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					               VANCOUVER LANDFILL
                                2008 Annual Report




 Transfer & Landfill Operations Branch
City of Vancouver Engineering Services
                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction................................................................................................... 1
Updates to the Design and Operations Plan ............................................................. 1
Closure and Post Closure Costs ............................................................................ 1
Planned Improvements...................................................................................... 2
  2008 Project Highlight: Financial/Business Evaluation.............................................. 2
  2008 Project Update: Hydrogeological Review ....................................................... 3
  2008 Project Update: Phase I Closure.................................................................. 3
Waste Quantities ............................................................................................. 3
  Waste Disposal ............................................................................................. 4
  Cover Material ............................................................................................. 6
  Road Construction Materials............................................................................. 6
Waste Reduction & Recycling Initiatives ................................................................. 6
  Residential Drop-Off Area................................................................................ 6
  Disposal Bans............................................................................................... 7
  Yard Trimmings Collection and Composting ........................................................... 7
  Poultry Manure & Compost Resource Stewardship Practices ... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Environmental Protection Programs ...................................................................... 9
  Leachate Management ................................................................................... 9
  Water Quality Review.................................................................................... 10
  Landfill Gas Management System...................................................................... 11
  Landfill Gas Beneficial Use Program .................................................................. 11
  Landfill Gas Migration & Emission Monitoring Program ............................................ 11
  California Polytechnic State University Project ..................................................... 12
Operational Information ................................................................................... 12
  Nuisance Waste ........................................................................................... 12
  Bird Control ............................................................................................... 12
  Household Hazardous Waste............................................................................ 13
  Public Complaint and Resolution Log ................................................................. 13




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                                             Page i
                                             LIST OF TABLES
Table 1:   Vancouver Landfill Material Quantities ....................................................... 4
Table 2:   2008 Vancouver Landfill Recycling Quantities ............................................... 7
Table 3:   2008 Composting Facility Financial Analysis ................................................. 8
Table 4:   2008 Compost Quality ........................................................................... 8
Table 5:   2008 Leachate Flow Volumes and Precipitation ............................................ 10
Table 6:   2008 Vancouver Landfill Nuisance Waste Quantities....................................... 13




                                             LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Fill Plan for Vancouver Landfill ............................................................... 2
Figure 2: Vancouver Landfill Historical Waste Quantities ............................................ 5
Figure 3: Leachate Collection System ................................................................... 9
Figure 4: Landfill Gas Event Timeline ................................................................... 11


                                               APPENDICES
Appendix 1:    Annual Waste Quantities................................................................... 14
Appendix 2:    2008 Vancouver Landfill Water Quality Monitoring Program Parameters .......... 17
Appendix 3:    Vancouver Landfill Prohibited Waste List ............................................... 18
Appendix 4:    Water Quality Monitoring Location Plan ................................................ 19
Appendix 5:    2008 Public Complaint and Resolution Log ............................................. 20
Appendix 6:    2008 Water Quality Monitoring Report Executive Summary ......................... 21




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                                         Page ii
Introduction
This annual report covers the period from January to December 2008 for the Vancouver
Landfill, and has been prepared in accordance with the Landfill’s Operational Certificate MR-
01611. Issued by the Ministry of Environment on March 8, 2001, the Operational Certificate
authorizes the discharge of municipal solid waste and specifies environmental protection
requirements for the Landfill.
The purpose of this report is to meet the Operational Certificate reporting requirements in
Section 3.5.2 by providing the following information:
    •   updates to the design and operating plan;
    •   revised closure/post closure costs;
    •   planned improvements;
    •   records for waste, recyclable material and compost quantities;
    •   a review of recycling and composting programs;
    •   a review of environmental monitoring data with interpretation;
    •   details on environmental protection programs, including leachate and landfill gas
        collection systems;
    •   operating problems and corrective actions taken; and
    •   a summary of the public complaint and resolution log.

Updates to the Design and Operations Plan
Completed by Sperling Hansen Associates, the Design & Operations Plan (Plan) was submitted
to the Ministry of Environment in January 2000. The Plan directs day-to-day operations of the
Landfill to achieve a final elevation of 39 meters, and includes a description of the detailed
fill plan that is comprised of nine distinct phases, as shown in Figure 1. The Plan also contains
summaries of the total amount of materials to be deposited in the Landfill; a cash-flow
analysis for the planned operational life; a contingency plan should the Landfill be closed
before reaching design capacity; and information on leachate and landfill gas management,
environmental controls and monitoring, and landfill closure and associated costs.

Closure and Post Closure Costs
The Landfill’s Operational Certificate requires the City to maintain a reserve sufficient to
fund closure, post-closure and environmental contingencies related to the Landfill. The Solid
Waste Capital Reserve (SWCR) was established to address these costs. In 2001, Council set the
minimum balance of the SWCR at $30,000,000 and directed that the requirements for the
SWCR be reviewed every five years. The closing balance of the SWCR was $74,000,000 at the
end of 2008. Every year, closure and post-closure costs are reviewed and updated with
current available information.




