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					China Watershed Management Project




 CWMP Communication Strategy and Action Plan




                            CWMP Project
                 Ministry of Water Resource of PRC




                            November, 2006
                                                                     项目成果推广策略和行动计划


This document contains the Communication Strategy, the Action Plan and the Budget for the
CWMP.
The Communication Strategy, Task 2 of the TOR, has been prepared by the international expert,
while Part 1 addresses Task 1 ‗The initial policy, institutional and program mapping‘ of the TOR
and has been prepared by the national consultants in the team. Part 1 is submitted as annex 1 to
this report.
The Action Plan and the Budget in this document is composed and consolidated based upon the
Communication Strategy and ‗the Initial policy, institutional and program mapping‘.




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                                      Table of Contents

1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 4
2 Challenges in Effective Watershed Management in
China........................................................................................................................................... 6
3 The Role of Communication in Disseminating Effective
Approaches in Watershed Management in China ........................ 8
       3.1 Policies, Institutions and Stakeholders in Watershed

       Management in China ................................................................................................ 9

       3.2 Strategic Approach ......................................................................................... 15

              3.2.1 Linking Policy to People: “The Policy Life Cycle” ........ 15

              3.2.2 Link Integrated Watershed Management Messages

              to Actual and Current Issues in Each Sector .................................. 17

              3.2.3 Integration of Channels of Communication...................... 18

              3.2.4 Managing Communication at Different Levels ............... 19

4 The CWMP Communication Strategy Outline ......................... 20
       4.1 The Communication Strategy Objectives ........................................ 21

       4.2 Target Audience ............................................................................................... 22

       4.3 Message Content ............................................................................................. 25

       4.4 Mix of Channels, Media and Communication Materials ...... 26

       4.5 Planning,                            Management                            and              Monitoring                        the

       Communication Strategy ........................................................................................ 30


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5 Communication Action Plan ...................................................................... 31
     5.1 Audience Segmentation and Potential Application Scope .... 31

          5.1.1 Target Audience Segmentation ................................................ 31

          5.1.2 Potential Application Scope ........................................................ 34

          5.1.3 Specific Objectives ............................................................................ 35

     5.2       Action Plans............................................................................................... 36

          5.2.1 Announcement & Initial Communications ............................... 38

          5.2.2 Communication Execution and Attitude Change ................... 46
          5.2.3      Project Output Communication and Awareness Enhancement .......... 50

6 Organization and Responsibilities............................................. 52
7 Evaluating Communication Effects ........................................................... 52




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1 Introduction

The World Bank has supported two Loess Plateau Watershed Rehabilitation projects 1,
which have demonstrated that watershed rehabilitation in the Loess Plateau can be a
viable economic investment and produce benefits for local communities.                            To
evaluate the impact on poverty of the World Bank-supported Loess Plateau project
interventions in a comprehensive way, and to ensure that future Chinese and other
donor programmes draw on this experience to maximize contributions to poverty
reduction, the China Watershed Management Project (CWMP) was designed and
funded by the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID).

The CWMP has three main outputs:

       (a) Output 1: Improved Systems for monitoring and evaluating (M&E) World
           Bank - supported Loess Plateau 2, with an emphasis on participatory
           approaches.

       (b) Output 2: Best and new practice models developed, which emphasize
           poverty reduction.

       (c) Output 3: Best and new practice models disseminated to relevant Chinese
           and donor programmes.

This report represents a first step towards the achievement of output 3. It outlines a
practical dissemination approach, to ensure that the experience from the Loess
plateau projects can effectively reach those audiences who are in a position to
improve the effectiveness of watershed management in China and abroad.

While outputs 1 and 2 are being implemented, and as the information underpinning
dissemination becomes available, the strategy will need to be further adapted to
reflect changing circumstances and made correspondingly more specific.

Although the TOR emphasizes the need for a dissemination strategy, we prefer to
speak in this document of a communication strategy.

‗Dissemination‘ suggests a one-way process – of distribution to various audiences,
public airing and exposure, opening up a subject to wider discussion. While an

1
    1st Loess Plateau Watershed Rehabilitation Project (1994-1999) and the 2nd Loess Plateau Watershed
    Rehabilitation project 1999-2004

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important function, it is limited; it does not necessarily imply the dialogue and
interaction that can lead to changes in perception and attitude, and over time to
changes in behavior. We prefer to use the term communication, as this has an inbuilt
concept of interaction and exchanges between people and communities. This is not
simply a theoretical point, because a communication strategy incorporates the notion
of purpose: the reasons for undertaking and accepting an action that are needed if we
are to formulate clear objectives and measure the success with which they have been
achieved.

The task of the International/Chinese consultant-team is to develop an effective
dissemination strategy and action plan & and an initial policy study for the CWMP.
The overall objective of the assignment is ―to develop an effective project
dissemination strategy and action plan for promoting project outcomes to all
appropriate target audiences, in accessible formats, particularly for potential use in
future formulation of Chinese policies, domestic and donor supported programmes
and plans helping to maximize their contribution to sustainable watershed
management and poverty reduction‖.

