analysis can be exclusively quantitative, so that the researcher tabulates how

    frequently different topics are mentioned or attitudes are revealed in the material (Thomas

                                                50
    1995:13-16).

         Content analysis is a technique in analytical research. The phrase analytical research can

    be used to identify a work in which the author not only describes the components of an

    educational operation but also seeks to specific cause-and-effect relations, that is, to estimate

    why the operation functions as it does (Thomas 1995:9). The purpose of analytical research is

    also to increase the understanding of how variables relate to one another, how those

    relationships can be changed and how the relationships vary across individuals and settings.

    The aim often is to examine components of an educational system or program and to specify

    functional or cause-and-effect relations and outcomes. Analytical research may also focus on

    an actor or a set of actors in an attempt to explain roles and behaviour (Theisen & Adams

    1995:280).

3.2.2Content Analysis in Research

         The technique used in this research is content analysis. Content analysis is a research

    technique for objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of

    communication. Content analysis usually involves an analysis of written words. Its objective is

    to convert recorded „raw‟ phenomena into data which can be treated in essentially a scientific

    manner so that a body of knowledge may be built up (Yang 1982: 69). One could also it can

    say that this is a technique for comparison. This acts as a tool for gaining control over a vast

    and „unequal‟ body of material in which exact scientific comparison is difficult. Basically, the

    method proposes a list of criteria which serve as the points of comparison. The content to be

    analyzed is then subjected to the criteria (Lee 1984: 11). According to Holsti (1969), the

    measurement tools of content analysis are categorical systems and rating systems by which the

    researcher assesses „WHO said WHAT to WHOM by WHAT MEANS, WHY and TO WHAT

    EFFECT‟ (Holsti 1969: 25 cited in Rainbow 1987: 131).

         The procedure of analysis includes three parts: (i) description and analysis of the content

    of each lesson; (ii) summary of findings from above; and (iii) the discussion on findings (Hsu

                                                51
    1992:12). When analyzing the themes in the textbooks of this research, researcher will use a

    song, a repertoire or a musician as a recording unit and each set of textbook as a context unit.

    A recording unit is a specific segment of content examined by the researcher in order to place

    it in a category. A context unit defines a larger context for each recording unit, that is, it is the

    context in which recording unit occur (Wang 1993: 19).

         This technique has been used in research for examining textbooks, for example Hsu

    (1992), Wang (1993), and Li (1995) but also it is widely used in research of music education in

    the world, for example, Yarbrough (1984), Shehan (1985), Price (1988), Schmidt & Zdzinski

    (1993), Volk (1994), Koza (1994) and Kantorski (1995). Moreover, this technique has also

    been applied in the research of Hong Kong popular music, for example, „Hegemony and

    Popular Culture‟ (1994) by the Hong Kong Policy Viewers, before.

3.3 Bereday’s Model and Bereday Modified Model

3.3.1The Procedures of Bereday’s Model

         Bereday‟s model starts with the systematic collection of precise, similar data from each

    nation studied. This is then followed by the categorization of data, careful juxtaposition,

    generation of hypothesis from the data, and ultimately the comparison. Bereday believed that

    educational planners in one country should not ignore relevant precedents in other countries.

    This is because of the fact that by studying the experience from other countries they can be

    provided with a set of alternative from which they can formulate an appropriate policy for their

    own (Yu 1996).

         The four stages of Bereday‟s model (1964) with respect to this research are as follows:

         Stage 1, description. Proper preparation permits comparative educators to approach their

    first task, the description of educational systems and practices. For this the two major aspects

    of study in foreign system are the follow-up of printed sources and school visitations (Bereday

    1964:11).

         Stage 2, interpretation. The preparation and processing of purely descriptive educational

                                                  52
    data is but the first step in an area study. This stage involves the interpretation of information

    and consists of subjecting the pedagogical data to scrutiny in terms of other social sciences

    (Bereday 1964:18).

         Stage 3, juxtaposition. Juxtaposition could be defined as preliminary matching of data

    from different countries to prepare them for comparison. Such matching has to include the

    systematization of data so that they may be grouped under identical or comparable categories

    for each country under study. The process also includes the search for a hypothesis. The

    simplest form of juxtaposition merely tabulates the data (Bereday 1969:5).

         Stage 4, comparison. The task examines student demonstrations in several countries in

    order to see why they occur and whether the reasons advanced for them in a definite place hold

    true in world perspective. One must look for countries in which causes of unrest are

    sufficiently distinct to permit comparability (Bereday 1969:6).

3.3.2The Procedures of Bereday Modified Model

         When applying the model to the research, modifications have been made to suit the

    researcher‟s objectives. The researcher would like to use a modified Bereday model developed

    by Yu Chung Ching (1996) in this research. Instead of testing a hypothesis, a revised and

    modified curriculum is suggested serving as possible answers to the questions raised in Stage

    3. Putting the framework into practice a comparative study goes through the stages involving

    which has been shown in Table 6.

3.3.3An Integration of Technique of Content Analysis in Bereday Modified Model

         The steps of the technique of content analysis are (i) description; (ii) summarization and;

    (iii) discussion. On the other hand, the stages of Bereday‟s Model are (i) description; (ii)

    interpretation; (iii) juxtaposition and (iv) comparison. Both the technique and model have

    similar steps and comparative ideas. Therefore, the mixture of them is suitable in this

    comparative study. In addition, they have similar ideas and therefore, their integration can form

    a better comparative instrument.

                                                 53
3.4 Data Collection and Data Analysis

         In this research, first, the researcher used the technique of content analysis to categorize

    the songs, repertoires and musicians into definite categories; second, the above data was

    tabulated; third, the above data was summarized and their similarities and differences were

    compared through using the four stages of modified Bereday Model.

3.4.1Introduction of Data Collection and Analysis

         The purpose of this study was to review the extent and nature of cultural contents

    reflected in the four sets of music textbooks, with particular attention to song, repertories of

    music appreciation and introduced musicians. Specifically, frequencies and percentages of

    songs, repertoires and musicians were determined for which music based on different cultures

    (Western, Chinese and Other). Furthermore, the song was categorized by the integration of

    different cultures of melody and lyrics; Music appreciation was categorized by different

    musical genres and the introduced musician by different musical period, where applicable.

         All songs, repertoires and musicians from four sets of textbooks (Thirteen volumes) were

    reviewed. The analysis was conducted on the junior form one to form three teacher‟s editions

    of the most recently series issued by the two Hong Kong famous music local publishers, one

    Taiwanese government publisher and one famous Taiwan based publisher. Although the

    sampling was limited to four sets of textbooks, these textbooks represent the mainstream of

    music textbooks in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Teacher‟s editions were selected because they

    often contained more information than did student copies (Koza 1994: 153).

3.4.2Procedures of Data Collection and Analysis

         All music (songs, repertoires and musicians) in this research found in the four sets of

    textbooks: Integrated Music for Secondary Music Book 1/2/3 (A1, A2, A3), New Course in

    Music Book 1/2/3 (B1,B2, B3), Guo Zhang Yin Yue Book 1A/ 1B/ 2/ 3 (C1a, C1b, C2, C3)

    and Guo Min Zhang Zhi Yin Yue Book 1/ 2/ 3 (D1, D2, D3) were reviewed. Researched music

    was examined both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative analysis of each music

                                                54
    concerned the labeling of different cultures (Western, Chinese and Other), interpretation of the

    content of the music, the nationality of the musicians as well as musical genre of topic

    categories to the textbooks. Quantitative data collected included frequencies and percentages

    of occurrences (among songs, repertoires and musicians) in different cultures, genres and

    periods.

         This study focuses mainly on the coded data in quantitative research. Prior to collecting

    data from songs, repertoires and introduced musicians, the tables was pilot-tested. All pilot

    data found in five songs, five repertoires and five introduced musicians was selected at random

    from the four sets of textbooks. Slight modifications were made in the table after each trial.

    All tabulation and analysis in the pilot and the main study were completed by one researcher.

         Content validity was established by a senior curriculum officer, a secondary music teacher

    (music degree holder) and two music students (who sat for Music in HKCEE). These

    individuals of need that the items appreciation to give appropriate emphasis to the various

    components.

