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VIEWS: 28 PAGES: 51

									TEACHING             PLANS

             For



College English (New Edition)
          Book Two
                            Unit 1 Ways of Learning

Objectives
Students will be able to:
1. to grasp the main idea (that it would be ideal if we can strike a balance between the Chinese and
   the Western learning styles) and structure of the text (introduction of the topic by an
   anecdote—elaboration by comparison and contrast—conclusion by a suggestion);
2. to recognize the difference between comparison and contrast, as well as different ways to
   compare and contrast (point-by-point method or one-side-at-a-time method);
3. to learn the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;
4. to conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of
   the unit.

Time allotment
1st period          2nd period        3rd period          4th period       5th period
Pre-reading;        While-reading     While-reading       Post-reading     Check on students‘
While-reading       (Paragraphs       (Paragraphs         (Debate;         home reading (Text B);
(Paragraphs 1-5)    6-13)             6-13 continued;     Exercises)       Theme-related
                                      Para. 14)                            Language      Learning
                                                                           Tasks

Pre-reading tasks
Background Knowledge
Education in the west: Much of the current debate over education surrounds the extent to which
learning should be teacher-centered or student-centered. Comparing Western and Asian methods
of learning, it is generally true that Western methods are more student-centered, expecting students
to discover things for themselves rather than relying on their teachers to tell them. However, it is
worth noting that, the extent to which learning is student-centered or teacher-centered also
depends on differences between subjects.
Middle-class America: The old urban middle-class consisted mainly of white collar workers and
owners of family businesses and their employees. They found the majority of the middle class
before 1945. The new middle-class emerged out of the ashes of wartime destruction and consisted
of salaried worker. Blue collar, white collar, store clerks, shopkeepers, regardless of the line of
business they were in, all joined the ranks of the new middle class which is between the very
wealthy class and the class of unskilled laborers and unemployed people.
2. Warm-up Questions
1. T asks Ss the following questions. The first is based on the song Teach Your Children:
--According to the song, who should teach whom? Is learning a one-way street? (Parents and
children should teach each other and learn from each other. Learning is a two-way interaction.)
-- Can you guess what the theme of this unit, ways of learning, refers to? (different people have
different learning styles) (5 minutes)
2. T may lead in to Text A by saying: As you may have noticed from the book title《千万别管孩
子—自主教育哈佛启示录》, Chen Yuhua‘s parents hold quite a western view on child education.
They disagree with many other more traditional parents. In Text A, Howard Gardner made a
detailed comparison between Chinese and Western attitudes toward learning. (2 minutes)
3. T may lead Ss to think about the ways of education they received and to remark the ways:
---Do you think the way of education that you received is successful? In what way it is, and in

                                                   1
what way it isn‘t? List some examples happened in your life.
---If you are parents, which way of education do you prefer, eastern or western? Give the reasons
to support your ideas.
---Do you think it is possible to have a combination of western and eastern way of education?

While-reading tasks
1. Text organization
 1. Like most essays, the text is made up of a beginning, a middle, and an end. The following
    questions are meant to help you get a clear understanding of the organization of the text.
     1) What does the text begin with? (Suggested answer: The text begins with an anecdote/
         incident.)
     2) In the middle (the body) of the text the author gives his thoughts on an incident he
         found interesting. What are his thoughts mainly about? (Suggested answer: His
         thoughts are mainly about different approaches to learning in China and the West.)
     3) What kind of end (conclusion) winds up the text? (Suggested answer: The end winds up
         the text with a suggestion in the form of a question.)
 2. The text is, in a way, developed by analysis using comparison and contrast. Simply put, a
    comparison brings out the similarities between two or more things of the same kind, while a
    contrast the differences between them. In a comparison and contrast essay, you spend more
    time either comparing or contrasting, depending on your purpose. In the case of this text, the
    emphasis is on contrast.
    Now write down differences in approaches to learning between the Chinese and Americans:
    Points for Comparison/ Chinese                                  Americans
    contrast
    1) ways to learn to Show a child how to do Teach children that they
    accomplish a task           something, or teach by holding should rely on themselves
                                his hand                            for solutions to problems
    2) attitudes to creativity Give       greater    priority   to Put more emphasis on
    and skills                  developing skills at an early age, fostering creativity in young
                                believing creativity can be children, thinking skills can
                                promoted over time                  be picked up later.

2. Comprehension questions:
1.Skimming:
1) Ss skim paragraphs 1-5 and be ready to answer the following questions:
--Where and when did the incident take place? (Jinling Hotel in Nanjing, spring 1987)
--Who are the main characters in this incident? (author, his wife Ellen, their son Benjamin, hotel
staff)
--What is the attitude of the author and his wife toward Benjamin‘s efforts in inserting the key into
the slot? (They let him explore and enjoy himself.)
-- What is the attitude of the hotel staff toward Benjamin‘s efforts? (They held his hand and taught
him how to insert the key correctly.)
2) T ask some Ss pairs to report to class, one asking the above questions and the other providing
    the answers.
3) T tells Ss that there are many ways of introducing a topic (see Text Analysis). Ss will decide
    which way is adopted by Howard Gardner. (15 minutes)
2.T explains language points from Paragraph 1 to Paragraph 5, and gives Ss practice (see
   Language Study).(15 minutes)
3.T guides Ss through the directions for Text Organization Exercise 2 and Writing Strategy. Then
Ss scan the first sentence of both Para. 6 and Para. 7, and decide what method of comparison and
contrast is used here (one-side-at-a-time method). (8 minutes)
4.T explains language points from Para. 6 to Para. 10, and gives Ss practice (see Language Study).
(15 minutes)
5. Ss sum up the contrast between Chinese and Western ways to learn to fulfil a task (the Chinese
show a child how to do something, or teach by holding his hand; the westerners teach a child to
rely on himself for solutions to problems). (5 minutes)

                                                 2
6. Ss scan from Para. 11 to Para. 13, then answer the following questions:
-- Can you find words like ―Chinese‖ and ―Westerner‖ or ―American‖ or ―the West‖
     in each paragraph? (yes)
-- What method of comparison and contrast is used here? (point-by-point method) (5 minutes)
7. T explains language points in these paragraphs and gives Ss practice (see Language Study). (20
minutes)
8. Ss summarize the contrast between the Chinese and the Western attitudes toward creativity and
basic skills. (The Chinese give priority to developing skills at an early age, believing that
creativity can be promoted over time; the Westerners put more emphasis on fostering creativity in
young children, thinking that skills can be picked up later.) (5 minutes)
9. T explains language points in Para. 14 and gives Ss practice (see Language Study). (5
minutes)
10. T tells Ss that there are many ways of concluding an essay (see Text Analysis). Ss decide
which way is used in this essay. (5 minutes)

3. Text Analysis
      An essay is usually made up of three parts: a beginning where the topic is introduced; the
body part where the topic is elaborated on, and a conclusion.
      Besides stating the topic directly, there are many other ways to introduce a theme. In this text,
an anecdote or an incident is used. The author of Text A, Unit 6, Book 1 (What Animals Really
Think) introduces his topic by posing a question: ―Do animals all have thoughts, what we call
consciousness?‖ Text B, Unit 3, Book 1 (How to make Sense out of Science) begins by quoting
newspaper headlines:
                ―New Drugs Kill Cancer
                Devastation by El Nino – a Warning
                6:30 p.m. October 26, 2028: Could This Be the Deadline for the Apocalypse?‖
Text B of this unit, Children and Money, begins with an imagined argument between a child and
his parent over the control of pocket money. Discover other forms of introduction as you read on.
However, the more important point is that you should learn to vary your own writing by adopting
various types of topic introduction.
      Without a conclusion, an essay lacks a sense of completeness. A conclusion may be a
re-statement of the main points previously mentioned, a proposed solution, a quotation from some
book or person, a prediction of future developments, a suggestion for further study, etc. Text B,
Unit 3, Book 1 ends by giving a simile, comparing scientific research to mountain climbing, ―a
process filled with disappointments and reverses, but somehow we keep moving ahead.‖ In this
text, Howard Gardner makes a suggestion in the form of a question.

4. Language study
1. attach: fasten or join (one thing to another)(used in the pattern: attach something to
    something)
    e.g. Scientist discovered they could measure wind speed by attaching a wind meter to a kite
    and sending it up.
    Attached (to this letter) you will find a copy of the document you asked for.
not in the least: not at all
    e.g. I am not in the least touched by Marilyn Monroe kind of beauty.
    Ann didn‘t seem in the least concerned about her study.
find one’s way: reach a destination naturally; arrive at
    e.g. Shanghai is not an easy city to find your way around.
    Drunk as he was, peter still found his way home.
Phenomenon: 1.(pl. phenomena) something that happens or exists and that can be seen or
    experienced.
    e.g. Hurricanes are a relatively common phenomenon in the Caribbean.


                                                  3
     Stress-related illness is a common phenomenon in big cities.
     Thunder and lightening are natural phenomena.
     2. remarkable person, thing or event (related words: phenomenal, phenomenally)
assist: help (used in the pattern: assist sb. to do sth., assist sb. with sth.)
     e.g. The professor was assisting his students to prepare their project.
     The college student decided to assist the boy with his study.
somewhat: to some degree, a little.
     e.g. I am somewhat tired of this work.
await: (fml) wait for
     Await is a fairly common word in formal writing, but you do not usually use it in conversation.
     Instead you use ‗wait for‘.
     We must await the results of field studies yet to come.
     After I sent the letter asking for a job, I had nothing to do but await the answer.
on occasion: now and then
     e.g. I was usually the only foreign participant, although on occasion I brought other
     Americans in as guests.
     Steve spent almost all his time doing his research, but , on occasion, he would take his son to
     see a film.
neglect: give too little attention or care to
     e.g. He gave too much attention to his career, working long hours and neglecting his wife.
     Their investment turned out to be a failure and the manager was accused of neglecting his
     duties.
     Cf.: ignore: pay no attention to sb./sth. on purpose, or as if sth. has not happened.
     e.g. I said ―Good morning‖ to her, but she just ignored me and walked on.
relevant: directly connected with the subject (followed by to, opposite irrelevant)
     e.g.: Only a few people feel the debate about the cloning of human beings is relevant to their
     daily lives.
     While writing my term paper I was able to borrow all the relevant books from the school
     library.
on one’s own: 1) without anyone‘s help
     e.g. You needn‘t give me any help, I am able to manage on my own.
     There are jobs your child can do on her own.
     2) alone
     The child was left on her own for hours as her mom had to deal with the emergency.
     I would rather not go to dance on my own. I do wish you‘d come with me.
accomplish: manage to do (sth.)
     Unless you practice you‘ll accomplish nothing.
     Considering their capacity, the possibility of accomplishing the task is high.
     If I work hard, I think I can accomplish my goal of getting 6 A‘s at the end of semester.
in due course: at the proper time; eventually
     e.g. Your book will be published in due course.
     Be patient. You‘ll get your promotion in due course
critical:1) very important
     e.g.: Environmentalists say a critical factor in the city‘s pollution is its population.


                                                 4
    How well you accomplish this task will be critical to the success of your carrer.
    2) very serious or dangerous
    e.g. In yesterday‘s car accident, ten people were killed and five people are still in a critical
    situation.
    As the situation in Afghanistan became critical, the UN Secretary-General appointed a special
    representative to tackle it.
    3) looking for faults; pointing out faults
    e.g. Why are you always so critical?
    Cf. critic, criticize, criticism
make up for: repay with sth. good, compensate for
    I didn‘t travel much when I was young, but I‘m certainly making up for lost time now.
    Her husband bought her a present to make up for quarreling with her the day before.
in retrospect: on evaluating the past; upon reflection
    e.g. The young man knew in retrospect that he should have married his first love Emily.
    In retrospect, I wish that I had chosen biology as my major.
extreme: adj. very great
    e.g. The girls were afraid of snakes and walked along the mountain trail with extreme caution.
    n. the furthest possible limit, an extreme degree
    e.g. I know I always say that you eat too much, but there is no need to go to the other extreme.
    (phrase: go to extremes: do something so much, state sth. so strongly, that people consider
    your actions unacceptable and unreasonable.
    e.g. John went to such extremes to get his promotion that everyone at the office hates him now.
    The film is not very good, but some critics have gone to extremes, saying it is the worst of the
    decade.)
performance: 1) the standard achieved by a person or group of people in carrying out a particular
    job or activity
    e.g. The athlete was awarded $10,000 for his good performance in the Olympics.
    After several bad performances, the soccer team found their form again.
    2) sth. performed in front of an audience, e.g. a play, a dance or other entertainment
    e.g. Stevie Wonder fought back from the shadow of death and went on to give more
    performances.
    His performances in the new production of Hamlet received much praise.
so much so that: to such an extent
    Americans treat their children as separate individuals, so much so that someone who remains
    dependent on their parents longer than the norm may be thought to be ―immature‖.
    Some parents spoil their children, so much so that they never ask them to do any housework.
continual: happening again and again, repeated
    e.g. The construction of the airport continued despite continual complaints form local
    residents.
    The dog‘s continual barking disturbed the whole neighborhood.
    Cf. continuous
apply: 1)be relevant (to sb./sth.); have an effect (used in the pattern apply to sb./sth.)
    e.g. The new pension arrangements won‘t apply to people born before 1960.
    The advice given by the professor only applies to some of the college students.


                                                 5
    2) write a letter or fill in a form in order to ask formally for sth.(used in the pattern: apply for
    sth., apply to do sth.)
    e.g. How many jobs had you applied for before you were offered this one?
    We went to the sports club so often that we decided that we might as well apply to join.
work on/at: try hard to achieve or improve (sth.)
    e.g. Sophia needs to work at/on her typing speed.
    John came back ahead of time to continue working on this thesis.
priority:1) sth. that one must do before anything else
    e.g.Being a qualified teacher is her first priority.
    Earning enough money to maintain his family s a high priority.
    2)sth. that holds a high place among competing claims
    e.g. The school will give priority to English and computer studies.
    the proposals deserve support as they give priority to the needs of children.
evolve: (cause to) develop gradually (followed by into/from)
    e.g. The story evolves into a violent tragedy.
    Popular music evolved from folk songs.
    As knowledge of genetic engineering evolves, beliefs change.
summarize: make a short account of the main points of something.
    e.g. Basically, the article can be summarized in three sentences.
    The workers‘ demands can be summarized as follows: shorter hours and more pay.
contrast: compare (two people or things) so that differences are made clear (used in the pattern
    contrast A and/with B)
    e.g. Carrie contrasted the situation then with the present crisis.
    Students were asked to contrast Ernest Hemingway with Mark Twain.
    n. action of contrasting
    e.g. I was always reading when I was a kid, but my daughter, in contrast, just watches TV all
    day.
    In contrast to the hot days, the nights are bitterly cold.
promote: help to grow or develop
    e.g. You don‘t have to sacrifice environmental protection to promote economic growth.
    Regular exercise will promote physical and mental health.
emerge: come out (followed by from)
    e.g. The postman emerged from his van soaked to the skin.
    The magician emerged from behind the curtain.
    n. emergence (Cf. emergency)
pick up: gain, learn
    e.g. He picked up quite a lot of English during his one-year stay in America.
    I had picked up a bit of data-processing form my son.
exaggerate: to make something seem larger, better, etc. than it really is
    e.g. In her resume, she has clearly exaggerated her talents a little.
    ‖ I am bleeding to death.‖ ― don‘t exaggerate, it‘s only a little cut.‖
assuming (that):
    You use assuming that when you are considering a possible situation or event, so that you
    think about the consequences.


