3_3_ by qihao0824

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									                  Reading for Discussion
                                Book Three




                                  Contents

Unit One Religion
       Reading One My Muslim Friend
       Reading Two

Unit Two Health
        Reading One Weight Loss Tips
       Reading Two My Big Fat Greek

Unit There Work and Job
      Reading One No Job to go to
      Reading Two Seasonal Affective Disorder

Unit Four Education
      Reading One Setting Goals for College
      Reading Two Innovative Books Solve Math Anxieties

Unit Five Sports and Games
       Reading One Beijing Unveil Mascots for 2008 Olympics
       Reading Two Gooooooal

Unit Six
      Reading One Powerful Storm
      Reading Two

Unit Seven
       Reading One Witness

Unit Eight
       Reading One A Story of Robin Hood

Unit Nine
       Reading One I Think I Love You
       Reading Two Good Neighbors
                                  UNIT ONE Religion
Reading One
Warming-up discussion
1. What does RELIGION mean to you?
2. Have you heard of or read about anything about Jesus or Allah or Buddha before? How do you
like these sayings about God?
3. Can you imagine yourself sharing a desk with a Muslim or a Christian? What can you do to
maintain a friendly relationship with your desk-mate?


                                      My Muslim Friend
                                  By Aryantungyisa Kaakaabale

Sarah was outgoing and kind, but she didn't share my beliefs. How could I lead her to Jesus?

It was my first year in a boarding school, and I was afraid. I was surrounded by strangers and felt
all alone. I needed a friend. As I chose a seat in my first class, I waited nervously to see who
would take the place beside me. Suddenly, a short, athletic-looking girl ran into the class. "Is
anyone sitting here?" she asked, throwing her books on the desk next to me, still panting from
dashing up the stairs.

Before I could even answer, she had made up her mind, sat down and said, "What's your name?
Mine is Sarah."

"I am Aryantungyisa," I replied, looking away. Because my name is so long and sounds strange to
people, they always ask me to repeat it, or they laugh at it. I'm always nervous when I introduce
myself.

"What?" she asked. My heart skipped a beat. What had I gotten myself into? Was she going to
make fun of my name? I had been told all about the way new students were teased, but I didn't
expect it from another new girl.

"Aryantungyisa," I repeated, still looking away.
"Oh, that's a long name," she said. "Can I call you Aryantu?" I felt myself relax a little.

"OK," I answered, warming up to her now. "Actually, all my friends call me that."

The teacher walked in, and I was glad I would not be expected to say any more. At the end of the
class, I walked off alone to my dormitory.

The next day, Sarah chattered away. She told me all about her family. At some point during the
conversation, she said she was Muslim.

I was shocked. All I knew about Muslims was that they were very different from Christians. I
didn't expect a Muslim to be so friendly. I had been brought up in a Christian home and gone to a
Christian school. I knew that to go to heaven, you had to believe in Jesus as the Savior 1who died
for your sins. I believed Muslims would not go to heaven because they believed in Allah2 and not
in Jesus.

"I'm a Christian," I volunteered to my own surprise, "and I am saved."

I instantly wished I could take my words back. I thought Sarah would be offended, but it did not
seem to matter to her.

One day I asked Sarah if she knew about Jesus. She told me that in her religion, they knew Jesus
as a prophet, like Moses3 or any of the other prophets in Christianity.

"But to be saved," I said, "you have to believe Jesus is more than just a prophet. What would
happen if you got saved?"

"Saved! If I did such a thing, my dad would refuse to pay my school fees, and he would send me
away from home. Being saved is for Christians."

I was very confused. How could I lead Sarah to Jesus if her father would disown her?

I decided to ask Sarah to my fellowship group4. But she said no. She didn't think Christians would
accept her. It was important to her that Christians respect her beliefs and get to know her as a
person, instead of just dismissing her because she was a Muslim. I decided I would remain her
friend and keep telling her about Jesus.

During the term, the Muslim Holy Month of Ramadan5 began. Sarah explained to me that it was
their month of fasting. Suddenly it dawned on me: This was my opportunity to show Sarah I
accepted her and really wanted her to know Christ.

"I'm fasting today," I told Sarah one morning about a week into the fasting period.

"Why?" she asked.
"I just want to fast with you," I answered.

She stared at me in disbelief. I've been told that Muslims often asked their friends to offer
encouragement by fasting with them. But at our boarding school, no one wanted to give up their
already meager share of food. Sarah had not even asked me. She thought since I was a Christian, I
would have nothing to do with a Muslim tradition.

"Why are you fasting with me when you are a Christian?" Sarah asked me later. I told her I didn't
think there was anything wrong with fasting, and I was only doing it to show her that I accepted
her and respected her religion.

I again asked her to come to fellowship group with me, now that she knew she would be accepted,
at least by me. And I told her I still wanted her to know the truth about salvation. "When we die
we can only go to heaven if we believe in Jesus as our Savior," I said.

Sarah did come to fellowship group with me a few times after that. She did not get saved. But I
think that because I had respected her beliefs, she was always willing to listen to me tell her about
Jesus.

Sarah and I lost contact with each other after that year. But I learned an important lesson from my
Muslim friend: We may not always be able to get people of other faiths to change their beliefs
immediately. But if we respect them and accept them as they are, they are more likely to listen to
us talk about Jesus. As they watch our lives and wonder why we do the things we do, they will
learn from us what it means to live as Christians.       (TIME ALLOWED: 9 Minutes)




I. Notes
1
   the Savior or Our Savior: God; Jesus Christ. savior: one who saves from harm, danger, or
destruction; one who brings salvation
2
   Allah: the one God of Islam
3
   Moses: in the Old Testament, the great prophet and lawgiver of the Israelites who led them out
of Egypt, regarded as the founder of Judaism
4
   fellowship group: group of people joined by common interest in religion, here, Christianity
5
   Ramadan: ninth month of the Islamic year, observed as a fast from sunrise to sunset for thirty
days (伊斯兰教的拉马丹月,也称斋月。                        )

II. Tips for reading
How to Use a Dictionary? (I)
We go to dictionaries for help when we run into words or phrases we have never met before. But
do we sometimes also feel the need to refer to dictionaries of this type or that when we come to
words or phrases we think to know already? The complexity of meaning of the English vocabulary
is reason enough for learners of English as a foreign language to trust a dictionary rather than
his/ her own rule of thumb.

Dismiss
1. Common meaning known to most students: to send away or give permission to leave; to
    discharge, as from a position or job; fire
   Examples: to dismiss a patient from the hospital; to dismiss an employee for stealing
2. Meaning in the context which is less known to the students: to put aside from attention or
     serious consideration; reject
   Example: It was important to her that Christians respect her beliefs and get to know her as a
   person, instead of just dismissing her because she was a Muslim.

Fast
1. Common meaning known to most students: acting or moving with speed; quick; rapid
   Examples: a fast train; a fast thinker
2. Meaning in the context which is less known to the students: to eat little or no food or only
    certain kinds of food, esp. as a religious observance
   Example: I just want to fast with you.

Exercise: Study the following sentences carefully. Try to make out the meaning of the italicized
words with the help of a dictionary.
1. The Chinese pictures hang now in my study.
2. They gave live broadcast while the performance was in process on the stage.
3. She longed to be back in England.
4. According to him, he failed for want of transport.
5. He haunted zebra, antelope, and other game in Africa.
6. Fortunately the second doctor made a minute study of the illness.

III. Comprehension of the text: decide whether the following sentences are true or false. Put
a T for true and F for false.
1. Aryantungyisa looked away while introducing herself to Sarah because she was shy.
2. It was expected that Aryantungyisa would be laughed at by her new desk-mate.
3. It did not come as a surprise for Aryantungyisa to learn that Sarah was Muslim.
4. For a Christian, to be saved means to think of Jesus as the Savior.
5. It was a Muslim tradition to fast during the Holy Month of Ramadan.
6. The fact that Aryantungyisa fasted with Sarah shows that a Christian can change his/her own
     religious faith easily.
7. Sarah went to fellowship group with Aryantungyisa in return for Aryantungyisa‘s enthusiasm
     in the Muslim tradition.
8. At the end of the story, Aryantungyisa succeeded in making Sarah become a Christian.
9. It can be inferred from the story that Aryantungyisa and Sarah became life-long friends.
10. It is mutual respect and mutual understanding that brings two girls of different religious
     beliefs together.

 IV. Language work: fill in the blanks with the words and phrases listed below. Change the
form where necessary.

lose contact/ salvation/ prophet/ panting/ dawn on/ skip a beat/ volunteer/ boarding school/
     tease/ take back one’s words
1. It suddenly -------- her that she was being deceived.
2. As common sense tells us, farmers and sailors are usually good weather -------- .
3. Fortunately, there were enough people who -------- to help decorate the gym for the dance.
4. It is common knowledge that all Christians hope and pray for -------- .
5. Little boys often -------- their sisters and make them cry.
6. The atmosphere grew tense when the pilot -------- with the control tower.
7. The time he spent in that -------- remains long with him.
8. His heart -------- at the approaching footsteps which became audible again.
9. It is not a wise thing to do to -------- .
10. After jogging a quarter of a mile she was sweating and -------- .

V. Pros and cons: study the recommended key words/phrases, pair up, and debate upon the
following topics
1. Life is all about religious belief VS. Life is a lot more than just religious belief.
A: life philosophy/moral guidelines/meaning of life/motivating force for hard work/satisfaction of
      heart
B: religious belief/role not to be overstated/only one aspect in one‘s life/other honors to be
      gained/rich and full life

2. Friendship VS. Faith
A: friendship precious as gold/worth making sacrifices for friendship/one fine quality/always be
     true to friends
B: purity of faith/highest principle in life/determined will/perfect life/sacrifice friendship for faith

3. Academic performance VS. Good interpersonal relationship
A: academic excellence/scope of knowledge broadened/prerequisite for a successful career/ honor
     to be sought after/purpose of higher education/benefit of the society
B: interpersonal communication/a skill not to be ignored any more/development of student‘s
     all-round ability/key to success as a member of society/

VI. In-depth discussion: based on the information contained in the text and targeting the
specific conditions in real life, discuss the following topics fully
1. My colorful campus life
2. Secret to the art of interpersonal communication
3. Faith and life
UNIT TWO
Reading One
Warming-up questions:
1. What do you think of the consequence of obesity?
2. If you are rather fat, what kind of ways will you select to lose weight?
3. In some places in China, people often say,‖ You are fatter!‖ to greet or show their affection to
   others. What‘s your opinion on that? Why people use ―fat‖?


                                   My Big Fat Greek Life
                                          By Paula Dranov
   At 39, Nick Yphantides is trim and sexy. You‘d never guess that not so long ago, this fit
six-foot-two San Diego physician weighed 467 pounds. Dr. Nick, as his patients call him, lost
more than half of his weight as he indulged his passion for baseball and ended his lifelong
obsession with food.
   Nick‘s relationship with food was psychologically complicated and fraught with emotion
—feeling that men aren‘t supposed to have. His Greek father and American mother raised their
five children with love and disciplines. Every achievement was cause for a high-calorie
celebration. The more you accomplished, the more you were fed. So Nick, a talented student,
started college 40 pounds overweight. Bu then, the work-reward pattern was so established that
when he graduated medical school, he weighed over 300 pounds.
   Being obese did present embarrassing problems. ―None of the hospital scrubs fit me,‖ he recalls.
So he had his mother sew two pairs together into a set big enough for him.
   Nick avoided dating; he just didn‘t like the rejection. ―Once, my father arranged for a woman to
fly out from Boston to met me. He heard about her from relatives and, I guess, gave a sales pitch
for his son, the doctor. But he didn‘t tell her anything about my weight. She came to the house,
and though she tried to hide her shock when I walked in, it was humiliating.‖
   Nick went into community medicine. His patients, many indigent and without health insurance,
saw him as a big man with a big heart. He told his overweight patients to ― do as I say, not as I
do.‖
   But Nick suffered constant humiliation. Flying was nightmare. ―Once, I was last to board and
had to squeeze up the aisle to the only available seat —a middle one. I could feel other passengers
watching. I felt so ashamed. I tried to wedge in, but no way could I fit. I asked the woman next to
me if she minded if I raised the armrest. She answered, ‗Actually, I would mind.‘ It was awful.‖
When a flight attendant rearranged the seating to accommodate him, she whispered, ―Next time,
sir, you need to buy two seats.‖
   He still might be fat if he hadn‘t gotten testicular cancer. It scared him and forced him to see the
great stress his weight placed on his body.
   ―After I recovered, my whole family went to Greece, but I didn‘t go because my size made
traveling so difficult,‖ he recalls. ―Besides, my Greek relatives aren‘t very diplomatic. People
would say, ‗You call yourself a doctor? How can you be so fat?‘
   ―At the time, my term on a local health board was ending. People were encouraging me to run
again. It was flattering, but I couldn‘t imagine spending another four years that miserable. It was
time for me to di something,‖ he says. ―It was an all-or-nothing moment. I decided to make losing
weight the focus of my existence for a year.‖
   Soon he hit on his big idea: He would see a game in every major-league1 stadium in the country.
He bought a van, retired from his practice and had his brother Phil, also a physician, supervise his
diet, a liquid meal –replacement plan that would cut his daily caloric intake from 5,600 to 800. he
weighed 467 pounds, his goal: to lose 220 of them.
   As his brother took some ―before‖ photos, ― a sense of shame and embarrassment washed over
me. When it was over, I began to cry.‖ He felt despair at the sheer size his dilemma, but he knew
he couldn‘t back out.
   His journey began on Opening Day, 2001. First stop: Los Angeles, where the Dodgers2 were
playing the Brewers. Suddenly, Nick sniffed Dodger Dogs, the hot dogs that he loved slathered
with mustard, ketchup, onions and relish. He tried to focus on the game, but his thoughts kept
straying to the Dodger Dogs. ―I wanted to tackle the guy selling them, body-slam him and take his
food,‖ he says, laughing. He reminded himself that he was there to see the game, not to eat. Still,
his hunger pans felt like ―searing physical pain.‖ That first week he was hungry, cranky,
pessimistic and feeling sorry for himself. He thought of food constantly. But despite all that, it was
working: he lost 17 pounds.
   Exercise was part of the plan too. A friend had given him a nationwide YMCA3 membership.
His first 1.5-mph4 session on the treadmill left him breathless and pouring with sweat. ― My knees
and ankles ached, but I was happy —I managed to stay on for 30 minutes,‖ he says.
   He traveled to San Francisco, Chicago, Kansan City, Baltimore, wherever there was a stadium,
drinking his shakes and hitting local gyms. And over the next eight months, he never cheated even
once. ―It was a point of personal integrity, and besides, too many people were cheering for me.‖
   After catching World Series5 games in New York that October, Nick drove to Virginia to see his
grandfather and complete his makeover (he cut his long hair and shaved his beard and mustache).
Next, the two took a road trip together to see Mount Rushmore and Las Vegas, before going home
for Thanksgiving6. When his mother opened the door and saw him, 218 pounds slimmer.
   On Thanksgiving, Nick ate his first solid food in eight months, knowing his digestive system
couldn‘t tolerate much; he had a small vegetarian meal. ―Suddenly, my gastric juices sprang back
to life,‖ says Nick. ― Wow! That tasted good.‖ Over the next month he reintroduced food groups,
creating healthy eating habits, and put in more time at the gym.
   As a thin man, he found dating awkward. ―I felt like the same person but was perceived
differently. I almost resented it.‖ The insecurity remained: Once, at a party, a woman asked Nick
to dance. He looked over his shoulder, then asked, ―Are you talking to me?‖ he dated a number of
women before meeting his wife in 2003. That year, he wrote a book, My Big Fat Greek Diet, and
returned to work.