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                          Page 1 of 21
                              Figure 1: Fill Plan for Vancouver Landfill

Planned Improvements
In 2005, Vancouver City Council approved funding for a number of projects, including Phase 1
Closure, Residential Drop Off & Weighscale Upgrades, Power Line Relocation & Pump Station
Controls Upgrades and Hydrogeological Review. Details on these projects can be viewed at
www.vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/20050616/documents/cs5.pdf.
In January 2008, Council passed a recommendation to hire a Consultant to complete a
financial evaluation of the Vancouver Landfill.

2008 Project Highlight: Financial/Business Evaluation
In June 2008, Deloitte and Touche was retained to determine the value of the Landfill to
Vancouver ratepayers, and to assess the financial implications for the City of Vancouver and
its ratepayers of changing the role of the Landfill within the regional municipal solid waste
(MSW) management system. Deloitte compared the qualitative and quantitative factors
affecting a number of different scenarios to identify the preferred alternatives and strategies
for maximizing the financial benefits of Landfill ownership to Vancouver ratepayers.

The following summarizes Deloitte’s key recommendations regarding the Vancouver Landfill:
   • Vancouver should strive to continue the disposal of its MSW by landfilling it at
       Vancouver Landfill to minimize costs to ratepayers;
   • Vancouver should avoid committing to dispose of its MSW at the proposed regional
       waste to energy (WTE) facilities (or other regional disposal plan) until the cost to
       Vancouver ratepayers can be determined with greater certainty;




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                         Page 2 of 21
    •   Vancouver should strive to limit the utilization of the Landfill to dispose of MSW from
        outside Vancouver and Delta to maximize the remaining capacity and remaining
        landfill life that is available for Vancouver and Delta’s use.

2008 Project Update: Phase 1 Closure and Landfill Gas Control system Upgrades

    •   Detailed design was completed in October 2008. Design includes the construction of
        the cover system and the landfill gas system upgrades.
    •   Invitation to Tender was issued in December 2008.
    •   Contract awarded to TYAM Construction for the construction and landfill gas upgrades
        in February 2009.
    •   Construction expected to be completed in 2009. The total cost of the project is
        estimated at $15 million.

2008 Project Update: Hydrogeological Review
The Landfill’s Operational Certificate requires the City to complete a hydrogeological review
every five years to determine if the operation of the Landfill is impacting ground and surface
water systems in the vicinity of the Landfill. Previous reviews were completed by Gartner
Lee in 1995 and 2000. In 2007, Sperling Hansen Associates was retained to conduct the
hydrogeological review which was completed in 2008. Key findings were that:
    •   There is an excellent natural barrier layer under the Landfill that surpasses MOE’s
        minimum requirements;
    •   The leachate collection & containment system appears to be very effective at
        preventing vertical leachate migration; and
    •   The efficiency has increased significantly over past 13 years.

The following are the two major recommendations for further investigation that were made
by Sperling Hansen Associates:
    • Implement a drilling program in Phase 1 to verify water table elevations and
       determine if leachate is perched or mounding.
    • Perform an analysis of leachate storage requirements to evaluate available capacity to
       store some leachate on site during extreme precipitation events.

Waste Quantities
As part of the City of Vancouver’s Solid Waste Management System, the City owns and
operates a municipal solid waste landfill located in the municipality of Delta. In addition to
Vancouver and Delta, the Vancouver Landfill serves the communities of Richmond, White
Rock, the University Endowment Lands and portions of Surrey under the terms of the 1985
Regional Solid Waste Management Plan and the 1989 Tripartite Agreement. In 2008, the total
population served by the Landfill was approximately 1,010,000 or 45% of Metro Vancouver.
In 2008, garbage was disposed of in Phase 1 and 2. The annual totals for 2007 and 2008
waste, cover, and road construction materials received at the Vancouver Landfill are provided
in Table 1. The historical quantities of municipal solid waste, cover soil, demolition material,
and road materials are shown in Figure 2.



2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                          Page 3 of 21
Waste Disposal
Waste disposed of at the Vancouver Landfill is either hauled directly to the Landfill or
transferred through the Vancouver South Transfer Station (VSTS). In 2008, a total of 508,207
tonnes of municipal solid waste was disposed of at the Landfill. Of this, 219,530 tonnes was
transferred through the VSTS and 185,652 tonnes was transferred from Metro Vancouver’s
system via the Coquitlam, North Shore and Surrey Transfer Stations. Table A1 in Appendix A
provides a breakdown of material type, origin and disposal location for 2008. Table A3 shows
the breakdown by month of refuse, yard trimmings, demolition material, cover material, road
materials, and bottom ash for 2008.

                            Table 1: Vancouver Landfill Material Quantities
                  Material                                   2008 Quantity           2007 Quantity
                                                               (tonnes)                 (tonnes)
                  Waste Discharge
                     Municipal Solid Waste                             508,207                  510,135
                     Demolition Material                               145,042                  124,709
                  Cover Material
                     Cover Soil*                                       416,721                  423,340
                     Cover Sand*                                         5,337                   18,090
                     Bottom Ash*                                        47,259                   37,869
                  Road Construction Materials
                      Crushed concrete*                                 9,589                    3,833
                      Purchased concrete*                              54,266                   44,368
                     Demolition hog*                                   56,396                   49,732
                     Foundry slag                                       3,138                    2,628
                     Foundry sand                                       4,314                    2,631
                  Total                                             1,250,269                1,223,335
        * Note: Cover & road construction materials are used beneficially and are not included in waste discharge quantities.