The assignment is composed of two tasks:

    (a) Task 1: an initial policy analysis, institutional and programme mapping,
        which has been undertaken mainly by the Chinese team-members.

    (b) Task 2 is the core of the assignment, the development of a project
        promotion and dissemination strategy and action plan, with a twofold goal:
        (i) enhancing awareness and understanding and (ii) enhanced commitment
        and acquisition of the basic knowledge and skills needed to be able to apply
        the lessons learned in the CWMP. Task 2 has been the main focus of the
        international expert in the team.

In addition to a strategy, the team has been requested to prepare a practical action
plan and budget for the implementation of the strategy, as well as some advice on
organizational requirements for its implementation.

Work undertaken by the consultant team

The assignment began during a briefing session on 4 November 2005. Between 5
and 9 November a field visit to the Loess plateau was carried out, during which key
agencies and stakeholders were met and project locations were visited. From 20 to
22 November 2005, the international expert participated in the International Seminar

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on Sustainable Small Watershed Management in China, in Beijing. During this
seminar he met several key experts and officials from the Ministry of Water
Resources.

In addition some key-experts and representatives from relevant institutions were also
visited in Beijing.

In December 2005 an inception report was prepared and discussed at the MWR on
Monday 19 December 2005, describing the Team‘s understanding of the assignment
and the planning of activities envisaged.


2 Challenges in Effective Watershed Management in
      China

As watersheds are the basic unit of a river basin, watershed management is of crucial
importance to basin management, especially in the upper and middle reaches of a
large basin. It is of great importance to the health of the overall basin to strengthen
watershed management, increase vegetation, reduce water and soil erosion and
polluting sources, avoid overdraft of groundwater and improve water use efficiency.

Being comparatively integrated ecological and geographical units, watersheds have
played a decisive role in the origin and development of human civilization. China is
an ancient civilization, which has been developed through reliance on the watersheds,
and river basins have been the basis for the existence and development of hundreds
of millions of people in China.

The Yellow River basin includes nine provinces/autonomous regions of Qinghai,
Ningxia, Shaanxi, and Shanxi, etc.; it is 1.19 million Mu in area, 8.3% of the
national total and harbours 110 million people (being 8.7% of the country‘s total
population). In consequence, basin management impinges directly on the sustainable
development of populations, resources, environment, ecology and economy within
the whole basin.

However, watershed degradation is a severe problem in China, and currently about
38% of land area in China is eroded. Causes of watershed degradation2 are a


2
    Achim Fock, Senior Economist at World Bank in China at MWR Small Watershed seminar 20-22
    November 2005

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combination of natural and human-induced factors (slope land farming, uncontrolled
grazing, tree cutting etc). Degradation has many different impacts, such as

    (a) Eco-environmental impact: including reduction of water storage, loss of
        soil (productivity), loss of vegetation, climate change, increased pollution
        and sedimentation downstream, poor air quality, sandstorms, etc.

    (b) Economic impact: including lower yields & return, higher production cost,
        loss of grain production, decline of farm income and GDP, etc.

    (c) Social impact: including poverty, reduced food security, reduced public
        health, increased vulnerability and accelerated migration, etc.

It follows that an ineffective watershed management becomes a significant obstacle
to sustainable development in China.         Unfortunately effectiveness is currently
hampered by a series of factors:

    (a) Lack of integration in watershed planning and management;

    (b) A sectoral perspective is limiting, whether in the assessment and analysis of
        issues, or in planning interventions to mitigate a situation in a particular
        sector. A unisectoral approach, resisting intersectoral cooperation, is one of
        the main barriers to effective watershed management;

    (c) Lack of inter-agency collaboration;

    (d) A single disciplinary approach leads to a lack of shared intersectoral
        assessment and analysis, and seriously limits the awareness and
        understanding of the underlying issues;

    (e) Lack of participatory orientation;

    (f) Genuinely involving the inhabitants of watersheds in their rehabilitation and
        sustainable management is a key factor in effective watershed management;

    (g) Insufficient management capacity at different levels;

    (h) Poor supervision of physical and financial progress and incomplete or
        dysfunctional M&E systems lead to unsustainable grazing practice and land
        tenure.




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3 The Role of Communication in Disseminating
    Effective Approaches in Watershed Management in
    China

China is experiencing huge changes throughout all aspects of public life. Economic
growth is among the highest in the world, while government aims increasingly to
share growth with less advantaged regions in China. These new challenges require
drastic changes in all sectors of government, including water resources management,
forestry, agriculture, land policy, poverty alleviation, ecology and environment,
public administration and budgeting & public finance. They call for increased
attention to the management of natural resources, measures to enhance soil and
water conservation, to fight ongoing desertification and watershed degradation. In
brief, in order to become effective a new paradigm is needed for soil and water
conservation and watershed rehabilitation. More effective planning requires:

    (a) Comprehensive, multi-purpose, inter-sectoral collaboration, acknowledging
        the dynamic relationship and interaction of land, water and other natural
        resources;

    (b) A decentralised and participatory approach;

    (c) An iterative earning process, through effective M&E.