Ⅰ Notes
  .
1. major-league: Major League Baseball is comprised of two leagues: The 16-team National
    League, and the 14-team American League. The main difference between the two leagues is
    the designated hitter; in the National League, pitchers bat for themselves while as in the
    American League there is a player who bats for the pitcher, and doesn't play a position in the
    field. Get more information from http://mlb.mlb.com
2. Dodgers: a baseball team based in Los Angles
3. YMCA: abbreviation of The Young Men's Christian Association
4. mph: miles per hour
5. World Series: in baseball, a postseason playoff series between champions of the two major
    professional baseball leagues of the United States: the American League (AL) and the
    National League (NL). Get more information from http://www.britannica.com
6. Thanksgiving: Thanksgiving is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. It is a time
    for family, food, and football, and marks the unofficial beginning to the winter holiday season

Ⅱ Tips for reading
 .

Ⅲ Comprehension of t he text: decide whether the following sentences are true or false. Put
  .
a T for true and F for false.
1. Dr. Dick used to be 467 pounds.
2. Dr. Dick was nearly 300 pounds when he graduated from medical school.
3. Dr. Dick got his uniform easily in his hospital.
4. Many of Dr. Dick‘s patients are poor.
5. Dr. Dick didn‘t go to Greece with his family because he just recovered.
6. Dr. Dick hoped that his weight could be around 247 pounds.
7. Dr. Dick preferred plays to Dodger Dogs.
8. Over the next eight months of his journey, he never cheated others even once.
9. Dr. Dick went to Las Vegas after Thanksgiving.
10. Though Dr. Dick was thin, he still didn‘t like dating.
Ⅳ Language work: fill in the blanks with the words and phrases listed below. Change the
  .
form where necessary.

     indulge; fraught with; arrange for; go into; lose weight;
     back out; think of; cheer; spring; put in;

1.   When did our university ________ Project 211?
2.   It‘s too late to ______ the of the promise now.
3.   Today, it‘s a fashion to _______.
4.   The young soldier _______ forward to help the wounded.
5.   Our university has __________ a car to meet the foreign visitors at the airport
6.   The crowds ______ loudly when the visitors appeared.
7.    He _________ in tobacco.
8.    Our teacher often _________ twelve hours‘ work a day.
9.    To _______ the expenses! We must cut down the costs!
10.   The fireman was in a situation __________ danger.

Ⅴ Pros and cons: study the recommended key words/phrases, pair up, and debate upon the
  .
following topics.
1. Obesity is a private problem VS. Obesity is a social problem



2. Obesity promote economic development VS. Obesity retard economic development



3. Internal causes determine our will VS. External causes determine our will



Ⅵ In-depth discussion: based on the information contained in the text and targeting the
  .
specific conditions in real life, discuss the following topics fully
1. Obesity, the trend of Chinese children.
2. Obesity, a worldwide social problem.
3. Someone says, ―People are thin when they are poor, then become fat when they are well-off,
    while they seek ways to lose weight or for fitness when they are rich enough. Such is the
    process of development.‖ What‘s your opinion on it?


Reading Two
                                       Weight Loss Tips
                                  By Nornie Dworkin-Mcdaniel

   When did eating become such an all-or-nothing proposition? It seems that Americans are either
gorging on gargantuan portions of unhealthy, highly processed foods and getting fatter all the time,
or they‘re starving themselves on the latest hyper-restrictive diet that no one could stay on for
more than a few weeks without feeling miserable and deprived. Whatever happened to just
enjoying good food, in moderation, without guilt?
   If we buy into the common-sense wisdom found in books like the bestseller French Women
Don’t Get Fat by Mireille Guiliano, it‘s clear that the way to be thin and still have some cheerful
enjoyment with our meals is to adopt a more traditional, and worldly, way of dining. Moderate
portions, fresh whole foods, relaxing and lingering with family and friends at the table—it‘s what
they do not just in France, Latin America and Asia. These are places where obesity rates have
historically been low(at least until the global spread of fast food obesity everywhere). It‘s where
the ‗gym workout‘ was a bicycle ride to work or school, or where eating a low-fat diet meant
Mom stretching the meat by stuffing cabbage or grape leaves. This reminds us that it is possible to
eat what you love without feeling guilty, deprived or going on any restrictive regimen. Here‘s
how:
   Start with soup. This Japanese tradition is one of the best weight-loss strategies. That‘s because
eating soup, particularly the broth-based vegetable kind, before your entrée1 fills you up so you
eat less during the meal, explains Barbara Rolls, Guthrie professor of nutrition at Penn State
University in University Park, and author of The volumetrics Eating Plan (Harper Collins, 2005).
A two-year French study of 2,188 men and 2,849 women found that those who ate soup five to six
times a week were more likely to have BMIs2 below 23 (considered lean), compared with
infrequent- or non-eaters whose BMIs tended to be in the 27 range.
   Make lunch your main meal. Although they do this throughout Europe, a good explanation for
eating your big meal at midday comes from ayurveda3, India‘s 5,000-year-old approach to
wellness. ―According to ayurveda, we ‗re actually designed to eat the larger meal at lunch because
our digestive ‗fire‘, called agni, is strongest between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m., so we digest more
efficiently,‖ explains Jennifer Workman, a Boulder, Colorado-based ayurveda specialist, registered
dietitian and author of Stop Your Cravings (Free Press, 2001). ―I‘ve seen people in my practice
lose 5 to 10 pounds just by doing this.‖
   Think quality, not quantity. The French snub processed ―diet foods‖ not found in nature,
opting instead for high-quality meats, fish, produce, dairy, even desserts. When food is fresh and
flavorful, you can be satisfied with smaller portions. This is the opposite of the American
approach, which is to fill up on bland diet foods, then gorge on sweets later. ―The French set the
standard for small portions with their high-class cookery,‖ says David Katz, MD, author of The
Way To Eat (Source Books, 2002). ―If we consider that part of eating is to induce pleasure, if you
can get there with quality of choice, you get there in fewer calories.‖
   Mix up the flavors. In ayurveda, including the six basic tastes—sweet, sour, salty, bitter,
pungent and astringent —is the key to a satisfying meal that won‘t leave you craving junk food
later, says Workman.
   Go for color. The Japanese have a saying: ―Not dressing up the meal with color is like going
out without clothes.‖ Not only does color make food more attractive, but consciously seeking out
colorful foods is a great way to bulk up your meals without a lot of calories. A Cornell University
study of6,500 adults in rural China found that while the Chinese ate about 30 percent more that the
average American male, they weighed about 25 percent less, largely because they ate a lot of
plant-based foods. The Japanese aim for five colors at each meal: red, blue-green, yellow, white
and black, including things like red peppers, squash, broccoli, onions, black beans or black olives.
―We‘re variety seekers, so instead of seeking a variety of, say, cookies, get the variety from these
low-energy-dense foods,‖ Rolls says.
   Drizzle on the healthy oils. Healthy fats like olive oil, a main part of the Mediterranean4 diet,
and canola oil, a main part of Okinawans5, make vegetables tastier, so you‘re likely to eat more of
them. According to data from the Catalan Nutrition Survey done in Spain, people who ate the most
olive oil also consumed more vegetables than those who consumed the least olive oil. And, as we
know, eating a diet rich in produce is key to maintaining a healthy weight, in a study of more than
74,000 female nurses conducted over 12 years, Northwestern an Harward University researchers
discovered that those who added the most fruits and vegetables to their diets lowered their risk for
major weight gain by 28 percent.
   When you’re eating, just eat. No other culture multi-tasks meals the way Americans do with
our TV dinners, fast-food drive-throughs and grab-‗n-go food that‘s designed to fit into a car cup
holder and be eaten with one hand. In Japan, it‘s considered rude to eat while walking. And you‘ll
never catch the French gulping coffee in the car. ― In France, there are no car cup holders because
you don‘t drink coffee while driving,‖ explains Will Clower, PhD, author of The Fat Fallacy: The
French Diet Secrets to Permanent Weight Loss (Three Rivers Press, 2003). ―Eating and drinking
aren‘t errands. It‘s not what you do on the way to something else.‖ Good advice. When you‘re
distracted by work, traffic or the TV, you‘re apt to overeat without even realizing it, notes Dean
Ornish, MD, author of Eat More, Weigh Less (Perennial Books, 2001). ―If you really pay attention
to what you‘re eating, you enjoy it more fully and don‘t need as much food.‖
   Enjoy regular meals. One reason French women don‘t get fat is because French women eat
three meals a day. You may think skipping meals cuts calories, but all it does is evoke a primal
―fear of hunger response‖ that causes overeating later, explains Dr. Katz. ―Throughout most of our
history, we had too little to eat. So when you go for long periods without eating, you stir up all that
native programming, which says eat like crazy when you can, because all too often you can‘t.‖
start with breakfast. Studies show that breakfast-eaters are slimmer than skippers.
   Stop eating before you’re full. The Okinawans, whose average BMI is 21.5 for those who eat a
traditional diet, call this hara hachi bu6, or eating till you‘re 80 percent full. Of course, we‘re not
suggesting that you leave the table hungry. But eating until the buttons pop stretches the stomach
by about 20 percent each time you do it, so you inevitably need more food to feel satisfied,
explains Bradley Willcox, MD, co-author of The Okinawa Diet Plan (Random House, 2004). He
says that putting your fork down ―when you feel that first twinge of fullness‖ gives your brain a
chance to realize that you are full before you overdo it.
                                                    (TIME ALLOWING: 12 MINUTES)

Ⅰ. Notes
1. entrée: dish served between the fish and meat courses at a formal dinner
2. BMI: abbreviation of Body Mass Index, It is a measure of weight for height. BMI correlates
   with body fat. The relation between fatness and BMI differs with age and gender. The BMI
   ranges are based on the effect body weight has on disease and death. As BMI increases, the
   risk for some disease increases. It‘s formula is:
                             Weight in Pounds
         BMI= (                                                       ) x 703
                      (Height in inches) x (Height in inches)
3. ayurveda: the world's oldest health care system, the Ayurvedic way of treatment deals
    with diet, exercise, yoga, panchakarma, etc. In Chinese it is called as 阿育吠陀(又称生命吠
    陀)
4. Mediterranean: 地中海
5. Okinawans: 冲绳
6. hara hachi bu:the same meaning in Chinese as “饭吃八分饱”
ⅠⅠ.Comprehension of the text: There are seven books in the text, match the authors in
Column 1 with the books in Column 2
  Column 1                                           column 2
  (A) Mireille Guiliano                       1.Eat More, Weigh Less

  (B) Barbara Rolls                                   2.French Women Don’t Get fat

  (C) Jennifer Workman                                 3.Stop Your Cravings
  (D) David Katz                                       4.The Fat Fallacy: The French Diet Secrets
                                                          to Permanent Weight Loss



  (E) Will Clower                                     5.The Okinawa Diet Plan
  (F) Dean Ornish                                     6.The Volumetrics Eating Plan
  (G) Bradley Willcox                                  7.The Way To Eat

Ⅲ. In-depth discussion: based on the information contained in the text and targeting the
specific conditions in real life, discuss the following topics fully
1. What about your opinion on ―Eating is an all-or-nothing proposition‖?
2. What about your dietary habits? Is it correct?
3. Cultural differences on eastern and western dietary habits.



UNIT TWO
Reading Two
                                         No Job to Go to

Every weekday, Dick Derwent (which is not his real name) is driven out of bed by the alarm clock,
and then he leaves outside the bedroom door. Stopping its din means he must get up first, not
simply turn it off and settle back to sleep. He brings his wife jean a cup of tea, dresses in his office
suit while she makes toast and a sandwich which he packs in his brown briefcase. He heaves the
house at precisely 7:55 a.m. to walk the half mile to the station to catch the 8:15 suburban
stopping train to town.

The routine hasn‘t changed in the 25 years since he and Jean first moved to their neat little house
in a London suburb. Dick sees the same people on the platform every morning- by now he even
nods to one or two. The only difference is that until two years ago he used to buy a paper from the
kiosk outside the station and now he picks one up if a fellow passenger discards it on the journey.

Two years ago, Dick was fired. He no longer has a job to go to. He starts an eight-hour day doing
nothing.

His wife doesn‘t know. He couldn‘t tell her he‘d lost his job, so he simply carries on as though he
goes to work. He believes that she believes the elaborate story he has made up round his working
day. His boss objects to private telephone calls, so please don‘t ring him at work; the other blokes
at work come and go these days, he doesn‘t really know them well enough to talk about them at
home.

Two of his ex-colleagues did drop by his home one weekend, and he rushed them down to the pub.
He told Jean they‘d both been fired, so it was nice to see them after so long, to explain the way
they greeted him. They mentioned afterwards to his friends that Dick and Jean seemed to have
every little furniture around, and they said they‘d given up the television because there was so
much rubbish on these days. The furniture? Oh, they were going to redecorate, so they‘d sold the
old stuff, and Jean would go to sales when they‘d got the new décor.

She must know. There‘s no way of finding out without asking her, and that‘s the one question n o
one can ever ask.

Dick pays for his season ticket out of the fast-dwindling redundancy money he put in the bank. He
takes one pound sterling a day spending money and collects his dole weekly from the DHSS1
office near his old workplace. He gives Jean the same money he always did, but the bills for rates
and gas and electricity he grabs up on his way out in the morning and stuffs in a wastebin near the
station. When they go to cut him off, Jean gives them a cheque, thinking he has forgotten, so he
doesn‘t really know the state of his bank account. He told her he took a pay cut last year because
the firm was in trouble. ―She doesn‘t actually thinking I‘ve forgotten; she thinks I‘ve been on a
drinking spree again.‖ He says.

A typical day starts at Waterloo2, when you‘ve no idea how hard it is to hold back to his slow pace
as the commuters run from the platform. ―No, no tea. It‘s too expensive, and it‘s a waste of your
resources because there‘s no chance of a return on investment. At lunchtime, if you get in the bar
early and buy someone drink, that is the first round, and when his friends come in , they include
you in their rounds. You‘ve got to pick your moment to get out, of course.‖

We walk slowly along the river by the National theatre3 and the Festival Hall. The wind is in the
wrong direction and it‘s very cold. From behind, Dick‘s old suit shows its age in the daylight and
you notice how scuffed his shoes are. You can see people hurrying by, trying to avoid catching his
eye. ―They think I‘ll ask for a handout. They can smell something off me.‖

He sits in the park after a while, and two women on the seat break off their conversation, and
loudly ask each other the time. They‘ve got to go; never knew it was so late.

―I don‘t like doges, you know, but after what I‘ve seen I‘d never speak against them. They make
friends for you, for people on their own. Everyone will talk to someone with a dog in a park.‖

There‘s something which happens gradually as the hours drag by; wherever he loiters, it seems to
be with intent. He can‘t window shop or watch the people go by without feeling that people are
wondering what he‘s doing. During the day, we go into a public library to read the papers. He used
to take the Times4 at home, now he reads the Sun5 first.

―It‘s really irritating reading those papers where people seem to take themselves so seriously.
Same goes for the magazines.‖

It‘s the contrasts that make Dick‘s misery worse. It had been his slowness in the morning; and all
through the morning it was having nothing to do when everyone else seemed to be busy and
intent.