Comparatively, in 2007 a total of 510,135 tonnes of municipal solid waste was disposed of at
the Landfill. Table A2 provides a breakdown of material type, origin and disposal location for
2007.
A total of 3,318 tonnes of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) residuals were disposed of at
the Landfill in 2008, including 2,750 tonnes of grit from Annacis Island, Lions Gate, Lulu Island
and Iona WWTPs. Grit is primarily composed of materials that are denser than water and may
include sand, pebbles, cinders, coffee grounds, seeds, cigarette filters and organic matter.
Before grit was accepted at the Landfill, testing was conducted to confirm that it is not a
Hazardous Waste under the Environmental Management Act and to ensure that it is
acceptable for disposal at the Landfill. To minimize nuisance impacts, containers are tarped,
drained and sealed at the WWTP to eliminate leakage during transportation to the Landfill.
In 2005, the Landfill began accepting sludge and scum screenings from Annacis Island WWTP
on a trial basis. The goal of the trial was to identify any health, safety, environmental or
nuisance impacts resulting from disposal. A total of 568 tonnes of sludge and scum screenings
was accepted after the MOE authorized the disposal of sludge and scum screenings on October
21, 2008.


2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                                                   Page 4 of 21
          1967
          1968                                                                     Refuse
          1969
                                                                                   Cover Soil
          1970
          1971                                                                     Demolition
          1972
                                                                                   Road Material
          1973
          1974
          1975
          1976
          1977
          1978
          1979
          1980
          1981
          1982
          1983
          1984
          1985
          1986
          1987
          1988
          1989
          1990
          1991
          1992
          1993
          1994
          1995
          1996
          1997
          1998
          1999
          2000
          2001
          2002
          2003
          2004
          2005
          2006
          2007
          2008

                 -     100,000   200,000   300,000   400,000   500,000   600,000     700,000     800,000

                                                     tonnes


                     Figure 2: Vancouver Landfill Historical Waste Quantities


2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                                       Page 5 of 21
Demolition material is mainly wood waste and specified to be a minimum of 80% wood.
Gypsum, asbestos, putrescible material and Hazardous Wastes are prohibited. Since 1993,
demolition material has been recorded separately from excavation material because it has
been accepted for a fee. In 2008, a total of 145,042 tonnes of demolition material were used
to regrade the Western 40 Hectares in accordance with the approved closure plan.

Cover Material
Cover soil is primarily excavation material generated by City sewer, water and street
construction activities. In August 2006, the Landfill started accepting soil excavated from the
South East False Creek (SEFC) Olympic Village. In 2008, the Landfill accepted 88,026 tonnes
of SEFC Olympic Village and Hillcrest/Nat Bailey Stadium Park development soil for regrading
the Western 40 Hectares. The remaining 328,695 tonnes of soil was used as intermediate
cover on active landfill cells.
Starting in 2002, sand was no longer generated through on-site dredging. As a result, offsite
cover sand was purchased. A total of 5,337 tonnes of sand were purchased in 2008.
Additionally since 2002, bottom ash has been accepted for use as a sand substitute for
intermediate cover. A total of 47,259 tonnes of bottom ash was used in 2008. Lastly, a
reusable tarp is employed for daily cover. Using bottom ash and a reusable tarp reduces the
amount of sand required for cover.

Road Construction Materials
Road construction materials include purchased and recycled concrete, demolition (demo)
hog, foundry slag and foundry sand. Demo hog is ground construction wood waste received at
a nominal fee. In July 2003 and May 2004, the City began receiving foundry slag and foundry
sand, respectively to reduce the amount of concrete needed for road building. Before these
materials were approved to be accepted at the Landfill, testing was conducted to show that
foundry slag and sand are not Hazardous Wastes under the Environmental Management Act.

Waste Reduction & Recycling Initiatives

Residential Drop-Off Area
The on-site transfer station, known as the Residential Drop-Off area (RDO), offers a recycling
area for scrap metal, white goods, corrugated cardboard, mixed paper, newspaper, lead acid
batteries, mattresses, used oil, used oil filters, tires and propane tanks. Recycled quantities
are provided in Table 2. The total amount of material recycled in 2008, excluding the
materials measured in litres and units, was 4,988 tonnes, compared to 4,280 tonnes in 2007.
Access to the RDO is free of charge to residents if loads contain only recyclable materials.
Gypsum, putrescible material and Household Hazardous Wastes are prohibited from disposal
in the Landfill, and are collected in the RDO area for collection by contracted professionals.
Asbestos is also collected in the RDO area and must be double bagged. Bags are buried at the
active face and their locations recorded with a GPS device.