Such changes do not have an automatic impact on stakeholders, but require their
active involvement, which is only possible if the stakeholders:

    (a) Understand why the changes are happening and are necessary;

    (b) Understand their future role in this process and what is to be expected from
        them;

    (c) Are able to acquire the knowledge and skills required to fulfil their new
        roles.

This is the entry point for communication. A strategic, comprehensive and planned
approach can have a highly positive impact on the effectiveness of watershed
management in China, if it is used




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    (a) to place integrated planning on the agenda of decision makers in the water
         resources and related sectors;

    (b) to create a shared understanding among all stakeholders of the challenges to
         be faced by watershed management, including       – in certain cases – an
         acceptance of the fact that watersheds can be saved and rehabilitated while at
         the same time reducing poverty;

    (c) to create a positive attitude towards the adoption of comprehensive planning
         approaches, transforming sectoral goals into multisectoral.

To provide access to successful (and unsuccessful) examples and approaches, which
may be used to enhance the effectiveness of administrators.


    3.1 Policies,           Institutions           and       Stakeholders                in

             Watershed Management in China

In part 1 of the report, an overview is given of the main policies, institutions and
stakeholders involved in watershed management in China.         In this section, we focus
on the priority audiences for the CWMP communication strategy.

Watershed management functions within a multi-tier system, combining several
vertical sectors with units established at different horizontal administrative levels.

Among the vertical sectors involved in watershed management we can distinguish
inter alia

    (a) Ministry of Water Resources

    (b) Ministry of Agriculture

    (c) Ministry of Land Resources

    (d) State Forestry Administration

    (e) State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA)

    (f) State Leading Group on Poverty Alleviation

    (g) National Development and Research Commission (NDRC)

    (h) Ministry of Finance


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All sectors work at National, Provincial, County and in some cases even at Township
levels, with specific units established at different levels. At the County level, we
have the Water Conservancy Bureau, Animal Husbandry Bureau, Forestry, Poverty
Bureau, etc.

In addition to the governmental institutions, there is an increasing amount of interest
in forming Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in China, in the fields of
nature and environment conservation and poverty alleviation. These are (or will soon
become) important stakeholders in sustainable watershed management and should be
in a position to function as intermediary organisations in disseminating messages to
groups at watershed level or at county or provincial levels, helping to raise interest in
effective watershed management.

Furthermore, the media, including TV, Radio and the written press, are also
becoming increasingly important in the public airing of issues where the government
feels a broader public interest is necessary.

In the field of environmental protection, for example, the use of media channels has
increased significantly during recent years. However, one of the great limitations of
using mass media is their limited potential for feedback and the lack of opportunities
they provide for segmentation and targeting.

For example, for remote watersheds, it is unlikely that we can reach people with
specific watershed-related messages through County TV. County TV only reaches
households connected by cable, which is not feasible for households located too far
away from the county town, or from township relay stations. Therefore, in general it
may be expected that mass media at provincial level can best be used for general
awareness-raising about watersheds, whose aims should be very modest.

In general, County level leadership is considered most influential in practical
watershed management. The authority (and engine) for intersectoral coordination
lies with the (Vice) County Chief, who has the task of stimulating and facilitating
intersectoral cooperation and collaboration in watershed management. Experience
on the LPP‘s has shown that the leadership quality of the County administration is a
crucial factor in this respect.

Although there are project/programme specific Leading Groups in which some or all
of the agencies involved take part, these exhibit limited or negligible coordination
across their M&E systems, and practise very little direct data sharing. Data are

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retained within the organisational hub of the organisation that funded the data
collection (i.e. Forestry Bureau data are only used by and retained in the Forestry
Bureau). But in principle the County Chief has the authority to promote and
facilitate greater intersectoral exchange and cooperation.

The County administrative organization responsible for soil and water conservation
through various contractual arrangements with farmers includes: Soil and Water
Conservation Office under the leadership of Soil and Water Conservation Committee
of the County and the Department of Soil and Water Conservation of the Ministry of
Water Resources of China through its Yellow River Commission          (or through the
Shaanxi Provincial Bureau of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power??).

The county chief heads the Committee, which consists of representatives of the
Bureaus of Water Resources, Forest, Soil and Water Conservation Office,
Agriculture, Financial, Public Security, Transportation, and the Judicial and Mining
Committee.

The Soil and Water Conservation Office of the county is set up in the Bureau of
Water Resources of the county and is directly responsible for the county's soil and
water conservation, including surveys of soil and water losses, watershed planning
and annual work plan preparation, monitoring and evaluation of construction works,
education on legislative aspects, water and soil conservation, the prevention of new
soil loss, the organisation of scientific and research works, and synthesising and
sharing the experience gained.

A Soil and Water Conservation Office is also established in each of the townships.
The Township leader is also the leader of the Township Soil and Water Conservation
Office, while the water management head serves as deputy leader of the Township
office. Members of the TS office are representatives from Water Management
Division, Forest Station, Agriculture Station, Public Security Division, Financial
Division, Judicial and Mining Division and Department of Soil and Water
Conservation.