At lunchtime, he sat through opening hours with a half pint, feeling out of place among the noise
and camaraderie. ―I remember what it was like. You don‘t want some guy in trouble to bring you
down when you‘re having a good time.‖

But after lunch his spirits pick up. The worst is over. He finds a park bench, or tramps back to
Waterloo on a rainy day and takes out his sandwiches. He has pet pigeons. ―It‘s nice in the summer.
You can sit out in the Embankment Gardens near Charing Cross and watch everyone. All sorts of
stories going on day after day. It‘s like Coronation Street6, down there.‖

We walk past his old workplace. He does it every day. ―The odd time, someone I knew comes out
and thinks I‘m just passing, so we have a chat. I always say I‘m doing fine- it doesn‘t do to let
people know the truth; it frightens them away from you, as though your wife had died or
something.‖

He says you get used to spending 9 to 5 deliberately doing nothing. ―What you miss is feeling you
belong somewhere. That‘s why I go to the same places. If I didn‘t go one day, someone might
notice.‖

One day, he‘d spent 50p on a horse, sitting in the betting shop getting quite excited about the race.
He‘d won 5 pounds. The next day, he‘d spent a wet afternoon watching a dirty movie near
Trafalgar Square7.

    ―At 6:00 p.m. sharp everyone there got up and hurried up to Charing Cross. Home to their wives,
     that was it. Didn‘t want them to know they hadn‘t got jobs any more. I‘m not alone, you know.‖
                                                                 (TIME ALLOWED: 12 Minutes)

                                               I. Notes
1
  DHSS: abbreviation for the Department of Health and Social Security, which was a ministry of
the British Government for 20 years from 1968 until 1988.
2
  Waterloo: a major railway station and transport interchange complex in the London Borough of
Lambeth. It is located in the Waterloo district of London, which was itself named after the Battle
of Waterloo in which Napoleon was defeated near Brussels.
3
  National Theatre: The Royal National Theatre of Great Britain is a building and theatre
company on London's South Bank. It was opened in 1976. The National Theatre presents a highly
varied programme including Shakespeare and other classics, new plays by leading contemporary
playwrights, and revivals of classic musicals.
4
  The Times: a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom. For much of its history,
the newspaper was regarded as without rival, the ―newspaper of record‖ for Britain. It has played
an influential role in politics and shaping public opinion about foreign events.
5
  The Sun: a tabloid daily newspaper published in the United Kingdom, which has the highest
circulation of any daily English-language newspaper in the world. However, many people hold
negative views of the paper. They accuse it of being coarse and unprofessional, its journalistic
style amateurish and sensationalist, and designed to appeal to individuals of limited intelligence.
6
  Coronation Street: it is Britain's longest-running television soap opera, and the UK's
consistently highest-rated show (a Coronation Street does exist in Salford, a city in northwest of
Scotland).
7
  Trafalgar Square: a square in central London that commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar (1805),
a British naval victory of the Napoleonic Wars. The square is a popular tourist spot in London, and
used to be particularly famous for its pigeons.

II. Comprehension of the text: decide whether the following sentences are true or false. Put a
T for true and F for false.
1. After having his breakfast at home, Dick Derwent leaves the house at precisely 7:55.
2. According to the context, two of Dick‘s ex-colleagues, who dropped by his home one weekend
(Para. 5), most probably greeted him by saying ―What‘s up?‖
3. Dick and Jean just had very little furniture around because they sold the old stuff for the
redecoration, and Jean would go to the sales when they‘d got the new décor.
4. After being fired, Dick tried to support his family by regularly drawing redundancy money he
put in the bank.
5. Dick had no money to pay for the bills for rates, gas and electricity so he threw them away
deliberately.
6. At lunchtime, if you were included by other people in their rounds, you could have lunch on the
cuff without worry any more.
7. It was really irritating for Dick to read those serious papers because it would remind him of the
past life when he was not fired.
8. Dick enjoyed the noise and the friendly good-fellowship at lunchtime. He tried to talk as what
he did before, for he didn‘t want to disappoint other guys who were in their high spirits.
9. Dick hadn‘t let any of his ex-colleagues know the truth because he didn‘t want to be
sympathized by them.
10. Dick was not the only person who lost his job but kept it a secret from his wife.

III. Topics for discussion
1. Why do you think Dick Derwent would pretend to go to job everyday? If you were him, what
would you do?
2. Way Out for Layoffs
3. Attitude to Life and Its Effect on Standard of Living
                                        UNIT THERE
Reading One
Warming-up discussion
1. What kind of things are possible to be influenced by season?
2. Have you heard of the Asian currency crisis of 1997? What do you think about George
Soros, the hero or the devil?
3. If a financial crisis broke out now, how do you think it would affect your life?




                             Seasonal Affective Disorder

Magnus Grimond considers whether some months are more cruel than others in the
markets


THE dreaded October is drawing to a close. How has it been for you? The ill-starred
month, long associated with plummeting share prices as well as falling leaves, appears to
have lived up to its reputation.

The third week of this month was the worst for equity markets for two and a half years. Adding to
the clouds are fears that commodity markets have peaked and US interest rates will rise more
sharply than expected.

The term ―stagflation‖, a relic of the Seventies, is back in circulation, signifying a dreaded
scenario of low growth and inflation.

Starting with the Wall Street Crash of 19291 and taking in Black Monday in 19872, the Asian
currency crisis of 19973 and the latest market wobble, October seems to have been characterised
by share-price panics. But is it really all doom and gloom? As ever, the truth is less than clear cut.
Usually, October is not a bad month to be in the stock market, says David Schwartz, the venerable
stock market historian. ―Over the long run, from a historical perspective, a hypothetical steady
investor who goes into the market at the start of October and comes out at the end of the month,
and who does that systematically for a century, would make money,‖ he says.

According to his calculations, an investor who had followed that strategy since 1919 would have
returned an average profit on their portfolio of 0.9 per cent a year. And the gains would have been
much higher had they not been dragged down by the 27 per cent loss chalked up during October
1987.

However, Mr Schwartz‘s interpretation of the historical record does not accord with that of Didier
Sornette, a professor at the University of California in Los Angeles. He has applied the science of
predicting earthquakes to stock markets and reckons he has come up with a pretty good way of
forecasting market crashes.

He points to one academic study which showed that returns on equities are actually at their lowest
in September and October. The same piece of research notes, however, that the impact of seasonal
factors is lessening.

Perhaps the truth lies somewhere in between. ADVFN4, the investment website, has done some
research covering the past 21 years. Its numbers show that, broadly speaking, investors usually
break even in October. But if Black Monday is excluded, the average return goes up to 1 per cent.
That would make it the fourth-best performing month of the year, according to ADVFN.

If there is an October effect, Jeremy Batstone, of Charles Stanley5, the stockbroker, reckons it
could have something to do with the way that City fund managers have to report quarterly results.
―September marks the end of the quarter, and in the run-up there is a lot of technical activity,‖ he
says.

Fund managers ―window dress‖ their portfolios to make them look better, while traders close out
long positions and square their books. ―Perhaps the absence of sustained buying pressure can have
an adverse effect on the market,‖ he suggests.

More to the point is whether we are heading for another of those occasional crashes. Professor
Sornette says that there is ―no crash looming especially soon‖. He notes, though, that we are in an
―epoch of growing systemic instability‖, which sounds ominous.

That view would probably be echoed by Andrew Alexander, an analyst who bases his techniques
on those of Fibonacci, a 13th-century Italian mathematician. Mr Alexander‘s views have never
won widespread acceptance in the City, but he claims that they can accurately time market
movements.

At the moment, Mr Alexander is not particularly bullish about the market. ―It doesn‘t look very
happy, unless you happen to be in oil or mining,‖ he says. ―There are one or two exceptions, but
most other things look pretty grey.‖

His ―timing sequences‖ are pretty clear: a lot of sectors are heading for a fall, even if there is still
―a great deal of strength‖ in oil and mining.

There could now be a lengthy period of underperformance in the markets, he predicts, although
much will depend on how governments handle the world economy.

But if you remain in an optimistic frame of mind, the boffins at ABN Amro, the Dutch bank, may
have found a strategy to follow at this time of year. They have looked back over the past seven
years and come up with a simple approach: buy the losers.


The bank‘s analysis of four leading European market indices found that buying the ten
worst-performing companies over the first nine months of the year will pay dividends over the last
three. In the FTSE6 100, this has paid off in five of the past seven years.

However, for the FTSE 100, this approach throws up a number of retail stocks, including
Kingfisher, owner of the B&Q chain, as well as William Morrison and Next. Given the current
carnage on the high street, it would have to be a brave investor who bought those stocks. ABN
Amro prefers to play this ―fourth- quarter effect‖ through other names, such as Deutsche Telekom
and Barclays.

Whether you are a bull or a bear of the stock markets, it seems likely that we can all expect a less
easy ride than for the past two or three years. Even the ABN Amro team gives warning that this
approach needs to be taken with a pinch of salt. Perhaps, as the academics conclude, there is no
easy money in forecasting seasonality.                     (TIME ALLOWED: 9 MINUTES)


I. Notes
1
  Wall Street Crash of 1929: also called the Great Crash. It is the stock market crash that
occurred late October 1929. Being the greatest financial crisis in US history, the collapse of the
stock market ended a period of prosperity and ushered in the Great Depression during which
millions lost their jobs.
2
  Black Monday in 1987: worldwide stockmarket crash that began on October 19, 1987. Black
Monday, as it has become known, was almost twice as bad as the stock market crash of October
29, 1929.
3
  Asian currency crisis of 1997: a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand, and affected currencies, stock markets, and
other asset prices of several Asian countries, many part of the East Asian Tigers
                                                                                  (东亚虎).
4
  ADVFN: abbreviation for Advanced Financial Network, which is one of world leading websites for free real-time on line stock quotes
and stock charts, quick stock quote and live stock charting tools.
5
  Charles Stanley: a famous stockbroker in the UK. As a member of the London Stock Exchange
since 1852, it is also one of the longest established UK brokers.
6
  FTSE: a company that specializes in index calculation. Although not part of a stock exchange, co-owners include the London Stock
Exchange and the Financial Times. FTSE 100 Index (the Financial Times Stock Exchange Index of 100 Leading Shares) is a share index of the 100
largest companies listed on the London Stock Exchange. The index is seen as a barometer of success of the British economy and is the leading share
index in Europe.



II. Tips for reading



What is skimming?

Skimming is a reading technique that can help you to:
        read more quickly
        decide if the text is interesting and whether you should read it in more detail
Skimming is a fast reading technique. Use it to obtain the gist of a piece of text (i.e. to quickly
identify the main ideas in the text).

How do you skim read?
Don't read the whole text word-for-word. Use as many clues as possible to give you some
background information. There might be pictures or images related to the topic, or an eye-catching
title. Let your eyes skim over the surface of the text and, whilst thinking about any clues you have
found about the subject, look out for key words.
1. Read the title, subtitles and subheading to find out what the text is about.
2. Look at the illustrations to give you further information about the topic.
3. Read the first and last sentence of each paragraph.
4. Don't read every word or every sentence. Let you eyes skim over the text, taking in key words.
5. Continue to think about the meaning of the text.

Exercise: First read the following questions, then go through the following passages quickly and
answer them.
1.The purpose of the pamphlet is to show ____.
A. how much money the card holder can take at a cash machine
B. how many more benefits the card holder can now enjoy
C. how card holders can use cash machines of other banks
D. how travelers can use cash machines when abroad

                               NEW DESIGN, MORE BENEFITS
     Here is your new Cashpoint Card. You can use it in exactly the same way as your present
card, and the Plus sign means you can take money from your account at even more cash machines.
     At any of the 2,400 Lloyds Bank Cashpoint machines in the UK you can take out up to
£200 a day so long as there is enough money in your account and check how much money is in
your account, and order a new statement.
     You can also use the cash machines of the Bank of Scotland, Barclays Bank and the Royal
Bank of Scotland.
     When you are abroad, you can take out up to £200 a day in local currency from most
machines with a VISA or Plus sign-so long as there is enough money in your account.

2. This paper will mainly discuss ____
A. China‘s economic policies in general.
B. China’s special economic zones.
C. significance of investment in China.
D. China’s recent development.

      Over the past decade, there have been a lot of changes in China‘s economic policies. Like
other developing countries which are attempting to become more export-orientated, China has
started to set up free trade zones. These zones are called ―Special Economic Zones‖(SEZ‘s) and
feature various incentives designed to encourage foreign investment. What is the significance of
these zones? Have they really played an important role in the development of significance of these
zones? Have they really played an important role in the development of the economy of China? In
this paper I first describe the background to the establishment of these zones. Then I describe
some of the aims and characteristics of the SEZ‘s. Lastly, I attempt to assess the significance of
the SEZ‘s in the development of the wider Chinese economy.

III. Comprehension of the text: decide whether the following sentences are true or false. Put
a T for true and F for false.
1. October is notorious as the doom for equity market, and the last one is worthy of the name.
2. Although discouraged by the equity market in last October, the people are still hopeful that US
interest rates will rise sharply.
3. According to David Schwartz, there is no October effect on the share prices at all.
4. Based on the analysis of the historical record, Mr. Sornette has drawn a conclusion similar to
that of Mr. Schwartz.
5. Mr. Sornette believes that the seasonal factors always have a steady influence on returns on
equities.
6. With regard to the role October plays in market, there are two quite different standpoints.
7. After some research covering the past 21 years, ADVFN finds that factually, October is the
fourth-best performing month of the year.
8. Because of growing systematic instability, we are in danger of another pressing stock market
crash.
9. Mr. Alexander holds the view that the interference of governments is also one of important
factors that contribute to the performance of the market.
10. ABN Amro warns that whether you are a bull or a bear of the stock markets, you should be
very cautious before making any decision.

IV. Language work: fill in the blanks with the words and phrases listed below. Change the
form where necessary.

accord with/chalk up/come up with/exclude/hypothetical/live up to/pay off/ominous/to the
point/with a pinch of salt

1. There is a widespread testimony that this               fact is due to inherent biological defects in
the crowded life of cities.
2. He was ashamed that he had failed to                his principles this time.
3. She              a new idea for increasing sales.
4. Anything you do wrong will be                 against you.
5. She discovered that the stories he told her about his childhood were all lies,so now she takes
everything he says             .
6. She asked me how I would deal with the problem if I were the president, but that is a purely
            situation.
7. What you say does not               the previous evidence.
8. His speech was short and             .
9. We must not              the possibility that the child has run away.
10. They doubted whether all this work would                .

V. Pros and cons: study the recommended key words/phrases, pair up, and debate upon the
following topics.
1. October is the doom for stock market. VS. October is not the doom for stock market.
亚洲金融危机主要是经济因素还是非经济因素造成的
A:
B:
2. Financial crisis is an inevitable result of the development of economy.
A:
B:
3 The inflation can be

UNIT THREE
Reading Two
                                    Setting Goals for College

      Many new students' attitude about college is that it is only vaguely part of their long-term
plans. To many, it's simply the thing you're supposed to do next after completing high school.
Most entering Freshman will have chosen their major by the time class begins. While 12% of
these expect to change their major at some point, a full 65-85% actually do. In fact, many students'
expectations are far from what actually ends up happening during their college experience. For
instance, only 8% of undergrads expect to spend more than 4 years to complete their degrees,
whereas 60% end up taking more time. Only 2% expect to fail a course; 16% actually do. And
most surprising of all, only 1% of students expect to drop out. A full 40% actually do drop out!*
Clearly, it makes sense to take control of your education and your life. Do not passively sit back
and just expect everything to work out. The responsibility for acquiring the education you seek
rests ultimately with no one but you. In order to make things work, you need a plan. Not only to
succeed academically, but to get the most out of your entire college experience.
If you fall into this category of being "goal-oriented" but not "goal-obsessed," then here are a few
tips to help you accomplish more without becoming a slave to the process:

                                       The Secret: Set Goals

Do you currently have goals? Sure, everybody has some things they know they'd like to do. But do
you have REAL goals? That is, a list of 5 or 10 things that you have committed to yourself to
doing? Things that you will do, in specific terms, by a specific date? Can you list them off the top
of your head right now, as you read this?
If you said "no" to any part of the above questions, then your "goals" are probably more like
"notions" than actual goals. Everyone has notions. Just like everyone has a notion that they won't
drop out of college. Think about that, then consider somebody who has set a specific goal "To
Complete College in Four Years." Do you think this person is more likely to stay in school and
finish it in four years than, say, the person who has never thought that much about the question?
The answer is an unqualifed "yes." People who set goals, commit their goals to writing, and refer
back periodically are many more times more likely to actually do whatever they want to do.