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                         Page 6 of 21
Disposal Bans
To reduce the amount of material being landfilled that could instead be recycled, the City of
Vancouver (in alignment with Metro Vancouver) implemented additional disposal bans in
January 2008. Appendix 3 contains a complete list of materials that are prohibited from
disposal or accepted for recycling at the Vancouver Landfill. For the most up to date list,
please see the website at
http://www.vancouver.ca/engsvcs/solidwaste/landfill/materials.htm. A violation can result
in the hauler having to remove the offending items or being banned from using the City’s
waste facilities. Metro Vancouver inspectors checked loads at the Landfill and VSTS
approximately 4 to 5 times each month and applied a surcharge of 50% to loads in violation of
the ban.

                     Table 2: 2008 Vancouver Landfill Recycling Quantities

                  Item                                           Quantity
                  Cardboard (OCC)                                   210 tonnes
                  Gypsum                                          2,600 tonnes
                  Lead Acid Batteries                                45 tonnes
                  Mattresses                                         10 tonnes
                  Mixed Paper (MPP) & Newspaper (ONP)               130 tonnes
                  Product Care Items (Paint, Aerosol, Solvent)        3 tonnes
                  Plastics                                           20 tonnes
                  Propane Tanks                                     860 units
                  Refrigerators, Freezers & Air Conditioners      2,190 units
                  Scrap Metal                                     1,870 tonnes
                  Tires                                             100 tonnes
                  Waste Antifreeze                                1,230 litres
                  Waste Oil                                      11,329 litres
                  Waste Oil Filters                                  14 drums
                  Total                                          4,988 tonnes


Yard Trimmings Collection and Composting
In December 1992, Vancouver City Council approved the construction and operation of a yard
and garden trimmings composting facility for an initial capital cost of $2,500,000. The facility
has been operating since 1995 and includes the following; a 4.8 hectare hard surfaced
footprint, an electric linear feed grinder, two front-end loaders, an excavator, and two
trommel screens.
Starting in 2000, residential yard trimmings have been collected biweekly by City crews and in
2008 made up approximately 44% of trimmings processed. In total, the composting facility
processed approximately 49,333 tonnes of yard trimmings in 2008, compared to 41,996 tonnes
in 2007.




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                         Page 7 of 21
A total of 34,076 cubic meters of finished compost was produced and distributed in 2008. Of
this, 32,246 cubic metres were sold and 1,830 cubic metres were donated to school groups,
community gardens, City of Vancouver residents during the Keep Vancouver Spectacular (KVS)
event in May 2008, and Delta residents.
Financial information for the composting facility is included in Table 3.

                       Table 3: 2008 Composting Facility Financial Analysis
       Item                                                                   Expenditure
       Operating and Equipment Capital Recovery Costs                           $2,334,900
       Net Compost Sales Revenues                                               $(137,800)
       Compost Facility Costs                                                   $2,197,100
           Transfer Costs from VSTS                                                 $601,300
           Yard and Garden Trimmings Composting Fees                             $(885,800)
           Vancouver Residential Yard Trimmings                                $(1,318,400)
           Vancouver Street Leaves Collection                                   $(206,900)
           Delta Subsidy from SWCR and Delta Municipal Paid                          $(3,300)
       Net Cost                                                                     $384,000

The cost for compost production in 2008 was $44.54 per tonne of yard and garden trimmings
processed, based on the compost facility costs. This represents an increase from the 2007
cost of $37.37 per tonne processed. The cost difference is related to the civic strike in 2007.
Compost quality is compared to standards set out in the Ministry of Environment’s Organic
Matter Recycling Regulation. In 2008, the compost met the standards for unrestricted
distribution for all parameters listed in the regulation. A summary of the compost quality and
the standards for unrestricted use is provided in Table 4.

                                    Table 4: 2008 Compost Quality
                                         2008 Mean Value         BC Standard
                 Parameter
                                        mg/kg unless stated   mg/kg unless stated
                 Arsenic                        4.7                   13
                 Cadmium                        0.5                    3
                 Chromium                      17.1                  100
                 Cobalt                         4.1                   34
                 Copper                        60.5                  400
                 Lead                          78.5                  150
                 Mercury                        0.1                    2
                 Molybdenum                     <4                     5
                 Nickel                        13.0                   62
                 Selenium                       0.3                    2
                 Zinc                         161.2                  500
                 Foreign Matter                0.1%                   1%


2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                          Page 8 of 21
UBC Yard Trimmings & Compost Agricultural Use Studies
For many years, the City of Vancouver has worked with the University of British Columbia
(UBC) Agroecology Soil Science Group to investigate the use of yard trimmings compost for
local agricultural purposes. The goal of the research has been to demonstrate the benefits of
using compost combined with other materials, such as poultry manure, in both conventional
and organic agriculture on local farms in Delta. A new aspect of the program began in 2008,
to investigate the use of compost and ground yard trimmings as a soil amendment and mulch
for blueberry farming.

The program has provided significant benefits to both the City of Vancouver and Delta
farmers through improved agricultural practices and a better understanding of the role of the
Landfill in the community. Participation in the project supports Vancouver’s sustainability
objectives as well as Vancouver’s food strategy by encouraging local growing of conventional
and organic produce.