                                                   6
    e.g. Assuming that we all work at the same rate, we should be finished by January.
    Assuming that this painting really is a Van Gogh, how much do you think it‘s worth?
Valid: based on truth or sound reasoning
    e.g. They put forward many valid reasons for not building the skyscraper.
    It is valid to consider memory the oldest mental skill.
    Scientific theories must be backed up with valid evidence.

Post-reading tasks
1. After-text exercises
1. Finish all the exercises after unit one in the textbook.
2. Translation exercises:
   词性转换是最考研翻译中常用的翻译方法。                               在以前学英语的过程中,           我们头脑里会把名词、
动词、形容词、副词、介词、连接词、代词等词类分得清清楚楚。这对于一个英语是外语的
学生来说,本该是一个长处。但强调词性的概念在翻译时就可能成为译者的障碍。因为翻译
是英汉语两种语言之间的转换,                       在英语里可以用一个名词表达的概念,                     翻译成汉语也许可用
一个动词来表达。             词性转换就是把英语中的某种词性,                       转换成汉语的另外一种词性来表达的
翻译技巧。词性转换几乎可以在所有词性间进行,如名词转换成动词,动词转换成名词,介
词转换成动词,副词转换成动词,名词转换成形容词等等,都是常常使用的。常见的词性转
换方式有以下四种,现一一讲解如下。
    1) 转译成动词
•Because of his tender age and incomplete understanding of the need to position the key
just so, he would usually fail.
•由于他还年幼,不太明白得把钥匙放准位置才成,因此总塞不进去。
••A careful study of the original text will give you a better translation.
•仔细研究原文,你会翻译得更好。
    2) 转译成名词
•Our age is witnessing a profound political change.
•我们的时代是深刻政治变革的见证。
••This kind of behavior characterizes the criminal mind.
•这种举止是罪犯的心理特征。
    3) 转译成形容词
•This issue is of vital importance.
•这个问题至关重要
••Our performance was a success.
•我们的演出很成功。
    4) 其它词类转译
•It is officially announced that China has successfully launched her first manned
spaceship.
•官方宣布,中国已经成功的实现了载人航天。
••When he catches a glimpse of a potential antagonist, his instinct is to win him over with
charm and humor.
•只要一发现有可能反对他的人,他就本能地要用他的魅力和风趣将这人争取过来。

2. Discussion
1.Debate: Should we develop children‘s creativity first or train them in basic skills first?

                                                   7
1) Ss divide into two groups, one taking the side of creativity first, another taking the side of basic
skills first.
2) In each group, Ss further divides into smaller groups of three to four, brainstorming
arguments\examples\statistics\quotes\etc. in support of their viewpoint, as well as those that could
be used to refute the other side.
3) Debate begins, with T acting as moderator. (30 minutes)
2. T guides Ss through several after-text exercises. (20 minutes)
3.     T checks on Ss‘ home reading (Text B). (3 minutes)
4.     Ss do Part IV: Theme-related Language Learning Tasks.(1 period)
5.     T asks Ss to prepare the next unit:
1) do the pre-reading task
preview Text A. (2 minutes)




                                                  8
                                            Unit 2             Values

Objectives
Students will be able to:
1. to understand the main idea (despite his wealth, Sam Walton remains down-home and devoted
to his team ) and structure of the text;
2. to appreciate the use of indirect description in portraying a person;
3. to grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;
to conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking, and writing activities related to the theme of the
     unit.

Time allotment
1st period            2nd period            3rd period                   4th period           5th period
Pre-reading;          While-reading         While-reading                Post-reading;        Theme-related
While-reading         (text organization;   (language points; synonyms   Check           on   language
(text organization)   language points)      for ―down-home‖ )            students‘    home    learning tasks
                                            Post-reading                 reading (Text B)
                                            (indirect description)


Pre-reading tasks
1. Background Knowledge
down-home: characterized by the simple informal qualities of rural people esp. of the southern
   US.
1 Rolls-Royce: any of the large, expensive, comfortable cars made by the British company
   Rolls-Royce. Many people recognize them by the small statue on the front of every
   Rolls-Royce car. The company was formed in 1905-1906 by Charles Rolls (1877-1910) and
   Henry Royce (1863-1933) and also produces aircraft engines. The Rolls-Royce company was
   brought by the German company Volkswagen in 1998. The name Rolls-Royce is also used
   informally to refer to the best product of a particular type.
2 dime store: a store offering a wide assortment of inexpensive items, formerly costing five or
   ten cents, for personal and household use.
3 Wal-Mart: any of a large chain of shops in the US selling a wide a range of goods at low
   prices. The first Wal-Mart Discount City was opened in 1962 by Sam Walton.
4 Ford Motor Company: a large US company that makes cars. It was established in Detroit in
   1903 by Henry Ford, and the first Model T was sold in 1908. The company has produced the
   Lincoln since 1922 and the Mercury since 1938.
    Forbes: an American business magazine. It is noted for its list of the richest men and women
    in business. In its November 27, 2000 edition it published one listing the 50 richest men
    businessmen and women in china, headed by Rong Yiren of CITIC with 1.9 billion dollars,
    followed in second place by Liu Yongxin of the Hope Group with 1billion dollars. The
    richest businesswoman on the list was Yang Lan of Sun Television, with 63 million dollars.
2. Warm-up Questions
1.     T asks Ss the following questions on the recoded passage: ___ What happened to Abraham
     Lincoln one day? ( Working as a shop clerk, he overcharged a customer. Although the sum

                                                           9
   was insignificant, Lincoln walked a long distance to return the money.)
    ___ How is the story relate to the theme of the unit --- values? (Abraham Lincoln regarded
honesty as an important value.)
2.    Ss do Cloze B in after-text exercises to learn more about the values of American
   millionaires.
3.    Rich people I know
    1)     Before class, Ss are asked to collect stories, news reports, pictures, books, or even
         video clips(if relevant equipment is available for showing them in class) of rich people.
    2)     In class, Ss form groups of three to four to share what they have collected.
    3)     Groups discuss what values these rich people hold dear.
    4)     Speakers for several groups report their discussion results to the class.
    5)     T reminds Ss to keep these values in mind when they study Text A, and see whether
         Sam Walton cherishes them or not.

While-reading tasks
1. Text organization
1. The text can be divided into three parts. The first part serves as an introduction, the second part
gives a detailed account of the richest American‘s folksy way, and the third describes his devotion
to the Wal-Mart team. Now put down the paragraph numbers of each of the three parts and then
give its main idea.
   Parts         Paragraphs        Main ideas
  Part one       Paras 1 –4        The waiter was disappointed to find that the richest Man in
                                   America led so simple a life.
  Part two       Paras 5 – 13      Being friendly, easy-going and never flashy, Walton carries on
                                   like plain folks and never wants any special treatment.
  Part three     Paras 14 – 22       With the Wal-Mart team in mind, Walton devotes himself heart
                                     and soul to making the business a great success.
2. In part II and part III, we can see a character sketch of the richest man in America. List some of
his character traits and the details that reveal those traits.
    Character Traits                Details
    1) free of self-importance      Waits in line like everyone else to buy shells at the local
                                    Wal-Mart; has no reserved seat in church
    2) friendly and easy-going Ask him employees to call him by his first name
    3) never flashy                 Steer clear of reporters, dreamers, and schemers; manages to
                                    keep himself off the front page
    4) hard working                 Attends sales meeting, the executive pep rally
    5) generous                     Set up a college scholarship fund and a disaster relief fund.
2. Comprehension Questions:
     1)   T asks Ss to scan the text to see if there is any natural dividing lines separating it into
        parts. (The text can be divided into three parts. Between each part, there is a blank line.)
   2)      T draw Ss‘ attention to Text Organization Exercise 1 guides them through the
        directions, so that they can grasp the main function of each part.
   3)     Ss scan the text again to underline all the names mentioned and tell who these person
        are.
   4)     Ss will notice that the text transits from Part II to Part III when the first corporate job –
        corporate affairs director – is mentioned.
2.   T explains language points and gives Ss practice (See language study).
3.   Finding synonyms or synonymous phrases for ―down-home‖.
   1)     T asks some Ss to explain the title of Text A in their own words.
   2)     Ss work alone to find out synonyms or synonymous phrase of r‖down-home‖.
Some Ss report their findings to the class.
3. Text Analysis


                                                  10
     To make a character portrait convincing, an author must refrain from telling reader directly
what the person is like. Instead, he/she lets readers deduce.
    Of all the methods of indirect description, the one used most frequently in text A is quotation.
The author quotes not only Sam Walton himself, e.g. ―The reason for our success… is or people
and the way they‘re treated and the way they feel about their company. They believe thing are
different here, but they deserve the credit‖, but also his townsfolk and colleagues.
     The text begins with an anecdote: how waiter Jamie Beaulieu had anticipated a lavish mansion
at the Waltons, only to find an ordinary-looking household. This kind of beginning lures readers to
go on. There are other anecdotes, like how Sam Walton forgot his wallet and insisted on fetching it
to pay the local barber, and how he lost 4 straight games after a Wal-Mart employee asked him a
question about pricing.
     Sam Walton is a folksy guy, of which a lot of examples are given, examples of how generous
an employer he is are also plentiful.
    Jamie Beaulieu‘s anticipation and the reality he later found out form a contrast. It reveals Sam
Waltons down-home characteristics. When retired company president Ferold F. Arend compared
Sam Walton with his previous employer, we appreciate further Sam Walton‘s generosity.
4. Language Study
1. remote: far away in space or time;
   e.g.: The supply of electricity to remote mountainous villages is one of the local development
          projects in Yunnan province.
         Taming the deserts is no longer a dream of the remote future buy a practical human
          endeavor.
2. discount: amount of money which may be taken off the full piece.
   e.g.: Traditional retailers who have opened cyberstores may offer special discounts to on-line
           shoppers.
   phrase: Give sb a discount of percent
3. Only in America can a billionaire carry on like plain folk : It is only in America that a
   billionaire can live in the same way as ordinary people…
   only: In writing and formal speech, ―only‖ can be put at the beginning of the sentence,
   followed by the word, word group, or clause it modifies, and then an auxiliary or ― be‖ should
   be put before the subject and the main clause.
   e.g.: Only in this way can you achieve the success of the experiment.
   carry on: behave or conduct oneself in a specific way
   e.g.: There’s nothing unusual about them. They carry on just like everybody else.
   get away with: do sth. Wrong or risky without being caught or published
   e.g.: They claimed that they knew how to play the system and get away with it.
4. treatment: the way you deal with sb, or behave towards them( followed by of )
   e.g.: The old woman suffered from bad treatment at the hands of her sons. None of them were
           willing to take care of her.
5. by/ from all accounts: according to what everyone says
   e.g.: Tom, by all accounts, is an excellent student in his college.
6. blend into: if sb. Blends into a particular group or situation, or if they blend in, they seem to
   belong there or are not noticeable, because their behavior is similar to that of the other people
   involved.( used in patterns: blend in, blend into with, blend in with sth.)
   e.g.: What he said reinforced my determination to blend in with my surroundings.
7. throw one’s weight around: behave in an aggressively arrogant way
   e.g.: Mr. Smith is not a good manger, he always throws his weight around.
8. “Look, he's just not that way.”: “ you see, he is not the sort of person to reserve seats for

                                                11
    himself‖
9. It buried the Forbes list at the bottom of Page 2.: The Forbes list was arranged at the
    bottom of page 2 in the Benton County Daily Democrat so that it could be found easily.
10. hold to: keep to
    e.g.: John holds to his belief that you can be successful as long as you work hard.
11. on the run: continuously active and moving about; try to avoid being captured
    e.g.: He has to be on the run from one office to another to get the permit to open a
            take-out restaurant.
12. make up: from the whole of (sth.)
    e.g.: Women make up nearly 50 percent of university entrants.
            The college is made up of fourteen departments and five research centers.
13. liable: likely( to do sth.)
    e.g.: It’s liable to snow heavily tomorrow.
           The sports meeting is liable to be postponed until next week because of the bad weather.
14. loyalty: the quality of staying firm in your friendship or support for sb./sth.; a         strong
    feeling that one wants to be faithful to sb./sth.(follow by to)
    e.g.: Once he made up his mind, General Lee never changed his loyalty to the South.
15. cut prices and margins to the bone: reduce the prices and margins considerably or
    dramatically
16. qualify: have or give (sb.) a legal right ( to sth./ to do sth) ( followed by for or
    infinitive to)
    e.g.: Highly trained staff are well qualified to give practical advice to students when they
             selected courses.
17. option: 1) (in business) an agreement or contract that gives sb. The right to buy or sell sth.
    Such as property or shares at a future date.
        e.g.: Jones has taken an option on the house.
               2) sth. You can choose to do.
        e.g.: She has the option of entering graduate school or starting her professional career.
18. and the like: and other things of the same sort
    if you mention particularly things or people and then add ―and the like‖, you are indicating
    that there are other similar things or people that can be included in what you are saying.
19. cultivate: 1) make a special effort to establish and develop(sth.)
          e.g.: They encourage students to cultivate special interests in theoretical physics
                2) prepare land and grow crops on it.
          e.g.: The remote area has barely been cultivated for decades.
20. who has stunned at such generosity after the stingy employer he left to join Wal-Mart:
       who, having left his stingy employer to join Wal-Mart, was shocked at such generosity by
    Walton
21. deserve: be sth. Or have done sth. for which one should receive (a reward, special treatment,
    etc.); be entitled to ( not in the continuous tense)
        e.g.: I am only partly responsible for the success of the book, my collaborator deserves
                 more credit.
               They deserve a better salary for the job they do.