3.5 Problems involved and Limitations

         First of all, the researcher has been a secondary school music teacher for ten years as well

    as a member of the Curriculum Development Committee (CDC) in music of Hong Kong. But,

    on the other hand, the researcher has not been a music teacher or a member of CDC in Taiwan

    before. And, all data collected in Taiwan comes from reading sources or suggestions by music

    friends in Taiwan. Therefore, it may be biased or have imbalance perception on the analytical

    data between two places. In addition, due to the status and situation of the researcher, he finds

    it much easier to collect information or data in Hong Kong. By comparison, the data which

    were collected from Taiwan will not be as easy and sufficient enough as that from Hong Kong.

         Programs of school visitations are strongly suggested by Bereday in the description part

    of his model (1964:11-12). However, working as a full-time teacher, the researcher cannot find

    enough and a convenient time to visit secondary school in Taiwan. Also, this research focused

                                                55
only on content analysis; therefore, the researcher cancelled the programs of school visitations.

     Moreover, there are some other limitations from textbooks and curricula in this research.

Firstly, there are many music textbooks published in both Hong Kong and Taiwan and,

therefore, the researcher can only selectively choose four of them. Secondly, the researcher

only compares the music textbooks in junior secondary forms (Form one to Form three)

because Hong Kong does not have any specific textbooks in for the general course Form four

and Form five as there are in Taiwan. The extent of comparative views of education in

secondary schools seems inadequate. Thirdly, the meaning of „teacher edition‟ of music

textbooks is different in two places. In Taiwan, teachers‟ editions contain much supplementary

materials to enrich the original student textbooks‟ context. But, in Hong Kong, teachers‟

edition contains only the answers to students‟ textbooks with few additional supplementary

materials. Fourthly, although the new curriculum of music (MOE 1994) has been published in

Taiwan for several years, only one publisher, Kanghuo (康和) followed it. But still, the recent

Book three is not revised to conform to the recent syllabus yet. Also, in Hong Kong, the

publishers follow the curriculum published in 1987 which was revised more than ten years

ago. Most of the textbooks from both places do not follow recent revised curricula. Fifthly,

although the items, songs, repertoires of music appreciation and introduced musicians are

investigated in this research, they actually only form part of curriculum in textbooks which are

related to have cultural values. The modes of different scales in different periods and from

countries or some other musical items in textbooks also have different extent of cultural

values.

     These limitations point to opportunities and the need for further research, especially when

new music series and new music curricula are published in both places. On the other hand, the

researcher did not address the question of how textbooks are used in the classroom or to

investigate the interpretations students make of what they read and see in music curricular

materials.

                                             56
                      Chapter 4 DATA FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction

         This research refers to those songs, repertoires of music appreciation and introduced

    musicians bearing cultures which identify them as (a) Western cultures; (b) Chinese cultures

    and (c) Other cultures. Musically, this implies that these musical works or musicians have their

    musical characteristics of their own cultures. Geographically, this implies they have their own

    regional characteristics of cultures.

         George Bereday developed a comparative method that can be used in conjunction with his

    model in view to standardizing the method of presentation of national systems. National

    systems can be compared in four stages. It is important to describe and interpret a system first.

    These two processes can be undertaken simultaneously and can be carried out using the

    categories outlined above. Once this process has been completed, the third stage of

    juxtaposition and preliminary comparison can be carried out. In this process data can be placed

    side by side to determine comparability. The fourth stage involves comparison proper; that is,

    after the comparable data have been determined, detailed comparison can take place (Bereday

    1964, 1967 cited in Kemp & Lepherd 1992: 778). This chapter is divided into four main

    sections according to these stages.



4.1 Stage of Description

         Three main musical areas in the curricula from the textbooks will be examined: (1) the

    songs; (2) repertoires of music appreciation and; (3) the musicians. These were introduced in

    the four sets of textbooks (thirteen volumes) which are to be reviewed.

4.1.1 Description of the Song

         The songs are categorized under three headings: particulars, specific area culture and

    integrated area culture. The titles and names of composer will be included under „particulars‟.

    The subcategories under „specific area culture‟ are Western, Chinese and Other cultures. Most

                                                57
of the songs in the four sets of textbooks are folk songs; a few of them are popular songs. The

popular songs and songs composed by contemporary Taiwanese composers will be specifically

symbolized. In the category of „integrated area culture‟, lyrics of the songs will be classified

into: foreign melody with Chinese lyrics, foreign melody with English lyrics and English

melody with Chinese lyrics. Every song can be included in more than one of these categories.

     Songs from the Integrated Music Book 1/2/3 (A1/A2/A3), New Course in Music 1/2/3

(B1/B2/B3), Guo Zhang Yin Yue Book 1a/1b/2/3 (C1a/C1b/2/3) and Guo Min Zhang Zhi Yin

Yue Book 1/2/3 (D1/D2/D3) are categorized in tables 7, 8, 9 and 10 respectively. The

researcher further categorizes the frequencies as well as the percentages of songs with respect

to their own countries and composers in Western, Chinese and Other cultures in tables 11-16.

The common songs among the 4 sets of textbooks are listed in table 17 and the frequencies and

percentages of foreign melodies with different lyrics are listed in table 18.

     A total number of 136, 158, 100 and 107 songs from textbook sets A, B, C and D are to be

examined. For textbook set A, 90, 25 and 21 songs and textbook set B, 92, 44, 22 songs are in

Western, Chinese and Other cultures respectively (table 35). The publishers of textbook sets A

and B (published in Hong Kong) have chosen many folk songs from Western cultures: USA

(A: 45.56%; B: 29.34%), Britain (A: 13.33%; B: 19.57%), Austria (A: 11.11%; B: 14.13%)

and Germany (A: 7.78%; B: 16.3%). On the other hand, for textbook set C, 26, 67 and 7 songs

and textbook set D, 39, 65 and 3 songs are in Western, Chinese and Other cultures respectively.

The publishers of textbook sets C and D (published in Taiwan) have chosen Western folk songs

mainly from USA (C: 30.78%; D: 20.53%), Germany (C: 15.38%; D: 20.51%), France (C:

11.54%; D: 15.38%) and Italy (C: 19.23%; D: 10.26%) (table 12 & chart 2). The frequencies

and percentages of Western cultures among all three kinds of cultures in textbook sets A, B, C

and D are 90 (66.18%), 92 (58.23%), 26 (26%) and 39 (36.44%) respectively. Songs from

Western cultures constitute a greater part in Hong Kong-published textbooks than

Taiwan-published ones (table 35 & chart 1). Within the heading of Chinese cultures, songs

                                             58
from textbook sets A and B show emphasis on the Taiwan region (A: 24%; B: 18.18%).

Although there is a high diversity of selecting songs from the different regions within Chinese

cultures, they are still represented less in textbook sets A and B. Moreover, the textbook sets C

and D from Taiwan also show a great interest in their local music. Taiwanese songs constitute

approximately three-quarters of the total number of songs (C: 82.09%; D: 73.82%) (table 14 &

chart 3). The frequencies and percentages of songs from Chinese cultures amongst the three

cultures in textbook sets A, B, C and D are 25 (18.38%), 44 (27.85%), 67 (67%) and 65

(60.75%) respectively (table 35 & chart 1). From this, one can see that the Taiwan-published

textbooks put more emphasis on songs from Chinese cultures than the Hong Kong-published

ones. On the other hand, songs from Other cultures are relatively less well represented in both

textbooks from Hong Kong and Taiwan. The frequencies and percentages of songs from Other

cultures 21 (15.44%), 22 (13.92%), 7 (7%) and 3 (2.81%) in textbook sets A, B, C and D

respectively (table 35 & chart 1). It is obvious that these songs are especially poorly

represented in textbook sets C and D. In the Hong Kong-published textbooks, folk songs from

Other cultures mainly come from Russia (A: 19.5%; B: 27.24%), Israel (A: 23.82%; B:

9.09%), Japan (A: 19.05%; B: 13.64%) and Indonesia (A: 9.52%; B: 13.64%) (table 16 &

chart 4).