Environmental Protection Programs

Leachate Management
Leachate, which is defined as the product of water percolating through refuse, is collected in
a double ditch system around the perimeter of the Landfill as shown in Figure 3. The inner
ditch collects leachate, while the outer ditch collects clean water that runs off adjacent
land. The leachate is transported from the pump station located in the southwest corner of
the Landfill through a force main to Annacis Island Wastewater Treatment Plant. The 2008
unit cost for conveyance of leachate was $0.14 per m3 plus an additional surcharge of $0.68
per m3 for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS).




                                Figure 3: Leachate Collection System



2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                        Page 9 of 21
Monthly leachate flow and precipitation data are provided in Table 5. A total of 1,392,368 m3
of leachate was pumped to Annacis Island in 2008. This represents 60% of the total
precipitation volume. In the 2008 Hydrogeological Review, Sperling Hansen Associates
estimated that approximately 35% of the total precipitation evaporates from the Landfill
surface.
Leachate from the Vancouver Landfill is considered dilute compared to leachate at other
municipal solid waste landfills because of the high precipitation received on the site. The
application of daily and intermediate cover serves to lower the infiltration of precipitation,
reducing its contact time with garbage. Progressive closure using a geomembrane system will
keep clean water clean by directing rainfall to the outer drainage ditch. Phase 1 closure is
planned for 2009.

Water Quality Review
In 2008, 15 deep groundwater wells, 13 shallow groundwater wells, and 10 surface water
locations were grab sampled quarterly at the monitoring well locations shown in Appendix 4.
Additionally, 24-hour composite samples representing the leachate pumped to Annacis Island
Wastewater Treatment Plant were taken monthly. The samples were analyzed for up to 40
different parameters, which are listed in Appendix 2.

                     Table 5: 2008 Leachate Flow Volumes and Precipitation
                     Leachate                       Precipitation   Ratio of Leachate Flow
         Month                     Precipitation1
                       Flow                           Volume        to Precipitation Volume
                        (m³)            (mm)            (m³)
       January        304,700            138          309,600                98%
       February       197,500             69          154,350                128%
       March          116,000              7          169,200                 69%
       April          102,500             62          139,950                 73%
       May             65,000             43           97,200                 67%
       June            50,000             43           96,750                 52%
       July            45,000             16           35,550                127%
       August          35,300             76          170,550                 21%
       September       29,700             31           68,850                 43%
       October         39,700             99          223,200                 18%
       November       171,300            177          398,250                43%
       December       235,700            197          443,700                53%
       Total         1,392,400          1,025        2,307,150               60%


Consultants hired by the City have completed annual water quality reviews at the Landfill
each year since 1999. The most recent review analyzed the 2008 water quality monitoring
program and the executive summary of the report is provided in Appendix 6.


1
    Recorded Vancouver International Airport


2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                         Page 10 of 21
Landfill Gas Management System
The City of Vancouver has operated an active landfill gas collection and flare system since
1991. The system was initially intended to control odour and had the added benefit of
reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A small portion of the gas is directed to the Landfill
Administration building where it is used to provide heat and hot water. An overview of the
landfill gas control system is shown in Figure 4. Highlights for 2008 include:
•     A new horizontal collector in Phase 1;
•     A new sub-header manifold in Phase 1 and removal of wells 13 through 20 in Phase 1 to
      prepare for Phase 1 closure;
•     Replacement of refractory lining in Flares 1 & 2; and
•     Detailed Design and Tender package for Phase 1 Closure and Landfill Gas Control System
      Upgrade including additional LFG collection wells, two additional flares, two additional
      blowers and electronic control upgrades.


                                                                                                        March - 27 new
                    January - Issue     May - Council                                 June -             vertical wells
                      RFP for LFG         approves              September-           Council                                                  Install new
                                                                                                          installed in
                     beneficial use     entering into              Maxim            approves                                  October - 3      horizontal
                                                                                                           Phase 1 &
    LFG                 partner         contract with             officially       Phase 2 LFG                                 horizontal     well & sub-
                                                                                                        commissioning
Utilization            (finance,        Maxim Power             commissions         Collection                                   wells          header
                                                                                                          of QuestAir
Feasibilty          design, build &      Corporation            conditioning         System                                   installed in    manifold in
                                                                                                        demonstration
  Study                operate)                                    facility         expansion                                   Phase 2         Phase 1
                                                                                                            project



       1999     l      2000    l      2001   l    2002      l       2003       l   2004   l      2005      l    2006      l   2007     l     2008



       July -       February - City      December -          10            November -          Two boilers      December -        Detailed            Relined
      Council         completes           City signs     horizontal        Utilization        utilizing LFG      Relocate         design &          refractory
     approves       installation of        20 year       gas wells &       plant fully        added to the        main &           tender           in Flares 1
    $5.4M LFG       156 new wells        agreement         41 new          operational         greenhouse        Area 2W          package               &2
      system        & commissions        with Maxim        vertical                            operations        headers        completed for
                       upgraded            for LFG          wells                                                                LFG system
                     blower/flare        Utilization      installed
                    station station


                                             Figure 4: Landfill Gas Event Timeline


Landfill Gas Beneficial Use Program
Approximately 39,971,000 m3 of LFG was collected in 2008, of which 82% was directed to
beneficial use, and the remaining portion was flared. The average 2008 recovery rate
corresponds to approximately 2,600 scfm and modeling by CH2M Hill Canada Ltd. has
estimated the landfill gas recovery rate at approximately 70%.