                                            Why is this?

Life is tremendously varied. At any given moment, there are thousands of things you could do.
When you're driving, you could turn left, turn right, speed up, slam on the brakes, stop for lunch,
stop for gas, decide to drive to Alaska to see what Kodiak 5bears look like, and on and on. But
what is it that keeps you from ending up in Alaska every time you get into your car? Why don't
you end up at random locations all the time? The answer is that you got into your car with a clear
idea of where you wanted to go. You knew at the beginning.
Life is the same way. If you know at the beginning where you want to go, you'll probably get there.
If you don't, you probably won't.
Consider, for instance, all the things you could do with your free time: You could read, eat, sleep,
go for a run, go shopping, call someone, watch television, and so on, for an infinite number of
options. How to choose? Even if you decide to spend an hour watching television, there are
hundreds of channels you could surf through, not to mention your DVD collection. Or what about
surfing the Web? Literally millions of options are just a couple mouseclicks away. It would be
easy to fetter away a lifetime if we woke up each morning without any idea of where we wanted to
go, what we wanted to do, or how we were going to get there.
The human brain is very good at sifting through large amounts of information, searching for that
which is most important in a given situation. It's also very good at answering questions that are
posed to it. However, the brain does require that someone tell it what it's looking for or what
question it's supposed to answer. In that way, it's like a powerful computer sitting on the desk—it's
a powerful tool, but somebody needs to tell it what to do.
That's exactly what goals do. By setting goals, you're giving your brain instructions for what it is
supposed to be doing. Any time you have a decision to make, whether big or small, it's going to
take your goal into account if you have bothered to tell it what your goal is. Sometimes your goal
will not make any difference. For instance, if you're about to get hit by a car, your brain really
doesn't care whether you'd like to get an A+ in organic chemistry 5or travel abroad this summer,
it's going to try to get you out of the way of the car. This is because your brain is, first and
foremost, designed to keep you alive. In general, this means preventing you from experiencing
pain. It's also designed to help you experience pleasure, which is what makes us eat when we're
hungry, sleep when we're tired, and even create kids, who hopefully finish their college in four
years too (so that you can go back to seeking pleasure rather than paying their room, board, and
tuition indefinitely).
Brains are clever in that they avoid pain and seek pleasure, whether we tell them to or not. (They
even get better at both of these as time goes by— it's called it "learning.") The problem is that, if
we don't tell our brain exactly which of pain/pleasure to avoid/seek, they'll go with whatever's
most convenient, obvious, and quick. Unfortunately, this leads to short-sited thinking. What would
feel good right now? Pizza? Sleep? If you're trying to lose weight, then pizza might sound good to
your brain, because you haven't told it specifically enough that it needs to go against its instincts
and do what you tell it to do: forego short-term rewards in favor of a greater future
reward—maintaining a proper weight. Likewise, you may be desperately craving sleep. In the
absense of overriding instructions, the brain thinks sleep is more important. Whereas, in truth,
sometimes sleep is more important than what you're doing, and sometimes it's not. When in doubt,
about any decision, goals are what keep us on track.
When you set a goal, and keep yourself reminded of it, the brain tends to ask the thousands of
daily little unconscious questions in their proper context. Instead of processing the question, "Do I
want this pizza?", the brain asks, "Is this pizza more important than my goal to lose weight?" If
your body truly requires fuel (and nothing healthier is available), then the answer is "Yes." If not,
then "No." Or instead of asking "Do I want to sleep?" (which is almost a trick question... who
doesn't like to sleep?), it asks the more appropriate question, "Is sleeping right now more
important than studying for tomorrow's organic chemistry exam?" Sometimes the sleep will be
more important, sometimes it can wait. The goal that you have set is what makes your brain ask
the right questions, all throughout the day.
In short, goals are what keep your brain making decisions with an emphasis on where you want to
go, not this minute, but in the long run. (TIME ALLOWED: 12 minutes)



                                                          (Article from myGoals.com, abridged)

                                         * Statistics: W. Habley, cited in Upcraft and Kramer, 1995



I. Notes
1. Kodiak: U.S. island off the coast of southwestern Alaska.
2. organic chemistry: name of a course offered at college, 有机化学。

II. Comprehension of the text: decide whether the following sentences are true or false. Put a
T for true and F for false
1. Many new students are not really clear about why they go to college.
2. The statistics in the 1st paragraph shows that many college students fail to meet their
     expectations.
3. One of the advantages about college is that you can expect things to work out themselves.
4. There is no difference between being goal-oriented and goal-obsessed.
5. When you become goal-oriented, there exists the risk of being a slave to the process.
6. Specific goals are more important for college students than abstract notions.
7. The example of DRIVING is used to show how it is essential in one‘s life to set clear and
     specific goals at the beginning.
8. The human brain, like the computer, is a powerful tool, and it works well only when specific
     instructions are given to it.
9. That part in the text which discusses the function of human brain is only loosely related to the
     topic under discussion.
10. This is a narrative piece of writing about the importance of setting goals for college students.

III. Topics for discussion
1. Keep talking about goals won‘t bring you anywhere. Think of what people say: ―Actions
     speak louder than words‖.
2. College, or life, is simply a process of being taken by surprise. If you know already where you
     are going before you start, then its meaning is lost.
3. Setting specific goals is the first step towards success for college students.
UNIT FOUR
Reading One
Warming-up discussion
1. Do you think math interesting? Why or why not?
2. If you were a math teacher, what would you do to build up your students‘ interest in math?
3. Do you remember any book which was so interesting that it totally changed your interest in the
related subject?

                          Innovative Books Solve Math Anxieties
                                          By Kate Tsubata

    My son has been dissatisfied with his algebra text, so he decided to do some research on other
books. Searching the Internet, he printed out information on various books that seemed interesting.
 Instead of choosing one to buy, he got the idea of taking the list to our local library and checking
                                to see if any of the books were available there.
                    Lo and behold, he came home with a half-dozen of the books on his list.
          I have spent the last few days going through these books. They represent some interesting
    approaches, which may be helpful for some families looking for better ways to study algebra.
        • "Dr. Math Explains Algebra," produced by the Math Forum Drexel University (John Wiley
    & Sons, 2004), uses cartoons and chatty "letters" between fictional students and "Dr. Math" to
  explain the various concepts and methods. The cartoon-character "students" illustrate ideas such
  as the slope of a line by skiing on an ascending or descending mountainside. Or, they show how
       the squares of consecutive numbers follow a visual pattern. Or they show how a quadratic
equation can be visualized as a square, divided into different areas represented by the terms of that
                                                     equation.
            I think this is a good book for visual learners, and for those who are mesmerized by the
             seemingly endless strings of letters and numbers that most math texts seem to be.
              • "Painless Algebra," by Lynette Long (Barron's Educational Series, 1998), also uses
     illustrations, but not of the math concepts themselves, just as an interesting visual element to
       attract the eye to a certain bit of text. It also makes use of mnemonics to remember certain
                                                    operations.
       • "Practical Algebra, A Self-Teaching Guide," by Peter Selby and Steve Slavin (John Wiley &
 Sons, 1991), is a bit more math-ish in that it uses a lot more of the traditional vocabulary (anyone
  remember what the abscissa and ordinate are?). Yet it's a very clearly explained book, and it has
    one feature I found very attractive: It invites the student to work right on the pages, workbook
   style, and is a more hands-on way of learning. I felt this was one of the best and clearest books,
                  neither talking down to the student, nor introducing distractive elements.
       • "Algebra, The Easy Way," by Douglas Downing (Barron's Educational Series, 1996), uses a
 storytelling approach, using an ongoing tale of the struggles of a royal bookkeeper in the fictional
  kingdom of Carmorra to introduce algebraic concepts and methods. The story is pretty involved,
 which might be good for learners who love reading, but may be distracting for students who want
  it simple and to the point. Illustrations are used cleverly, both to carry on the story and to depict
      the math concepts. Through the story, many advanced concepts are introduced in a fun and
   memorable way. The publishers boldly promise to refund the book's purchase price if it doesn't
                        help the student improve his or her grades in 30 days.
      The important question in choosing any textbook or workbook is, "Does this fit the student's
learning style?" If your child loves stories, find a book that uses narrative and characters to explain
 the concepts. If they are "example" learners, a workbook approach usually is best. And if they are
  visual learners, a book that uses lots of diagrams, graphs and illustrations probably will be most
                                                  useful.
     Many parents are nervous about teaching math because they had bad experiences in their own
math education. I have found that home-schooling gives us a second chance to approach math, and
               to experience it in a positive way, thanks to innovative books and tools.
       You may find yourself getting excited, along with your child, as you "get it" after years of
  assuming, "I'm poor in math." It's great to feel that sense of success, no matter what age we are.
 And there's a double lesson in it for our children --- when they see us struggle to grasp something
 and then find the answer, they feel a sort of learners' camaraderie with us as a fellow explorer. It's
 a different experience than that of the student feeling ignorant and helpless before the all-knowing
                                                instructor.
     Good tools will help both the parent and the student in the learning process. I hope these books
  give you a starting point in finding the best tools for your family. (October 24, 2005; from the
                   Washington Times) (727 words; Time allowed: 7 minutes)

I. Note
Kate Tsubata, a home-schooling mother of three, is a free-lance writer who lives in Maryland.



II. Tips for reading
How to Use a Dictionary? (I)
   How often do you use your dictionary? Your answer to that question may tell you how much
improvement in reading to expect.
   Dictionaries are a real help. We go to dictionaries for help when we run into words or phrases
we have never met before. But do we sometimes also feel the need to refer to the dictionaries of
this type of that when we come to words or phrases we think to know already? The complexity of
meaning of the English vocabulary is reason enough for learners of English as a foreign language
to trust a dictionary rather than his/her own rule of thumb. Thus it is important to find the right
meaning of the word.
   represent

1. Common meanings known to most students: (1) to act or speak officially for (another person
or group of people); (2) to be a sign of; symbolize
 Examples: (1) She represents her fellow-workers at the union meeting.
             (2) The red color represents danger.
2. Meaning in the context which is less known to the students: to express or point out to, often
angrily or complainingly
Example: You should represent your complaints to the management.
Exercise: Study the following sentences carefully. Try to make out the meanings of the italicized
words with the help of a dictionary.
1. Politics should not be divorced from the lives of ordinary people.
2. You could use bold to make the information stand out a little more.
3. We believe that honesty and industry would lead to success.
4. The colonel gave the order to charge.
5. Mary walked off and he followed in her wake
6. The booklet gives a lot of useful tips on flower arranging.
7. Kate and I always go Dutch when we go out to restaurants.
8. He could never tell a joke with a straight face.

III. Comprehension of the text: decide whether the following sentences are true or false. Put
a T for true and F for false.

1. The style of ―Dr. Math Explains Algebra‖ is formal.
2. The son of the author sets a good example of the voluntary study.
3. According to the author, the best math textbook for children should use traditional vocabulary
   and invite the student to participate.
4. It can be inferred that the present textbooks or workbooks do not take the student‘s learning
   style into consideration.
5. Home-schooling may benefit both the children and parents, and at the same time presents
   challenges to the textbook authors.
6. The fear ―I‘m poor in math‖ can be overcome if the parents develop the sense of the learner‘s
   camaraderie and work as a fellow explorer.
7. The all-knowing instructor will help the children‘s study.
8. In this passage, the author advocates a new learning process in the family.

IV. Language work: fill in the blanks with the words and phrases listed below. Change the
form where necessary.

 illustration mesmerize innovative represent hands-on consecutive                    mnemonic
 to the point      fictional     lo and behold
 1. We stood by the lake, _____ by the flashing colors of the fish.
 2. Your suggestion is very much _____.
 3. As for the reading of children, the _____ are better than the text.
 4. Jules Verne wrote a _____ account of a journey to the moon.
 5. The spelling guide ―I before e except after c‖ is a _____.
 6. She had looked everywhere for her key when _____ there it was in her bag!
 7. The computer course includes plenty of _____ training.
 8. The red lines on the map _____railways.
 9. It‘s been raining for five _____ days.
 10. He is an _____ young film director.

 V. Pros and cons: study the recommended key words/phrases, pair up, and debate upon the
 following topics.
 1. Textbooks VS. learning effects
    A. out of date/knowledge/boring/arousing no interest in the learners
    B. not the deciding factor/learner‘s own awareness
 2. Textbooks VS. teaching methods

 VI. In-depth discussion: based on the information contained in the text and targeting the
 specific conditions in real life, discuss the following topics fully.
 1. My experience of studying math
 2. Teaching math in an interesting way
 3. My view on the learning style


 UNIT FOUR

 Reading Two

                                         Good Neighbors

           Schools used to pair up roommates. Now computers are letting some freshmen

        match themselves up.