                                                 12
Post-reading tasks
1. After-text exercises
 1. Finish all the after-text exercises of Unit 2 in textbook
 2. Translation exercises
     在英语中,为了突出某个词、词组或者句子,这时候就要用强调结构。强调结构通常采用变换词序的方
法,或者增加一些用于表示强调的词,或者采用“It is „that”句型。翻译时,要特别注意被强调的句
子成分,一般要把强调语气用适当的汉语表达出来。为了突出强调成分,在汉语译文中可以把强调部分放
在句首,也可以在被强调部分之前加上“的确,究竟,务必,千万,就是,正是”等词用来增加强调语气。
1) 采用倒装或前置来强调 •Only in America can a billionaire carry on like plain folks and get
away with it.
     •只有在美国,一个亿万富翁才能像普通老百姓一样,安稳地过着普普通通的日子。•And louder they
yell.
     •于是大家越喊越起劲。在动词前面加上助动词 do•She did accomplish the task in time.
     •她的确准时完成了任务。•We do have sufficient food and drink.
                    在
     •我们确实有足够的事物和饮料。 what, where, who ,why, how 等疑问词后面加上 the devil, hell, on
                                                                   the
earth, in(或 under)heaven 等词组;在某些否定词或最高级后面也可以加上 on earth•Who the devil is that
woman?
     •那个女人究竟是谁?•What on earth is the matter over there?
     •那里到底发生了什么事情?It is +被强调部分+that…强调句型。•It was I myself who opened the
window.
     •是我自己打开的窗户。•It was not until recently that scientists know much about lung cancer.
     •直到最近,科学家才对肺癌有较多的了解。有些表示程度的形容词或副词,也可以用来增强语气 •You
are the very man I am looking for.
     •你正是我要寻找的人。•Who ever said so?
     •到底是谁说的? Write an informal letter inviting your friend to a party, an informal letter
        accepting the invitation, and another one declining the invitation.
2. Discussion
1.       Using indirect description in portraying a person.
        1)    Ss complete Text Organization Exercise 2 and compare answers with each other.
        2)    T makes Ss think by asking Ss this question: How does the author reveal these
            character traits of Sam Walton? Does he come forward to tell us directly what Sam
            Walton is like?
        3)    T introduces methods of indirect description and writes them down on the blackboard:
            anecdotes, examples, quotes, comparison and contrast, etc.
        4)    Ss work in pairs to find out examples of these methods.
        5)    Some pairs report their findings to the class.
        6)    T urges Ss to adopt these methods when describing a person.
2.       T guides Ss through some after-text exercises.
3.       T checks on Ss‘ home reading (Text B)
4.       Ss do Part IV: Theme-related language learning tasks
5.       T asks Ss to prepare the next unit.




                                                   13
                           Unit 3         Generation Gap
Objectives
Students will be able to:
1. to understand the main idea (Father meddled in children‘s affairs with good intentions, but
   only to find his efforts unwelcome) and structure (three settings, three scenes) of the text;
2. to appreciate the basic elements of a play;
3. to grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;
4. to conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of
   the unit.

Time allotment
1st period          2nd period           3rd period           4th period          5th period
Pre-reading         While-reading        While-reading;       Post-reading;       Part          IV:
While-reading       (introduction to     Post-reading (the    Check          on   Theme-related
(introduction to    plays; Part I)       way they are)        Students‘ home      Language
plays)                                                        reading (Text B)    Learning Tasks

Pre-reading tasks
1. Background Knowledge
1.Family life: Some families are very child-centered. The closest families eat meals at the same
time and spend their free time together. Some families, however, only see each other for a short
time in the evening, and though the children are still considered important, they have to fit in with
the lives of their parents.
      The average day for many families begins with getting the children up and ready for school.
There is usually a rush for everyone to use the bathroom, find clean clothes, eat breakfast, and
catch the bus. In the meantime the parents have to get ready for work themselves. Early mornings
are a scramble for many families.
      The school day usually ends at about 3 p.m. in the US and 4 p.m. in Britain, and the working
day at 5 p.m. or later, so many parents have to make arrangements for their children after school.
They may go to an after-school center or stay with a neighbor‘s children. Older children often do
activities like sports or music at their school, or go home and do their homework. Children often
also have to do chores.
      In many families, the children eat when they get home and their parents eat later. In the
evenings the children play or go and see friends. If everyone is staying in they may watch
television together. May parents make an effort to spend quality time with their children, an hour
or so each day when they give them their full attention.
      American families are often criticized for the way they do things separately, though many
people believe that it is good for children to learn to be independent. From an early age children
are encouraged to decide what they want to do, eat or wear, and their parents try to respect their
opinions.
2. Part-time job: Many American teenagers earn a good portion of their college expanses by
working during the summer as waiters or waitresses, construction workers, mothers‘ helpers, gas
station attendants, telephone operators or messengers. They are not concerned with status. Being


                                                 14
unskilled, they try to find jobs at whatever level they can. They seek not only money, but also
experience. They learn work habits, responsibility, the ability to take orders and to get along with a
boss and different kinds of people.
2. Warm-up Questions
1. T asks Ss the following questions on the song The Times They Are A-changin`:
---- Who should be sitting up and taking notice? Why? (parents, politicians, writers and critics
should listen up, because the times are changing so fast that one can‘t be content with one‘s old
way of life)
---- What does the singer think of his parents‘ way of doing things? (outdated) (5 minutes)
2. Pair interview (23 minutes)
1)      T dictates to Ss the following list of questions:
   ---- When are your parents‘ birthdays and their wedding anniversary?
   ---- Do your parents celebrate your birthday? How about their own birthday celebration?
   ---- In your parents‘ eyes, what are you interested in?
   ---- In your eyes, what are your parents interested in?
   ---- In what areas do your parents want you to improve?
   ---- In what ways do you want your parents to improve?
   ---- Tell of an instance when your parents and you disagree over something.
2)      Ss form pairs to interview each other. If there is an odd number of Ss in the class, one group
     may consist of 3 Ss. The interviewer must note down the answers from the interviewee.
3)      Some Ss report interview results to class.
3. T may lead in to Text A by saying: As we find from our interviews, parents and children do not
   often see eye-to-eye. When parents interfere with their children‘s affairs, they believe that they
   are doing so in the interest of their children. However, the children may not be grateful, as is
   the case in the play we are going to study, Father Knows Better. When you read on, I want you
   to bear this question in mind: despite their complaints, the Thompson children actually love
   their Father very much. Do you yourself show similar attitudes towards your own parents? (2
   minutes)

While-reading tasks
1. Text organization
 1. This play comprises three settings. Can you write them down? The first one has been done for
you.
 No                                         Settings
 1                                          A fast-food restaurant
 2                                          The Thompson family dining room
 3                                          An office at a high school
 2. They play can be divided into three scenes according to the changes in setting as made clear in
the above exercise. Now put down the main idea of each scene.
 Scenes                                   Main Ideas
 Scene One                                Father embarrassed Sean by talking too proudly to the
                                          restaurant Manager.
 Scene Two                                Father embarrassed Diane by persuading a work-mate
                                          into pressing his son to ask her to the senior prom.
 Scene Three                              Father embarrassed Heidi by boasting to an official of
                                          her new school about how bright she was.

2. Comprehension Questions:
1. A brief introduction to plays (25 minutes)
1) T writes down on the blackboard the major components of a play: characters, settings, stage
   directions, language, conflicts, climax, and theme.
2) Ss identify the characters in this play.
3) Ss read the directions for Text Organization Exercises 1 and 2, then scan the play to divide it

                                                 15
   into three parts. T may offer a hint: just read the stage directions put in brackets.
4) T explains the functions of stage directions: to set up stage properties in the proper place; to
   indicate a change in setting; to direct actors‘ movement, gesture, facial expression, tone of
   voice, etc. Then T draws the following illustration on the blackboard:
Up Left                                                                Up Right
Stage Left                  Center Stage                    Stage Right
Down Left                                                              Down Right
                                     Audience
5) T invites one S to read aloud Heidi‘s speech to the audience at the very beginning of the play,
   then ask another S to re-create Heidi‘s words into a complete and grammatical paragraph. They
   may refer to Writing Strategy to see the stylistic differences between speech and writing.
6) T defines conflicts as the essence of a play, a clash of actions, ideas, desires or wills. It may
   happen in three forms: man against man, man against environment, man against himself. When
   a conflict develops to the most intensified point, it becomes a climax. T asks Ss to find out the
   form(s) of conflict in this play as they later go through the text.
7) T explains that, unlike a novelist or short-story writer, a playwright can not come forward,
   interrupt the action, and tell the audience what he/she means by a certain scene or explain to
   them what is going on in the minds of the characters. The audience must conclude by
   themselves what the theme of the play is. T tells Ss that they will do so at the end of reading
   this play.
2. T explains language points in Part I and gives Ss practice (see Language Study). (15 minutes)
3. Ss sum up the main conflict in Part I. (3 minutes)
4. T explains language points in Part II and gives Ss practice (see Language Study). (25
   minutes)
5. Ss sum up the main conflict in Part II. (3 minutes)
6. T explains language points in Part III and gives Ss practice (see Language Study).(15
   minutes)
7. Ss sum up the main conflict in Part III. (3 minutes)
8. Ss sum up the theme of the play. (6 minutes)

3. Text Analysis
      Although a playwright can‘t come forward to speak directly to readers, we may still form a
mental picture of what each character is like.
      Let‘s take Part II for example. From the way they speak, their tone of voice, their facial
expressions and their actions, we find Father, Mother and the three Thompson children life-like.
      Since a brief discussion of Father‘s characteristics is given as a model in the Suggested
Teaching Plan, here we will focus on Mother and the children.
      As we notice, in her speech Mother uses quite a number of do’s and don’ts, please‘s, dear‘s,
and sweetheart‘s. She is the real head of the Thompson household, giving out commands to her
children as well as her husband. Moreover, most times her orders are respected. On the other hand,
knowing her children‘s attitude towards Father‘s meddling, she tries to maintain the peace, as in
the instances when she maintains Father‘s dignity by telling the children ―Don‘t interrupt‖, ―Don‘t
distract your father‖, and ―give your father the respect he deserves‖, or when she tries to divert
the conversation by talking about her dessert.
      The Thompson children respect Mother, as shown by their frequent ―Yes, Mother‖ and ―Sorry,
Mom‖. On the other hand, they are used to Father‘s meddling with their affairs. When Sean and
Heidi find out that this time the bad luck has befallen Diane, they can afford to stand back and
poke a few bemused comments. Diane‘s feelings are entirely different, though. She is put on guard
when Father tells her ―I have a surprise for you.‖ Then she is embarrassed as Father mentions her
feelings toward young Kyle. Later as Father goes on delaying telling the truth, she becomes
hysterical. Finally, when she learns the truth, she loses her temper.
Isn‘t it a wonder that words can tell so much about people?

4. Language Study
1. location: a place or position

                                                16
     Examples: Witnesses showed the police the exact location of the accident.
                  The school is going to move to a new location.
2. Down Right: special term for drama. In this text there are other terms, such as "Down Left".
                   They refer to different parts of the stage.
3. embarrass: make (sb.) feel awkward or ashamed
     Examples: I chose my words carefully in order to avoid embarrassing anyone.
                  It embarrassed him that he had to give a talk in front of a lot of people.
                 adj. embarrassed: (sb.) shy, guilty or ashamed about sth.
     Example: I was really embarrassed when I knocked the cup of tea over my teacher.
4. waiting tables: working as a waiter and serve others with food.
5. dumb: (infml) 1) foolish
     Examples: He was so dumb that he left his keys at home again.
                  Don't be so dumb. You can't get a loan from the bank if you are laid-off.
                        2) unable to speak
     Examples: Children born deaf and dumb can nowadays be taught to speak and lip-read.
                             Martin was born dumb, but he has still managed to get a good job.
6. in unison: acting in the same way at the same time
     Examples: The children find it difficult to play their instruments in unison.
                The international community is ready to work in unison against terrorism.
7. consist of: be made up of
     Examples: The book consists of essays written over the last twenty years.
                  The committee consists of scientists and engineers.
8. a man-to-man talk: a talk that takes place between two men, esp. two men who need to discuss
                   a serious personal matter.
9.... life's dangerous sea: Here the author uses a metaphor. He compares life to an arduous sea
                   voyage.
10. fade: 1) lose color or brightness
       Examples: All color fades -- especially under the impact of direct sunlight.
                            The sunlight gradually faded.
                    2) disappear slowly
       Examples: Her enthusiasm for early-morning exercises faded as the weather was getting
                   colder and colder.
                    They watched the mountains fade into the darkness.
11. overall: 1) in general (adv.)
       Examples: The college has few ways to assess the quality of education overall.
                    Overall, I like Marie, despite her faults.
                  2) including everything; !total, (only before noun)
       Examples: Cut down your overall amount of extracurricular activities and spend more time
                   on your studying.
                    The overall length is 15 feet.
12. trade (sth.) for (sth. else): exchange (sth.) for (sth. else)
       Examples: The farmers traded farm produce for manufactured goods and money.
                         I will trade my stamp collection for your model boat.
13. keep/leave (sb.) in suspense: delay telling (sb.) what they are eager to know


                                              17
      Examples: The audience is kept in suspense to the very end of the play.
                  I won't keep you in suspense any longer. Here are the results of the mid-term
                  exam.
14. interrupt: stop (sb.) from continuing what they are saying or doing
      Examples: My daughter kept interrupting me whenever I spoke.
                  I'm sorry to interrupt, but you're n0t really answering my question.
                  Nobody was allowed to interrupt them while the meeting was in progress.
15. bet: be sure
      Examples: I bet she was late for the meeting on purpose.
                             I bet he'll change his mind again.
16. distract: take (sb.'s attention) away from sth. esp. for a short time (used in the pattern: distract
                  sb./sth.; distract sb./sth, from)
     Examples: Tom admits that playing computer games sometimes distracts him from his
                  homework.
                  A disturbance outside my dormitory distracted my attention.
                  Passengers are requested not to distract the driver's attention while he is driving.
17. My treat: Here it means that Father is going to invite Dan to dinner and pay for it as a friendly
                  act.
18. Very short with her: If you are "short with sb.", you speak briefly and rather rudely to them
          because you are impatient or angry
19. glorious: wonderful
      Examples: It seems a pity to be indoors on such a glorious day.
                    Vivid memories came flooding back of the glorious, romantic sophomore year.
20. hand down: give or leave to people who are younger or come later
      Examples: The art of story-telling is handed down from mother to daughter.
                  She had some jewellery which had been handed down from her grandmother.
21. at any rate: whatever may happen; in any case
          (You use at any rate to indicate that the important thing is what you are saying now, and
            not what was said before.)
      Examples: At any rate, you survived the ear accident.
                  At any rate, we have done one part of the job.
                  Well, at any rate, let me thank you for all you did for me.
22. community: the people living in one place. district, or country, considered as a whole
     Examples: Police work to prevent crime and to protect the lives and property of the people
                  in a community.
                  College students have learned a lot in community service.
23. welfare: good health, happiness, prosperity, etc. of a person or group
      Examples: Parents are responsible for the welfare of their children.
                  Employers should be concerned with the welfare of their employees.
24. narrow down: make (a fist of things) smaller (followed by to)
     Examples: Over a hundred applicants will be narrowed down to a short list of five
                  candidates.
                  The police department attempted to narrow down the list of suspects.
25. exhaust: 1) make (sb.) very tired, either physically or mentally


                                                  18
     Examples: He took to walking long distances in an attempt to physically exhaust himself.
                  Four hours' work almost exhausted her.
                2) use up completely
      Examples: What will we do, now that we've exhausted our reserves of oil?
                  After exhausting all her ready excuses, she could think of nothing else to say.
26. repeatedly: again and again
     Examples: We have repeatedly requested that staff should not be allowed to smoke in the
                 office.
                  I repeatedly warn you not to take the job.
27. come over: (of a feeling) affect
     Examples: A great sense of calm came over me when I realized that I was no longer
                 responsible for the Situation.
                  He has never been so rude to me. What's come over him?
28. Why, back in my ally...: Well,, when I was young (we didn't behave like that) (It implies a
gap between the younger generation and the older generation.)
29. swallow: cause or allow (esp. food or drink ) to go down the throat; hide or suppress a feeling
Examples: I tried to swallow, but my mouth was too dry.
              Chew your food properly before swallowing it.
              Susan had to restrain herself and swallow hard in her position as a housemaid.
30. frank: showing one's thoughts and feelings openly (followed by with/about)
      Examples: To be frank with you, I think you are making a mistake.
                  Our discussions were frank and fruitful.
                  Do you want my flank opinion?
                  It is clear that my students have been frank with me.
31. know better than that/to do sth: be sensible enough not to do sth.
      Examples: You left the door unlocked? I thought you'd know better.
                  He knows better that to judge by appearances.
32. interference: unwanted or unnecessary involvement in sth. (followed by in/with)
      Examples: Her parents' continual interference in our affairs irritated me.
                            Your interference in his private affairs is unreasonable.
33. constant: 1) without stopping
      Examples: I have had a constant headache for three days.
                  He left the office because he could no longer stand the constant gossip.
                  2) unchanging
      Examples: Driving at a constant speed saves gas.
                  The temperature in the museum is maintained at a constant 16 degrees Celsius.
                  The price of the product is not constant but varies with supply and demand.
34. in charge of: having control (over) or responsibility (for)
      Examples: Who is in charge of the club's finances?
                  The executive in charge of the project was having some difficulties in
                    negotiating terms with the contractors.
                  He was left in charge of the shop while the manager was away.
35. exceptional." unusual
      Examples: Ann showed exceptional musical ability at the age of four.