Landfill Gas Migration & Emission Monitoring Program
In October 2000, the City retained an independent consultant to implement the Landfill Gas
Migration and Emission Monitoring Program. Since June 2001, ambient air has been routinely



2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                                                                          Page 11 of 21
monitored in confined spaces, on-site buildings, at the flare station and at property boundary
monitoring stations.
Sampling at all locations is conducted using portable gas analyzers. The flare station and
confined spaces are tested for combustible gases, oxygen and hydrogen sulphide. On-site
buildings are also tested for carbon dioxide. Property boundary stations are tested for total
organic carbon and hydrogen sulphide.
The Year 7 Landfill Gas Migration and Emission Annual Report, issued in January 2009,
provides details on measured gas levels. Year 7 boundary perimeter test results were
consistent with the historical pattern of generally low TOC readings. No test locations had a
Year 7 average exceeding the 50ppm guideline. The Year 7 averages for the north, south,
east and west perimeters were 14, 21, 10 and 5, respectively.
Two new confined spaces/building stations were added (compost, tool shed and main service
pit). The 20% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) guideline was exceeded in three of the
seventeen confined spaces a total of six times. Depleted oxygen levels were not detected in
any of the confined spaces. There were no exceedances at the flare station or in any of the
on-site buildings.

California Polytechnic State University Project
Cal Poly (formerly Lawrence Technological University) started a project in 2003 to investigate
the impact of climate on refuse degradation. This project involved installing instrumentation
in gas wells at four landfills in different climatic regions of North America. Vancouver Landfill
is the ‘wet climate’, while landfills in Alaska, New Mexico, and Michigan represent cold, arid
and control climates, respectively. Field research involves monitoring temperatures and gas
concentrations over the long term, potentially for up to 20 years. Since well installation in
2003, temperatures have been monitored approximately every two weeks.

Operational Information

Nuisance Waste
In 1999, a database was created to track nuisance waste accepted at the Landfill. Nuisance
waste is defined as material that requires special consideration, documentation, handling or
disposal (such as direct burial). These materials typically originate from small businesses or
light industry and are not classified as Hazardous Waste under the Ministry of Environment’s
Hazardous Waste Regulation. The waste generator completes a Waste Assessment Form and
submits it for review and approval by City staff. Waste Assessment Forms are entered into the
database from which summary reports can be generated. Table 6 lists the types of nuisance
wastes and quantities received at the Landfill in 2008.

Bird Control
Birds, particularly gulls, are a nuisance at landfill sites. In large numbers, they create a
negative image of landfills and scatter litter onto surrounding areas. Birds are also a potential
aviation hazard. In 1994, a trial program was initiated using an austringer (a trainer with a
hawk) to control gulls at the Vancouver Landfill.


2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                         Page 12 of 21
                   Table 6: 2008 Vancouver Landfill Nuisance Waste Quantities
                                                                     Quantity
                               Material                              (tonnes)
                               Plant material                            1,419
                               Food                                        696
                               Fish Plant Waste                            281
                               Organic Waste with Packaging                132
                               Fish Nets                                   101
                               Tires                                        80
                               Tallow & Sand                                 7
                                        2
                               Other                                        45
                               Total                                    2,761


A formal program using birds of prey started in July 2001. The presence of predatory birds
near the active face discourages gulls and other birds from approaching the waste. Several
Harris hawks, Goshawks, and Peregrine Falcons are utilized in the program allowing multiple
birds to fly on a given day, and additional birds to provide relief for those that are flying or
molting. In addition, bangers, crackers and a recording of a distressed gull are used as part of
the Bird Control Program.

Household Hazardous Waste
Household hazardous wastes (HHW), such as paints and pesticides, are prohibited from
disposal at the Vancouver Landfill. However, residents periodically abandon or discard HHW in
loads of refuse.
In 1993, a storage facility was set up at the Vancouver Landfill for abandoned HHW. The
facility was upgraded in 1999 to provide a larger covered drop-off area and improved
security. The facility consists of a fenced area where HHW waste is placed into 45-gallon
drums, tub skids or a fireproof storage cabinet. A HHW contractor regularly removes and
safely disposes of the waste.
In 2008, the total cost of processing HHW was approximately $33,900 compared to $54,100 in
2007. This cost does not include City staff time for segregating and packing the materials.

Public Complaint and Resolution Log
In 2008, Landfill staff received 6 complaints, compared to 3 in 2007. The Public Complaint
and Resolution Log is provided in Appendix 5.