The Township Soil and Water Conservation Office is responsible for soil erosion
surveys, implementation of soil erosion control measures and the development of
local resources. The grass root unit of the organization is the Village Soil and Water
Conservation Group, which consists of a village group leader and farmers in
specialized fields. This group is responsible for the farmers' organization in the


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village, construction work related to various soil and water conservation projects, the
development of local resources and for implementing a household contract system to
maintain these measures.

At horizontal levels, we can distinguish a range of institutions and stakeholders:

    (a) International level

      At the international level, experience in watershed (and in broader terms,
      water resources) management is routinely exchanged in a number of
      international fora. The number of organisations and networks working in this
      field is too great to be itemised, but they include Networks, such as:

         -   the Global Water Partnership     (www.gwpforum.org),
         -   the World Water Forum, (www.worldwaterforum.org) which held its
             4th Forum in Mexico from 16-22 March
         -   the World Water Council (www.worldwatercouncil.org), which is an
             International Water Policy Think Tank, established to promote
             awareness- raising on critical water issues, to provide advice and
             relevant information to institutions and decision-makers on the
             development and implementation of comprehensive policies and
             strategies, and to contribute to the resolution of issues related to
             (transboundary) waters.
         Within these networks, a wide range of (inter) national organisations is
         active, such as the World Bank, ADB, different UN agencies such as
         Unicef, FAO, UNEP, UN-Habitat, and the IUCN/World Conservation
         Union, international NGOs such as Wetlands International, and regional
         fora in Eastern Asia, within which China already takes an important role.
         At the international (and national) level a wide range of bilateral donors is
         also active in water resources management, including DFID, USAID,
         DGIS (NL) and most major donors.

    (b) At national level

      At national level, the Ministry of Water Resources is the leading institution in
      charge of watershed management. It has a long tradition in managing China‘s
      water resources and has undergone (and is still undergoing) a shift in
      perspective, moving from a focus on engineering towards a more participatory,
      integrated approach involving a range of people and institutions. Although
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    this perspective is now being emphasised by experts, scientists and the
    leadership of the MWR, a greater effort is needed to communicate this shift of
    emphasis to lower administrative levels.

    Among other institutions relevant at the national level are Government
    institutions such as the Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Land Resources,
    State Forestry Administration, State Environmental Protection Authority
    (SEPA), and the State Leading Group on Poverty Alleviation.

    Also at national level a number of non-governmental organisations and
    academic agencies are active in this field, such as the China Academy of
    Sciences, with its member institutions, and some Non Governmental
    Organisations such as the Institute for Environment and Development (IED)
    www.ied.ac.cn, Global Village Beijing www.gvbchina.org and others, but also
    NGO‘s in the field of poverty alleviation such as the ‗China Foundation for
    Poverty Alleviation‘ and others.

  (c) At Basin level

    Currently there are Seven Watershed Management organizations in China,
    placed directly under the MWR. One of these is the Yellow River Water
    Resources Commission in Xian Shaanxi province, which is responsible for the
    Yellow River watershed. It is authorized by the State amongst others:

       -   to administer water management in its region:
       -   to provide overall management of water resources in the valley in
           accordance with the Water Law of the People's Republic of China;
       -   to assume responsibility for the comprehensive planning, harnessing,
           development, management and protection of the water resources of the
           entire valley.
  (d) At Provincial/City level.

    At Provincial and City level all sectors have Provincial level Bureaus, such as
    the Provincial Water Conservation Bureau (MWR), Provincial Agricultural
    Bureau (MA) etc.

  (e) At County level

    At County level, again most sectors have some representation in the form of a
    Water conservation bureau, County monitoring stations etc. Some smaller

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      watersheds are confined to a single County, while in other cases the
      watersheds go beyond County borders.

      People living in certain watersheds can again be further divided between those
      living upstream and downstream, each of which has distinct characteristics.
      Those living upstream often experience a less negative impact of poor
      watershed/basin management, while those living downstream are more
      frequently confronted by shortages, reduced quality/pollution issues, drought,
      floods etc. Clearly in terms of awareness rising, an extra effort needs to be
      made to sensitise those living upstream on the key issues.

   (f) Township level

      At township level, the Township working stations, involved in agricultural
      extension, water and soil conservation. Township officials often have direct
      contact with the villages in the watershed. The participatory character of
      modern watershed management requires significant involvement of Township
      staff.

   (g) Village level

      At the village-level no specific institutions exist, apart from poverty
      alleviation assistants. Village Committees and Village Leaders play an
      important role in convening villagers and organizing village wide events.

   (h) Household level

      At a household level has direct physical impact on the watershed. Agricultural,
      grazing practices, water and energy usage, all have direct impact on the
      degradation of the watershed. Alternatively the households also often are the
      level which is directly involved in watershed rehabilitation. They need to
      understand the issues, factors and ways to prevent further degradation. They
      will also be asked to become involved in watershed management, because of
      its participatory approach. Information to these households will go through
      media, and through formal channels from County/Township officials. The
      CWMP dissemination should also have an impact at this level, if not directly
      under the programme than at least through providing tools and materials to be
      used by County and Township staff.