                                                19
                    Stephen was an exceptional man with great business talents.
                    The movie was pretty good, but not exceptional.
36. trill out: complete (a document or form) by supplying required information
           To fill out a form means the same as to fill in a form.
      Examples: Please fill out the application form and send it back by January 10.
                    The policeman filled out a report of the accident.
                    The old man filled out the form and signed it at the bottom.
37. proof: evidence or facts that are sufficient to establish a thing as true or believable
      Examples: The executive produced documents in proof of his claim.
                    Her fingerprints left on the scene were a proof of her guilt.
                    Researchers in America have found proof that non-smokers can develop cancer
                      by working in smoky rooms.
                    I know you visited the house. I have proof.
38. talented: gifted
      Examples: Jackie Chen has a huge army of young fans, and is extremely talented.
                    Mozart was a talented musician.
39. junior: 1) younger (followed by to)
           (abbrs.: Jr. or jr., used after the name of a person who has the same as his father, e.g.
            Tom Brown, Jr.)
      Examples: Jane is several years junior to her husband.
                    Do you want John Brown Senior or John Brown Junior, the father or the son?
                 2) lower in rank than others
      Examples: Having worked for five years, Jack is still a junior clerk in the office.
                    Michael had been a junior clerk for three years before he was promoted to senior
                      clerk,

Post-reading tasks
1. After-text exercises
   1. Finish all the after-text exercises in Textbook
   2. Find some information about play and learn them by yourselves
   3. Read a famous play, e.g. Shakespear‘s plays, and write a composition to present your view on
the play.
2. Discussion
   1. Do you like this play? Please tell us why?
   2. What is Mother‘s role in the play? Does she take side with Father or the children? How do
you know?
   3. How do you understand the title ―Father Knows Better‖?
   4. What do you think causes the generation gap?




                                                20
                            Unit 4        The Virtual World
Objectives
Students will be able to:
1. to understand the main idea (despite the many negative effects of virtual life, the author prefer
   it to real life) and structure of the text (contrast between virtual life and real life) ;
2. to learn some rules of interpreting new vocabulary and usage related to computers and the
   Internet in English;
3. to grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;
4. to conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of
   the unit.

Time allotment
1st period    2nd period            3rd period                   4th period          5th period
Pre-reading   While-reading         While-reading (language      Post-reading; Theme-related
              (text organization;   points; ―find‖ structure;    Check on Ss‘ Language
              language points)      consequences of virtual      home reading Learning Tasks
                                    life)                        (Text B)

Pre-reading tasks
1. Background knowledge:
1. the internet: an international computer network for the exchange of information. It was
originally used mainly in the academic and military worlds but has since become available to the
large and increasing number of people with personal computers. Other services, e.g. the World
Wide Web, are available through it.
       The Internet is changing our lives and a parallel universe is rapidly emerging online. Today
there‘s scarcely an aspect of our life that isn‘t being pended by the torrent of information available
on the hundreds of millions of sites crowding the Internet, not to mention its ability to keep us in
constant touch with each other via electronic mail. The Internet is saving companies billions of
dollars in producing goods and serving the needs of their customers. Nothing like it has been seen
since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, when power-driven machines began producing
more in a day than men could turn out in nearly a year. The Internet and e-commerce are viewed
as a global mega-trend along the lines of the printing press, the telephone, the computer and the
electricity.
       You would be hard pressed to name something that isn‘t available on the Internet. Consider
books, health care, movie tickets, baby clothes, stocks, real estate, toys and airline tickets.
American kids today are so computer savvy that it virtually ensures the United States will remain
the unchallenged leader in cyberspace for the foreseeable future. Most kids use computers to play
games and have email chats with friends.
       What‘s clear is that, whether we like it or not, the Internet is an ever-growing part of our
lives and there is no turning back.
2. NBC (the National Broadcasting Company): the first of the original three US national
broadcasting companies. It was established in 1926 by Radio Corporation of America as two
groups of radio stations. The first NBC television channel opened in 1940. The company is now
owned by General Electric. Its main offices are at Rockefeller Center in New York.
3. PBS (the Public Broadcasting Service): (in the US) a television system that broadcasts
programs to an association of local stations which use no television advertisements and do not
make a profit. It was established by the Public Broadcasting Act and is supported by money from
the US Government, large companies and the public. PBS is known for the high quality of its
programs.
4. ABC (the American Broadcasting Company): one of the original three major television


                                                 21
networks in America. It began in 1943 as the Blue Network of sic radio stations. ABC is now
owned by the Walt Disney Company.

2. Warm-up questions:
1.T asks Ss the following questions on the poem Surfing the Internet:
---- What was the hero doing when his boss came in? (surfing the Internet)
---- How did he act in front of his boss? (he pretended to be surprised at the computer which had
crashed ―unexpectedly‖) (5 minutes)
2. Ss look at the theme of this unit (The Virtual World) and the title of Text A (A Virtual Life), then
try to:
---- find antonyms of ―virtual world‖ and ―virtual life‖; (real world, real life)
----suggest synonyms for ―virtual world‖; (cyberspace, cyberia, etherworld, virtual reality, Internet
world, net world, etc.)
---- say what people can do on the Internet (communicating with people, shopping, reading,
entertainment, education, working, hacking, publishing, etc. ) (10 minutes)
3. Imaginative writing
1) T dictates to Ss the following paragraph:
      For the past two weeks, other participants of the Net Survival Contest (网络生
存竞赛)and I have been shut up in bare hotel rooms. Our only link to the real world has been a
computer that is hooked up to the Internet (联网电脑). We have relied on it, not only for food,
bed sheets and other daily necessities, but also to set up an e-business (电子商务)of our own.
2) Now Ss will complete the next paragraph beginning with: ―Now it is time for me to walk out
    into the light of day again…‖ They will give their imagination full play. They will write no
    more than 100 words.
3) Ss form groups of four to five, and read aloud to each other their own writings.
4) T asks some Ss groups to recommend the best piece in their group to the class. (28 minutes)
5. T may lead in to Text A by saying: Some of us like to live a life in contact with real things and
   real people, but others favor a virtual existence. Which life is better? I‘m sure you have
   different opinions. Now let‘s read Text A to find out what Maia Szalavitz has to say about these
   two life styles. (2 minutes)

While-reading tasks
1. Text organization
1. In terms of content all the paragraphs in this essay could be regrouped into four sections as
indicated in the table belongs to. The first section has been done for you.
  Contents                                                               Paragraphs
  1. Description of the author‘s virtual life                            2–3
  2. How she feels bout it after staying on the Net for a while          1, 4 – 10, 13
  3.What she does in trying to return to the real world                  11
  4. How she feels about the real day-to-day world                       12
2. Compare the first paragraph with the last, and think about their role in the essay.
  (Suggested answer: The first paragraph tells about the consequences of living a virtual life and
the last tells about the author‘s return to it. Together, they show us the dilemma people at present
are in: Because of modern technology, we have a choice between a virtual life and real life, but we
find both unsatisfactory. The author, however, finally had to choose the latter despite its negative
effects.)

2. Comprehension Questions:
1.Text organization (15 minutes):
1)    T draws Ss' attention to Text Organization Exercise 1, and lets them read its instructions as
    well as what has already been done for them in this exercise.
2)    Ss try to complete the exercise by simply reading the first sentence of each paragraph in
    Text A.
3)    Ss compare answers with each other; if necessary, T may help.

                                                  22
2.T explains the key language points and gives Ss practice (see Language Study). (45 minutes)
3.T guides Ss through Structure Exercise 2. (10 minutes)
4.Ss re-read paragraphs 4-10, work in pairs to find out consequences of ―my‖ virtual life. Can they
  use the ―find oneself + adj./ past participle/present participle‖ structure when summing up the
  consequences? (10 minutes)
5. Some Ss pair report to class their findings, using the ‗find‖ structure. (5 minutes)


3. Text Analysis
      The most dynamic combining forms/prefixes for new computer-and-Internet-related
vocabulary in English are cyber-, virtual, Net- (net-), Web-(web), and E-(e-).
      New English vocabulary items derived from them usually appear in the following forms:
     1. combining forms/prefixes + noun: this is the most common type, e.g. virtual life(虚拟生
活), virtual world(虚拟世界), virtual community(虚拟社区), virtual office(虚拟办公室),
          (
virtual pet 虚拟宠物) virtual reality
                        ,              (虚拟现实) cyber-interaction
                                                       ,                (网络互动) cyberculture
                                                                                   ,
(网络文化), cybernut(网虫), cyberpet(电子宠物), cyberspace(网络空间), netwriter
(发送电子邮件的人) nethead     ,                               (
                                (网虫) Webmaster 网站维护者) Web page 网页) website
                                          ,                           ,        (       ,
(网站), Web TV(网络电视机), E-book(电子书籍), E-shopper 网上购物者), e-card(电
子贺卡), e(-)mail(电子邮件), e-journal(电子杂志), e-business(电子商务), e-cash
(电子货币), e-commerce(电子商务).
     2. combining forms/prefixes + verb: e.g. cybersurf(网络漫游), net surf(网络漫游),
websurf(网络漫游), email (发送电子邮件)
     3. words like cyber, net, etc. + suffix: e.g. cyberian(cyber + ian,网络用户), cyberphobia
(cyber + phobia,电脑恐惧症), cybernaut (cyber + naut 网络用户), netter (net + er 网民), Webify
(web + fy 使万维网化), cyberize (cyber + ize,使联网).
     4. clipped word: cyberdoc (cyber + doctor,网络医生), Netcast (Net + broadcast,网络播
放), Netiquette (Net + etiquette,网规), Netizen (Net + citizen,网民), Netpreneur (Net +
entrepreneur,网络企业家), Webcam (Web + camera,网络摄像机), Webcasting (Web +
broadcasting,网络播放), Webliography (Web + bibliogrpahy,网络书目), Webnomics (Web +
economics,网络经济), Webzine (Web + magazine,网络杂志), e-tailing (electronic + retailing,
电子零售), e-zine (electronic + magazine,电子杂志).

4. Language Study:
     1. virtual: a. created and existing only in a computer
          e.g. I can visit a virtual store and put what I want in my basket at the click of a mouse
          button.
             b. being or acting as what is described, but not accepted as such in name or officially
           e.g. Our deputy manager is the virtual head of the business.
     2.     Interpret: a. understand (sth. said, ordered, or done)
           e.g. She interprets the dream as an unconscious desire to be young again.
             b. give or provide the meaning of , explain
             e.g. This dream can be interpreted in several different ways.
             c. translate what is said in one language into another
             e.g. No one in the tour group spoke Spanish so we had to ask the guide to interpret.
     3.     stretch: (cause to ) become longer, wider, etc. without breaking
              e.g. My working day stretches from seven in the morning to eight at night.
     4.     submit: give (sth.) to sb. so that it may be formally considered (followed by to)
            e.g. You should submit your reports to the committee.
     5.     edit : revise or correct


                                                  23
        e.g. Jack is busy editing shakespeare‘s plays for use in schools.
        Relevant forms: editor, editorial
6.    the Internet: the worldwide network of computer links which allow computer users to
      connect with computers all over the world, and which carries electronic mail
        e.g. Whether we like it or not, the Internet is an ever-growing part of our lives.
7.    at times= sometimes
8.    take in: absorb (sth.) into the body by breathing or swallowing
        e.g. Fish take in oxygen through their gills.
9.    data: information, usu.in the form of facts or statistics that you can analyze e.g. The data
      is still being analyzed, so I can‘t tell you the results.
10.   spit: send (liquid, food, etc.)out from the mouth (used in the pattern: spit sth. (out )
        (at/on/onto sb./sth.)
      e.g. The baby spat its food out on the table.
11.   on line: connected to or controlled by a computer (network)
        e.g. Our system is online to the main computer.
12.   symptom: a. sign of the existence of sth. bad
        e.g. High interest rates are a symptom of a weak economy.
       b. change in the body that indicates an illness
       T asks Ss to make sentence by means of ―symptom‖:
       感冒、发烧、头痛是流感的通常症状。A cold, fever and headache are the usual
       symptoms of flu.
13.   conversely: in a way that is opposite to sth.
        e.g. You can add the fluid to the powder or, conversely, the powder to the
        fluid.
14.   but then: yet at the same time
        e.g. The failure of China‘s soccer team looks inevitable. But then , anything can happen
        in football.
15.   jar: have a harsh or an unpleasant effect (used in the pattern: jar sth., jar on sb./ sth.)
        e.g. The loud bang jarred my nerves.
        e.g. Her squeaky voice jarred on me.
16.   suck in: (usu. passive ) involve (sb.) in an activity, an argument, etc., usu. against their
      will ( used in the pattern: suck sb. in/into sth.; suck in)
      e.g. I don‘t want to get sucked into the debate about school reform.
17.   keep up with: learn about or be aware of (the news.etc.)
        e.g. Carrie likes to keep up with the latest fashions.
18.   Work moves into the background: Work becomes secondary to me.
19.   in sight: a. visible
        e.g. It was early in the morning and there wasn‘t anyone in sight on campus. b. likely to
        come soon
        e.g. Two months passed, and victory was not yet in sight.
20.   emotional: a. of the emotions
        e.g. It‘s quite difficult to handle emotional problems.
       b. having emotions that are easily excited
       e.g. It‘s said that the Italians are more emotional than we are.