2
    Other category includes artificial Christmas trees, barnacles, counterfeit products, etc.


2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                                  Page 13 of 21
Appendix 1: Annual Waste Quantities


Table A1: 2008 Vancouver Landfill Disposal Summary

                                         VSTS           VLF         Total                   Cover         Cover                    Road Construction Materials                         Bottom
                                                                               Demo
                                         MSW            MSW         MSW                     Sand           Soil       demo hog   concrete   purchased    foundry slag   foundry sand    Ash

                                        (tonnes)       (tonnes)    (tonnes)   (tonnes)     (tonnes)      (tonnes)                             (tonnes)                                 (tonnes)
Vancouver Residential Collection          62,131            20      62,152             -            -             -          -          -          -                -             -               -
Vancouver Other                          103,041        10,150     113,191     68,645           36        362,433       26,625     6,888      29,820                -             -               -
Delta Public Works                                 -     5,653       5,653             -            -      54,288            -          -          -                -             -               -
Delta Residential Drop-Off                      18      13,660      13,678         46               -             -          -          -          -               -              -               -
Delta Commercial                             525        16,911      17,436      6,078               -             -          -          -        505                -             -               -
Delta Residential Contractor                       -    17,484      17,484             -            -             -          -          -          -                -             -               -
Richmond                                  50,073        13,825      63,898     24,798        4,154                -          -          -      5,953               -              -               -
UEL                                        3,440           103       3,543         99               -             -          -          6          -                -             -               -
Surrey                                          44      10,495      10,539     18,302        1,147                -          -          -     13,488                -             -               -
White Rock                                         1     7,277       7,278      1,477               -             -          -          -          -                -             -               -
Coquitlam Resource Recovery                        -    68,549      68,549             -            -             -          -          -          -                -             -               -
North Shore Transfer Station                       -   114,822     114,822             -            -             -          -          -          -               -              -               -
Surrey Transfer Station                            -     2,281       2,281             -            -             -          -          -          -                -             -               -
Sewage Treatment Plant Residuals                   -     3,318       3,318             -            -             -          -          -          -                -             -               -
Other                                        257         4,127       4,384     25,597               -             -     29,772     2,695       4,500          3,138          4,314       47,259
Totals                                   219,530       288,676     508,206    145,042        5,337       416,721        56,396     9,589      54,266          3,138          4,314       47,259
Total Material to Vancouver Landfill:                             1,250,269   tonnes




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                                                   Page 14 of 21
Appendix 1: Annual Waste Quantities


Table A2: 2007 Vancouver Landfill Disposal Summary

                                         VSTS        VLF         Total                   Cover        Cover                       Road Construction Materials                         Bottom
                                                                            Demo
                                         MSW         MSW         MSW                     Sand          Soil       demo hog       concrete   purchased   foundry slag   foundry sand    Ash

                                        (tonnes)    (tonnes)    (tonnes)   (tonnes)     (tonnes)     (tonnes)                                (tonnes)                                 (tonnes)
Vancouver Residential Collection         55,090            -     55,090             -            -            -              -          -          -               -             -               -
Vancouver Other                          93,307      11,675     104,981     57,467               -   402,320         24,570          851       9,652              -              -               -
Delta Public Works                              -     5,975       5,975             -            -            -              -          -          -               -             -               -
Delta Residential Drop-Off                   10      11,007      11,017             -            -            -              -          -          -               -             -               -
Delta Commercial                            769      15,166      15,935      5,270               -    37,177                 -     1,625           -              -              -               -
Delta Residential Contractor                    -    15,762      15,762             -            -            -              -          -          -               -             -               -
Richmond                                 47,649      10,438      58,086     12,315       14,225        1,795                 -        81       8,520              -              -               -
UEL                                       2,839          57       2,897             -            -        59                 -        50           -               -             -               -
Surrey                                       56       9,643       9,700     22,022        3,832           80                 -       474      26,195               -             -               -
White Rock                                      5     6,009       6,013      1,966               -            -              -        46           -               -             -               -
Coquitlam Resource Recovery                     -   103,016     103,016             -            -            -              -          -          -               -             -               -
North Shore Transfer Station                    -   106,821     106,821             -            -            -              -          -          -               -             -               -
Surrey Transfer Station                         -     6,774       6,774             -            -            -              -          -          -               -             -               -
Maple Ridge Transfer Station                    -       656         656             -            -            -              -          -          -               -             -               -
Langley Transfer Station                        -       340         340             -            -            -              -          -          -               -             -               -
Matsqui Transfer Station                        -       182         182             -            -            -              -          -          -               -             -               -
Sewage Treatment Plant Residuals                -     2,910       2,910             -            -            -              -          -          -               -             -               -
Other                                       401       3,581       3,981     25,668           33               -      25,163          706           -         2,628          2,631       37,869
Totals                                  200,125     310,011     510,135    124,709       18,090      423,340         49,732        3,833      44,368         2,628          2,631       37,869
Total Material to Vancouver Landfill:                          1,217,335   tonnes




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                                                Page 15 of 21
Appendix 1: Annual Waste Quantities