                                By Mark Starr
       At first, Amanda Tomney admits, she found the whole roommate thing creepy—too much
like computer dating. But since Georgetown University was offering the online service to
incoming freshmen for the first time, she figured, why not give it a whirl? So the summer before
her freshman year, Tomney filled out a questionnaire detailing her life-style preferences: Neatnik
or slob? Academic grind or party animal? About half of Georgetown's entering class, some 750
students, also enrolled in CHARMS (Campus Housing Roommate Matching System), giving them
the chance to choose their own freshman roommates.
   Over the next month, messages flew back and forth between students attracted to each other's
anonymous online profiles. Tomney quickly spotted someone who "sounded just like my best
friend from home." In fact, Lauren Randle turned out to be just like Tomney, too—right down to
the to-do lists posted all over their bedrooms. After several messages, the two exchanged real
names and began instant-messaging. A week later Randle proposed and Tomney accepted. When
Tomney arrived at school, Randle was waiting with a big hug. Today the two are "attached at the
hip"—and chose to room together again as sophomores.
   Pairing roommates has long been a low-tech, unscientific procedure. Even today most colleges
still send out very basic questionnaires to admitted students—then "sit around with 2,000 index
cards and try to determine, based on a couple of questions, if Tommy can live with Billy," says
Tom Ratchford, president of WebRoomz, another computer roommate system used at a half-dozen
colleges and universities. But in the last few years, some colleges have taken the process online,
not just to eliminate labor, but to let students control their own destinies by pairing themselves up.
Obviously, not all the matches prove to be quite as charmed as the pairing of Randle and Tomney.
But administrators say it's a substantial improvement. "We've tried various methods through the
years, and usually, after the first night, they're lined up at our door, saying, 'This is not going to
work out'," says Jonalyn Greene, Georgetown's executive director of student housing. "That didn't
happen this time."
   Even at colleges without the inclination or money to take roommate selection high tech, there's
growing recognition of how critical the pairing process can be. Studies have revealed what
anybody who's gone to college might have guessed: the choice of a roommate can have an impact
on academic success. Indeed, it can affect all aspects of college life. But as matching roommates
becomes more important, it is also becoming more challenging. "How many of them have ever
shared a bedroom, let alone a bathroom?" asks Bowling Green State's Linda Newman. Weighted
down with gear that doesn't fit neatly into the classic 10-foot-by-15-foot dorm room, today's
students are uniquely ill suited to share space with anyone. "I'm actually amazed that so many of
the roommate pairings are successful," says Newman. Alan Hargrave, president of the Association
of College and University Housing Officers-International, says even more might succeed if
students would fill out their questionnaires without parental involvement "so we get who they
really are and not who their parents want them to be."
   While administrators always hoped for compatibility, they also sought diversity. But left on
their own, college kids seem to prefer somebody almost exactly like themselves. Some university
officials fret that the trend toward "cloned" roommates flies in the face of their academic mission.
"College, if nothing else, has to be a crucible for learning, and that involves being stretched with a
certain amount of the unknown and even discomfort," says Eddie Hull, dean of residence life at
Duke. Yet those who make compatibility the priority insist they still pursue a mix-and-match
philosophy—just on a macro level. "We are looking to have roommates as alike as possible living
on a hall with neighbors who are as different from them as possible," says Davidson College's
Leslie Marsicano.
   Averting all disasters remains a mission impossible. Still, students value the chance to control
their own fates. And then when they get stuck with the proverbial roommate from hell, they will
have no one to blame but themselves. (From Newsweek; Aug. 22, 2005) (693 words; time
allowed: 7 minutes)

I. Notes
II. Comprehension of the text: Choose the correct answer to each of the following
questions or statements.
1. The idea of choosing the roommates for freshmen is issued by Amarda Tomney.
2. It‘s favourable to find a roommate with the identical life-style.
3. Tomney and Randle are the successful example of the roommate pairing by computers.
4. Traditionally, pairing roommates is random.
5. More and more people have realized that the freshmen are critical in their selection of
   roommates.
6. Roommate pairing needs high technology.
7. Parents are usually involved because they want their children to become what they are.
8. Diversity is better for academic success according to some university officials.
9. ―Averting all disasters remains a mission impossible‖ implies that roommate pairing is still a
     difficult task to its own benefit.
10. In the last paragraph, the writer suggests that if the freshmen meet with any discomfort, they
     should take the responsibility themselves.
III. Topics for discussion:
1. Compatibility and diversity in the roommate
2. The influence of roommates on my academic achievements
3. My solution to the conflicts among the roommates
UNIT FIVE
Reading One
Warming-up discussion
1. What's your favorite Beijing Games mascot?
2. What does Beijing‘s successful bid for the 2008 Olympic Games mean to China?
3. What will you do to welcome the Olympic Games in Beijing?


               Beijing Unveils Mascots for 2008 Olympics
    China will Unleash Marketing Blitz Expected to Reap Record Profits
                    From the Associated Press

        BEIJING - A cartoon panda and Tibetan antelope are the newest Olympic players.
        They were among five mascots unveiled Friday for the 2008 Summer Games, opening a
    marketing blitz expected to reap record profits. Joining the antelope and panda were cartoon
    depictions of a fish, swallow and the Olympic flame, each a color of one of the Olympic
    rings.
        The announcement, culminating years of fierce lobbying and months of secrecy, was
    made at a nationally televised gala at a Beijing sports arena, marking the 1,000-day
    countdown to the event.
        ―The five friendlies are an incredible little family carefully chosen by Beijing 2008 to
    represent all of China to carry a message of friendship to the children of the world,‖ IOC
    president Jacques Rogge said in a statement read at the ceremony.
        There are more mascots for this Olympics than for any in more than 30 years. The 2000
    Summer Games in Sydney and 2002 Winter Games in Salt Lake City had three each.
        The animals were introduced as Bei Bei (fish), Jing Jing (panda), Huan Huan (Olympic
    flame), Ying Ying (antelope) and Ni Ni (swallow). Put together that translates to ―Beijing
    welcomes you!‖
        ―China is so lucky to have so many beautiful animals to represent the Olympic spirit,‖
    Rogge said.
        A number of real and mythic creatures were among the candidates considered by Chinese
    leaders, Olympic officials and design specialists during the past year. Among those failing to
    make the cut were the dragon and a mischievous magical monkey from Chinese folklore.
        The choice, the subject of lively media speculation for months, has been a secret since it
    was completed three months ago, sealed by confidentiality agreements and the habitual
    secrecy of the government.
        At stake for China is one of the most marketable symbols in the Olympics. The mascots
    stand to generate significant revenue and public support for the Beijing Games, which will
    cost about $38 billion.
        Sales of licensed products, including those with the mascot, have brought in about $300
    million at the Sydney and Athens Olympics. Host cities keep 10 percent to 15 percent of the
    royalties, helping to defray Olympic costs.
        The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games expects sales of such
    products to be higher still.
        On Saturday, postage stamps and more than 300 other licensed products of the mascot go
     on sale at 188 authorized venues across the country, widening a product line of T-shirts, caps,
     pens and bags bearing the 2008 Games logo, according to Olympic officials.
         To capture an entire range of consumers, the mascot products will range from fluorescent
     pens for $1 to souvenirs made from precious metals selling for thousands of dollars.
        China has tried to use the mascot-selection process to involve communities far from
     Beijing. On hand for the unveiling at the Workers Gymnasium were 100 children
     ―ambassadors‖ from western provinces.
        Organizers threw open the selection process, inviting suggestions from the public and local
     governments, and many governments lobbied intensely. There were 662 suggestions in all for
     the mascots, with the list pared during the year.
         To capitalize on the mascots‘ publicity, Beijing is launching an extensive marketing
     campaign. An animated film by Han Meilin, who headed the design team, was screened at
     Friday night‘s unveiling and is expected to be replayed on Chinese television in coming days.
         ―This time the mascot design fully combines traditional Chinese culture,‖ Han told the
     Chinese Web site Sina.com. (Nov.11, 2005) (600 words; time allowed: 6 minutes)



1. Notes

II. Tips for reading
How to Use a Dictionary? (II)
   Besides finding the right meaning of the words you are looking for in the dictionary, you can
find a lot of other information of the words, which may be more important in your English
learning. Therefore, the dictionaries may help you in the following aspects:
     (1) To find the right pronunciation, especially the word with the same spelling but different
pronunciation: i.e. bow, insult;
     (2) To find the right word: For example, ―Our office filling system used to be almost
incomprehensible/uncomprehensible, but now it‘s much easier to use, thanks to our
efficient/efficacious new secretary. Instead of the usual jumble of papers lying around the office,
there is now a neat and orderly pile/heap on one desk. So the new system has already made/done
a big difference.‖ In this example, the first word of each pair is the right word. The dictionary will
tell the different use of these words.
     (3) To find the most suitable word: Though some words have the similar meaning, they differ
in style, i.e. the dictionary will provide the stylistic information of the words. For example, dollar
and buck, the former is used in any context and style, while the latter is only used in informal
context.
   (4) To find the pragmatic information: How to use the words properly is essential for the
successful communication, especially the intercultural communication. Therefore, some
dictionaries provide enough pragmatic information of the words. For example, ―quite‖ is a simple
word, however, it can be used to express annoyance as in ―If you‘ve quite finished interrupting,
perhaps I can continue.‖
     (5) To distinguish British English and American English: British English and American
English are quite different in their pronunciation, spelling, vocabulary, semantics, and so on.
    In pronunciation, for example, in stress, ballet and debris, missile, secretary
    In sounds /ju:/and /u/, tune, dubious, news
    The vowel sound /ɑ:/ and /æ/, ask, bath, last, after
    In spelling, British English tends to involve particular letter sequences such as –our, -tre, -nce,
-l-, while American English –or, -ter, -nse- -ll-, for example, humour/humor, labour/labor,
centre/center, theatre/theater, offence/offense, defence/defense, appal/appall, fulfil/fulfill
    In semantics, British English and American English can be distinguished by the following
types:
    Type 1: the same objects may have different names, for example,
        British English        American English
          mobile phone          cellphone
         petrol                gas
         dustbin               garbage can
         sweets                 candy
         windscreen            windshield
    Type 2: the same word is used in both varieties, but it may have a different meaning, for
example, football, in British English, is a game played all over the world, with a round ball that
the players kick (but do not throw). American speakers call this game soccer. In American English,
it is a game played with an egg-shaped ball that players can throw or kick. British speakers call
this game American football. The same is true for chips and vest.

  Exercise: Try to finish the following task with the help of a dictionary.
  (1) To distinguish the pronunciation of the words: produce (v. & n.); bow
  (2) To make out the right word: legal, lawful and legitimate
  (3) To find out the suitable word: horse, gee-gee, stallion; house, residential,
domicile
  (4) To use the word pragmatically: forget it
  (5) To give the American spelling of the following words or its British counterpart: apartment;
baggage; aisle; bucket; corn; subway; mail; intermission; cracker

   III. Comprehension of the text: decide whether the following sentences are true or false.
Put a T for true and F for false.
1. According to the text, the five mascots will make a great profit to defray the Games.
2. Confidentiality is essential for the market profits.
3. The selection of the mascots aroused a lively discussion and speculation from the media for at
   least one year.
4. The number of the mascots for the 2008 Olympics is the biggest in 30 years.
5. The choice of the mascots was kept a secret for three months.
6. For the host cities like Sydney and Athens, 10 to 15 percent royalties from the sale of the
   mascots were kept to pay for Olympic costs.
7. The mascot-selection involves a national wide process.
8. Dragon and monkey failed to be chosen as the Olympic mascots because they cannot represent
   the Olympic spirit.
IV. Language work: fill in the blanks with the words and phrases listed below. Change the
form where necessary.
    unveil pare         lobby defray blitz culminate speculation logo unleash
    revenue
1. We must _____ down costs to improve our profitability.
2. She has dismissed the rumours of her resignation as pure ______.
3. The Longman _____, a small sailing ship, is on the cover of this dictionary.
4. The company will _____ all your expenses.
5. To promote the new product, the company opened an advertising _____.
6. A series of financial disasters _____ in the collapse of the country‘s largest bank.
7. They are _____ for a reduction in defence spending.
8. The car company will be _____ its latest models at a press conference tomorrow.
9. The enemy bombers _____ a terrible attack on the city.
10. The magazine had been losing advertising _____ for months.

V. Pros and cons: study the recommended key words/phrases, pair up, and debate upon the
following topics.
1. Olympic spirits VS. national spirits
   communication/competition/patriotism
2. Winner VS. loser
   participation/experience/challenge to one‘s ability/

VI. In-depth discussion: based on the information contained in the text and targeting the
specific conditions in real life, discuss the following topics fully.
1. The symbolic meanings for the five mascots in traditional Chinese culture
2. The significance of hosting the Olympics for China
3. The commercialization of the Olympics




UNIT FIVE
Reading Two
                              Gooooooal!
                           By Lorraine Ali
    Jess is having one of those dreams that make her kick the covers off the bed. She‘s involved in
a crucial soccer match, her teammate, U.K. football hero David Beckham, at her side. The stadium
goes wild as she maneuvers past packs of grunting players. Then whack! She kicks the ball past a
panicked goalie, and the 5-foot-3 Indian girl from suburban London scores the winning goal for
Manchester United.
    Indians--- let alone Indian girls--- don‘t play on English soccer teams. It‘s a scenario found
only in dreams, and in Britain‘s unlikely, irresistible indie hit ―Bent it like Beckham.‖ The movie,
which was directed by Gurinder Chadha, is the story of 18-year-old Jess (Parminder Nagra), a
tomboy who wants to play soccer but is forbidden by her sikh 5 parents. Jess dodges
finger-wagging, sari-clad5 mums and leering British boys. She befriends a blond London girl
named Jules (Keira Knightley), who‘s bent on bolting to America because her homeland doesn‘t
have a pro team for women. She acts a little like Rocky. She learns a little about romance and a lot
about girl power. ―When Gurinder first approached me, I was thinking, ‗Who wants to see an
Indian girl kicking a football around?‘‖ says Nagra, 28. ―I know,‖ says Knightley, 18, who was
sitting next to her in a Manhattan café last week. ―I was personally worried that people would
laugh at it. But they were amused and intrigued. Or maybe they just wanted to see a bunch of girls
running around in shorts.‖
     ―Bend It‖ took just eight weeks and $4.5 million to make---and it has grossed $55 million
since it opened around the world a year ago. Last month the movie debuted in the States in just six
theaters. ―Bend It‖ has been expanding cautiously around the country, but It‘s already made $3
million here and has been selling two or three times as many tickets at each theater as the
run-of-the-mill fare currently in the top 10. ―Bent It‖, which was largely financed by the British
Film Council, may or may not go the big, fat, Greek distance, but it‘s already jump-started
Knightley‘s career. She‘s got a lead role in Jerry Bruckheimer‘s summer swashbuckler, ―Pirates of
the Caribbean,‖ which hits theaters in July. By then Knightley will be something of a star if ―Bend
It Like Beckham‖ keeps riding the wave.
     Director Chadha began writing ―Bend It‖ six years ago, inspired by the themes of her own
adolescence. ―The most important thing to my mum was that I learn how to cook Indian food, but
I refused,‖ says Chadha, who used her mother and her aunts as extras in the film. ―I‘d say, ‗What
you don‘t realize, Mum, is that you are oppressed.‘ She‘d say, ‗When you get married and can‘t
cook, you tell your mother-in-law she‘s oppressed, because I‘m the one who‘s going to get a bad
name, not you.‘ To this day I don‘t cook chapati.‖
     Nagra doesn‘t cook much, either. Since the age of 18 she‘s been too busy acting on London‘s
theater circuit and on British TV. She grew up with her immigrant Indian parents north of London
and, like most kids in her community, was weaned on Bollywood videos and American TV shows.
―We‘d love ‗The A-Team‘ and ‗Happy Days‘,‖ she says. ―I used to fancy Face. My mum liked the
Fonz.‖ As for Knightley, she wasn‘t really exposed to Indian culture before meeting Nagra and the
―Bend It‖ crew, who often spoke Punjabi5 on the set. ―I didn‘t have a clue what they were
saying,‖ she says. ―You get kind of paranoid ---are they talking about me? Especially when we
were doing the soccer sequence, because I knew I wasn‘t as good as all the other girls. A couple of
times I turned around and was like, ‗What? What are you saying? Just tell me!‘ They‘d be like,
‗We‘re talking about the food, actually.‘ Very embarrassing.‖
     After ―Bend It‖ wrapped, there were even bigger culture shocks about to happen. Knightley
contrated Chadha‘s tight, family-like set with the massive spectacle of Disney‘s ―Pirates of the
Caribbean,‖ in which she plays a strong-willed girl kidnapped by pirates. ―What was most
shocking is that in ‗Beckham,‘ you can see I have spots‖---pimples---―but in ‗Pirates,‘ they were
like, ‗Don‘t worry, we‘ll CGI them out.‘ ‗CGI out my spots? Wow, you can do that?‘ To get up in
the morning and not worry about that, it‘s like, whoa, I need to get my feet back on the ground
here.‖
     Nagra has yet to be swept off by Hollywood the way the blond Knightley has. This is, after all,
the same Hollywood that‘s still patting itself on the back for recognizing Halle Berry as 2002‘s
best actress after ignoring her African-American predecessors for more than 75 years. ―With
Parminder, people may simply think ‗ethinic,‘ whether it‘s latina or whatever,‖ says Chadha,
who‘s currently turning ―Pride and Prejudice‖ into a Bollywood musical. ―It‘s a shame, really. She
could play a doctor, a nurse, a housewife, a stripper, anything. Even a footballer.‖ Right now,
Nagra just hopes never to see another script with the words ―arranged marriage‖ in it. ―I want to
break the glass ceiling,‖ she says. ―There‘s more to second-generation Asians than just cultural
conflict.‖ Sounds like what the movie industry needs is a good, swift kick. (With some revision
and simplification; 892 words; time allowed: 9 minutes)




1. Notes
5
  Sikh, a member of religion (Sikhism) that developed from Hinduism in the 16th century to
become a completely separated religion. (锡克教教徒)
5
  Sari-clad means covered with sari. Sari is a dress consisting of a length of light cloth wrapped
gracefully round the body, worn esp. by Hindu women.
5
    Punjabi is a dialect spoken by people in the Punjab region of India or Pakistan.