                                              24
    21. cue: anything that serves as a signal about what to do or say (followed by to/for)
          e.g. When I nod my head, that‘s your cue to give flowers to him.
    22. I say a line: I type a line on the screen.
    23. abuse: wrong or bad use or treatment of sth./sb.
           e.g. The WHO has published a report on drug abuse and addiction.
    24. restore: bring back to a former condition (used in the pattern: restore sth.; restore sb. to
        sth.)
    25. flee: run away (from) (used in the pattern: flee from/to; flee someplace)
        e.g. During the war, thousands upon thousands of Afghans fled the country.
    26. Interview: a. a meeting at which a journalist asks sb. questions in order to find out their
        news
          e.g. Radio interviews are generally more relaxed than television ones.
         b. a formal meeting at which sb. applying for a job is asked questions, as a way of
              judging how suitable they are
         e.g. She has had a couple of job interviews, but no offers.
         c. v.
         e.g. As a journalist, he interviewed many government officials.
    27. click: press or release a mouse button rapidly, as to select an icon (followed by on)
          e.g. When shopping online, you just click the mouse and order what you want to buy.

Post-reading tasks
1. After-text exercises
1.Finish all the after-text exercises of Unit 4 in the textbook.
2. Besides the words listed in the text analysis, find more examples of compounding words for
each type. Collect as more words related to computer as possible.
3. Write a short passage to comment your virtual life.
2. Discussion
1. When do you begin your virtual life? What do your virtual life is like?
2. Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of your virtual life and its effect on yourselves.
3. What kind of life, virtual life or real life, will you lead in your future?




                                                25
                        Unit 5          Overcoming Obstacles

Objectives
Students will be able to :
1. to grasp the main idea (dreaming and hard work helped Michael Stone on his way to success)
   and the structure of the text (narration with a flashback);
2. to appreciate the narrative skills (using details to bring out a character; a surprising ending; use
   of puns);
3. to master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;
4. to conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of
   the unit.

Time allotment
1st period             2nd period        3rd period        4th period                  5th period
Pre-reading;           While-reading     While-reading     Post-reading (play on       Theme-related
While-reading (text    (language         (closing line;    the meaning of words;       Language
organization;          points)           usage       of    exercises);                 Learning
language points)                         ―work‖;           Check on students‘          Tasks
                                         details)          home reading (Text B)

Pre-reading tasks
1. Background Knowledge
1. Sports: Sports play an important part in American life. Professional baseball and (American)
football games attract large crowds, and may people watch games on television. Although many
parents complain about their children being couch potatoes (=people who spend a lot of time
watching television), there are sports sessions at school for all ages. College students are usually
also required to take physical education classes to complete their studies.
2. Olympics: The Olympic Games are the most important international sports event in the world
held every four years.
      The ancient Olympic Games were held in Olympia every four years from 776 B.C. to 392
A.D. The modern Games were first held in 1896 in Greece and, with the exception of three games
not held because of the two world wars, have been held in various cities of the world at regular
4-year internals. Since 1924, a separate program of winter sports has been added to the Games. In
2008 Bejing will host the 29th Olympic Games.
      The Olympic symbol --- five interlocking red, blue, yellow, black, and green circles on a
white field --- represents the continents of the world joined in friendship.
      The Olympic motto is Citius – Altius – Fortius. These words mean ―Swifter, Higher,
Stronger‖.
      The Olympic Games are organized and governed by the International Olympic Committee
(IOC). It has offices in Lausanne, Switzerland. The committee has made many decisions that
affect the modern Olympics. For example, in 1912, the Committee decided to allow women to
compete in the Games.

2. Warm-up Questions

                                                  26
1. T asks Ss the following questions on the song Coming out of Dark:
---- Consider the title of the song, what does ―Dark‖ refer to? (near death; loss of consciousness
after the car accident; slow and painful recovery; despair)
---- How is the song related to the theme of the unit? (to get over despair after injury is also a form
of overcoming obstacles) (5 minutes)
2. Do you know these proverbs? (13 minutes)
1) T dictates the following proverbs to Ss:
---- Where there‘s a will, there‘s a way. (有志者事竟成。           )
---- Rome wasn‘t built in a day. (伟业非一日之功/罗马非朝夕建成。                          )
----God helps those who help themselves. (皇天不负有心人/自助者天助。                        )
---- You shall reap what you sow. (种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆;一分耕耘,一分收获。                                   )
---- Constant dripping wears away the stone. (锲而不舍,金石可镂。                    )
2) Ss try to translate these proverbs into Chinese;
3) Ss scan Text A to find a similar saying by Michael‘s father, which is in italics. (If you want
    something, work for it! / You want something, work for it!)
3. T may lead in to the text by saying: Hard work is important to success, but it is not the only
   factor that contributes to success. As we will find out in this text, dreaming is equally important.
   (2 minutes)

While-reading tasks
Text Organization
1. Organizationally the text could break into four parts. Part One narrates the most challenging
competition in Michael‘s career. In Part Two, the author goes back to talk about Michael‘s
childhood dreams. Part Three resumes the narration of the competition, and Part Four serves as a
conclusion. Now put down the paragraph numbers of each part and then give its main idea. The
last one has been done for you:
 Parts        Paragraphs      Main Ideas
 Part One     Paras 1 – 2     Most challenging competition in his pole-vault career.
 Part Two     Paras 3 – 5     Childhood was marked with dreams and tough training
 Part         Paras 6 – 12    Topped his personal best, won the championship and set a new
 Three                        world record.
 Part Four    Paras 13        What was most unusual about Michael‘s victory was that he was
                              blind.
2. As the text consist of the main story and a flashback, the narration has to switch from the
ongoing competition to earlier events and then return to the ongoing competition. How, then, does
the author manage to make these parts in the text flow smoothly?
One way is to repeat a key word in the last sentence of a paragraph in the first sentence of the next
paragraph. Now find out the key word that helps join Part One and Part Two, and then copy down
the two sentences that contain it.
(Suggested answer: It also the element of flying, and the thought of flying as high as a two-story
building is a mere fantasy to anyone watching such an event.
     As long as Michael could remember he had always dreamed of flying.)
Another way is to pick up a key idea from a previous paragraph and repeat it in the sentence
introducing the next paragraph. Now find the key idea that helps join Part Two and Part Three, and
then copy down the sentence that uses it.
(Suggested answer: All of Michael‘s vaults today seemed to be the reward for his hard work.)



                                                  27
2. Comprehension Questions:
1.Text Organization (17 minutes)
1)     T guides Ss through the directions for Text Organization Exercise 1, so that they know the
     text consists of four parts.
2)     Ss scan the first sentence of Paras. 1-6, and get ready to answer the following questions:
-- Which first sentence switches from past tense to past perfect tense? (the first sentence of Para. 3)
( T may as well tell Ss this: a story is usually narrated in the simple past tense. When a past event
is recalled, the past perfect tense will be used as a signal. Afterwards the flashback is also narrated
in the simple past tense.)
-- Which first sentence shows that the flashback is over and the narration returns to the National
Junior Olympics? (the first sentence of Para. 6)
-- By now, do you know how to divide the text into four parts? Write down your answers in the
blanks provided in Text Organization Exercise 1.
3) Ss do Text Organization Exercise 2.
2.     T explains language points and gives Ss practice (see Language Study). When they come to
     the end of a part, Ss will sum up its main idea in the blanks provided in Text Organization
     Exercise 1 (60 minutes).
3.     Ss answer these questions (see Text Analysis)(8 minutes):
-- Without the last sentence, would you still admire Michael Stone‘s achievement?
-- Who would you admire better, a Michael Stone with a sound body or a blind Michael Stone?
-- Why does the author keep the secret about Michael‘s blindness until the last sentence?
4. Usage (15 minutes)
1)     Ss scan the text again to find out the three instances where ―work‖ is used as a verb.
2)     T asks some Ss to explain in English the three different meanings of ―work‖.
3)     Ss do the after-text Usage exercise on ―work‖.
5. Finding out details (20 minutes)
1) T introduces the activity by saying: A child usually inherits characteristics from both his/her
    mother and father. So does Michael Stone. Michael‘s mother is romantic and passionate, while
    his father is a hard-core realist. Work with a partner, find out those details about Michael Stone
    that shows him to be his mother‘s boy or his father‘s son.
2) Some Ss pairs report to class their findings.
3) T asks Ss this question: Dreaming and hard work, which is more important to Michael‘s
    success? Why?

3. Text Analysis
     Those who have read this story will probably agree that its most striking feature is the closing
line. As we read on, our admiration for Michael is building up until we believe that, when Michael
broke both national and international records, we have reached the climax. However, the real
climax is in the last sentence. When we find that out, what a great impact it has on us!
    The text plays on words on more than one occasion. The text title, True Height, itself has more
than We may understand it as the new bar heights that Michael cleared one after another, or we
may view it as the tremendous obstacles Michael had overcome in attaining his goal. The word
―hot‖ in the first paragraph also plays on two different meanings, one literal, the other figurative.
    We will also notice how the author uses details skillfully. How do we know that Michael‘s
success at pole-vaulting is especially significant? We know it by inferring, because even ―Bert ‗If
You Want It, Work For It‘ Stone was crying like a baby in his wife‘s arms. He was crying harder
than a passion for detail? Because the author told us in detail how he had followed a rigid training
program, as well as how he appeared unmoved by his own success and going on doggedly to scale
a new height, not once forgetting ―his routine of three finger-tipped push-ups‖.


4. Language Study
1. bear out: prove that (sth.) is true
    e.g. The evidence that the US Central Intelligence Agency has obtained bears out their claims


                                                 28
      that Bin Laden is closely related to the September11 terrorist attacks in the USA.
 2. mere = nothing more than
 3. fantasy: imagination, esp. when it has no connection at all with reality
    e.g. I still have the fantasy that one day I will win the National Lottery.
 4. numerous = very many
 5. passion = zeal, enthusiasm
 6. detail: relevant forms----- detailed, in detail, go into detail(s)
 7. recur = reappear
 8. coincide: a. happen at the same time (followed by with)
    e.g. The art exhibition coincides with the 50th anniversary of his death.
    b. be in agreement (with)
    e.g. Our interests coincide.
 9. alternate: every other or second; happening by turns
    e.g. We spend alternate Sundays with my husband‘s parents.
 10. on one/two/several occasion(s): once/twice/several times in the past.
     e.g. He drinks far too much. On occasion I saw him drink a whole bottle of vodka.
 11. be ashamed of: feeling foolish or uncomfortable because of (sth.)
     e.g. You should be ashamed of yourself, telling lies at your age.
 12. startle = surprise, astonish
 13. intensity: the state of being intense
     e.g. The mayor didn‘t realize the intensity of people‘s feelings on the housing issue.
 14. anxiety: adj. anxious
     collocations: be anxious about /for 焦急,担忧
                     be anxious for 渴望,盼望
                     be anxious to do 渴望干…
     T asks Ss to make sentences by means of the relevant collocations:
     我们盼望着你的平安归来。We are anxious for your safe return.
     她渴望见到她的父母。 She is anxious to see her parents.
 15. tension: worry or nervousness
     e.g. Tensions between India and Pakistan have risen since the December 13 attack on the
      Indian Parliament.
 16. along with: together with
     e.g. Along with hundreds of others he had invested money in stocks and bonds.
 17. stretch out: hold a part of your body straight our in front of you
     e.g. She stretched out a hand and lifted the glass to her lips.
 18. bring (sb.) back to earth: cause (sb.) to return to reality
     e.g. Emily‘s voice brought him back to earth.
 19. in one’s mind’s eye: in one‘s imagination; in one‘s memory
     e.g. In his mind‘s eye, she is still a shy girl.
 20. media: (collective n.)
     e.g. Much of what children learn comes directly from the mass media.

Post-reading tasks
1 After-text exercises
1. Playing on the meaning of words. (see Text Analysis) (15 minutes):

                                               29
1) T introduces the idea that many words have more than one meaning and can remind one of a
  number of different ideas and events all at once.
2) Ss read the first three sentences of the text to find out where the author uses a word in two
  different senses (the word ―hot‖ meaning respectively ―having a high temperature‖ and ―fierce,
  intense‖)
3) Ss give individual opinion on this question: How do you understand the title of this text? Does
  it also carry more than one meaning?
4) Extra reading for fun (This can be either an in-class or out-of-class group discussion. The
  words that can recall the discoveries of the scientists are underlined.): Here the poet plays on
  words. Each line has a word or words that remind us of an activity or discovery associated with
  the scientist mentioned. Can you spot the words?
REPLYING TO AN INVITATION TO A SCIENTISTS‘ BALL

Pierre and Marie Curie were radiating enthusiasm;
Einstein thought it would be relatively easy to attend;
Volta was electrified and Archimedes, buoyant at the thought;
Ampere was worried he wasn‘t up to current research;
Ohm resisted the idea at first;
Boyle said he was under too much pressure;
Edison thought it would be an illuminating experience;
Watt reckoned it would be a good way to let off steam;
Wilbur Wright accepted, provided he and Orville could get a flight;
Morse‘s reply: ― I‘ll be there on the dot. Can‘t stop now – must dash.‖
2. T guides Ss through some after-text exercises. (20 minutes)
3. T checks on Ss‘ home reading (Text B). (3 minutes)
4. Ss do Part IV: Theme-related Language Learning Tasks. (1 period)
5. T asks Ss to prepare the next unit:
1) do the pre-reading task;
2) preview Text A. (2 minutes)

2. Discussion
  1. Summarize what you have learned from this unit.
  2. Share your opinion with your classmates
  3. Discuss the writing skills in text A and text B, and compare them




                                                 30
                        Unit 6          Women, Half the Sky

Objectives
Students will be able to:
1. to grasp the main idea (the belief in superwomen encourages average women to achieve their
   goals) and structure of the text;
2. to appreciate how the author achieves coherence for her essay;
3. to master key language points and grammatical structures in the text;
4. to conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of
    the unit.

Time allotment
1st period       2nd period         3rd period          4th period                5th period
Pre-reading;     While-reading      While-reading       While-reading             Post-reading;
While-reading    (Brooklyn          (language           (structure);              Check          on
(Brooklyn        Bridge;            points;      text   Post-reading              students‘ home
Bridge)          language           organization)       (coherence; after-text    reading (Text B);
                 points)                                exercises)                Writing

Pre-reading tasks
Background Knowledge:
1. Feminism: In the 1960s feminism ( = belief that women and men are equal in abilities and
should have equal rights and opportunities) became the subject of intense debate when the
women‘s liberation movement encouraged women to reject their traditional supporting role and to
demand equal status and equal rights with men in areas such as employment and pay.
    Since then the gender gap between the sexes has been reduced. However, the battle between
feminist and traditional views of a woman‘s role continues. It is widely accepted by younger
people that women should, if they wish, be allowed to develop their careers and not give up work
when they have a family.
    Feminism has brought about many changes in the English language. Many words for job titles
that included ―man‖ have been replaced, for example ―police officer‖ is used instead of
―policeman‖ and ―chairperson‖ for ―chairman‖. ―He‖ is now rarely used to refer to a person when
the person could be either a man or a woman. The title ―Ms‖ is used for women instead of ―Miss‖
or ―Mrs‖, since it does not show whether a woman is married or not.
2. Oklahoma: a southern central state of the US. The capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. It
produces oil, gas, coal, wheat and cotton.
3. the Brooklyn Bridge: the bridge over the East Rive in New York City that connects Manhattan
with Brooklyn. It was opened in 1883 and has a length of 1595 feet (486 meters). The expression
selling the Brooklyn to somebody means tricking them in a deal.