     There are a lot of common songs in textbook sets A & B (50%) and C & D (27.63%) out

of all the common songs amongst all the textbooks. This shows that the common songs

appeared mainly in textbooks from the same region: Hong Kong or Taiwan (table 17). In

addition, there is a higher percentage of foreign melody with Chinese lyrics in textbook sets A

(43.38%) and B (39.87%) from Hong Kong than sets C (25%) and D (28.97%) from Taiwan;

higher percentage of foreign melody with English lyrics in textbook sets A (38.24%) and B

(32.28%) than in sets C (1%) and D (2.8%) as well as a higher percentage of English melody

with Chinese lyrics in textbook sets A (25.74%) and B (18.35%) than in textbooks C (7%) and

D (9.35%) (table 18 & chart 5). Furthermore, few original lyrics are provided amongst all the

                                            59
    textbooks.

4.1.2 Description of the Music Appreciation

         A total number of 85, 130, 77 and 47 under „repertoires of music appreciation‟ will be

    examined amongst textbook sets A, B, C and D (table 35). They are mainly divided into two

    main types of musical culture, vocal and instrumental works. A higher number of instrumental

    works will be examined (chart 6).

         Repertoires of music appreciation is categorized into: name of repertoire, specific area

    culture (names of composer and country) and musical culture (type and genre). Repertoires

    composed by Taiwanese contemporary composers are specifically symbolized. Musical culture

    is subdivided into categories of type and genre. Classification of repertoires of music

    appreciation in textbook sets A, B, C and D are shown in tables 19, 20, 21 and 22 respectively.

         The frequencies and percentages of repertoires of music appreciation from Western

    cultures are shown in tables 23 and 24. Those from Chinese and Other cultures are shown in

    tables 25-26 and 27-28 respectively. The percentages of different cultures amongst the four

    sets of textbooks are nearly the same, where Western cultures (A:51.76%; B:43.08%;

    C:49.35%; D:59.57%), Chinese cultures (A:43.53%; B:52.30%; C:38.96%; D:34.04%) and

    Other cultures (A:4.71%; B:4.62%; C:11.69%; D:6.39%) are shown (table 35 & chart 7). The

    majority of repertoires of music appreciation in Western cultures in textbook sets A and B

    come from Germany (A; 27.27%; B: 35.72%), Austria (A: 20.46%; B: 25%), France (A:

    13.64%; B: 10.71%) and Italy (A: 9.09%; B: 14.29%). On the other hand, textbook sets C and

    D also show interest in Western cultures, unlike in songs. They are mainly from Germany (C:

    36.86%; D: 25%), Austria (C: 21.05%; D: 25%) and France (C: 21.05%; D: 17.87%) (table 24

    & chart 8).

         Survey results show that there is no specific region (including Taiwan) from Chinese

    cultures that the Hong Kong-based publishers of textbook sets A and B particularly favour. On

    the other hand, the percentages show that the Taiwanese publishers of textbook sets C and D

                                                60
    pay more attention in the appreciation of their local music than music from other Chinese

    regions. The percentages of music appreciation in Taiwanese music from Chinese cultures are

    43.33% and 43.75% in textbook sets C and D respectively (table 26 & chart 9).

         However, all four sets of textbooks show a lack of interest in introducing repertoires of

    music appreciation from Other cultures. The repertoires from Other cultures among the four

    sets of textbooks mainly come from Russia (table 27). Only one piece of Java music from

    Other cultures is included in textbook set B.

         Approximately half of the total number (43.11%) of common repertoires from the total

    number of common repertoires of music appreciation come from textbook sets A and B.

    However, no common emphasis on specific culture or common music genre of repertoires of

    music appreciation were shown by textbook sets A & B or sets C & D (table 29).

4.1.3 Description of the Introduced Musician

         A total number of 38, 26, 75 and 90 musicians are introduced by textbook sets A, B, C

    and D respectively. Most of the introduced musicians from textbook sets A and B are mainly

    from Western cultures (A: 89.48%; B: 80.77%) but most of that from sets C and D come from

    both Western and Chinese cultures. In textbook set C, the percentages of introduced musicians

    in Western and Chinese cultures are 54.67% and 38.67% respectively. In textbook set D, the

    percentages of introduced musicians in Western and Chinese cultures are 45.56% and 51.11%

    respectively (table 35 & chart 10).

         Only one local musician, Li Chaoyuan (李超源), is introduced in Hong Kong textbook set

    B. But, there are high frequencies (C:23; D:28) of local musicians who are introduced by

    textbook sets C and D from Taiwan (table 34). Huang Zi (黃自) is the most famous Chinese

    musicians who is introduced by all four sets of textbooks from both Hong Kong and Taiwan

    (table 30-33).

         The musicians who are introduced by all four sets of textbooks commonly come from

    recent periods, the Romantic period (1820-1900) and the Contemporary period (1900-present).

                                                    61
    Nearly 30% to 60% (A:50%; B:60.71%; C:40%; D:31.12%) total number of introduced

    musicians come from the Romantic period and nearly 20% to 50% (A:34.22%; B:17.87%;

    C:46.66%; D:54.44%) total number of introduced musicians come from the Contemporary

    period (table 34).



4.2 Stage of Interpretation

         In music education there is also a need to examine the musical context of the society. This

    includes the nature of the music (a nation‟s traditional music as well as other forms) and also

    the current national climate for music (the extent to which national or local organizations of a

    variety of kinds influence directly the provisions for music education). Within this framework

    it is possible to establish a link between the educational context, the musical context and the

    direct provisions. Music education does not exist in a vacuum. A national system is the way it

    is because of the factors that have influenced its development. Often the factors differ from one

    country to another, and it is important to recognize this in the description and interpretation,

    and above all, the comparison (Kemp & Lepherd 1992: 778). The following section interprets

    the nature and extent of data findings on the basis of cultural contexts reflected from the four

    sets of music textbooks published in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

4.2.1 Interpretation of Data Findings in Hong Kong

         Hong Kong‟s former existence as a British colony had been over one hundred and fifty

    years. Because of historical and practical reasons, Hong Kong is very much influenced by

    Western cultures (CDC 1993: 10). Therefore, the songs, repertoires of music appreciation as

    well as introduced musicians in the Hong Kong-published textbook sets A and B are mainly

    drawn from Western cultures. For a time when emphasis was placed on Western music in most

    music education, music was termed „the universal language‟. The phrase is now regarded as

    inappropriate (Kemp & Lepherd 1992: 75; Jordan 1992: 736). From the point of cultural

    contents of textbooks, these seem to make curricula to have „international‟ standing. This

                                                62
concept is vague, but reflects strong Western bias in some countries. For example, songs and

repertoires are mainly selected from the USA, Britain, as well as traditional classical music

origins, i.e. Germany and Austria. These can be explained by the fact that the USA and Britain

influenced our educational, social and economic patterns since Hong Kong was ceded to Great

Britain in 1842 (Bray 1996: 84). Campbell stated that the traditional Chinese methods of music

teaching were embellished with those of the British colonists in the nineteenth century. The

notated hymnbooks in four-part harmony of the British and their solemnization practices were

also widely adopted in Hong Kong (Campbell 1991: 194). Also, Ryan said that the place of

music in the Hong Kong school curriculum follows very closely with that in schools in Britain

since the end of the Second World War. Ryan continued to say that this may well be part of the

British colonial legacy and is very similar to the situation described by Akrofi (1982) in his

study of music education in Ghana, also a former British colony. Akrofi found that the

elementary music program is geared towards the singing of Western songs and hymns and

Western style music and concepts form the basis of music education (Ryan 1985: 14-15;

1987:39). Furthermore, Wong said that the music curriculum in Hong Kong has been

influenced by the British and the Western world and music classroom activities have been

geared towards teaching the elements of Western music (Wong 1990: 3). Volk believed that

German and Austrian folk and classical traditional have been relied upon heavily by music

textbooks from the turn of the century. Most of the songs and repertoires mainly come from

these countries (Volk 1994: 293).

     The high ranking of Western classical music pieces in the textbooks may have reflected

familiarity with that genre, which is not surprising when considering current textbook offerings

in European and American art music. Indirect teacher approval through previous class lessons

that emphasized the standard orchestral repertoire may have further prompted the high ratings

(Shehan 1985: 154). In addition, it can be seen that the cultural contents reflected from

textbooks are not „universal‟ as curricula stated. The curriculum by CDC (1985) stated that

                                            63
education should help students to respect all peoples and their different cultures and accept

differences in value and ways of life. However, low percentages of songs and extremely low

percentages of repertoires of music appreciation come from Other cultures. Although these

folk songs provided only a limited representation of their respective music cultures and often

contained inaccuracies, their inclusion in the music curriculum was the first step to be taken

towards full acceptance of the music of many cultures in schools (Volk 1994: 298). Western-art

music seems to dominate over other types of music in the current syllabus. Music education of

contemporary concerns should be more visible in the next syllabus: World musics and Chinese

music (CDC 1998a: 28).