Naturally, much depends on the size of the watershed, which can bring together a


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variety of different levels. Small watersheds often combine no more than a few
Villages or Townships, but larger watersheds can involve different provinces, even
countries.


    3.2 Strategic Approach

The communication challenge is to enhance awareness and generate a positive
attitude towards intersectoral collaboration at all levels, among institutions involved
in watershed management. Clearly, no uniform, un-segmented approach will be
effective. A focused, segmented approach, acknowledging the specific characteristics
and objectives of different groups, is needed.

In order to develop this approach to communication in support of watershed
management we have to focus on three requirements:

    (a) It should be linked to the issues and policy making and planning process
        aimed at solving these issues;

    (b) It should acknowledge and        try to circumvent the limitations of the formal
        single sector and cascade approach adopted by governmental communication
        in China

    (c) It should be managed at the appropriate administrative level;


         3.2.1 Linking Policy to People: “The Policy Life Cycle”

Modern thinking about public policy acknowledges that the policy making process
goes through phases, and in consequence, effective communication needs to support
this process and address the different phases in specific and customized ways.

Such challenges do not emerge from a vacuum, but are the result of a gradually
evolving, shared recognition of the urgency or importance of a particular issue.

Moreover, the analysis of key issues and the development of appropriate policies and
plans is also a phased process, which often demands negotiation between sectors,
additional studies and research, political discussions etc.

Policy-making on climate change, biodiversity, serious lack of water resources all go
through phases, following a more or less common process. Issues become significant
only when scientists, NGOs and other pressure groups have recognized them as such,

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usually after a great deal of discussion, much of it heated. Eventually, however,
following considerable debate between scientists and government specialists and
policymakers, they enter the policy preparation phase. In this phase additional
research is carried out, inventories are made and by degrees government officials
and politicians become convinced that a particular problem needs to be tackled.
Policy is then formulated for decision-making, detailed planning is undertaken, after
which implementation begins. Communication plays a different but vital role in each
of these phases; it aims to reach different target groups, different objectives etc.

Sustainable Watershed Management finds itself somewhere at the beginning of this
process. Very few people know what watersheds are, very few people are aware that
watersheds are degraded, and very few are aware that this degradation can be halted.
Very few people know the impact of this degradation and its causes. Above all,
scientists, experts and policymakers approach the issues involved from their
individual academic and sectoral perspectives. Water resources engineers
demonstrate a more technical bias; poverty reduction specialists focus on the
sustainable income generating capacity of poor households; agricultural and animal
husbandry experts emphasise livestock production levels and quality. They ignore,
or resist the fact that effective watershed management requires a multisectoral and
multipurpose approach.




                   The policy life cycle in Watershed management




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        3.2.2 Link          Integrated          Watershed           Management

              Messages to Actual and Current Issues in Each

              Sector

The different sectors, such as agriculture, forestry and poverty alleviation, not only
have their dominant culture and language, but they also have characteristic
challenges and agendas. Each sector has a dominant paradigm expressing how the
main challenges of that sector need to be addressed. For example, the agricultural
sector is focussed on about food security, production levels, etc. The forestry sector
is mainly concerned about [fill in main challenges of the forestry sector]. The
poverty alleviation departments are trying to reduce poverty through developing
income generation at household level, increasing rural production levels.

It follows that the professionals in each sector have specific concerns and
expectations, and the interest they exhibit in communication about watershed
management depends to a very large extent on how well we are able to ‗connect‘
meaningfully to these sectoral agendas.

For example: we may assume that poverty alleviation bureaus are interested in
reducing poverty and enhancing the income generation capacity of the poorest
farmers. Currently, research shows us that the poor are getting poorer, and that the
gap between poor and middle incomes is widening. The challenges are becoming
more formidable, while the resources available are not necessarily increasing
proportionately.

Analysis of the agriculture sector, forestry sector and even watershed degradation is
reveals similar trends. One of the few options to counter these negative trends is
cooperation between sectors.

Rehabilitation of watersheds, enhancement of income generation capacity, leads to
enhanced food security and poverty reduction.

This understanding, that inter-sectoral cooperation is the only way to counter the
formidable negative trends affecting livelihoods is a key element that should be
reflected in the communication strategy.




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         3.2.3 Integration of Channels of Communication

A third precondition for effective communication is to diversify communication
flows, without losing their organic interdependence and coherence.

China relies mainly on the cascade system of passing ―task related information‖
from one level to the next level. Each level either copies, or slightly adjusts the
content and passes it on to the next level. There are still relatively few opportunities
to bypass a level, but at the same time people at all levels are increasingly exposed to
multiple sources of information. This seems to be leading to an information overload,
which makes it increasingly difficult to have any meaningful and long-term impact
on the knowledge, understanding and attitudes of large segments of the population.