II. Comprehension of the text: Choose the correct answer to each of the following
questions or statements.
1. How does the author start the text?
   A. By presenting the great memories of a good football match.
   B. By stating the experience in an exciting football match.
   C. By depicting a football match in the dream.
   D. By describing a scenario of a football match in a film starred by Jess.
2. As for the two girls Nagra and Knightley, which of the following is NOT right?
   A. Nagra grew up in an immigrant Indian family.
B. Knightley knew little about Indian culture.
C. Nagra was taken in by Hollywood.
D. Knightley was 18 years old.
3. What can be inferred from Para. 4?
   A. Director Chadha got the inspiration for the movie ―Bent It‖ from her own
     experience.
   B. Chadha liked cooking Indian food.
   C. There are cultural conflicts between the second-generation Indians and their
       parents living in Europe.
   D. The mother-in-law would oppress the daughter-in-law who could not cook.
4. What does the author mean by saying ―riding the wave‖ in Para. 3?
   A. having great success
   B. in the seawater
   C. losing its popularity
   D. on the decline
5. What does the word ―paranoid‖ mean in Para. 5?
   A. An unreasonable lack of trust in other people
   B. Supernaturalness
   C. The psychological power to see through other people
   D. Greater importance
6. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
   A. Nagra was concerned about whether the movie ―Bend It‖ would be popular.
   B. Knightley was worried that people would laugh at a movie in which girls kicked
     a football around.
   C. The ticket fare of ―Bend It‖ is in the top 10.
   D. Knightley starred in ―Pirates of the Caribbean‖.
7. The spelling of the word ―goal‖ in the title is unique. What does the title
   ―Gooooooal‖ suggest?
   A. It‘s important to shoot in a football match and score a goal.
   B. It implies a difficult process to overcome cultural clashes in the field of movies.
   C. Nagra aims to score a goal in her movie career.
   D. It suggests a sound image.
8. What does the last paragraph imply?
   A. The movie industry should involve into the football match.
   B. The movie industry should change its attitude to the problems of ethinic and
       cultural conflicts.
   C. The second-generation Asians should kick the movie industry.
   D. Hollywood‘s attitude to African-American has a long history.

III. Topics for discussion
1. The cultural shocks between the second-generation Chinese youths and their
   parents living in the U.S.A
2. The life of the immigrants
3. The immigrant movies and novels
UNIT SIX
Reading One
Warming-up discussion:
1. Do you have the slightest idea about the forming of a storm? What do you think causes storms?
2. Do you know what kind of storm is most common in the place where you live? What is it?
When does it occur usually?




                                  Powerful Storms

1. According to the Worldwatch Institute5, in 1998 alone, severe weather caused more than
30,000 deaths and close to $90 billion in damage. Hurricanes ravaged coastline, tornadoes plowed
through the United States with record force, and rain battered crops and left millions of people
homeless worldwide. What causes such severe weather? Can we prepare ourselves for these
disasters?

2. Powerful storms such as thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tornadoes are generated when warm,
light air rises quickly into higher, colder levels in an unstable updraft that can reach over 100
miles per hour. Each type of storm forms under specific conditions; hurricanes occur over
moisture-rich oceans and coastlines, for example. They draw their energy from warm ocean waters.
Understanding the conditions that give rise to powerful storms is the key to preparing for their
devastating effects.

Thunder and lightning

3. At any given moment, there are an estimated 2,000 thunderstorms in progress over Earth's
surface. These storms can vary from relatively mild rainstorms to very damaging storms that
feature hail and high wind. Thunderstorms form when warm air rises from Earth's surface and
moves upwards quickly into the colder levels of the atmosphere. If conditions are right, tornadoes
can form from this rapid updraft. Normally, however, the result is rain, wind, lightning, and
thunder.

4. Without lightning, there would be no "thunder" in "thunderstorm." Thunder is the noise
lightning makes as it travels through the air. Lightning occurs during all thunderstorms (though
not every time it rains). During a storm, it strikes Earth 100 times each second. More than just a
dazzling light show, lightning causes billions of dollars in damage each year.

5. Lightning forms when updrafts of air carry water droplets, which have a charge, upward to
heights where some freeze into ice and snow particles. They form a cloud. As these particles begin
to fall back to Earth, charges within the cloud become mixed. The differences in charge are
released as lightning. You'll normally hear the sound of lightning a few moments after you see the
sky light up. Light travels faster than sound, so if you are at a distance from the storm, lightning
and thunder may seem oddly disconnected.



Spinning air: Tornadoes and hurricanes

6. Both tornadoes and hurricanes are spinning columns of air capable of causing great damage.
There are important differences between these two powerful storms, however. Tornadoes are more
localized and typically found on land, while hurricanes can cover vast areas and draw their power
from the warm tropical oceans.

7. Tornadoes range from only a few feet to one mile in diameter and are short in duration
(normally only a few minutes long). Though these storms are localized, they can be extremely
violent. The wind speed inside a tornado's funnel can exceed 200 miles per hour, enough to turn
everyday objects into deadly projectiles. Tornadoes occur all over the world, at every time of the
year, but they are most common in the summertime in the midwestern United States. This region's
propensity for tornadoes has earned it the name Tornado Alley5.

8. Tornadoes form from thunderstorms, though not all thunderstorms generate tornadoes. An
unstable column of warm air rising within cumulus clouds can start to rotate because of changing
wind directions at or near the ground. These updrafts alter the air's rotation from horizontal to
vertical, creating conditions in which a funnel can develop. If conditions are right and the funnel
forms, it can extend to the ground, forming a tornado.

9. All thunderstorms are capable of producing tornadoes, but detection is still a difficult task.
Weather forecasters can identify the cloud features and conditions that normally precede these
storms, and they know where they are most likely to occur. However, predicting the exact time,
location, and intensity of tornadoes is still very difficult.

10.    Tornadoes threaten areas the size of towns or counties, but hurricanes play themselves out
       on a much larger stage. These large storms can last for days or weeks and cover thousands
       of miles of territory. Hurricanes draw their strength from the warm tropical waters of the
       ocean. Unlike tornadoes, they lose their power source when they leave the ocean. Once on
       land, they gradually dissipate.
                                                        (Time Allowed: 10 min)

http://www.learner.org/exhibits/weather/storms.html



I. Notes
1. Worldwatch Institute: Worldwatch is an independent, globally focused environmental and
social policy research organization based in Washington, D.C. The Institute's unique blend of
interdisciplinary research and accessible writing has made it a leading authority on the need for an
environmentally healthy and socially just society, and how to achieve it.
2. Tornado Alley: Most tornadoes in the United States form in an area called "Tornado Alley".
This area includes parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska.

II. Tips for reading
Decoding Word Meaning in the Context (I)
Do we have to go to dictionaries whenever we meet new words or expressions while reading? The
answer is no of course. In most cases, the meaning of a new word may be inferred when the word
is put in the context. If we understand the logic relations of the word to the sentences before and
after it, the meaning of the word can be decided to a large extent.

Batter
In paralleled structures, words that play the same part of speech often have similar
meanings, at least in the context.
Context: Hurricanes ravaged coastlines, tornadoes plowed through the United States with record
force, and rain battered crops and left millions of people homeless worldwide.
In the given context, ―battered‖ functions in the same way as ―ravaged‖ and ―plowed‖, so they
should be synonyms. To batter means to damage something by hitting it repeatedly.

Propensity
Often a word can be understood by getting the ideas occurring before or after the word.
Context: Tornadoes occur all over the world, at every time of the year, but they are most common
in the summertime in the midwestern United States. This region's propensity for tornadoes has
earned it the name Tornado Alley.
The first sentence says midwestern United States has the tendency to breed tornadoes, so
propensity means tendency or inclination.

Exercise: Find the word according to the meanings given. The number of the paragraph which
includes the target word is given in the bracket.
1. not severe or harsh ( 3)
2. restricted to a particular area or part (6)
3. circular movement (8)
4. say in advance that something will happen (9)
5. scatter or vanish, disappear (10)

III. Comprehension of the text: decide whether the following sentences are true or false.
Write a T for true and F for false.
1. Worldwatch Institute declares that in 1998 natural disasters caused more than 30,000 deaths
     and close to $90 billion in damage.
2. Usually the upward movement of warm air into colder levels will produce rain, wind,
     lightning, and thunder.
3. Lightening is just a strong light show causing no serious damage.
4. In a thunderstorm, lightening does not necessarily take place.
5. Hurricanes are more localized and typically found on land, while Tornadoes can influence
    large areas and draw their power from the warm tropical oceans.
6. Often tornadoes have diameters longer than one mile and last for a few hours.
7. Since all thunderstorms are capable of producing tornadoes, detection is an easy task.
8. Hurricanes draw their strength from the warm tropical waters of the ocean. When they leave
    the ocean, they still remain violent.
9. Tornado Alley is a region in the United States where tornadoes often occur all year long.
10. One of the purposes of this article is to prepare people for the devastating effects of powerful
    storms.

IV Language Work: fill in each blank with one of the given words in its correct form.
ravage calculate damage         strike forecaster record suffer remain specialist

The horrible Hurricane Rita weakened in the beginning of the past weekend as it hit the US Gulf
Coast on Saturday downgraded to a tropical storm. The storm 1 Texas, Louisiana and
Arkansas with pouring rains and strong winds.

US insurance companies are currently 2          the damage caused by the monstrous hurricane.
According to preliminary estimates, Rita's        3    may total from $2.5 billion to $18 billion.
Experts believe that despair is not that serious and is evaluated at $5 billion maximum. Specialists
from AIR Worldwide Corp. say that the hurricane left large industrial centers in Texas and
Louisiana untouched. Indeed, unlike the destructive Katrina, Rita was swirling above
little-populated areas of the USA and did not       4 any city.

        5 say, however, that Rita may not be the last hurricane to devastate the US Gulf Coast
before the end of the season. Thirteen storms have hit the USA so far this year: meteorologists say
that it is an absolute 6 in recent times. The year 1933 was a lot more terrible at this point,
when there were 21 storms registered. However, it is the first time in history when the USA     7
from such powerful storms as Katrina and Rita within only one month.

According to meteorological forecasts, the USA may possibly suffer from other powerful storms
during the     8 two months of the season. US 9          already say that they are running out
of names for frequent hurricanes and storms.

V. Pros and cons: study the recommended key words/phrases, pair up, and debate upon the
    following topics
1. Human race should stand in awe of nature. Vs. Nature is totally at the mercy of human beings.
A: Nature is a friend of human beings. / There are always unexplainable mysteries in nature. /
    Human will get punished for violating the laws of nature.
B: Human race is the master of the nature. / Human will win a victory over nature at last.
2. People should emigrate from regions with a hostile climate. Vs. The habitat of one‘s families
     should not be given up.
A: Decisions to emigrate are easy to be made because of the advanced technique of
    communication. / Friendly climate means more time for career development and less loss.
B: It takes money and time to be adapted to a new environment. / In most cases, people are used to
    the trouble brought by the climate and just take it as a part of life.
VI. In-depth discussion: discuss the following topics fully on the basis of the information
   contained in the text.
1. To what extent do you think human and nature are friends, or enemies? With the progress in
    technology, do you believe all natural disasters can be foretold by scientific observations so
    that we can prepare for them?
2. Have you ever experienced any kind of storm personally? Or have you heard the experience
    of a storm told? What is the most impressing in these experiences?
UNIT SEVEN
Reading One
Warming-up discussion
1. Can you imagine what will happen if a plane crashes on a house?
2. How would a victim react if he/she saw a plane flying to him/her at top speed?
3. What consequence will it be after the victim has survived the airplane crashing?




                                                Witness
       "X" marks the front door of our store. On August 7, 1997, at 12:35pm EST, a DC-8 cargo
jet crashed in our store in Miami, ten seconds after takeoff from the Miami International Airport.
We were located just on the path of the runway, across 72nd Avenue. We were the most affected
by this crash as the plane hit our front door, the only entry/exit. Fortunately we and two customers
inside the model railroad store at the moment of the crash managed to escape alive, however the
crew of the airplane and one person in a car in the parking lot died in the accident. The two injured
persons that were reported on the local, domestic and world news were the wife of one of our
customers, and Mrs. Maria Bartomeu, my wife. The rest of us suffered some cuts and bruises, and
none was burned. Our door was blocked by a pile of cars and the wreckage of the plane,
surrounded in flames and dense smoke, but we managed to escape alive by climbing over the
wreckage and into the street to the south, where there was less fire This is the worst nightmare
anyone can live through, as we all thought that we were trapped inside, or would be killed by one
of several explosions that occurred from the 20,000 pounds of fuel loaded on the airplane. It will
take a long time for us to forget; we were born again.
       It is a miracle that there were no more casualties on the ground, as this avenue is one of the
most important arteries to the airport. Five minutes before the crash, we received a shipment
which was left just inside the front door of the store. My wife was opening the boxes to review the
content, so she was less than three feet away from the door. She saw the plane coming toward us
in a straight path at incredible speed. It felt like an earthquake. The plane crossed one of the
busiest avenues in Miami, 72nd and went directly toward our cars, destroying, as far as I know, 10
or 11 cars parked in front of the store. Unfortunately, one of those cars was occupied by a man
who was bringing lunch to his wife, who worked in another store in the same complex. He was the
only known victim on the ground.
       Due to the strike of UPS, which is located only about 200 yards from our complex, there
were several police units in that sector and they arrived on the scene in a matter of seconds. It was,
however, a complete scene of chaos as the images were horrendous, and of course in the
beginning, no one knew if it was a passenger or cargo plane. The first department arrived just a
few minutes after the crash, and within about 4 minutes started to spray foam all over. The flames
did not die for several hours.
       To give an idea of the intense heat produced by the flames, when my car was removed from
the parking lot, a big ball of aluminum was found on the bottom of the car in the floor. It was the
motor that had melted. The car had no motor at all, according to the people who took it out of
there. I'm still trying to figure out where my car is, and the cars that belong to my customers. The
heat was so intense that the security video camera of the business next to me, which was 50 feet
away from our door, completely melted. The electrical cables in the walls of our store were melted
and had to be changed a distance of more than 150 yards.
As a final result of the crash, the damage has been extremely severe for us. We had to close to
business for more than one week, and we have been forced to move from our old store to a new
location. All of our displays were either burned or damaged by water and an incredible oily black
smoke film covering all the units and boxes. Only the units boxed in our warehouse appeared to be
in good condition, but and even with some boxes just lightly covered by this film of dust, each
unit had to be individually inspected and tested. (TIME ALLOWED: 9 MINUTES)




I. Notes
1.
   EST-- Eastern Summer Time (美国)东部夏季时间
2
   DC-8 cargo jet-- Aircraft currently in service in the United States which are considered heavy.
3
   UPS—United Parcel SVC

II. Tips for reading
Adjust the rate of reading to the nature of the material
(a) Flexibility in reading, or the ability to change one’s speed in accordance with the material to
    be read, is one of the most important reading skills.
(b) Skim through the passage to determined just how you are going to read it. If it is a very light
    article---let’s say, an account of what happened on a given day—then you will read it relatively
    fast. On the other hand, if you are dealing with a very involved scientific article, you will have
    to read slowly in order to understand it. Re-reading will also probably be necessary for such
    an article.
(c) If you do re-read, your second reading should be faster than the first since you are already
    familiar with many of the facts and ideas mentioned in the article.
(d) Sometimes one part of a passage requires a different reading rate than another part of the
    dame passage since the first part may be more detailed and complicated than the second part.