     Hong Kong maintains a very strong Chinese cultures because of the vast majority of its

population is Chinese (CDC 1993: 10). Traditional Chinese society was perpetuated by a

stated-dominated social order, which had existed for one hundred and fifty years in colonial

Hong Kong. However, the state-dominated society of Hong Kong is still different in many

ways from that of traditional Chinese society and of mainland China (Postiglione 1996: 29).

Hong Kong is most active in the fusion of Eastern and Western cultures. From the points of

view of Asian societies, Hong Kong is the most open-minded and least traditional place. The

culture of Hong Kong has been Westernized and even rebellious at times. But from both the

Western and Oriental views of studying Hong Kong, Hong Kong is still a very Eastern society

(Cheng 1996: 15).

     Education should help students develop an appreciation of Chinese cultures (CDC 1993:

10) and understand their cultural heritage. Substantial emphasis is put on developing the

student‟s identification with and pride in Chinese cultures (Morris 1996a: 130). Because of the

return of sovereignty to China in 1997, there has been a trend of incorporating more Chinese

music in the curriculum. Nevertheless, the actual emphasis in Chinese music is still negligible

in comparison with the large body of Western music taught in the classroom (Wong 1990: 3).

Although nearly half of the repertoires of music appreciation in textbooks are from Chinese

                                            64
cultures, a rather low percentage of songs (A: 18.38%; B: 27.85%) and extremely low

percentage of introduced musicians (A: 5.26%; B: 11.54%) are from Chinese cultures. It could

be said that the publishers in Hong Kong do not understand or are not proud of their Chinese

cultural heritage. The cultural identity remains ambiguous by many Hong Kong people (White

1997: ix). Only extremely few Chinese musicians are introduced in the textbooks. This is

because most songs and repertoires of music appreciation are selected from Western and the

composers of traditional Chinese music are anonymous or unknown. The textbooks also rarely

mention the works as well as the names of contemporary Chinese composers. In Syllabus for

Music: Form I-III (CDC 1983), only Chinese vocal and instrumental songs and repertoires are

mentioned in the part of „Music in the Chinese Tradition‟. There is no discussion about

Chinese musicians or composers (CDC 1983: 6-7). It also stated that the listening program for

music appreciation in Western and Chinese tradition are each of 25 ten-minute programs out of

50 music lessons in a minimum of 25 teaching weeks in one academic year. In fact, although

Chinese music areas are perceived as one of the most important areas, Chinese music areas are

consistently the least frequently taught. This contradiction shows and obvious gap between

need and competence. There is a consensus on the need to teach more Chinese music; but

teachers may not feel competent enough to teach it (CDC 1998a: 26). Recently, the Education

Department has been enthusiastically promoting Chinese music. One example is to promote

the appreciation of one type of local music – the Guangdong operas – to stimulate the interests

of secondary school students in Chinese music (CDC 1998b: 1).

     Another reason why it is difficult to promote Chinese music in schools is that nearly half

of all music teachers have only 25 instead of the suggested 50 music lessons in an academic

year. Therefore, they will be selective towards the Western music which they preferred (CDC

1998a: 22). Consequently, the publishers increase the ratio of Western to Chinese musical

works in textbooks in response to the biases from teachers and the political changes in Hong

Kong.

                                            65
     As mentioned before, an ambiguous cultural identity is borne by many Hong Kong

people. Therefore, only one local musician, Li Chaoyuan, is introduced by Hong Kong

textbooks. Hon Kong people is lack of pride in their local culture. Also, in the textbooks, there

are few folk songs or popular songs from Hong Kong. The content of popular songs comprises

of music generally considered contemporary and „of the people‟. Also, in terms of today‟s

teenagers, popular music is the most highly preferred form of music (Lee 1984: 50). Only two

listening repertoires from textbook set B, Crowing Cock (雞雞咯) and Standing on the

Mountain to Sing a Mountain Song (站在高山唱山歌) are Hong Kong folk music pieces

(table 20a). Hong Kong is located at the very south of the Guangdong province. Many famous

Hong Kong as well as Guangdong folk songs are kept today, for example, the Moonlight

Lullaby (月光光) (Yung 1997: 122). Only a generation or so ago, Punti, Hakka and Tanka

villagers in the Hong Kong region sang on various occasions their own types of song.

„Crowing cock‟ is a „salt water song‟ (鹹水歌) by the Tanka people and „Standing on the

Mountain to sing a Mountain Song‟ is a Mountain Song (山歌) by the Hakka people (Chan

1985: 14).

     On the other hand, it is encouraging to see some Hong Kong popular songs adopted by

music textbooks. These are written by composers from Hong Kong and other Asian countries,

especially those from Japan and Taiwan. Popular music in Hong Kong has hitherto received

attention from the academic community. However, from the point of view of Hong Kong

popular music development, these songs (so called „Canto-pops‟) have already become an

inseparable part of Hong Kong culture. Whilst popular music can be regarded as a type of

commercial product, it can truly reflect the various phenomena in Hong Kong society (Wong

1997: 108). One of the most important Chinese composer and singer of Hong Kong popular

music adopted by textbooks is Sam Hui (許冠傑) from the 1970s. His importance lies in the

fact that the common people no longer despise Canto-pop because it was finally in shape, in


                                            66
tune and in style (Wong 1997: 55). White also believed the main musical product from Hong

Kong is surely the Canto-pop (White 1997: ix). Besides the Canto-pop, many Hong Kong

popular songs sung in Mandarin have recently been „imported‟ from Taiwan, e.g. Where is My

Home (我家在哪裡) and the Story of Little Town (小城故事) (table 7a). These songs have

considerable influence on Hong Kong popular music from the 1970s until the 1980s. The

situation was a little different from the 1980s to the 1990s. This is because that the general

culture in Hong Kong was dominated by Japanese influence at that time. As a result, many

Japanese popular songs are adapted with Chinese lyrics (Chan 1997: 192-193), e.g. Walking on

Life (漫步人生路) (table 7b) and Hope (願) (table 7c), and adopted as „pseudo-Canto-pops‟.

     A high proportion of songs in the textbooks of Hong Kong is classified as foreign melody

with English or Chinese lyrics and English melody with Chinese lyrics (table 18). English is

the second language in Hong Kong; but also, Hong Kong is a Chinese-dominant society.

Therefore, both languages have comparable importance in Hong Kong education. The

Education Commission, in response to Llewellyn, has come out with proposals for

strengthening the teaching of English in schools and, at the same time, encouraging schools to

opt for the use of Chinese (Cantonese) as the medium of instruction (ECR1 1984: 39-49 cited

in Lord 1987: 4). Llewellyn‟s opinion was then certainly correct in advocating adequate

attention being paid to both of the languages (Lord 1987: 5). But Smith argued that if the use

of English is so pervasive around the world and the demand for it so high, why is there so little

apparent advantage to be gained by the nations and cultures which promote its use and claim it

as their own? Smith answered it must be that the language does not belong to any nation or

culture. It belongs to anyone who can use it, and it shapes itself to the purposes for which and

the cultures in which it is used. (Smith 1985:5 cited in Johnson 1997:22). Johnson also said

that the continued use of a colonial language, for example, English, „would help the

ex-colonial powers maintain their economic, cultures and political influence beyond

independence‟ (Johnson 1997:19).

                                            67
4.2.2 Interpretation of Data Findings in Taiwan

         Music textbook sets C and D (published in Taiwan) are examined and the findings

    interpreted in this section. Textbooks C1a, C1b and C2 are published according to the most

    recent syllabus MOE (1994). These are the only music textbooks in Taiwan which follow this

    syllabus. Textbooks C3 (the revised edition is not available at present), as well as D1, D2 and

    D3 (published by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan), follow the older syllabus MOE (1986).

    Why are C1a, C1b and C2 are the only music textbooks which follow the new syllabus? This is

    because of the fact that the MOE recommended a revision of junior secondary textbooks to

    start from 1997 to 2000 (MOE 1996: 160). But for the time being, the selected textbook set C

    published by the largest local publisher, Kanghuo and textbook set D by the MOE used by

    most schools can adequately represent the mainstream of music textbooks in Taiwan.