Exclusive or excessive reliance on the formal system of passing messages and
information through different administrative levels of the cascade system will not be
enough to make people change, and welcome and adopt new approaches and
concepts. Therefore the CWMP communication strategy will need to go much
further, and exploit new and different approaches.

What does this mean? In the first place, greater specificity: the formal, cascade
approach of administrative communication needs to be complemented by other
channels and distribution mechanisms to ensure that information reaches specific
target groups at Watershed and County level in an appropriate form. For example, it
is possible to prepare materials for Township and village level at the Provincial level,
and leave distribution to County and Township officials, because they have
established channels to communicate with these levels. In this way we can save
financial resources thanks to economies of scale, while at the same time keeping
more control over the quality of the content of communication. The adaptation of the
materials and putting it into perspective can be done by officials at levels closer to
the final audiences.

However, since the formal administrative system is rather compartmentalized, the
strategy also has to address the challenge to create an interest in other sectors. The
perception of the messenger often determines the receptiveness of the message. If
poverty alleviation experts perceive staff of water resources as engineering focused,
with little understanding of poverty factors, they will be less compelled to listen to
the message. Agricultural experts might be prejudiced that a seminar organized by
MWR is not really interesting to them.
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To overcome such barriers, the communication strategy should prepare a sector
specific elaboration of the strategy to use existing moments, or create new moments
to promote intersectoral cooperation in watershed management. In other words, the
strategy should try to submit articles in magazines and journals which are read in
other sectors, try to provide presentations in seminars and conferences developed for
the sectors. Once the initial interest is created intersectoral conferences could be
developed which provide the possibility for discussion and discourse.

In August 2006 an International Conference on Forest and water in a changing
environment 3 ‖ will be organised in Beijing (more information is provided on
http://www.cern.ac.cn:8080/newsView.jsp?id=1761). However, the draft outline of
the programme and list of speakers indicates that this conference will only be visited
by experts, planners and scientists from the Forestry sector. In order to make an
impact in this sector a paper/presentation on integrated watershed management
should be considered.


        3.2.4 Managing Communication at Different Levels

A communication programme which affects China at the national level and has
global resonances needs to be managed at the appropriate level. In other words, if we
would like to reach Counties in the Yellow River Basin, the Yellow River Basin
Committee will be the appropriate manager of the communication programme. In
order to adapt it further to other audiences, the Commission will need to collaborate
with Provincial, City or County level administrations. Similarly, if an impact is
sought within the Pearl River Basin, the Pearl River Basin Committee will be the
appropriate vector.

Facilitating communication in the Counties will be more effective if the County
Leader is willing to supervise and initiate this. The project could provide materials
which would help his staff to assist in this, but Counties are too far away from
Beijing and Provincial Capitals to be managed on a daily basis from there.

Since much of the communication will be engaged at national and international


        3
            An event organised by the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network; “International
        Conference on Forest and Water in a Changing Environment”, Beijing, China; August 8-10,
        2006



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levels, the Ministry of Water Resources should be the agency entrusted with
communication with other basins, provinces or within international fora. Clearly
close involvement of the Yellow River Basin Committee and the CWMP PMO in
Xian will also be indispensable.


4 The CWMP Communication Strategy Outline

Based on the institutional and stakeholder assessment, we have identified different
groups who are in a position to make either a positive or negative impact on
watershed management at different levels, or who are affected by watershed
degradation or rehabilitation. The communication strategy should aim to reach these
groups in such a way that they will become more ‗effective‘ partners in conserving
and rehabilitating watersheds in China.

The Terms of Reference mention

   ...“the strategy and action plan (should) (i) promote stakeholder‟s awareness and
   understanding of methodologies and approaches of project formulation and implementation;
   (ii) promote utilization of the project outputs in other domestic and donor supported
   programmes and plans; and (iii) convey the newly developed Chinese policies, plans and
   programs; and work of other donors.”...

The overall strategic principles in the CWMP communication strategy are:

    (a) Prioritisation and segmentation of those (groups of) people who are direct
        players or stakeholders in watershed management, because they either have
        an impact on watersheds or are being affected by its degradation (and benefit
        from its rehabilitation)

    (b) A distinction between more ‘affective’, emotional and appealing approach
        to raise interest in innovative approaches in natural resources planning and
        management and more cognitive, informative approaches to raise
        understanding and skills in innovative planning;

    (c) A coherent approach in using communication through ‗media‘,
        communication through ‗other institutions‘ and ‗direct communication‘ from
        the MWR at national level and the CWMP PMO.




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    4.1 The Communication Strategy Objectives

The overall purpose of the CWMP Communication strategy is:

   To enhance effectiveness and sustainability of watershed management in China and abroad.

There are many ways in which communication objectives can be formulated, but all
seem to be covered by an increase in:

    (a) understanding and knowledge,

    (b) in attitudes and perceptions

    (c) and – if possible—changes in behaviour and practice

Since behaviour change, in this case adoption of modern watershed management
practices, depends on many other factors (such as financial resources, legislative
requirements, support from leadership etc) the CWMP Communication strategy will
focus on awareness about and an interest or positive attitude towards modern
approaches in watershed management, with the aim that those who are directly
involved in watershed management are able to acquire the knowledge and tools to
apply modern watershed management approaches.