III. Comprehension of the text: decide whether the following sentences are true or false. Put
a T for true and F for false.
11. "X" marks the front door of our store. This sentence means _________.
     A) Our store has become the victim of the accident.
     B) Our store has been closed to business.
     C) Our store has to be rebuilt.
     D) Our store is located just on the path of the runway.
12. How many people died as a result of the plane crash?
     A) one man            B) two women             C) several men       D) none
13. How many people were trapped in the store whose front door was hit by the plane?
     A) one                 B) two                  C) four              D) a dozen
14. Which of the following is NOT true according to the above passage?
     A) Some of victims got cuts and bruises.        B) Nobody was burned.
     C) One of the customers died.                    D) Two victims were injured.
15. When was the delivery made?
     A) at 12:30pm        B) at 12:35pm             C) at 12:39pm        D) at 12:45pm
16. When the store door was blocked, ___________.
     A) the victims thought they would be burned.
     B) the victims thought it was an earthquake.
     C) the store was in a complete chaos.
    A) several explosions occurred.
17. Why couldn‘t the store owner recognize his car?
    A) It was covered by an incredible oily black smoke film.
    B) Its engine was melted.
    C) It was taken far away from the parking lot.
    D) He couldn‘t remember where he parked it.
18. Who was the first to arrive at the scene for the rescue work?
    A) firemen            B) police               C) medical professionals D) passersby
19. The shop had to closed for more than one week because _________.
    A) each unit had to be individually inspected and tested.
    B) his wife was severely injured.
    C) at present neither he or his wife could recover from the nightmare.
    D) The rescue work would last for a period of time.
20. The shop owner was forced to move from his old store to a new location because _________.
    A) his shop was completely burnt down
    B) he wanted his shop located off the path of the runway
    C) the new location could help them to forget the nightmare.
    D) they could afford to rebuild their store at the present site.

IV. Language work: fill in the blanks with the words and phrases listed below. Change the
form where necessary.
flames / explosion / scene / cargojet / fuel / incredible / hit / nightmare / block/ an earthquake/
injured/ chaos
     I was riding my bike in the street with my friend, Mike, about 4 blocks from my home in the
     North Park area of San Diego when I heard a faint blast, looked up and saw a cargojet falling
     out of the sky on fire. I can't remember thinking anything except "It's going to hit my house".
     Then I realized there were probably a lot of people on the plane, and I was immediately so
     scared I began to cry until the plane hit the ground. Watching that plane on impact is a
     sensation I hope I never have to relive again. The aircraft was diving at a steep angle and one
     wing was on fire, with flames shooting everywhere. I remember the plane disappearing
     behind some tall trees and then feeling the ground shake like an earthquake, and the
     deafening roar of the impact and following explosion. It was an absolute nightmare. It
     seemed like the entire neighborhood was on fire. The TV stations & news reporters were
     converging on the scene in what seemed like only a matter of minutes, but must've been at
     least half an hour. I think I just stood there talking to people for the longest time, but I don't
     remember anything they said. There were only distant sirens. In a short period of time the
     police and several residents had blocked off the streets to traffic, and I remember hearing
     people screaming in the background, and others yelling to get help. I also remember the trees
     being on fire and this incredible column of black smoke rising into the clear air, and the smell
     of jet fuel burning. All these people - some Firefighters, some Police Officers, some ordinary
     people - were carrying injured people and passengers into the private school across the street.
     I didn't know then, but some of them were dead. I remember how weird it was that the
     freeway traffic was completely stopped on I-805, which was only a block from the impact
     site, and it was eerily quiet except for the distant chaos. My friend Mike disappeared. I found
     out he was okay, but he had gotten scared.


V. Pros and cons: study the recommended key words/phrases, pair up, and debate upon the
following topics
1. Airport should not be built near a busy city. VS. An international metropolis should have more
airports.
A: large population/too dangerous/ too much noise/
B: more contacts with the world/trend of modern life/
2. Trip by air VS. Trip by train
A: faster/Time is money /comfortable/ settle back in a deep armchair to enjoy the flight/ an
     exhilarating experience / watch a free film show and sip a hot or cold drink on some services
     /
unusual breath taking bird‘s eye view of the world / arrive at your destination fresh and
     uncrumpled /
have the reputation of being dangerous /not spacious enough for a walk
B: safer/more relaxed/more chances to enjoy beautiful view/cheaper means of transportation
    hardly enjoy sitting in a train for more than a few hours/ train compartments soon get cramped
  and stuffy/ arrive at your destination almost exhausted

3.Air crew should be highly paid. VS. Air crew should be paid as much as ship crew..
A:
B:
VI. In-depth discussion: based on the information contained in the text and discuss the
     following topics fully
1.Describe to your partner the latest airplane crash you have heard or read of.
2.Have you traveled by air? How did you feel about the trip?
UNIT EIGHT
Reading One
Warming-up discussion
1. Can you think of any Chinese legendary figures, such as the heroes in swordsman fictions (武侠
小说)? Do you admire them?
2. Why do you think legends came into being? What did people tell these stories for?




                                A STORY OF ROBIN HOOD5

In the rude days of King Richard and King John there were many great woods in England. The
most famous of these was Sherwood forest, where the king often went to hunt deer. In this forest
there lived a band of daring men called outlaws.

They had done something that was against the laws of the land, and had been forced to hide
themselves in the woods to save their lives. There they spent their time in roaming about among
the trees, in hunting the king's deer, and in robbing rich travelers that came that way.

There were nearly a hundred of these outlaws, and their leader was a bold fellow called Robin
Hood. They were dressed in suits of green, and armed with bows and arrows; and sometimes they
carried long wooden lances and broad-swords, which they knew how to handle well. Whenever
they had taken anything, it was brought and laid at the feet of Robin Hood, whom they called their
king. He then divided it fairly among them, giving to each man his just share.

Robin never allowed his men to harm anybody but the rich men who lived in great houses and did
no work. He was always kind to the poor, and he often sent help to them; and for that reason the
common people looked upon him as their friend.

Long after he was dead, men liked to talk about his deeds. Some praised him, and some blamed
him. He was, indeed, a rude, lawless fellow; but at that time, people did not think of right and
wrong as they do now.

A great many songs were made up about Robin Hood, and these songs were sung in the cottages
and huts all over the land for hundreds of years afterward.

Here is a little story that is told in one of those songs:—

Robin Hood was standing one day under a green tree by the roadside. While he was listening to
the birds among the leaves, he saw a young man passing by. This young man was dressed in a fine
suit of bright red cloth; and, as he tripped gaily along the road, he seemed to be as happy as the
day.
"I will not trouble him," said Robin Hood, "for I think he is on his way to his wedding."

The next day Robin stood in the same place. He had not been there long when he saw the same
young man coming down the road. But he did not seem to be so happy this time. He had left his
scarlet coat at home, and at every step he sighed and groaned.

"Ah, the sad day! The sad day!" he kept saying to himself.

Then Robin Hood stepped out from under the tree, and said,—

"I say, young man! Have you any money to spare for my merry men and me?"

"I have nothing at all," said the young man, "but five shillings and a ring."

"A gold ring?" asked Robin.

"Yes," said the young man, "it is a gold ring. Here it is."

"Ah, I see!" said Robin; "it is a wedding ring."

"I have kept it these seven years," said the young man; "I have kept it to give to my bride on our
wedding day. We were going to be married yesterday. But her father has promised her to a rich old
man whom she never saw. And now my heart is broken."

"What is your name?" asked Robin.

"My name is Allin-a-Dale," said the young man.

"What will you give me, in gold or fee," said Robin, "if I will help you win your bride again in
spite of the rich old man to whom she has been promised?"

I have no money," said Allin, "but I will promise to be your servant."

"How many miles is it to the place where the maiden lives?" asked Robin.

"It is not far," said Allin. "But she is to be married this very day, and the church is five miles
away."

Then Robin made haste to dress himself as a harpist; and in the afternoon he stood in the door of
the church.

"Who are you?" said the bishop, "and what are you doing here?"

"I am a bold harpist," said Robin, "the best in the north country."
"I am glad you have come," said the bishop kindly. "There is no music that I like so well as that of
the harp. Come in, and play for us."

"I will go in," said Robin Hood; "but I will not give you any music until I see the bride and
bride-groom."

Just then an old man came in. He was dressed in rich clothing, but was bent with age, and was
feeble and gray. By his side walked a fair young girl. Her cheeks were very pale, and her eyes
were full of tears.

"This is no match," said Robin. "Let the bride choose for herself."

Then he put his horn to his lips, and blew three times. The very next minute, four and twenty men,
all dressed in green, and carrying long bows in their hands, came running across the fields. And as
they marched into the church, all in a row, the foremost among them was Allin-a-Dale.

"Now whom do you choose?" said Robin to the maiden.

"I choose Allin-a-Dale," she said blushing.

"And Allin-a-Dale you shall have," said Robin; "and he that takes you from Allin-a-Dale shall find
that he has Robin Hood to deal with."

And so the fair maiden and Allin-a-Dale were married then and there, and the rich old man went
home in a great rage.

"And thus having ended this merry wedding,

The bride looked like a queen:

And so they returned to the merry green wood,

Amongst the leaves so green."




http://www.mainlesson.com/display.php?author=baldwin&book=fifty&story=_contents
 Copyright (c) 2000-2005 Lisa Ripperton. All Rights Reserved.




I. Notes
1. Robin Hood: The hero of ballads dating from as early as the 14th century,
Robin Hood was a rebel who robbed and killed landowners and government
officials and gave his gains to the poor. He treated women and common
people with courtesy, and he ignored the laws of the forest that restricted
hunting rights. His greatest enemy was the sheriff of Nottingham.

II. Tips for reading
Decoding Word Meaning in the Context ( II )
An unknown word often throws English beginners into panic, though in most cases you may get
the definition of the word when you read ahead. Anyway, the author writes to be understood and
to inform. Besides, new words‘ meanings are somehow determined by identifying the text's style,
structure, mood, or tone, which depends on plenty of practice.

Outlaw
Sometimes the author will explain the new word for you if you are patient and go on reading.
Context: In this forest there lived a band of daring men called outlaws. They had done something
that was against the laws of the land, and had been forced to hide themselves in the woods to save
their lives.
What is an ―outlaw‖? The author says an outlaw is somebody who breaks the law and hides to
avoid being caught.

Blush
A correct comprehension of new words or expressions needs recognizing the mood or tone of
the text and a good common sense as well.
Context: "Let the bride choose for herself."… four and twenty men, … marched into the
church, … the foremost among them was Allin-a-Dale.
"Now whom do you choose?" said Robin to the maiden.
"I choose Allin-a-Dale," she said blushing.
"And Allin-a-Dale you shall have," said Robin;
The brief narration is about a knight doing a girl a gallant service by giving her the right to choose
her husband. A girl in such a situation usually becomes red in the face.
Therefore, to blush means to become red in the face.

Exercise: Choose the best meaning for the underlined words according to the context given.
1. Old Clubfoot is a bear never caught in a trap. What he could not kill, he would outwit.
    a. get the better of                        b. fight against
    c. bite tightly                             d. go outdoors
2. The alarms has memories that can tell the difference between normal night sounds—the
   scampering of a mouse, for example—and a thief‘s stealthy steps.
   a. loud                                     b. sharp
   c. sly and careful                           d. gentle and soft
3. Many Himalaya climbers have brought back furs, bones, or footprints said to be evidence of
   the snowman. But so far none of these relics have stood up under tests made by scientists.
   a. features                                 b. tools
   c. food                                     d. remains; things left
4. Many sports began as ways to overcome obstacles. People jumped to cross a gap, they swam
   to cross river.
   a. worries                                b. difficulties in one‘s way
   c. landscapes out of the way              d. strangers
5. I am old and sick. I pine for my home—for the green hills and rivers.
   a. feel lonesome and homesick, long for b. a kind of tree
   c. pay attention to                        d. write letters to
6. When the donkey began to paw the ground menacingly, the boy was scared to tears.
   a. slightly                                 b. angrily
   c. merrily                                  d. threateningly
7. Having achieved his aim, the horse stopped running and ended the whole show, breathing as if
   he were going to drop with fatigue.
   a. hunger                                    b. great weariness
   c. sickness                                  d. great pain
8. I burst out in infectious laughter. The whole audience roars with me and the performance is
   saved.
   a. hearty and warm                            b. pleasant
   c. apt to spread from one to another          d. confusing

III. Comprehension of the text: decide whether the following sentences are true or false.
Write a T for true and F for false.

1. Robin Hood was a king of ancient England.
2. Robin Hood and his followers lived in the forest to escape punishment from the law.
3. Everyone who happened to travel through the woods could become victims of Robin Hood and
   his fellows.
4. The outlaws called Robin Hood their king because he was crude and they were afraid of him.
5. Allin-a-Dale told Robin Hood that he was going to his wedding and so Robin Hood let him go.

 For each question below, choose the best answer.
1. The common people regarded Robin Hood as                    .
   a. a crude robber                      b. their friend and helper
   c. a kind king                          d. the best harpist in the north
2. The maiden was promised to an old man because                    .
   a. she didn‘t love anybody else.
   b. Allin-a-Dale gave the wedding ring to Robin Hood.
   c. the old man was rich.
   d. Allin-a-Dale betrayed her.
3. Robin Hood disguised as a harpist to                 .
   a. rob the church bishop              b. earn some money for his fellows
   c. to win the bride back for Allin-a-Dale d. to play some music
4.             allowed the maiden to choose her husband by herself.
   a. Robin Hood                         b. her father
   c. the bishop                          d. Robin‘s merry men
5. According to the author, people‘s attitudes towards Robin Hood are             .
   a. positive                            b. negative
   c. indifferent                         d. contradictory

 IV Language Work: fill in each blank with one of the given words in its correct form.

1. Before going to the latest news, the speaker               freely over the events of the past week.
   (roam)
2. The colorful balloons added to the               of the New Year celebration. ( gay )
3. She               inwardly as she saw the fresh pile of work on her desk. ( groan)
4. I love the music of a             , because it always brings me back to the early days of human
   civilization. (harpist)
5. Even though his cries for help were very                 , his dog found him and saved his life.
   ( feeble)
6. The company tried to             the applicants with appropriate vacancies. (match)

V. Pros and cons: study the recommended key words/phrases, pair up, and debate upon the
following topics
1. Legend Vs. History
A: Legend is a way to pass on history \ interesting complement to official history \ bears a sense of
   profound truth of human development
B: History is true and dependable \ has a scientific system \ somewhat is capable to predict the
   future of human society
2. Rebellion Vs. Submission
A: The authority is not always right. / misunderstanding between two parties, such as parents and
   children / Rebellion sometimes brings improvement.
B: It is safe to submit to the authority. / A single person is too trivial to fulfill a big task. / to
   submit is a virtue / Saying ―yes‖ is easier than ―no‖.

VI. In-depth discussion: discuss the following topics fully on the basis of the information
   contained in the text.
1. Do you think there are any legendary heroes who had important influence on you in your
   formative years? What are those influences?
2. What do you think make the legends pass on from generation to generation? Why do people
   desire to tell such stories?
UNIT NINE
Reading One

                            I Think I Love You”
The rich aroma of mushroom soup and pasta salad spices filled the clean kitchen. I was sitting on
the counter, watching him prepare dinner. As I sat there, I pondered how I would express the
words I had always wanted to unleash. What would he say? Would he accept me? Or would he
smile his usual indecipherable smile and say that he is too old for me?