         The difference between the syllabuses MOE (1986) and MOE (1994) is in the former

    focus on strengthening Taiwan and attacking mainland China and the latter on establishing

    Taiwan. Law said that after being expelled from the United Nations in 1971 and challenged at

    home by activists protesting against the policy of mainlandisation in the 1970s, the Taiwan

    state began to adopt the policy of Taiwanisation to promote the idea of Taiwan as homeland of,

    for and by the Taiwanese people. The Taiwan state also redefined the national identity of her

    people with emphasis mainly on the territory of Taiwan (Law 1991:54). Also, to increase

    recognition of local Taiwan is the theme of the new syllabus MOE (1994) (Law 1996: 22). On

    the other side, contemporary education also seems to pay much attention on establishing the

    local characteristics (Law 1996: 19; A Discussion on the Educational Report 1996: 174-175;

    MOE 1994: 839; MOE 1996: 160).

         Leading from the above discussion, it can be understood that a large number of songs in

    textbooks set D, which follows the older syllabus, have political characteristics, e.g. the

                                                68
National Anthem (國歌), Song of the National Flag (國旗歌), Song of the National Father (國

父紀念歌), Song of President Chiang Kai-shek (總統蔣公紀念歌)(table 9d), Hot Blood (熱血

) and To Build a Great China (建設大中華) (table 10a). As stated aforementioned, one of the

reasons in the new syllabus for focusing on local Taiwanese music is the failure of the

relationship between Taiwan and the international community. As a result, the ideology of local

Taiwan becomes higher (Chan 1996: 122). Moreover, the cancellation of political governed by

government in June of 1987, therefore, more characteristic Taiwanese music, e.g. Nanbei Guan

(南北管) and Pocket Drama (布袋戲), reappear in the society (Chan 1996: 93). Taiwanese folk

music is also included in the repertoires of music appreciation and songs in textbook set C

(which follows the new syllabus). Examples of the music appreciation include Little Song and

Drama (歌仔戲), Throwing Coins (丟丟銅仔), Grasshopper and Cock (草蜢弄雞公) (table

21b) and that of the songs include the Name of Cradle of Taiwan (叫做台灣的搖籃) (table 9c),

Mu Tong Yin Taiwan (無通嫌台灣) (table 9c) and Taiwan is a Good Living Place (台灣是一

個好所在) (table 9a). All these songs are sung in the local Taiwanese dialect, Minnen. The

expression of regional dialect is commonly considered as a part of every nation‟s cultural

heritage (Johnson 1997:24). From the 1950s to 1980s, educational development in Taiwan has

closely integrated with the nation‟s economic, political and cultural development. The

acceleration of economic growth, formation of an open society with equal opportunities and

for all, the success of the Chinese Cultural Renaissance Movement and the realization of

political ideals would not be possible without the successful educational development in the

past 30 years (Lin 1983:134).

     Songs are mainly either folk songs or contemporary Taiwanese works in the two sets of

Taiwanese textbooks (C: 82.09%; D: 73.82%) (table 14). Approximately one-third of the

introduced musicians are Taiwanese (C: 30.67%; D: 31.11%) (table 34). Also, nearly half of

the repertoires of music appreciation are Taiwanese works (C: 43.33%; D: 43.75%) (table 26).

                                           69
The results show an imbalance in the representation of the different cultures shown in these

textbooks, with Chinese cultures (especially local Taiwanese culture) occupying far greater

proportion than Western cultures. This pattern bears similarity to the textbooks in Hong Kong

in which the opposite is true. Textbooks strongly and clearly introduce Taiwanese culture

through songs, repertoires and musicians. Why is Taiwanese culture emphasized in textbooks?

This is because of the focus of the syllabus in the recognition of local Taiwanese culture. After

all, Taiwanese textbooks are believed to: (1) play a central role in the reproduction of ideology

in education; (2) act as a tool for political and other forms of indoctrination; (3) act as a tool

for screening and selecting students for further educational opportunities in the fiercely

competitive „entrance examinations‟ and (4) to be some kind of authority, based largely on

Confucianist thinking and one is not encouraged to challenge the validity of what is said in the

text (Hsu 1992: 4-6). Therefore, the Taiwanese government would like to put this ideology in

Taiwanese culture through texts or lyrics in music textbooks. Research results also show that in

Taiwanese textbooks, the percentages of songs (C: 26%; D: 36.44%), repertoires of music

appreciation (C: 49.35%; D: 59.57%) and introduced musicians (C: 54.67%; D: 45.56%) from

Western cultures are smaller than those in Hong Kong-based textbooks. However, they retain

some significance in introducing different cultures.

     One other consideration is that owing to geographical and historical reasons, „Taiwanese

culture‟ is a combination of Western, Chinese, Japanese as well as primitive local cultures.

Taiwan is situated at the intersection of Asia and the Pacific. On the other hand, Japan, Korea,

the Philippines and Mainland China are its neighbouring countries. Also, Taiwan was

previously occupied by many different Western countries, e.g. Portugal, Spain and Holland

(Chan 1996: 13). Furthermore, church music from missionary bodies from the Western world

spread throughout Taiwan during its occupation by Japan (Chan 1984: 65). Economic

connection between Taiwan and the Western world (especially the USA) is also very strong.

These reasons explain why Western cultures also have a significant place in Taiwanese culture.

                                             70
    Western cultures are therefore also obviously reflected in the cultural content of textbooks as

    mentioned before. Nevertheless, Campbell argued that Taiwan continues with the use of

    British and American techniques in teaching both Western and traditional music. The founding

    of the People‟s Republic of China in 1949 brought political policies that wavered between

    passive acceptance and hostile rejection of nearly all aspects of Western cultures, including

    music and music education (Campbell 1991: 194). Therefore, Western cultures as well as

    Western music only occupy a rather small part in the contemporary curriculum.

         Taiwan always tries to establish an international image to the world. It also promotes the

    acceptance of different cultures, histories, as well as the understanding and appreciation of

    various nationalities (Taiwan Educational Reform Committee 1996a: 210; 1996b:213 & 1996c:

    215-216). However, this is contradicted by the low percentages in introducing Other cultures in

    songs (C: 7%; D: 2.81%), repertoires of music appreciation (C: 11.69%; D: 6.39%) and

    introduced musicians (C: 6.66%; D: 3.33%) (table 35).



4.3 Stage of Juxtaposition

         Juxtaposition could be defined as the preliminary matching of data from places (Hong

    Kong and Taiwan in this case) and to prepare them for comparison. Such matching has to

    include the systematization of data so that they may be grouped under identical or comparable

    categories (tables 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 24, 26, 28, 29, 34 and 35) for each place under study. The

    simplest form of juxtaposition tabulates the data. The process also includes a search for

    hypothesis (Bereday 1969: 5). The process in the Bereday modified model includes a search

    for a general question instead of a search for hypothesis (Yu 1996).

4.3.1 Similarities and Differences in Song in the two places

         Songs in textbook sets A, B, C and D are categorized into Western cultures, Chinese

    cultures and Other cultures (table 35). A higher percentage of Western cultures (A: 66.18%; B:

    58.23%; C: 26%; D: 36.44%) and Other cultures (A: 15.44%; B: 13.92%; C: 7%; D: 2.81%) is

                                                71
found in textbook sets A and B from Hong Kong than sets C and D from Taiwan. Conversely,

there is a higher proportion of Chinese cultures in songs. The percentage of songs from

Chinese cultures is much higher in sets C and D than in A and B (A: 18.38%; B: 27.85%; C:

67%; D: 60.75%).

     Songs from both places from Western cultures mainly come from the USA (A: 45.56%;

B: 29.34%; C: 30.78%; D: 20.53%). The second and third most chosen countries for Hong

Kong textbooks are Britain (A: 13.33%; B: 19.57%) and Austria (A: 11.11%; B: 14.13%).

Whereas, the second and third most chosen countries from Taiwanese textbooks for songs are

Germany (C: 15.38%; D: 20.51%) and Italy (C: 19.23%; D: 10.26%) (table 12). These results

prove that both places are influenced by the USA socially, economically and politically after

World War II.

