CSCD303-Lecture3-2010 by wuyunqing


									CSCD 303
Essential Computer
Fall 2010

Lecture 3 - Hackers and
Reading: Chapters 3, 7, 16
• Hackers and Attackers
  – Definitions
  – History
     • Past
     • Recent
  – Motivation
     • Glory, Fame
     • Hacktivism
     • Money
     • Cyberterror
  – Resources
               Terms Again
• Hacker Defined
• People engaged in circumvention of computer
  security, unauthorized remote computer break-
  ins, but also includes those who debug or fix
  security problems
• Its earliest known meaning referred to an
  unauthorized user of telephone company
  network, a phone phreaker
           More Definitions

• Blackhat Hackers
  – Breaks into computers with malicious intent
  – Distinguished from ethical Hackers who break
    into computers for publicizing security
  – Members of this group, destroy data, disrupt
    services and wreck havoc on computers and
             Attacker Groups
• Whitehat Hackers
     • Hackers in this group are skilled
     • Often belong to a hacker group
          – L0pht, Masters of Deception ( old groups …)
     • Feel they have a mission to improve the security of
       the computer world
     • Avoid damage to network and systems
     • Inform and educate system administrators about
       fixes to their security

            Attacker Groups
• Psychological Profile of Elite Hackers
     • Most elite hackers ...
     • Different values and beliefs than society
     • White hats believe they are performing a
       service for society by exposing poor security
     • Sometimes have a tenuous grasp on reality
       because they live mostly in the cyber world
     • Examples: Rob Morris, Kevin Mitnick

            More Definitions
• Script Kiddies
  – Wannabe hackers
  – Little knowledge of what they are doing
  – Exploits they use, have typically been written
    by others more knowledgeable
• Cyber Terrorists
  – The FBI definition
     • Premeditated, politically motivated attack against
      information, computer systems, computer programs,
      and data which result in violence against
      noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or
      clandestine agents
  – James Lewis from the Center for Strategic and
    International Studies
      • Use of computer network tools to shut down critical
      national infrastructure (such as energy,
      transportation, government operations) or to coerce
      or intimidate a government or civilian population
• Cyber Terrorists
  – Cyber security experts have long worried
    about cyber terrorists wrecking havoc on our
    critical infrastructure systems
  – Has not happened yet on widespread basis
  – Cyber security experts are divided over
    whether it is possible
  – What do you think?

• Everyone thinks hacker = criminal
    • Not True!!!
  – Hackers have subculture not-mainstream
    • Dress in black, spend a lot of time in front of their
      computers, fascinated with technology, can potentially
      do scary things to people's data
    • All of this creates a mistrust and fear of them
    • Like to hang out in groups too
    • Have strange group names:
           Cult of the Dead Cow, Demon Industry, Hell of Web
             Hacker History
• Phone Phreakers
  – Learn as much as possible about telephone
    system without getting caught
  – Use knowledge to their advantage
    • Free phone calls
  – Most famous - John Draper - Captain Crunch
  – Why was he called that?
 History - Phone Phreakers
• Captain Crunch - 1971
  – Discovered a toy whistle found in a box of Captain
    Crunch cereal
     • Emitted a tone, 2600 Hz tone
     • Exact frequency need to tell phone system to hang
       up the call, but used other tones then to call
       numbers - result was free phone call
     • Late 60's and Early 70's, all toll trunks were
       sensitive to this tone, ATT did a fatal cost cutting
       measure, designed system so that signaling and
       voice used the same circuit
History - Phone Phreakers
• Others discovered secret ...
     • Made devices to emit signal, ―blue boxes‖
     • Worked until phone companies replaced old
       switches with newer electronic switching
     • Trivia: What famous PC computer founder was
       part of John Draper's computer club ?
History - Famous Hackers
• Eric Corley
      (also known as Emmanuel Goldstein)
     • Long standing publisher of 2600: The Hacker Quarterly and
       founder of the H.O.P.E. conferences.
     • Been part of the hacker community since the late '70s.
• Kevin Mitnick
     • A former computer criminal who now speaks,
      consults, and authors books about
      social engineering and network security.
• Robert Morris
     • Now a professor at MIT
     • The son of the chief scientist at the National Computer Security
       Center — part of the National Security Agency (NSA)
     • Cornell University graduate student accidentally unleashed an
       Internet worm in 1988 (oops ….)                                14
     • Thousands of computers were infected and subsequently crashed.
        History Recent Hackers
• Recent Black and White Hat Hackers
  – List of hackers including some recent folks can
    be found here, includes software developers
History Famous Hacker Groups
                                        "Goolag - exporting censorship, one
                                                           search at a time"

