Chapter_03_Explorers_Invaders by liuqingyan


									• Welcome to Arkansas History
• Chapter 03- Explorers and Invaders
                        Bell Work
Agenda: Explorers & Invaders
Homework: read pages 61 - 67
Objective: Students will examine the earliest explorers of

1.    Who fueled the fires of exploration?
2.    What Spanish explorer arrived about 50 years after

     ostentatious - (adjective) overly showy,
• Time Line
  – 1492 – 1780
• People to know…
  – Chief Angaska           - Henri de Tonti
  – John Cabot              - Louis Joliet
  – Columbus
  – Hernando de Soto        - La Salle
  – Bernard de la Harpe     - John Law
  – Jean Baptiste Filhiol   - Marquette
• Places to Locate
  – Arkansas Post
  – Arkansas River
  – France
  – Great Britain
  – Mississippi River
  – Spain
• Europeans Invade Arkansas
  – Exploration changes both cultures
  – Religion
  – New land
  – Trade routes
  – Resources
  – Knowledge
• Columbus Fuels the Fire
  – Columbus told stories of great wealth when
    he returned to Europe
  – Other countries followed
  – England sent John Cabot to find a shorter
    route to Asia.
  – England claimed lands in the new world.
    • Spain, France, Holland, Italy, Great Britain, and
      Portugal all began to explore and claimed lands to
      establish trade.
• Hernando De Soto
  – Conquistadors means, “one who conquers.”
  – Found large amounts of gold and silver in
    Mexico, when they landed 50 years after
  – La Florida
    • 600 men wandered across the southeast
    • Treated natives badly
       – Stole food and supplies from the Indians
    • Killed and enslaved many Indians
    • Greatest fine – Mississippi River but no more great
• Invading Arkansas
  – Crossed the Mississippi River in the spring of
  – Found many native villages that they
    described as impressive.
  – De Soto hoped to supply his troops.
  – De Soto told the natives that he was “the son
    of the sun” and promised to bring rain. It did
    rain the next day.
  – The Indians did seem to see de Soto as a
• Problems Continue
  – Short on food and supplies
  – Lost much of their livestock
  – Many of his men died from disease or while
    fighting native groups.
  – The Tula Indians of western Arkansas were
    not intimidated by the Spanish and killed
    many using there long lances used for buffalo
• Problems Continue
  – After nearly a year, de Soto died from
  – His body was wrapped and weighted down
    and dropped in the Mississippi River.
    • They didn’t want to let the Indians know that the
      god, de Soto was dead.
  – The remaining men fled down the river.
  – When they reached Mexico, around 300 men
    were left.
  – Spain did not return for many years.
                  Bell Work
Agenda: Explorers & Invaders
Homework: Reading Guide Ch 03- Theme 02
Objective: Students will examine the earliest
   explorers of Arkansas.