     Songs from both places in terms of specific region of Chinese cultures mainly originate

from Taiwan (A: 24%; B: 18.18%; C: 82.09%; D: 73.82%). This can be explained by the

influence of Taiwanese popular and folk music on Hong Kong in recent years. On the other

hand, due to social and political factors, Taiwan strongly promotes her local culture. Therefore,

the songs of Chinese cultures from both places are mainly selected form Taiwan. However,

textbooks from Hong Kong also selected many songs from different regions of Chinese

cultures, e.g. Hong Kong (A: 16%); Yunnan (B: 11.34%) and Xinjiang (A: 12%; B: 6.82%)

(table 14). Songs originated from these regional Chinese cultures are seldom selected by the

publishers of Taiwanese textbooks. Having said that, one can understand the greater need and

opportunities of Hong Kong to understand mainland Chinese cultures sincere Hong Kong is

now an integral part of China. Hong Kong has a higher diversity in choosing songs from

regional Chinese cultures than Taiwan. Taiwan, on the other hand, continues to concentrate on

her local culture and despise, to a certain extent, other Chinese regional cultures.

     Songs from Hong Kong textbooks under Other cultures mainly come from Russia (A:

19.5%; B: 27.24%) and Japan (A: 19.05%; B: 13.64%) (table 16). This can be explained by the

                                              72
long-standing and close relationship between Russia and China. The influence of Japanese

music on Hong Kong people, especially youngsters, cannot be overlooked. This is why a rather

large number of songs form Russia and Japan are included in Hong Kong textbooks. In

contrary, due to the concentration on local cultures, few songs from Other cultures are included

in Taiwanese textbooks.

     The highest percentages of common songs amongst the four sets of textbooks are A with

B (50%) and C with D (27.63%) (table 17). These two combinations have the highest

percentages among different kinds of combinations. It is good to observe that every regional

textbook (Hong Kong and Taiwan, in this case) can reflect its regional culture in a certain

degree.

     All foreign melodies with Chinese lyrics (A: 43.38%; B; 39.87%; C; 25%; D: 28.97%),

foreign melodies with English lyrics (A: 38.24%; B: 32.38%; C: 1%; D: 2.8%) and English

melodies with Chinese lyrics (A: 25.74%; B: 18.35%; C: 7%; D: 9.35%) have higher

percentages in Hong Kong textbooks than those from Taiwan (table 18). Especially, the biggest

difference can be seen in foreign melody with English lyrics. The reasons are, first, Hong

Kong focuses more on Western cultures and therefore more foreign melodies as well as

English melodies are chosen by Hong Kong publishers. Second, Hong Kong pays attention on

both the English and the Chinese languages, especially during the transitional period 1997 and

therefore, English and Chinese lyrics have equal importance. Third, Taiwan focuses more on

Chinese cultures and therefore, fewer foreign and English melodies are included in Taiwanese

textbooks. Fourth, English is not the second language of Taiwanese students and as a result,

there is a smaller number of songs with English lyrics found in Taiwanese textbooks.

     There is an obvious phenomenon amongst four sets of textbooks. That is, an extremely

low percentage of foreign melody with original lyrics are included in the textbooks. This is due

to the fact that Hong Kong and Taiwan are both mainly Chinese societies. Few secondary

schools students learn and understand foreign languages (other than English language, in the

                                            73
    case of Hong Kong). This phenomenon can be shown similarly by extremely low percentages

    of students who sit for foreign languages in public examinations in both Hong Kong and

    Taiwan. Therefore, original foreign lyrics are not encouraged to be placed in textbooks from

    both Hong Kong and Taiwan.

         Taiwanese publishers like to include many original compositions, songs whose both

    melodies and lyrics are written by contemporary local Taiwanese composers or lyrics writers

    in the textbooks. The Taiwanese government also strongly encourages their musicians to

    introduce their works in the music textbooks. But, by contrast, few Hong Kong local

    compositions are included in textbooks. Also, Hong Kong has not encouraged its musicians to

    compose local musical works. It can be seen that there is a great difference between the

    promotion of local musical compositions between the two places.

4.3.2 Similarities and Differences in Music Appreciation in the two places

         The percentages of repertoires of music appreciation in Western cultures (A: 51.76%; B:

    43.08%; C: 49.35%; D: 59.57%), Chinese cultures (A: 43.53%; B: 52.30%; C: 38.96%; D:

    34.04%) and Other cultures (A: 4.71%; B: 4.62%; C; 11.69%; D: 6.39%) are nearly the same

    in all four sets of textbooks (table 35). The ratio of repertoires from Chinese and Western

    cultures is about the same; there is no bias on Western or Chinese cultures. Nevertheless, the

    number of repertoires from Other cultures are comparatively very small (table 35).

         Both places choose the repertoires of music appreciation from Western cultures from

    Germany (A: 27.27%; B: 35.72%; C: 36.86%; D: 25%) and Austria (A: 20.46%; B: 25%; C:

    21.05%; D: 25%) (table 24). Music from these two countries is commonly termed Classical

    music and also it constitutes the most dominant part of music appreciation repertoires in

    Western cultures. This is one reason why the percentages of these repertoires among Western

    cultures are high in both Hong Kong and Taiwan.

         There is a high diversity of appreciating different regional Chinese music in Hong Kong

    textbooks rather than only focussing on local Taiwanese regional music in Taiwanese

                                               74
    textbooks (table 26). This is, again, due to social and political facts that Taiwan would like to

    promote her own local culture rather than specific regional Chinese cultures.

         Only Russian repertoires of music appreciation under Other cultures are included in

    textbooks from both places, Hong Kong and Taiwan (table 28). It can be said that although

    both places are eager to promote the recognition of different cultures, in fact, other

    non-Western cultures are seldom mentioned.

         The highest combination of common repertoires among the different kinds of

    combinations of common repertoires is textbook sets A with B (43.11%) (table 29). This shows

    that the publishers of the two Hong Kong textbooks select a large amount of common

    repertoires. Also, the high percentage of common repertoires among the two Hong Kong

    textbooks reflects that they are influenced by the same cultural background.

         Textbooks from both places like to include instrumental listening repertoires instead of

    vocal listening repertoires in music appreciation. The genres of works are varied from solo and

    small ensemble to large choral and symphonic works. The listening repertoires in all four sets

    of textbooks from Western cultures are normally selected from the most famous classical

    musicians, for example, Bach, Beethoven and Mozart. However, all of four sets of textbook

    have seldom mentioned contemporary Western musicians. On the other hand, besides, the

    listening repertoires characteristics traditional Chinese cultures are mentioned by textbooks

    from both places, textbooks from Taiwan also introduce listening repertoires characteristics of

    the local culture, for example, little opera (歌仔戲), little mixed opera (雜唸仔調) and

    Taiwanese local folk songs sung in Minnen or Hakka local dialects. By contrast, textbooks

    from Hong Kong rarely introduce Hong Kong local cultures in listening repertoires. Also,

    textbooks from both places little mention the instrumental works from contemporary local

    musicians. Huang Zi (黃自) is the only Chinese composer whose works are highly regarded by

    all four sets of textbooks.

4.3.3 Similarities and Differences in Introduced Musician

                                                75
         Higher percentages of musicians from Western cultures (A: 89.48%; B: 75%; C: 54.67%;

    D: 45.56%) is introduced by Hong Kong textbooks. Conversely, higher percentages of

    musicians from Chinese cultures (A: 5.26%; B: 17.86%; C: 38.67%; D: 51.11%) are

    introduced by Taiwanese textbooks. Moreover, Taiwanese textbooks introduced more of their

    local musicians than Hong Kong ones (A: 0%; B: 3.57%; C: 30.67%; D: 31.11%). Both Hong

    Kong and Taiwanese textbooks little mentioned about musicians from Other cultures (A:

    5.26%; B: 7.14%; C: 6.66%; D; 3.33%) (table 34).

         Musicians who are introduced by all four sets of textbooks are commonly from the

    Romantic period or the Contemporary period (table 34). Specifically, a higher percentage of

    contemporary musicians (A: 34.21%; B: 17.87%; C: 46.66%; D: 54.44%) are introduced by

    Taiwanese textbooks (table 34). Hong Kong focuses on Western music so that a lot of

    composers of Western music are introduced. Conversely, Taiwan focuses on her local music

    and therefore a lot of Chinese (Taiwanese) composers, especially those in the contemporary

    period, are introduced by Taiwanese textbooks.