• CULT OF THE DEAD COW, also known as cDc or cDc
  Communications, is a computer hacker and DIY media
  organization founded in 1984 in Lubbock, Texas
   – Produce an ezine called, Cult of the Dead Cow
   – Responsible for the practice of Hacktivism
      • Combining Hacking with Social justice
      • They targeted Google in allowing China to filter Internet
   – Well known tools
      • Back Orifice - Remote control of others computers
      • Whisker - IDS evasion
History - Famous Hacker Groups
• L0pht Heavy Industries was famous hacker collective active
  between 1992 and 2000, physically in Boston, Massachusetts
   – 1998, all seven members of L0pht (Brian Oblivion, Kingpin,
     Mudge, Space Rogue, Stefan Von Neumann, John Tan,
     Weld Pond) famously testified before Congress that they
     could shut down the entire Internet in 30 minutes
   – 2000, L0pht Heavy Industries merged with startup @stake,
     completing L0pht's slow transition from an underground
     organization into a "whitehat" computer security company
      • Symantec bought @stake in 2004
   – L0pht produced L0phtcrack a password cracker program
History - Famous Hacker Groups
• Chaos Computer Club (CCC) is one
  of the biggest and most influential hacker organizations
   – CCC based in Germany and currently has over 4,000
   – CCC more widely known for public demonstrations of
     security risks
      • 1996, CCC members demonstrated attack against
        Microsoft's ActiveX technology, changing personal data
        in a Quicken database from outside
      • In 2008, CCC published fingerprints of German Minister
        of Interior Wolfgang Schäuble, also included fingerprint
        on film that readers could use to fool fingerprint readers
• Motivation: political reasons
• Something called ―hacktivism‖ is political
  motivation combined with cyber activism
• Example: Defacing certain web sites to
  embarrass a country or agency
  – FBI and the CIA had their web sites defaced
    numerous times defacement example
A turkish group, known
managed to exploit a
SQL injection flaw and
insert a record that
redirected the "events"
page to an image with
their site name.
• FloodNet, Java applet that repeatedly sends
  browser reload commands
   – In theory, when enough EDT participants are
     simultaneously pointing the FloodNet URL
     toward an opponent site, critical mass
     prevents further entry
   – Actually, this has rarely been attained
   – Developed before botnets
• FloodNet's power lies more in simulated threat!

• Older Examples
  – 1998 LoU members Bronc Buster and Zyklon
    disabled firewalls in order to allow China's Internet
    users uncensored access to Internet,1294,16545,00.html

  – 1998 X-Ploit defaced the websites of Mexico's
    Finance Ministry and Health Ministry to protest
    government of President Ernesto Zedillo and show
    solidarity with the Zapatista rebellion

• Who is responsible for most Cybercrime?
  – Countries
    • Russia, Eastern Europe, China, Brazil
    • Dave Emm of Kaspersky Labs says
       – ―It’s difficult to put a figure on it, probably China at the top,
         and that’s more than 50 per cent.
            » Next would be between Russia and Latin America. A lot
               of the banking trojans originate out of Latin America‖
       – Roger Thompson, of AVG, believes that cybercrime can
         come from anywhere:
            » ―While there are a lot of malware and web threats
               coming from Russia and China, there is also lots of
               activity in Turkey, Romania, Brazil and the US‖
• Motivation is mostly money
  – Criminals want to make money typically by
    illegal means
  – Extortion, blackmail, theft, are all alive and well
    in the cyber world
  – Even physical security can be compromised if
    we include cyber stalking
  – May be other motivation such as malice
    against a company or government agency
      Exploit Users Through Social Network Sites
• Unsuspecting individuals frequently download data, could contain
   malware such as viruses and Trojan horses
• National Cyber Security Alliance (NSCA) found
    – 83% of users downloaded unknown files from other people's profiles
    – Potentially opened their PCs to attack
• 57% of people who use social networking sites admit to worrying about
   becoming a victim of cybercrime
    – Many divulge information that could put them at risk
    – Three out of four users give out personal information
         • e-mail address, name, or birthday that can be used to
           perpetrate identity theft
    – According to the NCSA. Amazingly, 4% have even listed their Social
        Security numbers somewhere on their social network page
                                            Guillaume Lovet                 Author