2. Warm-up Questions:
1. T asks Ss the following questions on the song I Am Woman (5 minutes):
---- Why can‘t women be ignored? (because of their huge numbers)
---- What happens to women if you try to break their will? (You can bend them but you can
never break them. It only serves to make them more determined to achieve their final goal.)
2. Free writing: Ss write for 5 minutes answering the question: ― Is my mother busy? What are
   her main tasks in daily life?‖ (5 minutes)
3. Group discussion (20 minutes)
1) Ss form groups of four to five, read aloud to each other what they have written down;
2) T draws Ss' attention to the discussion topics under Theme-Related Language Learning

                                                 31
    Tasks;
3) Ss discuss the questions within the group. T may remind them that they can draw on the
    discussion when writing the essay required by Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks;
4) Some student groups report to the class their discussion results.
4. T may lead in to Text A by saying: Whether you like it or not, women in many cases have to
   take up more responsibilities than men. That‘s why the author of Text A, Adrienne Popper,
   writes: ―Men have generally been assured that achieving their heart‘s desires would be a piece
   of cake. Women, of course, have always believed that we can‘t have our cake and eat it too.‖
   What she means is that men are encouraged to achieve their goals in life, but women know that
   they can only achieve some goals at the expense of other goals. However, there are
   superwomen in the real world who is capable of great deeds as well as enjoying life. It is they
   who give the average woman the courage to go on. (5 minutes)

While-reading tasks
Text organization
1. The text could be divided into parts in several ways organizationally. The division below is just
one of them. Now try to think out the main idea of each part and write them down.
 Parts        Paragraphs       Main Ideas
 Part One     Paras 1 – 3      Despite her friend‘s advice, the author, unable to resist the
                               temptation, falls for superwomen stories again.
 Part Two     Paras 4 – 7      Her encounter with a superwoman and its impact on her.
 Part         Paras 8 – 11     She tells about what prevents her from becoming a superwoman
 Three                         herself.
 Part Four Paras 12 – 14 She analyzes why she is still fascinating by modern superwomen
                               tales.
 Part Five    Paras 15         She comes to the conclusion that to her, admiring a heroine is
                               something worth doing.
The author explains how difficult it is to be a superwoman mainly by _____
 A. analysis     B. contrast C argumentation D. personal experiences             [ key: D ]

2. Comprehension Questions:
1. What is ―the Brooklyn Bridge‖? (25 minutes)
1)    T asks several Ss to speculate on the meaning of title of Text A, I’m Going to Buy the
   Brooklyn Bridge;
2)    Ss read the first two paragraphs to understand why a friend said that ―if I believed
   everything in the report, she had a bridge in Brooklyn she‘d like to sell me‖;
3)    T invites some Ss to give alternative terms for ―a bridge in Brooklyn‖; (an incredible story,
   something impossible, etc. Folktales about people who are so gullible they have been
   persuaded to buy a well-known landmark by confidence tricksters are numerous in America
   and elsewhere.)
4)    Ss scan the text and underline sentences containing the word ―bridge‖;
    (Para. 12: Despite my friend‘s warning against being taken in, despite everything
    I‘ve learned, I find that I‘m not only willing, but positively eager to buy that
    bridge she mentioned.
   Para. 15: Then I‘ll tell her a story: the tale of a woman who bought her own
   version of that bridge in Brooklyn and found that it was a wise investment after
   all.)
5)    T explains the two sentences to Ss;
   (Para. 12: Although my friend had warned me not to believe in the stories about any
   incredibly successful woman, I am still willing to believe that they are true.
   Para. 15: Then I will tell her about myself: how I believed in superwomen tales and how this
   belief had encouraged me to attain my own goal.)
6)    T draws Ss' attention to Text Organization Exercise 1. Ss will notice that the appearance of
   the word ―bridge‖ coincides with a new part of the text (see Text Analysis).


                                                32
2. T explains language points and gives Ss practice (see Language Study) (60 minutes)
3. Ss finish Text Organization Exercise 1. T may mention that the first three parts may well be
grouped under one topic – I am fascinated by superwomen. (10 minutes)
4. ―Getting to‖ know a structure (15 minutes)
1) Ss finish the after-text Structure Exercise on ―get to‖;
2) Ss form pairs to re-read Paragraphs 4-7. Then, based on these paragraphs, one S will ask a
    question containing ―get to‖, to which the other S will provide an answer; (T may give the
    following model:
---- How did the author get to meet a superwoman face to face?
---- Her work took her to the superwoman‘s office.)
3) Some student pairs re-run their question-and-answer dialogues to the class.

3. Text Analysis
     As mentioned in Writing Strategy for this unit, there are three main ways of achieving
coherence: the use of transitional words and phrases, repetition of key words and phrases, and the
use of parallel structure.
     Text A does employ such transitional words like but, however, yet. Paragraphs 8 to 10
provide a good example of using transitional phrases and sentences, so much so that we can
consider this section as a mini-essay. The topic is made clear by the last sentence of Paragraph 8:
―No matter how carefully I plan my time, the plan always goes wrong.‖ Paragraph 9 goes on to
say that something must go wrong with the kids when ―I‖ make schedules of military precision.
Paragraph 10 states: ―Other days (boldfaced by editors), every item on my schedule will take
three times the number of minutes set aside.‖
     Yet the most striking feature of Text A is the repetition of key words and phrases. The
occurrences of the phrase Brooklyn Bridge or the bridge weave the essay into a coherent piece.
Synonyms like superwoman, superwomen, heroine, supersisters, and superheroines appear five
times to remind readers of the topic of this essay. The five instances where the phrase ―in her spare
time‖ is used to emphasize the amazing fact that some super-capable women can still find spare
time in their tight schedule. On the other hand, synonymous phrases like modern fairy tale, fantasy,
dream, incredible achievements, and extraordinary deeds point out the fact that many people do
not believe in superwomen stories.
     There is no strictly parallel structure in this essay. However, some may regard the comparison
between ―my‖ daily struggle and the achievements of Kate L., the daughter of a politician, the
woman executive, etc. as parallel.
     Interestingly, the author uses many words and phrases related to food. For example, a piece
of cake, you can’t eat the cake and have it too, strawberry jam, a whole box of cookies, soup, juice,
tea, a dieter, a diet without treats, the old low-dream diet ( note that it was coined on the basis of
―low-fat diet‖), to devour, to bake cakes. Don‘t they reflect the traditional role of women as
food-providers?

5. Language Study:
1. bulletin: e.g. The company publishes an annual staff bulletin.
2. draft: a rough outline or version
   e.g. My student emailed the first draft of his thesis to me yesterday.
3. undo: a. disturb/ upset
   e.g. The sight of the animal‘s suffering undid me.
          b. untie/ open
   e.g. Would you please undo this knot for me?
4. hit/strike home: have the intended effect.
   e.g. His criticism hit home. I was really selfish.
5. incredible = unbelievable
6. skeptical: collocation-----be skeptical about/of


                                                  33
7. But like a dieter who devours … occasionally: But like a dieter who eats quickly a whole box
of cookies when his determination to go on a diet was not firm, I sometimes found my resolve was
not firm either.
8. consume: a. eat or drink; b. use up
9. client: a person who buys goods or service
   e.g. Our company is CITI Bank‘s most valued client.
10. reproach = scold, denounce, condemn
11. theory: the Theory of Relativity
             the Theory of Evolution
             Quantum Theory
12. by nature = innately
13. get one’s act together: e.g. Steve will have to get his act together if he is going to pass the
exam. He can‘t just sit about doing nothing all day.
14. put pencil to paper: start to write
15. remainder: the remaining time, people or things
   T asks Ss to interpret the following sentence:
     完成工作以后,我用读小说、听音乐来打发剩余的时间。
  Having finished the work, I spent the remainder of the day reading novels and listening to music.
16. at intervals: a. sth. that happens at intervals happens occasionally
      e.g. The interview continued, with Smith breaking off at intervals to consult his notes.
                   b. used to state the precise gap in time or distance between things
      e.g. She woke him for his medicines at intervals throughout the night.
17. set aside: put (time or money ) away for a special purpose
      e.g. My husband set aside half an hour every morning to do sports.
18. Martian bank: It refers to a bank which is alien to shop assistants.
19. race the clock: e.g. The semester is coming to an end. We have to race the clock every day to
prepare for our final exams.
20. bide one’s time: wait patiently for a chance
     e.g. She bided her time, planning revenge.
21. take in: cheat( usu. passive)
22. have sth./little/much/nothing to do with: e.g. His decision to move overseas has a lot to do
with his financial problem.
23. achieve/have one’s heart’s desire(s):
   e.g. He was making great efforts to achieve his heart‘s desires.
24. a piece of cake: sth. that is very easy to do
   e.g. Shopping on line is a piece of cake for the five-year-old.
25. sophisticated: a. worldly-wise
   e.g. Richard was still young, but he was sophisticated enough to know when people were not
telling the truth.
                    b. advanced or complicated
   e.g. The development of computers and other sophisticated machines has made industry much
more efficient.
26. move on to:
   e.g. She ran this shop for ten years before deciding to move on to the real estate business.


                                                34
Post-reading tasks
After-text exercises:
  1. T guides Ss through some after-text exercises.
  2. T checks on Ss‘ home reading (Text B).
  3. Ss do Part IV: Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks.
  4. T asks Ss to preview the next unit.

Discussion
1. What makes this text a coherent essay?
1) Ss read Writing Strategy in Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks;
2) Ss form groups of four to five to find out the devices used to achieve coherence in Text A (see
   Text Analysis);
3) Some Ss group report to the class.
2. How do you think the relationship between two genders?
3. How to achieve the harmony of society, especially the harmony between two genders.




                                               35
                    Unit 7               Learning about English

Objective
Students will be able to:
1. to grasp the main idea (because of its tolerance for outside influences, English has become a
  great language) and structure of the text;
2. to understand some idiomatic English usages mentioned in the unit;
3. to master key language points and structures in the text;
4. to conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of
  the unit.

Time allotment
1st period        2nd period          3rd period                4th period           5th period
Pre-reading;      While-reading       While-reading             Post-reading;     Theme-related
While-reading     (title, language    (language points);        Check on Ss‘ Language
(title)           points)             Post-reading (drawing     home      reading Learning Tasks
                                      a picture)                (Text B)

Pre-reading tasks
Background Knowledge:
1. History of English:
        The roots of English: English began as a west Germanic language which was brought to
England by the Saxons around 400 A.D. Old English was the spoken and written language of
England between 400 and 1100A.D.Many words used today come from Old English, including
man, woman, king, mother, etc. but Old English was very different from modern English and only
a few words can be easily recognized. In the 9th and 10th centuries, when Vikings invaded England,
Old Norse words, e.g. sky, take and get and many place names, entered the language.
        The development of Modern English: Modern English developed from the Middle English
dialect of the East Midlands and was influenced by the English used in London, where a printing
press was set up by William Caxton in 1476. English changed a great deal from this rime until the
end of the 18th century. During the Renaissance, many words were introduced from Greek and
Latin to express new ideas, especially in science, medicine and philosophy. They included physics,
species, architecture, and hypothesis. In the 16th century several versions of the Bible helped bring
written English to ordinary people. The Elizabethan period is also famous for its drama, and
Shakespeare‘s plays were seen by many people.
        20th Century English: During the 19th and early 20th centuries many dictionaries and books
about language were published. New words are still being added to English from other languages,
including Chinese. Existing words gain new senses, and new expressions spread quickly through
television and the Internet.
Winston Churchill (1874-1965): a politician who is remembered as one of Britain‘s greatest
statesmen. He was the son of the Conservative politician Lord Randolph Churchill and his
American wife Jennie. As a young man he served as a soldier in India and Egypt, and as a
journalist in South Africa, before entering politics. Churchill became Prime Minister and Minister
of Defense in 1940. His radio speeches during World War II gave the British people a strong

                                                   36
determination to win the war, especially at times of great critics. The Conservation Party led by
Churchill lost the election of 1945, but he became Prime Minister again from 1951 to 1955 when
he retired, ages 80, when he dies in Jan.1965 he was given a state funeral.
2. Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.): the best-known of all the ancient Roman leaders, and the first
one to land in Britain with an army. He did this twice, in 55 and 54BC, although Britain did not
become part of the Roman Empire until nearly a hundred years later.
3. Viking: a member of a people from Scandinavia who attacked parts of northern and western
Europe, including Britain and Ireland, in the 8th to 11th centuries. In Britain they were also known
as Norsemen. They settled on the Scottish islands and in areas of eastern England, and the Danish
king Canute ruled England fro 1016. The Vikings were feared as violent and cruel, but they were
also noted for their skill in building ships and as sailors. They had an important influence on
English culture and the English language.
5. Norman: any of the people from Normandy in northern France who settled in England after
their leader William defeated the English king at the battle of Hastings in 1066. The Normans took
control of the country, a process known as the Norman Conquest. They used many of the existing
Anglo-Saxon methods of government of the state and the church, but added important aspects of
their own and made government much more effective. The language of government became first
Latin, and then Norman French, and this caused many new words to be added to the existing
English language.

Warm-up Questions:
1. T asks Ss the following questions on the recorded passage: (23 minutes)
---- What is the passage about? (English is a great language, but it is also a crazy language.)
---- Can you give one or two examples to illustrate the messiness of the English language? (see
transcript of the recorded passage for the many examples it mentions)
---- Are you sure of all the idiomatic usages mentioned in the recorded passage? [Some of the
more confusing usages are explained here:
 1) ship by truck / send cargo by ship: ship can be either a verb or a noun
   The first "ship" means "send", the second one " a large boat".
3)     2) noses that run / feet that smells: This refers to what people usually say" have a running
     nose", "have smelly feet". a slim/fat chance: a remote possibility
4)      a wise guy: a person who pretends to be much wiser than he/she really is; a derogatory
     term.
    a wise man: a really wise person; a commendatory term
5)     overlook: fail to see or notice, pay no attention to
    oversee: control (work ,workmen)
6)     hot /cold as hell: extremely hot/cold
7)     burn up: catch fire and flare up
    burn down: be destroyed by fire
8)     fill in a form/fill out a form: synonymous
9)     go off: start an action, usually accompanied by a great noise
    go on: continue doing something
10) race can be any of several divisions of mankind (种族,民族)or any of the main divisions
     of living creatures .(任何生物的种属,e.g. human race)
11) when stars are out: when stars appear in the sky
      when lights are out: when lights are turned off
12) wind up a watch: tighten the spring of a watch
       wind up a speech: end a speech ]
2. T may lead in to Text A by saying: As we discover from the previous exercise, an English
   word may have multiple meanings. Likewise, several different words may be pronounced in the
   same way. For example, I knew a student who, upon hearing the title of Helen Keller‘s famous

                                                37
  essay Three Days to See, translated it into 《海边三日》. Considered in this perspective,
  English is really messy. However, according to Text A, this is also a major merit of English. (2
  minutes)

While-reading tasks
1. Text Organization:
1. The text can be divided into three parts. Now write down the paragraph numbers of each part
(Part Two has been done for you) and its main idea:
 Parts           Paragraphs          Main Ideas
 Part One        Paras 1 – 3         Massive borrowing from other languages is a major feature
                                     of the English language.
 Part Two        Paras 4 – 16        Tells bout the history of the English language from the
                                     Indo-European parent language to modern English
 Part Three      Paras 17 – 19       Tolerance, love of freedom, and respect for the rights of
                                     others --- these qualities in the English-speaking people
                                     explain the richness of their language.
2. List, in order of time, the important historical events mentioned in part 2 that have had a great
impact on the formation of today‘s English:
 Paras 4 – 9     The introduction of the Indo-European language --- the parent language of
                 English
 Paras 10 – Germanic tribes came to settle in Britain and brought Anglo-Saxon words --- Old
 11              English.
 Paras 12        The Christian religion enriched English with words from Greek and Latin.
 Paras 13        The Vikings from Scandinavia came with words from Old Norse
 Paras 14        The Norman Conquest --- French influence
 Paras 15        The European Renaissance and the printing press brought many new words from
                 Latin and Greek
 Paras 16        The American revolution --- the emergence of a new variety --- American English.