4.3.4 General Question Raised after Juxtaposition

         The previous sections mentioned critically what extent and nature of different cultures

    affect the music textbooks from Hong Kong and Taiwanese secondary schools through

    examining the songs, repertoires of music appreciation and introduced musicians. Textbooks

    from Hong Kong seems to introduce and are influenced much by Western cultures. On the

    other hand, those from Taiwan strongly emphasize her local culture and also on Chinese

    cultures as a whole. In addition, textbooks from both places are not keen on introducing Other

    cultures. Why does this phenomenon show in music curricula and is reflected in those

    textbooks?



4.4 Stage of Comparison

         In this section, the cultural content from each textbook set is compared and contrasted.

                                               76
    Attempt will also be made to answer the question raised in the previous section by rotation and

    fusion.

4.4.1 A Comparison of Cultural Contents from Music Textbooks in Hong Kong and Taiwan

         In a comparison with Taiwan, the cultural content of Hong Kong textbooks mainly comes

    from the Western world. The nature and extent of cultural content can be seen to reflect the

    culture of present society. The Western cultural content in textbooks seems to give an image

    that Hong Kong is more „international‟. But this is vague and wrong. The Western cultural

    content mainly comes from several Western countries, for example, the USA and Britain. This

    condition is similar to a local scholar who cited this decision as a British conspiracy imposing

    an outdated British model of education on the future of Hong Kong SAR for the purpose of

    extending British influence until 2047 (Leung 1996: 269). Leung has also the above suspicion.

    In addition, since Hong Kong only pays attention to a few Western countries, how can it be

    said that Hong Kong is a truly cosmopolitan city (fusion of cultures) and is a place to promote

    international understanding and respectfulness of different cultures as stated in „Cultural Items

    within the Guidelines on Civic Education‟ (table 3)? On the other hand, the low tendencies for

    the Hong Kong publishers to introduce Chinese cultures and even more so, the extremely low

    tendencies to introduce local Hong Kong cultures may make one to believe that Hong Kong

    people are not proud of their Chinese cultural heritage and their cultural identity is ambiguous.

    This is in opposition to what the Hong Kong Government wishes to promote. The Government

    tries to revise the content of the curricula in order to encourage pupils to understand and

    appreciate their Chinese cultural heritage, as well as the working of the political and economic

    system in the PRC (Morris 1996a: 123). Now, insufficient emphasis is put on developing the

    pupil‟s identification with and pride in Chinese cultures. Moreover, extremely few local

    musical products, for example, Canto-pops, contemporary musical compositions by local

    musicians or local musicians are introduced in textbooks. Therefore, this creates an ambiguous

    cultural identity. As a result, the cultural identity of Hong Kong students may be neither

                                                77
Chinese nor Western (White 1997: ix).

     It is clear that the cultural content reflected in textbooks fits the general pattern concluded

by Leung, who summarized the literature on the discussion of the nature and impact of

colonial education. He said that among the stereotyped accusations of colonial legacies are the

creation of: (a) a privileged, Westernized elite divorced from the aspiration of the indigenous

majority, especially the rural masses; (b) citizens unsure of their real identity or caught

between two cultures; (c) a belief system hostile to the indigenous culture, such as a

Eurocentric and (d) a „culture of silence‟ with low political aspirations (Leung 1996: 268).

     The above phenomenon is reflected by the nature and extent of cultural content in the

Hong Kong textbooks examined. First, Western cultures dominates the content; extremely rare

mention is made to local Hong Kong/Chinese music, especially the rural music by Punti,

Hakka and Tenka villagers. Second, the relatively few mention of Chinese cultures may result

in „bu Zhong bu Xi‟ (neither Chinese nor Western). Third, the extent of Western-European

cultures included in textbooks much exceeds that of the Chinese ones. Fourth, the large extent

of recognition of various countries may be a way to reduce bias to a small number of countries,

e.g. China and Britain, but it is also a cause of low political aspirations in pupils.

     On the other hand, Taiwan seems to encourage and promote her local culture. There are a

lot of songs composed by contemporary Taiwanese musicians and also many contemporary

Taiwan musicians are introduced in the Taiwanese music textbooks. Taiwan highly promotes

the recognition of her local culture. As a result, Taiwanese people seem to have a clearer

cultural identity. But, this promotion may be accounted as the effect of expulsion from the

United Nations in 1971 and breaking of friendships with most countries in the world.

Therefore, there is a promotion, of the idea of Taiwan as homeland of, for and by Taiwan‟s

people as said by Law (Law 1997:54). But actually these contemporary musicians learned their

musical knowledge from the Western world and also they used the Western musical techniques

to compose the songs in music textbooks. Therefore, it cannot be said that these musical works

                                               78
are not purely represented the local culture, instead of, these are integrated cultures between

East and West. That is a mixture of Chinese ideology with Western techniques. But, in

comparison, Local folk music is introduced more in Taiwan music textbooks than does in

Hong Kong. In Taiwan, textbook publishers do not only introduce local folk music in music

textbooks, but also encourage the students sung in Taiwan local dialects, Minnen or Hakka

languages.




                                           79
                                Chapter 5 CONCLUSION

5.0 Introduction

         In order to review this dissertation in a concise manner, this chapter will be organized as

    follows: first, a summary of similarities and differences of the cultural contents in the music

    textbooks of Hong Kong and Taiwan; second, a conclusion which may be drawn from this

    research; third, implication and significance of this research and fourth recommendations for

    further research.



5.1 Similarities and Differences of the Cultural Contents in the Music Textbooks of Hong

   Kong and Taiwan

         Hong Kong music textbooks focus on Western cultures but Taiwan is likely to focus on

    Chinese cultures. Both places like to select songs, repertoires of music appreciation and

    introduced musicians from Western cultures (mainly from Germany and Austria, so called

    „classical music‟). Moreover, Hong Kong music textbooks would like to choose different

    regional Chinese music, but Taiwanese music textbooks only focus to select Taiwanese local

    music. Few Hong Kong textbooks choose to introduce her local Hong Kong composers

    whereas Taiwanese music textbooks are proud of their Chinese cultures as well as local

    cultures; they introduce a large amount of their local contemporary musicians. Both places do

    not like to mention Other cultures. They only select few songs and repertoires of music

    appreciation as well as introduce few musicians from Other cultures. The only main country

    introduced from Other cultures is Russia.

         Most of the songs in music textbooks of Hong Kong are English and over half of them

    have also Chinese lyrics. Both English and Chinese lyrics one considered equally important. In

    Taiwanese books, over 95% of songs are written with Chinese lyrics, only a small number are

    written in English. Taiwanese textbooks have their local folk songs in which are sung not only

    in Mandarin, but also in their local dialects, namely Minnen and Hakka. By contrast, there has

                                                80
not any Hong Kong local folk songs to be sung in music lessons. Instead, their only has a small

number of listening repertoire of Hong Kong local folk songs.

     Textbooks from both places like to include instrumental listening repertoires instead of

vocal listening repertoires in music appreciation. The genres of works are varied from solo and

small ensemble to large choral and symphonic works. The listening repertoires in all four sets

of textbooks from Western cultures are normally selected from the most famous classical

musicians, for example, Bach, Beethoven and Mozart. However, all of four sets of textbook

have seldom mentioned contemporary Western musicians. On the other hand, besides, the

listening repertoires characteristics traditional Chinese cultures are mentioned by textbooks

from both places, textbooks from Taiwan also introduce listening repertoires characteristics of

the local culture, for example, little opera (歌仔戲), little mixed opera (雜唸仔調) and

Taiwanese local folk songs sung in Minnen or Hakka local dialects. By contrast, textbooks

from Hong Kong rarely introduce Hong Kong local cultures in listening repertoires. Also,

textbooks from both places little mention the instrumental works from contemporary local

musicians. Huang Zi (黃自) is the only Chinese composer whose works are highly regarded by

all four sets of textbooks.

     There are a lot of common songs and common repertoires of music appreciation between

the textbook set A and set B in Hong Kong. Also, there are a lot of common songs between the

textbook set C and set D in Taiwan. This phenomenon indicates that each place has its own

cultural characteristics as specific songs and repertoires are similar in the same place.