• Cybercrime has become a profession and
  the demographic of your typical
  cybercriminal is changing
  – Was geek, now more organized gangster
    traditionally associated with drug-trafficking,
    extortion and money laundering
             Cyber Crime
Example … Marketing a stolen online bank
– Sell the information to gain authorized control
  over a bank account with a six-figure balance
– Cost to obtain this information is about $400
              Cyber Crime
• The probable marketplace for the sale
  – A hidden IRC (Internet Relay Chat) chat room
  – $400 fee will most likely be exchanged in
    some form of virtual currency such as e-gold
  – Several different protagonists may be involved
    in this crime
• Credit Card Theft – Growing problem
  – 2005 - More than 40 million credit card numbers
    belonging to U.S. consumers were accessed by
    computer hacker, at risk of being used for fraud,
    MasterCard International Inc.
  – 2007- TJX Cos. (NYSE:TJX) revealed that
    information from least 45.7 million credit/ debit cards
    was stolen over an 18-month period
  – 2008 - Security breach East Coast supermarket
    chain exposed more than 4 million card numbers
    led to 1,800 cases of fraud, Hannaford Bros. Grocery
  Database of Credit Card Breaches
• As 2000 approached, there was fear and
  – Millennium bug promoted interest in potential
    cyberterrorist attacks
  – Acted as a catalyst in sparking fears of a
    possibly devastating cyber-attack
  – Real possibility existed for computer based
    systems such as banks, water supplies and
    power to be completely disabled
• Good overview of threat of cyber-terrorism

  • Examples of incidents found here
• On Oct. 21, 2002, a distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack
  struck the 13 root servers that provide the primary road-map for
  all internet communications. Nine servers out of these thirteen
  were jammed. The problem was taken care of in a short period
  of time.
• At Worcester, Mass, in 1997, a hacker disabled the computer
  system of the airport control tower.
• In 2000, someone hacked into Maroochy Shire, Australia waste
  management control system and released millions of gallons of
  raw sewage on the town.
• In Russia In the year 2000, a hacker was able to control the
  computer system that govern the flow of natural gas through
  the pipelines.
       Example of Cyberterrorism

• In May 2007, Estonia subjected to mass cyber-attack in
  wake of removal of Russian World War II statue
• Attack was distributed denial of service attack in which
  selected sites were bombarded with traffic in order to
  force them offline … successfully
• Nearly all Estonian government ministry networks plus
  two major Estonian bank networks were knocked offline
   – Plus, political party website of Estonia's current Prime
     Minister featured a counterfeit letter of apology for
     removing the memorial statue
        Example of Cyberterrorism
• At the peak of the crisis, bank cards and mobile-phone
  networks were temporarily frozen, setting off alarm bells in the
  tech-dependent country
• Russia is suspected for the attacks and various groups
  have claimed responsibility ... no-one knows for sure!

• Is this Cyberterrorism?
    Example of Cyberterrorism
• Stuxnet Worm - Current Example - 2010
• Stuxnet is a Windows-specific computer worm first discovered
  in June 2010 by VirusBlokAda, a security firm based in Belarus
• It is the first discovered worm that spies on and reprograms
  industrial systems
    • Attacks Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA)
    systems used to control and monitor industrial processes
    • It is also the first known worm to target critical industrial
    • According to news reports the infestation by this worm might
    have damaged Iran's nuclear facilities in Natanz
    • It has infected computers in China, Iran, Indonesia, India, US
    and others ...
Example of Cyberterrorism
• Chinese Hackers Attack Energy Facilities - 2009
• Hackers believed to be backed by the Chinese communist
  regime have continuously broken into computers critical to
  the functioning of the United States' electric grid network
• All major electricity companies were targeted in the attack,
  with several of their key systems compromised
• Attacks appeared pervasive across the U.S. and don't
  target a particular company or region
          Risks from Attack
• As a private individual, who is likely to
  target you and what is their motivation?
  – Any Ideas?
         Risks from Attackers
• Private Individuals
• Credit cards, SSN’s, bank information, medical
• At risk from
  – Criminals – want to profit from getting and
    selling your personal data
  – Phishing, Fake virus infections,
  Social networking sites
          Summary of Risks
• Small Business or Corporation
  – More at risk from deliberate targeting
  – Know something about company, at least its
    assets and defenses
  – Use a variety of techniques, technical, social
    engineering, and phishing to gain access
  – Want user or customer data, company secrets
  – Loss is potentially more severe
     • Direct loss of assets and loss from law
           Summary of Risks
• Government, military site or critical
  infrastructure sites
  – Huge attraction for outside hackers
  – Motivation includes financial but also just pride
    especially if sophisticated security
  – Hacktivism – against policy
  – Could be nation states involved at this level
  – Meaning very skilled attackers trying to get
    classified information
  – Or, trying to incapacitate Energy or
    Communications sector … cyber terror
  – Loss can potentially be devastating
Captain Crunch Web Site
Cult of the Dead Cow
2600 Magazine
Hacker Hall of Fame
                Hacker Resources
• Wikipedia site for Hackers has
    – Books, Movies, other sites

• One other movie on Kevin Mitnick,
  Freedom Downtime by Emanual Goldstein
•   Another movie, Hackers in Wonderland
                The End

• Next Time
  – New Assignment, Assignments page

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