2. Comprehension Questions:
1. Interpretation of the title (10 minutes)
1) Ss look at the title. T introduces the concept of an oxymoron(矛盾修饰法, see Text
    Analysis)
2) Ss scan the first three paragraphs to find out the definition for ―glorious messiness‖ (in Para.
    3)
2. Text organization (15 minutes)
1) T draws Ss attention to Text Organization Exercise 1, leads them through the directions, then
    dictates to them the main ideas of each part.
2) Ss scan the first sentence of each paragraph in Text A to find out where the present tense is
    switched into the past tense (Para. 4) and where the present tense is resumed (Para. 17).
3) Ss compare their findings with Text Organization Exercise 1, and they will see the division of
    parts coincides with tense changes.
3. T explains language points and gives Ss practice (see Language Study). When going through
   the text, T may also point out the various rhetorical devices that appear in it (see Text Analysis).
   (60 minutes)

3. Text Analysis
     An expert on English language is supposed to know well about rhetorical devices in English.
Robert MacNeil, the author of Text A, does not disappoint us.
     The title, The Glorious Messiness of English, offers a good example of oxymoron. An
oxymoron puts two contradictory terms together to puzzle the reader, luring him/her to pause and
explore why. ―Glorious‖ is a commendatory term, while ―messiness‖ is derogatory. Why do they
stand next to each other? Then, as the reader reads on, he/she will find out that the title is actually


                                                  38
a thesis statement: Yes, English is messy, but the messiness reflects some commendable qualities
of English, such as tolerance, the love of freedom, and the respect for others‘ rights. At this point
the reader cannot but admire the author‘s ingenuity.
      Robert MacNeil employs many metaphors, such as core of English (Para. 4), a common
parent language (Para. 8), another flood of new vocabulary (Para. 14), the special preserve of
grammarians (Para. 19). In Para. 18 there is an instance of sustained metaphor: the cultural soil,
the first shoots sprang up, … grew stronger, build fences around their language. In this case the
English language is compared to plants, and the various cultures influencing it are compared to the
soil, while users of English are compared to gardeners.
      We can also find parallelism in the quote from Winston Churchill: ―We shall fight on the
beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we
shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender.‖
      There is personification in the sentence ―Translations of Greek and Roman classics were
poured onto the printed page…‖
      There is metonymy in the sentence ―The country now had three languages: French for the
nobles, Latin for the churches and English for the common people.‖ Here ―churches‖ stand for
religious institutions and those who are involved in religious practices.

4. Language study:
massive: large in scale, amount, or degree
   e.g. The ancient temple‘s massive stone pillars had began to crumble.
        The scale of the problem is so massive that it will require all our resources to deal with it.
2. snack: a small meal
   e.g. I usually have a snack of a hamburger and a glass of coke at lunchtime.
          The children in the kindergarten have a midmorning snack of milk and biscuits
3. corrupt: 1) cause errors to appear in
    e.g. Has Japanese been corrupted by the introduction of foreign words?
          These jargons merely corrupt your good English.
              2) cause to act dishonestly in return for personal gains
  e.g. We believe films of violence would corrupt young people.
         To our great surprise, the former mayor turned out to have been corrupted by the desire
           for money and power.
4. ban: forbid(sth.) officially (used in the pattern: ban sb. from          sth./doing sth.)
   e.g. The local government will ban smoking in all offices later this year.
        Tom was banned from driving for six months after being caught speeding again.
   n. ban (followed by on)
   e.g. The government is considering a total ban on cigarette advertising.
        The ban on underground nuclear tests is a vital step toward disarmament.
5. fascinating: of great interest or attraction
   e.g. The story about his adventures in the Arctic was fascinating to listen to.
         I found the discussion about cloning absolutely fascinating.
6. strictly speaking: if one uses words, applies rules, etc. in their exact sense
   e.g. He‘s not strictly speaking an artist; he is more of a performer.
         Strictly speaking she was not qualified for the job. But we employed her because of her
honesty.
7. tolerance: 1) the quality of allowing other people to say and do as they like, even if you don‘t
   agree (followed by of/for)
   e.g. School teachers have to have a great deal of tolerance in order to deal with difficult

                                                 39
               children.
            I think tolerance between students is extremely necessary since they live and study
together.
                  2) the ability to bear sth. painful or unpleasant (followed by of/for)
   e.g. Human beings have limited tolerance of noise.
         The patient had no tolerance for pain. Whenever he was injected he would cry.
8. to a (very real, certain, etc.) extent: to the degree specified
   e.g. I agree with him to some extent but there are still some areas of sharp disagreement
            between us.
           To a certain extent the failure of the restaurant was due to bad management.
9. The history of English is present in the first words a child learns about identity…: The
   history of English is revealed in the first words a child learns about identity.
10. necessity: 1) sth. you must have in order to live properly or do sth.
    e.g. Water is a basic necessity of life.
           A lot of people would consider a TV as more of a necessity than a luxury item.
                   2) circumstances that force one to do sth.; the state of being necessary; the need
              for sth. (followed by of/for)
   e.g. There is absolutely no necessity for you to be involved in the project.
          They reached an agreement on the necessity of educational reforms.
11. surrender: give in (followed by to)
    e.g. After several weeks of severe attacks, Afghanistan‘s Taliban forces surrendered to the
             Northern Alliance.
          We‘ll never surrender to terrorism despite the terrorist attacks.
12. invade: enter with armed forces
    e.g. In July 1937 the Japanese army invaded China.
           The Germans invaded Poland in 1939, leading to the start of World War II.
13. resemble: be like or similar to
    e.g. I‘d say he resembles his mother more than his father.
           In his childhood, Stevie Wonder loved music and would pound spoons or forks on any
              surface that resembled a drum.
14. systematic: done according to a system
    e.g. Our professor not only imparts knowledge to us, but also teaches us how to read books in
             a systematic way.
          The staff made a systematic check to make sure that no name had been omitted from the
             register.
15. descend: come down (from a source), go down (followed by from)
    e.g. These ideas descend from those of the ancient philosophers.
          The Japanese are thought to be descended from tribes from the north of China.
16. establish: 1) cause to be, set up
    e.g. The school was established in 1905 by an Italian professor.
            The bank helps people wanting to establish their business.
               2) place or settle sb./oneself in a position, an office, etc. (used in the pattern:
    establish sb./oneself as)
            They are rapidly establishing themselves as the market leaders.


                                                 40
           She established her fame as an actress.
17. drift: move or go somewhere in a slow casual way
    e.g. He spent the year drifting around Europe.
           The football match was over, and the crowds drifted away from the stadium.
18. pass (sth.) on to (sb.): hand or give (sth.) to (sb.)
    e.g. When you have finished reading the novel, please pass it on to Jimmy.
          The King passed on much of his fortune to the princess.
19. conquer: take possession and control of (a country, city, etc.) by force; defeat
    e.g. She has conquered the hearts of many men.
           The Spanish once conquered most of South America.
20. royal: of a king or queen, or other members of their family, and things relating to them
    e.g. The newborn baby was welcomed not only by the Japanese royal family but by the
             country at large.
          The royal wedding drew large crowds from across the country.
21. alternative: one of two or more possibilities (followed by to)
    e.g. What was the alternative to going home?
          Check out the alternatives before deciding whether to go to a nearby college.
22. modify: change slightly
    e.g. The school authorities plan to modify the school regulation.
          The computer programmers tried to modify the design of the software to make it
             suitable for commercial production.
23. enrich: 1) make rich or richer
    e.g. That once poor coastal village has been enriched by the profits from tourism.
            The development of oil fields enriched many Arabian countries.
                2) improve
    e.g. It is important to enrich the soil prior to planting.
            Travel enriches people‘s lives.
24. classic: a work of art recognized as having lasting value
    e.g. Both Tom Jones and Wuthering Heights are classics.
           His manual on botany has become a classic among scientists.
25. out of control: no longer able to be controlled
    e.g. The fire was out of control by the time the second fire engine arrived.
          There was nothing they could do about it. The situation was out of control.
26. put into practice:
    e.g. Having delayed several times, we must put this plan into practice now.
         They weren‘t allowed to put into practice in their daily lives the teachings they received.
27. strike out: start being independent; start doing what one wants to do in life
e.g. After working for his father for about ten years, he decided to strike out on his own.

Post-reading tasks
1. After-text exercises
1. T guides Ss through some after-text exercises.
2. T checks on Ss‘ home reading (Text B)
3. Ss do Part IV: Theme-related Language Learning Tasks

                                                 41
2. Discussion
1. drawing a picture
1) T draws Ss attention to a quotation from Ralph Waldo Emerson in the Quotations section –
    ―The English language is the sea which receives tributaries from every region under heaven.‖
2) Ss try to draw a picture of the development of the English language. The body of English is
    the sea, while the major influences are the tributaries that flow into it. At each point where a
    river merges into the sea, note down the time. Along each river, note down the name of the
    language(s) from which English has borrowed. (refer to Text Organization Exercise 2)
3) Some Ss draw their pictures on the blackboard. Then T gives some comments.
4) Ss re-read Part II to find out how the author organizes the phases of English language
    development into a coherent piece. (By transitional devices at paragraph heads. Pay special
    attention to the underlined parts below:
---- How did the language of a small island…become the language of the planet?
---- New words came with the Germanic tribes… in the 5th century.
---- The next big influence on English was…
---- Then into this relatively peaceful land came the Vikings…
---- Another flood of new vocabulary occurred in 1066…
---- Around 1476 William Caxton set up a printing press in England…
---- As settlers landed in North America…)
2. Use the same method to convey the history of Chinese development, then compare and
   contrast the difference between the history of English and Chinese, and as a result, the
   difference between two nations is achieved.




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                  Unit 8           Protecting Our Environment

Objectives
Students will be able to:
1. to grasp the main idea ( we should adopt a sensible environmentalism) and structure of the text
  (each part containing a contrast);
2. to appreciate the various argumentative skills employed by the text;
3. to master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;
4. to conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of
  the unit.

Time allotment
1st period            2nd period       3rd period        4th period                 5th period
Pre-reading;          While-reading    While-reading     Post-reading (methods      Theme-related
While-reading         (language        (language         of       argumentation;    Language
(sensible             points)          points;    text   after-text exercises)      Learning Tasks
environmentalism;                      organization)     Check on Ss‘ home
text organization)                                       reading (Text B)

Pre-reading tasks
1. Background Knowledge
Environmental protection organizations: With a growing awareness of environmental
protection, a number of environmental protection organizations have been established. Here are
some of them:
      Green Party: a British political party that aims to protect the environment. It is against the
use of nuclear power and other forms of industry and transport which it considers harmful. It was
founded in 1973 as the Ecology Party, and changed its name to the Green Party in 1985. Other
countries also have parties that share the same name and ideals.
      Greenpeace: a large international pressure group that aims to protect the environment. Its
members are well-known for taking direct actions and putting their lives in danger in order to stop
people from harming the environment. For example, they often go our in small group boats to stop
people from killing whales or throwing poisonous material into the sea.
      The Environmental Protection Agency: a US government organization that established
rules and standards fro protecting the environment, e.g. against pollution.
Greenhouse effect: the retention of heat by the lower layers of the Earth‘s atmosphere, which, it
is believed, will cause a rise in the temperature of the Earth and its atmosphere, known as global
warming. Just as the glass of a greenhouse lets in the ultraviolet radiation from the sun while
trapping the infrared radiation emitted within, so gases in the atmosphere (such as water vapor,
carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs) absorb infrared radiation from the
Earth surface and reflect it back on to the planet. With the addition of solid pollutants, the capacity
of the lower layers to absorb the re-radiate heat in increased. The average concentration of carbon
dioxide in the air has increased by over 15 per cent in the last hundred years or so, due mainly to
the burning vast quantities of such fossil fuels as coal, gas, and oil. This, coupled with the
deforestation, is reducing the planet‘s ability to maintain the carbon dioxide balance. It is expected

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that the original level of carbon dioxide will be doubled within the next hundred years.
Environment: the physical surroundings of an organism, including biological, physical, and
chemical factors. In the context of human ecology, it also includes social and cultural surroundings.
Planning, caring for, and conservation of the human environment, both built and natural, became
of increasing concern in the years following World War II. Since then the environmental
movement has broadened public concern so that the term now encompasses wildlife and
endangered species and habitats, and the threat to planetary systems posed by pollution,
deforestation, and desertification, and other effects of human activity. In philosophy,
environmentalism stresses the influence of the physical environment on man‘s development and
activities.