Table A3: 2008 Vancouver Landfill Disposal Summary by Month


                                MSW                           Yard Trimmings           Demolition     Cover       Road       Bottom
    Month
                   VSTS        VLF        Total        VSTS        VLF       Total      Material     Material    Material     Ash
                 (tonnes)    (tonnes)    (tonnes)     (tonnes)   (tonnes)   (tonnes)    (tonnes)     (tonnes)    (tonnes)    (tonnes)
 January           17,792      27,760        45,552      1,308        578      1,886       10,515       25,451      12,763      4,153
 February          16,980       23,710      40,690      1,383         463      1,846        13,807      27,648      12,420      3,884
 March             17,327       20,191      37,518      2,690         641      3,331        14,077      31,890      10,334      4,417
 April             18,569       30,360      48,929      3,041         692      3,734        15,127      44,384      10,872      3,322
 May               18,661       27,846      46,507      4,563         850      5,413        16,955      42,004      20,446      4,360
 June              19,609       26,948      46,557      4,322         665      4,987        13,709      40,559      12,630      4,173
 July              20,363       30,128      50,491      3,502         556      4,058        16,118      34,547      12,923      4,044
 August            19,118       22,280      41,398      2,734         485      3,219        14,295      33,112      13,511      4,109
 September         20,300       24,520      44,820      3,294         583      3,876        10,692      36,816      23,204      3,618
 October           19,693       22,739      42,432      3,643         972      4,614         9,812      52,447      13,778      3,231
 November          16,793       14,853      31,646      5,303       2,902      8,205         6,953      29,065      20,349      3,927
 December          14,327       17,339      31,666      1,873       2,289      4,162         2,983      18,797      11,732      4,021
 Total            219,530     288,676      508,207     37,655      11,677     49,333      145,042      416,721     174,963     47,259




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                            Page 16 of 21
Appendix 2: 2008 Vancouver Landfill Water Quality Monitoring Program Parameters


Surface Water
     alkalinity as CaCO3           copper, total                  phenols
     aluminium, total              dissolved oxygen*              potassium, total & dissolved
     ammonia                       hardness as CaCO3              sodium, total & dissolved
     arsenic, total                iron, total & dissolved        specific conductivity
     cadmium, total                lead, total                    sulphate
     calcium, total & dissolved    magnesium, total & dissolved   temperature*
     chloride                      manganese, total & dissolved   zinc, total
     chromium, total               nickel, total                  TSS
     cobalt, total                 pH*                            TOC
     turbidity                     true colour


Groundwater
     alkalinity as CaCO3           cobalt, dissolved              pH*
     aluminium, dissolved          copper, dissolved              phenols
     ammonia                       hardness as CaCO3              potassium, dissolved
     arsenic, dissolved            iron, dissolved                sodium, dissolved
     cadmium, dissolved            lead, dissolved                specific conductivity
     calcium, dissolved            magnesium, dissolved           sulphate
     chloride                      manganese, dissolved           temperature*
     chromium, dissolved           nickel, dissolved              zinc, dissolved


Leachate Grab Samples
     alkalinity as CaCO3           cyanide                        potassium, total & dissolved
     aluminium, total              dissolved oxygen*              sodium, total & dissolved
     ammonia                       hardness as CaCO3              specific conductivity
     cadmium, total                iron, total & dissolved        sulphate
     calcium, total & dissolved    lead, total                    sulphide, total & dissolved
     chloride                      magnesium, total & dissolved   temperature*
     chromium, total               manganese, total & dissolved   toxicity
     cobalt, total                 pH*                            volatile organic compounds
     copper, total                 phenols, total**               zinc, total


Leachate Composite Samples
     aluminium, total              copper, total                  nickel, total
     cadmium, total                iron, total                    pH
     chemical oxygen demand        lead, total                    total suspended solids
     chromium, total               manganese, total               zinc, total
     cobalt, total                 molybdenum, total


*        Field Data
**       Total of 2,3,4,5 and 2,3,4,6 tetrachlorophenols and pentachlorophenols




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                                Page 17 of 21
Appendix 3: Vancouver Landfill Prohibited Waste List




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                  Page 18 of 21
Appendix 4: Water Quality Monitoring Location Plan




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                Page 19 of 21
Appendix 5: 2008 Public Complaint and Resolution Log


   Date                   Issue                  Resolution

1 April 18, 2008          Odour Complaint        Discussed particulars of complaint; determined
                                                 odour coming for a different facility.

2 April 22, 2008          Cost for disposal,     Left voice messages for customer, did not
                          material diversion     receive a return phone call. Discussed issue with
                                                 staff and determined that the situation was dealt
                                                 with appropriately by staff.

3 May 21, 2008            Difficulty ordering    Discussed with staff protocol (return phone calls
                          compost                promptly).

4 June 25, 2008           Difficulty disposing   Discussion with staff to ensure that everyone is
                          of asbestos            clear on information provided to customers
                          containing material    related to asbestos disposal. Posted Vancouver
                          from residence         Landfill Asbestos Policy on website.

5 July 2, 2008            Long lineups, cost     Explained policies related to fees. Encouraged
                          for disposal, longer   customer to use facility during non peak hours.
                          operating hours

6 July 22, 2008           Compost quality        Provided customer with information related to
                                                 composting, and provided free load of compost.




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                           Page 20 of 21
Appendix 6: 2008 Water Quality Monitoring Report Executive Summary


To be inserted once completed.




2008 Vancouver Landfill Annual Report                                Page 21 of 21
Transfer & Landfill Operations Branch
         2008 Annual Report

             March 2009

				
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