For those groups directly involved in watershed management in China, the specific
objectives will be:

    (a) ―to promote stakeholders‘ awareness about the urgency and necessity of
        sustainable management of watersheds and create a ‗receptive attitude‘
        towards intersectoral,    multi-purpose and participatory planning at all
        levels‖;

    (b) ―to enhance understanding of underlying issues and key methodologies,
        approaches and practices, leading to more effective watershed
        management‖;

Clearly there is a difference in intensity by which the different groups need to be
approached. Leaders are not in a position to actually work on watershed
management themselves, but they do need to have an open attitude towards inter
sectoral planning and facilitate and stimulate staff from their sectors to adopt these
principles and work accordingly.



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Also experts and officials from other sectors, like agriculture, husbandry, poverty
alleviation are used to look at issues from a perspective which is dominant in their
sector. Making them interested in modern watershed planning, requires a strategy
which ‗molds‘ their own dominant perspective into an attitude more open to
cooperation and sharing with other sectors. A recognition that the sectoral challenges
can not be met with policies undertaken within the constraints of ones own sector is
often an essential step towards cooperation with other sectors. To achieve such
understanding the communication strategy needs to understand the issues and
challenges of the different sectors and initiate a process towards cooperation within
each sector. This leads to a change in perspective which is needed to cooperate
effectively.


    4.2 Target Audience

Segmentation and prioritisation of the target audiences is based on the stakeholder
inventory and analysis (see annex 1 of the report and paragraph 3.1).

In a country like China, one needs to be realistic in setting goals. The numbers are
significant, the distance from Beijing extensive and the lack of intersectoral
coordination and planning is still considerable.

Based on the analysis above, the MWR would best make a distinction in horizontal
and vertical stakeholder groups, segment groups at each level and develop
information materials, media and events which reach these target groups. Rather
than a broad strategy aimed at a wide range of audiences with highly varying
interests, we should focus on specific audiences which are crucial in enhancing the
effectiveness of watershed management in China. These groups should not be
missed and while we implement the programme, we will inform less crucial
audiences on the way.

The CWMP communication strategy will focus on the following sectors:

    (a) The Ministry of Water Resources

       Firstly the Ministry of Water Resources is undergoing a shift from a strict
       engineering approach towards the more integrated, multipurpose participatory
       form of planning and management. Leadership at national, basin- and
       provincial level and in some Counties already accepted the importance of this
       paradigm shift. However many of the ??.000 MWR-staff in China still has not
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    yet been exposed to these experiences, are not yet concerned about the
    challenge in watershed management and still seem to approach water
    resources management in its traditional ‗engineering focussed‘ perspective.

    Also at County level, although most counties have established a Leading
    group, actual exchange of data at operational level does not seem to function
    effectively.

    Therefore both objectives, creating interest and transfer knowledge and skills
    in modern watershed management and planning will be addressed for this
    group.

  (b) Other sectors involved in watershed management, such as the Ministry
     of Agriculture, Ministry of Land Resources, the State Leading Group
     for Poverty Alleviation and the State Forestry Administration

    In many case the other sectors in China similarly seem to approach their
    sectoral challenges in a monodisciplinary way. Poverty alleviation focuses at
    enhancing income generation capacity of farmers in poverty villages in
    poverty counties, in some cases neglecting issues of environmentally
    sustainability, groundwater-levels and quality of livestock or grazing patterns.
    Husbandry bureaus focus at livestock production capacity, sometimes giving
    less attention to environmental impact, grazing patterns, feeder balance etc.

    In China there is much cooperation between officials, planners, watershed
    management orgnisations, and scientists. At all levels there seems to be much
    cooperation between government and academics and therefore we feel that
    these groups can be approached together. At the same time academics might
    be earlier able to cope with intersectoral cooperation than officials. In the
    strategy we might have to include some activities which will bring academics
    from different sectiors together. In that way the scientists will assist in
    creating the paradigm shift among planners and officials.

  (c) Academic Institutions

    Like in most other countries, also in China, NGOs and academic institutions
    seem to take a lead in experimenting with new and innovative approaches.

    Prof Lu YongXian, President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, mentions
    in the CAS 2005 report that it


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 „has obtained high level scientific and technological innovative achievements, which brought
 immense impact on science and thus made major contribution to the economic development
 in fields of strategic high-technology, which is concerned with the overall modernization, and
 of comprehensive, harmonious and sustainable development of major public innovation, and
 substantial basic research, which have much strengthened the technical transformation and
 knowledge dissemination.

     Although there is a focus on high-tech innovation and Science and
     Technology, it is clear that CAS is aiming to promote inovation in other fields
     as well. The principles necessary for effective watershed management could
     be strengthened in the academic community, by organising events which go
     beyond the borders of distinct administrative sectors.