2. Warm-up Questions:
1.T asks Ss the following questions on the song Big Yellow Taxi (5 minutes):
---- What kind of paradise is described in the song? (a rural paradise before it was spoiled by
paved roads, parking lots, buildings, etc., )
---- What is the theme of the song? (protect the environment before it is too late)
2. Perceptual map (13 minutes)
1) T asks Ss to speak out anything they can think of in association with environmental protection;
2) T notes down those things on the blackboard. T must put ―environmental protection‖ down on
    the center of the blackboard, and arrange Ss‘ ideas around it. Ss‘ ideas are grouped by
    similarity.
3) T sums up the categories of association, and advises Ss that they may use some association
    groups in the writing required by the Theme-related Language Learning Tasks.
3.     T may lead in to Text A by saying: The issue of environmental protection has been talked
     about over and over again. That‘s why we can come up with so many associations. Now let‘s
     take a look at Text A to find out what new ideas the author has to offer. (2 minutes)

While-reading tasks
1. Text Organization
1. This is a persuasive essay in which by attacking ―sentimental environmentalism‖ the author
tries to convince the reader to adopt a sensible attitude toward the protection of the environment. It
can be roughly divided into three parts as indicated below. Now write down the central argument
of each part together with its supporting details.
Parts              Central Argument                         Supporting Details
Part One           It is important to distinguish 1. the ozone layer: skin cancer,
(Paras 1 – 5)      between environmental necessities           plankton
                   and environmental luxuries and 2. the green house effect: melting ice
                   apply the fundamental principle of          caps; disturbed climate; dried up
                   sensible environmentalism                   plains; empty breadbaskets
                                                            3. man‘s self preservation
Part        Two A sensible environmentalism does 1. the so-called ―Gaia theory‖
(Paras 6 – 11)     not sentimentalize the earth             2. Protagoras‘ principle
                                                            3. oil war and the reindeer
                                                            4. the spotted owl and logging families
Part       Three Man is the master of nature.               1. man‘s well-being first
(Paras 12 – 14)                                             2. who should accommodate and how
                                                            3. humanistic environmentalism
2. To drive home his argument the author mainly uses contrast. Find out the contrasting points of
view the author discusses in the essay and put them down.
(Suggested answer: a. environmental luxuries vs. environmental necessities
                     b. sensible environmentalism vs. sentimental environmentalism
                     c. man vs. nature)

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2. Comprehension Questions:
1. What is a sensible environmentalism? (15 minutes)
1)    Ss look at the title, Saving Earth, but Only for Man, and try to make it into a complete
    sentence. (We must protect the earth‘s environment so that it can better serve human beings.)
2)    T guides Ss through the definition of sensible environmentalism in Para. 5 – ―A sensible
    environmentalism, the only kind of environmentalism that will win universal public support,
    begins by unashamedly declaring that nature is here to serve man. A sensible
    environmentalism is entirely man-centered: it calls for man to preserve nature, but on the
    grounds of self-preservation.‖
3)    Ss scan the text to find other sentences explaining sensible environmentalism (They can be
    found in Paragraphs 2, 6, 8, 14.).
2. T draws Ss‘ attention to Text Organization Exercise 1, dictates to them the main ideas of each
   of the three parts. Then T tells Ss that they are to fill in the supporting details as they go
   through the text. (10 minutes)
3. T explains language points in Part I and gives Ss practice (see Language Study).(25 minutes)
4. Ss find details supporting the main idea of Part I. (5 minutes)
5. T explains language points in Part II and gives Ss practice (see Language Study). (25
   minutes)
6. Ss find details supporting the main idea of Part II. (10 minutes)
7. T explains language points in Part III and gives Ss practice (see Language Study). (10
   minutes)
8. Ss find details supporting the main idea of Part III. (5 minutes)
9. Ss complete Text Organization Exercise 2. (7 minutes)

3. Text Analysis
     The argumentative methods employed in Text A are as follows:
     Contrast: see Text Organization Exercise 2.
     Concession: (Para. 8) ― The country does need a substantial energy tax to reduce
consumption. But it needs more production too.‖ (Para. 10) ―I like the reindeer as much as the
next man. And I would be rather sorry if their mating patterns are disturbed. But you can‘t have
everything.‖ (Para. 11) ―I am no enemy of the owl. If it could be preserved at no or little cost, I
would agree: the variety of nature is a good, a high aesthetic good. But it is no more than that.‖
     Quotation: Para. 8 quotes Protagoras‘ principle: ―Man is the measure of all things.‖
     Example: (Para. 3) ―For example: preserving the atmosphere, by both protecting the ozone
layer and halting the greenhouse effect, is an environmental necessity.‖ (Para. 13) ―The most
urgent accommodation must be made when the very integrity of man‘s environment — e.g.,
atmospheric ozone — is threatened. When the threat to man is of a lesser order (say, the pollutants
from coal- and oil-fired generators that cause death from disease but not fatal damage to the
ecosystem), a more moderate accommodation that balances economic against health concerns is in
order.‖
     Definition: The definitions of ―luxuries‖ and ―necessities‖ in Para. 2; and the definition of
―sensible environmentalism‖ in Para. 5.
     Cause and effect: (Para. 3) Ozone reduction causes skin cancer, etc.. (Para. 4) Greenhouse
effect leads to ―melting ice caps, flooded coastlines, disturbed climate, dried up plains and,
ultimately, empty breadbaskets.‖
     Data: (Para. 7) ―…the May storms that killed more than 125,000 Bengalis and left 10 million
homeless.‖ (Para. 8) ―Government estimates indicate a nearly fifty-fifty chance that under the
ANWR lies one of the five largest oil fields ever discovered in America.‖ (Para. 11) ―…livelihood
for 30,000 logging families, I choose family over owl.‖

4. Language Study:
1. environment:
   1) natural conditions,       e.g.   land,   air   and   water,   in   which   we    live   (used
        in the singular)

                                                45
         The committee is passing new laws to preserver the environment.
          The factory released poisonous chemicals that damaged and destroyed the environment.
     2) all the circumstances, people, things and events around someone that influence their life.
          The twins were separated at birth and brought up in entirely different environments.
         Pupils in our school are taught in a safe, secure environment.
         The hotel provides a quiet, restful environment for our guests to relax in.
2. aversion: strong dislikes (followed by to)
    He took an immediate aversion to his new teacher.
    Many people have a natural and emotional aversion to insects.
3. conflict: be in opposition, collision or disagreement (followed by with)
    Our findings conflict with the results of the government‘s survey.
    Personal ethics and professional ethics sometimes conflict.
    There are conflicting reports about the identity of the hostage.
4. proposal: a plan or idea, often a formal or written one, which is suggested for         people to
    think about and decided upon (followed by for or to do something)
    The new president is to put forward new proposals for resolving the country‘s financial crisis.
    Their proposal to build a supermarket was welcomed by the local residents.
    Palestinians rejected the latest cease-fire proposal put forward by the Israeli Prime Minister.
5. in the name of: for the reason of; using the excuse of; as the representative of; by the
    authority of.
    They arrested him in the name of the safety of the country.
    Let me thank you in the name of my parents.
6. distinguish: recognize the difference (between)
    He is too young to distinguish right from wrong.
    Fingerprints can be used to distinguish the two suspects.
7. …if costless: if those things can‘t cost much
8. regardless: in spite of everything; anyway
    His parents objected to his marriage, but he carried on regardless.
    We warned them that there wasn‘t time to go to the top of the mountain and back before dark,
    but they went on regardless.
9. fundamental: of the basis or foundation of something (followed by to)
    Teaching your child to distinguish right from wrong is one of the fundamental tasks of
    parenthood.
    The fundamental problem lies in their inability to distinguish between reality and fantasy.
    He believes that better relations with China are fundamental to the well-being of the area.
10. atmosphere:
    1) the mixture of gases that surrounds the earth (used in the singular)
         The space shuttle Columbia will re-enter the earth‘s atmosphere tomorrow morning.
    2) feeling in the mind that is created by a group of people or a place
         It has been a week since the outbreak of the riot. There is still an atmosphere of great
         tension in the city.
         Atmosphere over dinner was warm and friendly.
11. combat: fight or struggle (against)
    Many politicians emphasized the importance of combating the international terrorism.


                                                46
      Doctors are still seeking ways to combat AIDS.
12.   reality: real or true situation
      We must face up to reality and accept that we‘ve failed.
      They say that the economy is already coming out of the recession, but the reality is that there
      has been no improvement at all.
13.   consequence: the result or effect of an action or condition
      An economic crisis may have tremendous consequences for our global security.
      There may be serious consequences for the country if the peace talks fail.
14.   melt: (a solid) to become liquid
      The ice-cream has melted in the sun.
      The temperature is high enough to melt iron.
15.   …empty breadbaskets: shortage of food supply because no crops will grow in the areas
      which used to provide a lot of food.
16.   urgent: calling for immediate action
      After the earthquake, there was an urgent need for food and medicines.
      He was injured in the car accident and needed urgent medical attention.
17.   universal: of, belonging to, affecting or done by all people or things in the world or in a
      particular group
      AIDS has become a universal disease.
      Human being have to face up to the universal thread of pollution.
      The Harry Potter books have been of universal interest.
18.   call for: require; demand
      Faced with the thread of a civil war, the President has called for self-control and calm.
      The teaching profession calls for a lot of practice.
19.   on the grounds of/on…grounds: for reasons of
      She is suing the company on the grounds of unfair dismissal.
      John was not employed by the company on the grounds of his age.
20.   resistance: opposition (followed by to)
      There is strong resistance to the plan for a new chemical plant in the area.
      Any attempt to influence our decision will be met with the strongest resistance.
21.   vote: express one‘s choice in favor of (a person, political party, etc.) at an election ( used in
      the pattern: vote on something; vote for/against)
      If we can‘t agree with each other about the plan, let‘s vote on it.
      They will vote for George Bush, I think.
      The board of school has voted by an overwhelming majority to suspend its curriculum reform.
22.   run/go against the grain: be contrary to one‘s feeling or desire (followed by of something/to
      do something)
      It really goes against the grain to have to go to school on National Day.
      Privatization goes against the grain of the principle of opposition to private ownership of
      industry.
23.   contemporary: current; modern
      She has worked in both classical and contemporary dance.
      I like my furniture to be in a contemporary style.
24.   worship: feel great love and admiration for (someone/something), esp to such an extent that


                                                   47
      one can‘t see their/its fault
       Being competent and learned, he was worshiped by his students.
       Humans have worshipped the sun throughout ages.
25.   to the point of: to a degree that can be described as
      The salesman‘s manner was abrupt to the point of rudeness.
      To accomplish the task, the employer worked his staff to the point of exhaustion.
26.   excess: more than the reasonable degree or amount of something
      Children are not allowed to see the film as there is an excess of violence in it.
      He smoked like a chimney. It was the excess of cigarettes that cause his death.
27.   nothing more than: just the same as; only
      Don‘t be scared. It‘s nothing more than a nightmare.
      You needn‘t report to him. He is nothing more than a clerk.
28.   current: occurring in or existing at the present time
      In comparison to the former ones, Coca-Cola‘s current advertising campaign is more
      attractive and effective.
      The current economic situation is very different from that in 1990.
29.   debate: discussion or agreement in which people express their different opinions (followed by
      on/about)
      There has been much debate about cloning of human beings.
      An intense debate on cease-fire talks with the Palestinians was going on within the Israeli
      government.
      The United Nations Security Council will debate the issue of Afghanistan today.
30.   rage: continue with great force; be intense
      Price inflation still rages although the government has taken some measures to tackle the
      problem.
      Street fighting raged all over the city.
31.   work one’s way: manage to reach or go through; make efforts to attain one‘s goal
      As my family couldn‘t pay that much for me to go to school, I have to work my way through
      law school.
      The board are still working their way through the application forms.
32.   come through: experience; survive or overcome (a difficulty, etc.)
      It‘s a miracle that some of the people working in the World Trade Center came through the
      terrorist attack.
      The Chinese football team was in trouble at the beginning of the match but in the end it came
      through.
      If we can come through this financial crisis the company‘s future will be bright.
33.   in part: to some extent; partly
      His failure was due in part to his laziness.
      Whether you will be sent to Yale University for further study depends in part on how well you
      perform in the exam.
34.   ridiculous: absurd
      It is ridiculous to spend all her salary buying the so-called antique.
      It is ridiculous that they should want to wait tent hours just to have a look at their favorite film
      star.


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35. deny:
           1) refuse to grant or allow (used in the pattern: deny someone something)
                The kid was denied the chance of going to school.
                His ex-wife denied him access to children.
           2) state something is not true (used in the pattern: deny something; deny that; deny
                doing something)
                When the police asked her neighbors questions, they all denied ever having seen
                her.
                In court the suspect denied that he had been involved in the robbery.
36. …as much as the next man: as much as the average person
    as good, well, etc. as the next man: as good, well, etc. as the average person
    I can enjoy a joke as well as the next man, but this joke is going too far.
37. similarly: in a similar way
    He was late and his girlfriend was similarly delayed.
    Twins often dress similarly.
38. But it is no more than that: But its importance should not be exaggerated.
39. distinction: difference (followed by between)
    It‘s hard to draw a distinction between popular and serious literature.
    There‘s no distinction between courage and bravery.
    In their education proposals they made a clear distinction between academic and practical
    training.
40. bind: tie or fasten; tie together
    The criminal bound the woman‘s hands together behind her back.
    When the police rushed into the room, they found that all the hostages had been bound and
    left in the corner.
41. accommodation: the process of adapting; adjustment
    Mutual accommodation is of importance especially to newly married couples.
    It is necessary to seek accommodation from both sides in the dispute.
42. threat: a danger that something might happen to someone (followed by to/from/of/against)
    There have been death threats against the witnesses.
    The hurricane canter warns people not to take the threat of tropical storms lightly.
    The President said that he would stand firm and not give in to the threats from terrorists.
43. fatal: causing death; bringing in ruin
    Doctor said the patient was suffering from a fatal disease.
    He had a fatal mistake of giving her his telephone number.
44. concern:
           1) thing that is important or interesting to someone
        What are your main concerns as a college student?
        It‘s no concern of mine. I am not involved in it or I have no responsibility for it.
           2) worry, anxiety (followed by for/about/over/that)
        Public concern about corruption has drawn the local government‘s attention.
        Out main concern is that students from the underdeveloped areas are not receiving enough
education.
        There was growing concern over the rise in unemployment.


                                              49
45. sake: purpose; benefit or well-being (used in the pattern: for sb.’s/sth.’s sake; for                  the sake
    of)
    He changed into old shoes for the sake of comfort.
    I am studying history for its own sake; not because it will help me get a job.
     She argues for the sake of arguing. (i.e. because she likes arguing)

Post-reading tasks
1. After-text exercises
  1.Finish all the after-text exercises of unit 8 in the textbook.
  2.Write an essay on ―Environmental Problems in My Eyes‖
2. Discussion
1. Methods of argumentation (see Text Analysis).
1) T states that this essay is a piece of argumentative writing, and asks Ss to come up with ways
   of presenting an argument. T writes down Ss‘ answers on the blackboard. At the end, if
   necessary, T may supplement the Ss‘ list with more methods of argumentation.
2) Ss form groups of four to five to find out what method of argumentation is used in each part of
   the text.
3) Some Ss groups report their findings to the class.
4) T urges Ss to employ these methods in their own writing.
2. Basic Writing Skill
                                     Development by Comparison and Contrast
       The method of comparison and contrast is often used. We compare the present and the past of China, the
culture of the East and the West, Chinese and English. By comparing and contrasting we may get a clearer picture
of things.
      Strictly speaking, a comparison points out the similarities between two or more persons and things of the
same class, while a contrast, the difference between them. In practice, however, comparison and contrast often
appear together, because people generally compare two things that are similar in certain ways and different in
others.
      There are two major ways of organizing paragraphs of comparison and contrast. One way is to examine one
thing thoroughly and then examine the other. In this way, the aspects examined in the two things should be
identical and then in the same order. This method is called block comparison or block contrast. The other way is to
examine two things at the same time, discussing them point-by-point. This method is called alternative comparison
or alternative contrast.
      Alternative contrast is used when you want to point out several differences between two things or people
without discussing them in great detail. You merely point out a special feature of one item and then state how the
other item differs from it in that aspect. The following paragraph is an example of this method.
Block comparison is suitable when the writer wants to treat points of similarity in depth. In this way each point is
drawn out and its relationship to another point is made clear. This type of comparison is often used when the points
of similarity discussed are not many but complex, and require much explanation.
      Analogies are especially helpful in explaining abstract idea, for they relate ideas that can not be experienced
through the senses of sight, smell, hearing, touch or taste, to a sense experience, thus making the ideas easy to
understand.




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