1. Who crossed the Mississippi River in 1541 to
   enter Arkansas?
2. What happened to de Soto?
Word of the Day
    adulation - (noun) extreme admiration.
• Changes for Native Americans
  – Disease was one of the most devastating
    changes to Native Americans.
    • Measles, tuberculosis, mumps, influenza, chicken
      pox and smallpox.
    • Their bodies had no immunities to these diseases.
    • These disease spread quickly and killed many
      Native Americans.
  – Killed and enslaved many Native Americans.
  – The lives enjoyed by many Native Americans
    were changed forever.
• Studying Tree Rings
  – Scientist have also found evidence in tree
    rings, that they may have experienced severe
    drought during this time.
• Legend of the Razorback
  – Have you ever wondered were we got the
  – It is believed that domestic hogs escaped
    from the Spanish during a storm.
• French Explorers
  – With all the difficulties faced by de Soto, the
    Spanish did not return for nearly 100 years.
  – The French are going to take advantage of
    the Spanish absence.
  – King Louis XIV is going to push for more
  – 1673 - Catholic Priest Jacques Marquette
    and a fur trapper named Louis Joliet are going
    to travel down the Mississippi River to
• French Explorers
  – Encountered the Quapaw Indians at the
    confluence of the White and Arkansas Rivers.
    • Confluence – were two rivers or streams come
  – Wanted to establish good relationship with the
    Indians, unlike the Spanish.
  – The French treated the Indians much better.
    • Two reasons
       – Religion
       – Trade
• French Explorers
  – Welcomed with
    • a ceremony
    • a feast
    • and an exchange of gifts.
  – Warned about the Spanish.
    • returned to Canada
    • believed the Mississippi River went to the Gulf of
    • established good relationship with the Indians
• The Calumet Ceremony
  – The Calumet is a decorated pipe on a long
    stick (peace pipe).
    •   Symbol of peace and friendship
    •   Used to negotiate with others
    •   The men would sit and smoke together.
    •   Dancing and feasting
    •   The Calumet is then given as a gift and to provide
        protection as they traveled.
• La Salle Explores Arkansas
  – Rene’-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was
    born to a wealthy French family.
  – Was a teacher
  – Moved to New France (Canada)
  – Studied Indian culture.
  – Explored and traded with the Indians.
  – Searched for the mouth of the Mississippi
• La Salle Explores Arkansas
  – 1682 – traveled down the Mississippi River.
  – Visited the Quawpaw near the mouth of the
    Arkansas River.
  – Welcome with a Calumet Ceremony.
  – Placed a large wooden crossed and claimed
    the territory for France.
  – La Louisiane in honor of King Louis XIV
  – Found the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the
    land for France.
• A New French Colony
  – After returning to New France, La Salle asked
    for permission to start a new colony.
    • He was granted permission and supplies but failed
      to return to the mouth of the Mississippi when they
      were ship wrecked off the coast of Texas.
    • 1685 settlement established
    • Fort St. Louis
    • La Salle was killed by his own men on third
      attempt to find the Mississippi River.
    • Henri de Tonti – established the “Arkansas Post”
      near the mouth of the Arkansas River
• Life at Arkansas Post
  – Tonti hoped to established a trading post in
  – Quawpaw not interested in trapping beaver.
  – John Law attempted to establish the first post.
     • (see Bursting the Mississippi Bubble)
     • Many investors died before reaching the
     • Financial problems in Europe crippled the new
     • Early residents included soldiers, farmers, slaves,
       and trappers.
• Life at Arkansas Post
  – 1749 Official Census
     •   31 White Settlers
     •   14 Slaves
     •   29 Pigs
     •   60 Cows
     •   29 Bulls and Steers
     •   3 Horses
• Moving the Post
  – Reasons why the post moved several time
    during its first 100 years:
    • seasonal flooding
    • fear of attack by British and Indians
    • mosquito infested conditions and disease
  – 1803 - Louisiana Purchase: Arkansas
    becomes part of the United State.
  – Today: national memorial and state park.
• Colonial Arkansas
  – Mercantilism – created to increase wealth and
    power through tight economic controls.
  – Colonies brought wealth into European
  – Explorers searched for resources to increase
    the wealth of the mother countries.
  – Conflict developed between the European
    countries for control of new lands.
  – The French struggled to keep control of
• Trade Goods
  – Trade was difficult to establish in Arkansas.
  – Early trade included:
     • Bear oil
     • Buffalo meat
     • Buffalo tallow (fat)
     • Trappers traded beads, iron hatchets, pots, knives,
       guns, cloth, and blankets for Indian furs.
     • Deer Skin was the most common fur.
     • Indians hired to hunt and trade for Europeans.
• Farming
  – Arkansas Post never became a strong
    farming community.
  – Flooding and droughts caused havoc for
    settlers and farmers.
  – Quawpaw kept many settlers from starving.
  – Later improvements made life better but the
    post continued to need outside supples.
• Searching for Arkansas Treasure
  – Legends of gold, silver, and a large emerald
    rock spread in Europe.
  – Bernard de la Harpe was sent to find the
  – Emerald turned out to be sand stone.
    • La grande roche or “big rock.”
    • La petit roche or “little rock.”
  – La Harpe established a trading post at the site
    of a Quawpaw village near la petit roche.
• French and Indian War
  – 1754 – Start of French and Indian War
    between England and France.
    • Conflict over territory in North America
    • “Seven Years War”
    • Quawpaw helped the French against the British
      and other Indians.
    • Prisoners of War kept at the Arkansas Post.
    • France lost the war and control of its territories in
      North America.
    • Spain gains control of the territory
Arkansas Post was first settled by the French in 1686.
• French Names
  – Many of our towns, rivers, streams, and
    places were named by the French.
  – Examples:
    •   Terre Noir
    •   Bayou De Roche
    •   Petit Jean
    •   Bayou Meto
• The American Revolution
  – Started not long after French and Indian War.
  – July 4, 1776 – 13 colonies declare their
  – The British fought to keep their territory.
  – Allies in Arkansas
    • Supported by Spain – used Arkansas Post
    • British supporters attacked the post after the war
      was over (they hadn’t heard the news yet.)
    • Spanish commander was upset with Chief
      Angaska, a Quawpaw, because he failed to warn
      the Spanish.
• Chief Angaska had been tricked some Chickasaw
  Indians, who said Americans were coming to visit
  the fort.
• Chief Angaska and others tracked the attackers
  and those captured from the post.
• Most of the captured were released and returned
  to the post.
• End of Slide Show

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