The hesitation, the doubt, the worry… I stared at his back for a long time. We were used to the
silence. We found silence comforting. Words were hardly a necessity when we were in company
with each other, which is why expressing myself was harder than I thought. Especially if the
words I wanted to express were…
Should I or shouldn‘t I break this safe and secure silence? Would I regret telling him? Or would I
regret not telling him? So many questions. To be or not to be, if I were to quote Shakespeare. I
made up my mind.
Before I could chicken out, I expressed the words which I had kept bottled up in my heart for so
long.
―I think I love you.‖
These five words sounded really loud against the background of the humming pot of soup. It‘s like
hearing a pin drop in a quite room. Small and petty as it may be, it drew attention. And true
enough, he stopped whatever he was doing for a moment. Just for a moment, wooden spoon and
mixing bowl in his hands. I could not see his face. All I could see was his back. Did I do the right
thing?

Soon, he continued mixing the pasta sauce as though he had not heard m confession. My heart
sank. Oh… was this how it was going to end? No… I could not leave it like this.

―Is that okay?‖ I asked a little uncertainly. It‘s okay if he said ‗no‘… It‘s okay… At least I told
him how I really felt about him…

Again, he paused. I could not see his face but I bet you five Starbucks ice-blended Mocha Latte
with extra whipped cream that he smiled.
―It‘s okay as long as you are not crazy over me,‖ he answered slightly amused despite my
seriousness.

I didn‘t know whether to feel relief or disappointment. Did he think that I was some teen
infatuated by a man eight years older than I am? I though that he would understand. He was the
only one I could talk to. The only one I could show my true colours to. The only one Itrusted. Had
that been wrong all along?

I had to know. I had to know how he felt about me. I didn‘t care about what answer he would give
me. I didn‘t care if my heart was to be broken into a million pieces from that knowledge. I just
wanted to know.

―Do you love me too?‖ I whispered.

This question seemed to radiate the entire kitchen. Silence. This time filled with anticipation. My
heart throbbed faster. It‘s okay if he said no… It‘s okay… At least I would know…

But he didn‘t say yes. Neither did he say no. To be more precise, he said:

―I think so‖

The soup was bubbling fiercely so he lowered the flame. The bubbling decreased gradually. The
aroma of fresh home-made mushroom soup was much more distinguished now. I heard my
stomach rumble. I think he did too for he said with his trademark smile, ―I bet you‘re hungry.
Let‘s eat.‖

As I devoured his magnificent cooking happily, I couldn‘t help but steal long glances at his
delicate face. He always had on the same mysterious mask. I often wondered what was going on
in his head and right then, I wondered. What was he thinking of? What did he mean by ―I think
so.‖?

His cooking had always been worthy of praise compared to mine. He made me feel guilty of being
a lousy chef. He also made me feel guilty of forcing him to actually devour my inedible cooking
disasters. But he never complained about my cooking despite how bad it was. In fact, I had never
heard him complain on anything.

Everything he did was worthy of praise. Everything about him was worth my heart. Yes, he stole
my heart.

I could hear the soft ‗pit patting‘ of the raindrops from outside the balcony of his cosy apartment.
The night sky radiated a calm and tranquil atmosphere with its blanket of a soft dark blue colour
and its gentle breeze which often came after rain. This beautiful atmosphere was too much for me.
I couldn‘t help but utter these three words as I continued staring at him:

―I love you‖
―Yes, I love you too‖

From FictionPress. Com Story      10-30-05

I. Notes
     1. Small and petty it may be,… --- Though it may be small and petty, …
     2. Starbucks ice --- Name of a type of ice
     3. Mocha Latte --- Mocha is a name for a fine-quality coffee; Latte refers to milk coffee,
         so Mocha Latte is milk coffee with a flavoring of tastes of Mocha.
       4. I bet you … that he smiled --- If you bet someone that something is true or will happen,
          you are certain that it is true or will happen
          I bet you 25$ that he will get there before you
          I bet you that she has missed the bus.
       5. … I could show my true colours to --- If someone shows their true colours, you see
          their real character for the first time

II.       Comprehension of the text: decide whether the following sentences are true or false.
          Put a T for true or F for false
       1. While the writer was preparing dinner she was thinking how she would express her
           words she wanted to unleash.
       2. The writer was used to silence when he was in company with the lady.
       3. She hesitated for a long time before she made up her mind to express her words.
       4. The words she wanted to express were ―I think I love you‖
       5. The man did not hear her words because there was too much background humming of
           pot of soup
       6. She was sure that the man heard her confession and smiled.
       7. ―I could not leave it like this‖ means the writer had to know what answer he would give
           her.
       8. The man complained a lot about her cooking because she did not cook well.
       9. Was the writer satisfied by his answer
       10. From the text you may infer that the man would smile when they talked each other, but
           his smile was hard to read.

III.      Tops for discussion
       1. Do you like a person who never complain on anything?
       2. Do you mind if you marry a person who is 8 years older than you?
       3. Do you like the way that the man gives his answer to the writer

VI.  Tips for reading
   Decoding word meaning in the context (1)
   Whatever you read, it is likely to come across words or phrases you don‘t know, so readers
  must develop their guessing ability to understand enough to arrive at the total meaning of a
  sentence and a paragraph. In using context clues to decode the meaning of a word you have to
  use your knowledge of grammar and your understanding of the author‘s ideas. The following
  points are important:
    1. Using the meanings of other words in the sentence and the meaning of the sentence as a
         whole to reduce the number of possible meanings.
    2. Using grammar and punctuation clues which point to the relationships among the various
         parts of the sentence.
    3. Be content with a general idea about the unfamiliar word,
    4. Leaning to recognize situation in which it is not necessary to know the meaning of the
         word
Exercise: Write the meaning of the italicized word on the line provided:
    1. The snake slithered through the grass _________
    2. Experts in kinesics, in their study of body motion as related to speech, hope to discover
         new method of communication._________
    3. Unlike his gregarious brother, John is a shy, unsociable person who does not like to go to
         parties or make new friends. _________
    4. After the accident, the ship went down so fast that we weren‘t able to salvage any of our
         personal belongs.
    5. Knowing that the slightest mistake meant losing his job, the waiter carried the expensive
         wine glasses gingerly from kitchen.

V. Language work: fill in the blanks with the words and phrases given belon. Change the
form where necessary.
            aroma unleash indecipherable chicken out bottle up
            devour lousy infatuated         throb        rumble

     1. The room was filled with the _________ of coffee
     2. At worse, unclear war could be _________
     3. What poor handwriting --- it‘s virtually ___________.
     4. He _________ of climbing up the tree.
     5. ________ your anger leads to trouble
     6. For the whole summer she was __________ with her friend‘s brother.
     7. A pulse started _________ in my right temple.
     8. He‘s just ________ the most enormous plateful of spaghetti.
     9. I thought the film was ________.
     10. The heavy trucks ________ through the streets.
VI. Explain the following
    1. As I sat there, I pondered how I would express the words I had always wanted to unleash.
    2. Should I or shouldn‘t I break this safe and secure silence?
    3. Would he smile his usual indecipherable smile ?
    4. I think he did too for he said with his trademark smile.
    5. The night sky radiate a calm and tranquil atmosphere with it blanket of a soft dark blue
        colour and it gentle breeze which often came after rain.
VII. In-depth discussion: based on the information contained in the text and targeting the
     specific conditions in real life, discuss the following topics fully
     1. Love is more than anything else
     2. Age difference doesn‘t matter in marriage.
     3. Men should express their love to women..



Reading Two

        She wandered down the hall, strands of hair hanging in her eyes. She didn't bother to
push them away. It was too late at night to concentrate on such trivial things as that. The stairway
door was open and as she reached it, the strains of music reached her ears. The unfamiliar tone
froze her in place. The world roared around her, and she gripped the railing to steady herself. No.
Not this...

Amy sighed at the thought of it. She was half awake because of that night, last night. Her friends
had kept her up with their ‗crappy pop music‘, as she so affectionately called it. She knew that it‘d
happen when she invited them over, but she was still miffed. Up until dawn, and then she had
school that day! Luckily for her no homework was assigned and she slept through most of her
classes.

―Hey, Amy!‖ Her best friend, Terra, said as she skipped over to the table merrily. How she could
be so perky after staying up all night was a mystery, but it did make her day lighten up a bit. Terra
always had that effect though. Amy didn‘t know what it was about Terra, maybe her curly brown
hair that always bounced with her steps, or her soft tan skin that was o‘ so touchable. Maybe it
was her jovial blue eyes that always seemed too happy about everything, or her goofy grin, which
she wore even during the worst of times. Amy smiled; maybe she was just such a goof that no
matter what Amy couldn‘t stay gloomy with her around. Whatever it was she loved it.

―Hey,‖ the more fatigued of the two said with a gloomy wave. Just after that she collapsed onto
the table, which Terra had just set her lunch tray on.

―What‘s up with you, goomba?‖

―Tired,‖ Amy grunted barely. A yawn came next, and then a soft snore. Out cold, again, Terra
chuckled. Too cute; she thought merrily while staring at the young woman.

The brunette‘s soft brown hand reached out and petted her friend‘s blond locks. Terra held back
tears. If only Amy could see the way she looked at her. All of her friends always said she was
cheerier around Amy, and it was true. She knew why, of course, she loved her. Being around her
always made everything better, even when her parents kicked her out for her…preferences. Amy
just hugged her and all the pain went away.

Terra sighed, ―If only you could see that I love you!‖

As Terra pined Amy dreamt, of better times of better moments. She dreamt of the time when they
were children and her and Terra were on the play ground, smiling and laughing together, playing
on the slides, the swings, the teeter totter and the sand boxes. The moments she held most
precious, before her stupid feelings had gotten in the way and made things awkward for her.

She usually spent her time staring at Terra, after she realized she liked her. No matter what they
were doing she‘d always throw a glance her way. Watch her move, watch her breath, and watch
her jiggle. She loved every moment she spent with her, no matter what the situation was. When
Amy had found out that Terra, just like her, preferred women to men her heart jumped with joy.
She had a chance, or so she thought, but Terra never made a move. Amy became so worked up
that over time her nervousness had stopped her from saying anything to her dark skinned friend,
and things progressed from there.

Terra, on the other hand, was afraid that her friend would‘ve rejected her. Amy never seemed to
be interested in guys, but she definitely wasn‘t interested in girls, at least not as far as the brunette
knew. After her parents had booted her from the house she was too afraid of losing someone else
and decided not to make a move at all. The night before, though, tested her truly. Amy had gotten
so close, moved so gracefully, bounced so sweetly; Terra nearly drooled at the thought.

Her hand was curling her pale friend‘s long blond locks, and she could smell her strawberry
scented perfume from the short distance. She should‘ve been eating her lunch, if that is what you
could call the colorless slop that was served to her on a daily basis, but Amy‘s blond hair was just
too entrancing for her, soft and silky, yet strong enough to put Repunzel‘s locks to shame. If only
she could hold Amy close to her one night, and bury her face in that soft golden mane, breathing
in the scent, feeling her warmth.

A sudden thud woke Amy, and caused Terra to pull her hand back. The third amiga, Sasha, had
just shown up. She wasn‘t nearly as perky as Terra at that moment, but she didn‘t share the same
dazed state of Amy either. She did, however, slump down to the table with a sigh. ―Never again,‖
she stated, referring to the all nighter they pulled just before the first day of school.

Terra grinned, ―C‘mon, not you too!‖

Sasha shot her a glare, ―How come you‘re so perky?‖

―Because Amy‘s here!‖ she said instinctively. Amy shot up nervously and blushed. Terra
followed in suit.

Sasha grinned, ―Haha, funny, but what‘s your secret, really?‖ Terra later thanked her friend for
the save, but at that moment she just grinned and said simply…

―Secret.‖ After that she gave a glance to Amy, who had slumped back over just to hide her
disappointment. Her eyes danced, her heart raced, her mind thought, ―If only you knew that secret
was you!‖

Amy sighed, and blinked back her tears. She stared at the ground, breathed deep and thought ―If
only you knew how I looked at you!‖

Amy sat up and looked Terra in the eyes, then gave a faux smile.

They both thought, ―If only you knew that my eyes are on you.‖

I. Notes
     4. grip --- hold tightly
         The baby gripped my finger with his tiny hand
          The worn tyres don‘t grip in the rain very well
      5. miffed --- annoyed at someone‘s behavior towards you
          She hadn‘t called for a week, and I was getting quite miffed.
      6. perky --- If someone is perky, they are happy and full of energy
          You look quite perky this morning
          The interview was quite tough, but she remained quite perky all the way through it
      7. brunette --- a white woman or girl with dark hair
      8. lock --- a small group of hairs
      9. pine --- become increasingly thin and weak because of unhappiness
          When George died in 1959 after an accident, his wife pined and died six months later
      10. Amy became so worked up that … --- Amy became upset. Worked up is an adjective
          used in the sense of making one feel upset or feel with strong emotions.
          It is easy to get worked up when you are tired and everything seems to be against you.
           He was very worked up about seeing his family again after so many years apart
      11. slump down to the table --- sit down heavily and quickly at the table
      12. shoot her a glare --- make her angry. More examples: Shoot her a glance --- look at her
          quickly
      13. shoot up --- to move quickly upward
          The boy shot up out of the chair as soon as he heard the doorbell ring.
          He went to the stairs and shoot up in half a minute
II. Comprehension of the text: decide whether the following sentences are true or false.
      Put a T for true or F for false
    1. Amy was kept up with her friends all night for pop music.
     2.When Amy wandered down the hall, it was early in the morning.
     3.Then Amy heard the strains of music at the stairway door, she didn‘t move at all.
     4.Terra has curly brown hair and soft tan skin.
     5.Amy was interested in boys not in girls
     6.Terra preferred women to men to be her friends
     7.When Amy didn‘t sleep last night because she did her homework.
     8.Amy had school that day and listened attentively.
     9.Terra was Amy‘s best friend and always made her happier.
      10.When they were children, Amy often played with Terra.
III. Topics for discussion
     1. A girl can / can not love another girl.
     2. One should not stay up all night for music
     3. When you love someone you should / should not tell him / her.

IV.        Tops for discussion
      1.    Do you like to marry a person who never complains on anything?
      3.   Do you mind if you marry a person 8 years older than you?
      4.   Do you like the way that the man gives his answer to the writer
      5.   Love is more than anything else
      6.   Age difference doesn‘t matter in marriage.
      7.   Men should express their love to women..
    8. A girl can / can not love another girl.
    9. Students should not stay up all night for music
    10. When you love someone you should / should not tell him / her.




                               Reference key
UNIT FIVE
Reading 1
II. 1. to completely separate one thing from another
   2. a way of printing letters that makes them thicker and darker than usual
   3. hard work and effort
   4. to attack
   5. after somebody or something
   6. a useful suggestion
   7. to share the cost of a meal
   8. serious
III. FTFTT TFT
IV. 1. memerized 2. to the point 3. illustrations 4. fictional
     5. mnemonic 6. lo and behold 7. hands-on              8. represent
     9. consecutive 10. innovative
Reading 2
II. FTTTF TFFTT

UNIT FOUR
Reading 1
III. TTFTF TTF
IV. 1. pare 2. speculation 3. logo 4. defray                5. blitz
     6. culminated 7. lobbying 8. unveiling                  9. unleashing
     10. revenue
Reading 2
II. DCCAA CBB

								
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