     The musicians introduced by those four sets of textbooks mainly come from the Romantic

period and the Contemporary period. Taiwanese textbooks have a great emphasis in

introducing her local contemporary Taiwanese composers. In contrary, Hong Kong textbooks

seldom mention Hong Kong local musicians. On the other side, textbooks from both places are

well introduced the classical great and famous musicians, for example, Bach, Beethoven and

Mozart. But, besides Russian composers, for example, Tchaikovsky and Stravinsky in Other

                                              81
    cultures are mentioned by those four sets of textbooks, they have not introduced any other

    musician from Other cultures. Also, it is interesting that only Huang Zi (黃自) is commonly

    introduced by those four sets of textbooks in Chinese cultures. Although Huang Zi was born in

    mainland China and moved to Taiwan later, his works (both songs and repertoires of music

    appreciation) are appreciated by both places.



5.2 Conclusion

         The purpose of this research, as stated in Chapter 1, is to examine the nature and extent of

    cultural contents in junior secondary school music textbooks published in Hong Kong and

    Taiwan. After analyzing the contents of four sets (thirteen volumes) of textbooks both

    quantitatively and qualitatively. It is discovered that Western music dominate the contents of

    Hong Kong textbooks; in contrast, Chinese culture, especially Taiwan local culture, seems to

    dominate the music in Taiwanese textbooks. This can mainly be explained by influences of the

    colonial history of Hong Kong and national education system in Taiwan. Moreover, there are a

    lot of songs composed by local contemporary Taiwan musicians in the Taiwanese textbooks. In

    some ways, lyrics in these songs reflect the recent social-cultures of Taiwan. But, musically,

    many of these musicians learned their knowledge from the Western world and composed the

    songs in Western techniques and styles. It is therefore questionable whether these Taiwanese

    contemporary songs truly reflect the emphasis on the promotion of local Taiwanese culture as

    stated in the syllabus (MOE 1994).

         The frequencies and percentages of lyrics in English are much higher in Hong Kong than

    Taiwan. The above phenomenon seems to give Hong Kong a more international image. But,

    actually, the importance of English as a main factor in becoming an international status is

    suspected by Johnson (1997). He cited the words of Smith (1985) that the use of English is not

    so pervasive around the world and it does not demand as high as people normally thinks.

         Through a comparison with Taiwan, it can be seen that although Hong Kong has ceased to

                                                82
be a colony, she still has the characteristics of a colony, especially in terms of cultural content

as Leung (1996) suggested. The phenomenon, as Leung stated, is that first, Western cultures

dominates the content; extremely rare mention is made to local Hong Kong/Chinese music,

especially the rural music by Punti, Hakka and Tenka villagers; second, the relatively few

mention of Chinese cultures may result in „bu Zhong bu Xi‟ (neither Chinese nor Western);

third, the extent of Western-European cultures included in textbooks much exceeds that of the

Chinese ones; fourth, the large extent of recognition of various countries may be a way to

reduce bias to a small number of countries, e.g. China and Britain, but it is also a cause of low

political aspirations in pupils. This phenomenon seems that there is an augmentation of British

influence or a continued outdated British model of education in Hong Kong. Now, there is an

urgent need for a revised curriculum which can increase pupils‟ awareness of and pride in

Chinese cultural heritage as well as enables them to recognize and accept different cultures.

This curriculum is not only good for pupils to prepare themselves as citizens of the Special

Administrative Region of Hong Kong, but would also allow the Guidelines on Civic Education

regarding the need to respect and appreciate different cultures and peoples to be fulfilled.

     National education system is used in Taiwan. Taiwanese Government believed that

textbooks can, first, play a central role in the reproduction of ideology in education; second,

act as a tool for political and other forms of indoctrination; third, act as a tool for screening and

selecting students for further educational opportunities in the fiercely competitive „entrance

examinations‟ and fourth, to be some kind of authority, based largely on Confucianist thinking

and one is not encouraged to challenge the validity of what is said in text (Hsu 1992:4-6).

Therefore, the Taiwanese government would like to put this ideology in Taiwanese culture

through texts or lyrics in music textbooks. But after being expelled from the United Nations in

1971 and challenged at home by activists protesting against the policy of mainlandisation in

the 1970s, the Taiwan state began to adopt the policy of Taiwanisation to promote the idea of

Taiwan as homeland of, for and by the Taiwanese people. The Taiwan state also redefined the

                                              83
    national identity of her people with emphasis mainly on the territory of Taiwan (Law 1991:54).

    Moreover, there is a reinforcement of promotion of recognition of Taiwanese local culture in

    recent syllabus, MOE (1994). Therefore, the national image is more clearly shown in

    Taiwanese education.

         As Morris said, one of the ways to check textbooks is trying to measure a text‟s cultural

    biases (Morris 1996b:97). Music has appeared as an important symbol of people and culture

    through the ages (Campbell 1991:3). Through examining of music textbooks, this can help

    educators a better understanding the characteristics present of the cultures of the society.

    Moreover, the perspective educators who gain comparatively may assist them in adopting

    some of the ideas used in another country to their own circumstances (Lepherd 1985:47).

         Lastly, it should be emphasized that the intent of this research is not to evaluate the

    quality of music textbooks or the significance of various cultures in music textbooks. Instead,

    it is to examine what we have accomplished in a general way so that we may proceed

    positively and productively towards and ever-expanding knowledge from various cultures of

    music in the world.



5.3 Implications and Significance

         This research adds to the understanding of music textbooks by the students in Hong Kong

    and Taiwan. The cross-cultural comparison indicate that textbooks produced by different

    societies do carry different messages (especially about different nature and extent of cultures)

    and hence reflecting the traditions and states of the culture. With these findings of the research,

    teachers, administrators, publishers, researchers, decision markers, parents and others in Hong

    Kong and Taiwan will be able to critically examine the cultural contents combined in the

    music textbooks. They have the answers to what have been presented. As a result, they will be

    able to ask further: Why are these nature and extent of cultural contents included? How are

    they chosen? By whom? Why them? How do the cultural contents in music textbooks relate to

                                                 84
    their lives and their societies. These are important curriculum questions to think about.

         Most of the curriculum work has focused on written or textbook curriculum. There is a

    need to examine taught and learned curricula, since they represent what really goes on in the

    classroom (Wang 1993:206). This research discovered certain phenomenon of cultural contents

    in music textbooks of Hong Kong and Taiwan, laying a ground for investigation into the

    relationship between these different types of curriculum in cultural teaching and learning, and

    the implication of such a relationship.



5.4 Recommendations

         This research analyzed the cultural contents (songs, music appreciation and introduced

    musicians) from the music textbooks used in Hong Kong‟s junior secondary schools (Form one

    to Form three) and Taiwan‟s junior high schools. Four sets (thirteen volumes) of textbooks

    were examined. For further research, in order to have a more representative sample of the

    textbooks used in both places, and effort should be made to include more textbooks most

    commonly used. Especially, there is a need to choose more Hong Kong music textbooks which

    follow the coming revised music curriculum and to choose more Taiwanese music textbooks

    which follow the revised music curriculum in 1994 (MOE 1994). Then the representation of

    the recent music curriculum and music textbooks can be broader.

         The focus of this research was on the music textbooks used at the junior high school level.

    The research in the future can be extended to other educational levels such as elementary level

    and upper secondary level. A research covering elementary and secondary levels would be able

    to show a more complete picture of a culture‟s plan in moulding and shaping its young

    generation in a continuous aspect (Wang 1993:207).

         Another area that warrants further research is the comparison of what the textbooks

    preach, what the teachers teach, and what the students hence actually learned. It cannot be

    assumed that the contents is actually taught or that what is taught is actually learned. It is

                                                 85
because the teachers and students in Hong Kong and Taiwan are living in two different

societies. Although these two societies have some similar backgrounds, they are actually

influenced by many distinct cultural factors. Research needs to be done in Hong Kong and

Taiwan on how teachers and students interpret, accept or reject the cultural values embodied in

the contents of the textbooks, the effect of such process and its implication for curriculum and

instruction.

     Lastly, it is suggested that the research can be extended to compare Mainland China,

Taiwan with Hong Kong. This is because Hong Kong and Taiwan are parts of Mainland China

and also they have similar cultural backgrounds. In addition, the cultural relationships among

these three societies and educational backgrounds are close. It is therefore worthwhile to

compare these three places to allow better understanding the view of the cultures in Chinese

societies.




                                            86
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