     Since most academic institutions have a historic, institutional link to a specific
     government sector (and depend on specific Ministries for their financial
     resources),     the    project    could     assist    in    promoting      multi-sector,
     inter-disciplinary exchange which would lead to a shared knowledge and
     experience base and enhanced cooperation. With its well respected network in
     the different provinces, CAS could become an important partner in promoting
     intersectoral planning at all levels.

     The CWMP could effectively involve academic institutions in further
     developing the knowledge base, strengthening exchange between theory and
     practice and stimulate the institutions to become a partner in this process.

  (d) Media

     The media in China can play an important role in implementing the strategy.
     They are an important vehicle to reach the other audiences. They can
     contribute to awareness raising, but also can put issues at agenda and give
     authority to (‗authorize‘) issues, which will prompt officials to act. However,
     since they reach masses, mass media are not reliable channels to reach
     specific target groups with specific messages. This needs to be done in more
     direct and interpersonal ways, which are included in this strategy.

  (e) Non Governmental Organisations

     NGOs are gaining importance in China in different fields. Especially in
     environment, poverty reduction NGOs are playing an increasing role in trying
     to bridge the gap between policymakers and people


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In developing specific approaches for these groups, we will have to make a
distinction between different (administrative) levels.

    (a) International level

    (b) the level of basin organisations

    (c) provincial level

    (d) county level

    (e) Township level

    (f) Household level

At all levels a distinction needs to be made between leaders/managers and those
actually involved in day to day watershed management. The first group needs a basic
understanding and supportive attitude towards their staff working with other sectors,
while the latter needs a receptive attitude towards modern watershed management
planning and to get access to knowledge and (planning) tools to effectively do this.


    4.3 Message Content

In line with the overall strategic approach and the objectives formulated in 4.1 we
will makes a distinction in intensity between the:

    (a) Overall awareness and understanding

      Creating awareness and interest in CWMP management approaches demands
      a mix of informative and affective approaches. It is not possible to create
      interest solely with information, data, facts & figures. A more emotional
      approach is needed as well, whether we try to ‗reach‘ a planner or a technical
      expert. This part of the content of the strategy will focus on sharing successes,
      personal statements of people who have undergone the change in perspective,
      facts and figures from international bodies etc.

      To involve other sectors, more research is needed to get a better understanding
      of the issues, ‗agenda‘s‖ of other sectors aiming to pillars on which we can
      lead officials and scientists to look ‗over the fence‘ with other sectors.

      In some cases it will be rather ‗light‘, more emotional statements, ‗real
      people‘ who we recognize, not too much details and very much representing

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      the atmosphere of the 11th 5 year plan.

    (b) Knowledge and skills about effective watershed planning and
        management, ranging from new concepts and approaches to case
        studies

      Effective modern watershed management requires new skills of planners and
      watershed managers. Having been trained and worked for several years in a
      certain ways, new planning approaches are required. Planners need to
      understand new theoretical insights and acquire skills to plan in a different
      way; new ways to look at issues, analyse them. This is a long term process,
      which needs active training, as well as providing the officials access to
      information, data, examples, case studies which they can look into at their
      own time and needs. The CWMP aims to develop many of the tools required,
      such as best practices, M&E framework, participatory planning techniques etc.
      While the project is being implemented, the content of dissemination is being
      developed and needs to be processed by the communication experts to be
      conveyed to target groups.

As we have seen in part 1 of this report as well as in the different interim reports of
the other outputs of the CWMP, the knowledge is available and has been aplied in
the Loess Plateau projects. Much of it has, and is currently still being documented
and the communication strategy will have to develop ways in which this can be
made accessible to the target groups.


    4.4 Mix of Channels, Media and Communication

          Materials

In this section we describe the channels to be used to get the message to the right
target audiences at the right time. We can reach our audience through media, through
intermediaries (i.c. other institutions or persons who convey our message) and
through direct communication. Each form has its strength and weaknesses and the
most effective approach would be to use a mix, based on sufficient understanding of
the audiences we would like to reach and the objectives we would like to achieve.

At the end of this section we will present a matrix, which gives an indication of what
media to use for which target groups.


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To reach the 1st objective, ―Promotion of modern watershed management in all
sectors‖ a range of materials will be prepared which can be distributed actively and
passively (at the request of interested parties). These materials can also be used at
interactive direct communication events, such as seminars, conference.

To reach the 2nd objective of the strategy, ―Enhancement of understanding,
knowledge and skills in effective watershed management‖ many practical planning
tools, manuals and checklists should be distributed to those actively involved in
watershed management in different sectors.

Also an editorial strategy will be prepared using print and TV to share some of the
tools which have been developed.

Information and communication materials:

    (a) A China Watershed Management website is a very effective medium to
       reach a wide range of target groups with meaningful and interesting
       information. By not focusing on a CWM Project website, it will get
       enhanced authority. It should be ‗owned‘ by the Ministry of Water
       Resources and the PIO of the CWMP, should be one of the most productive
       providers of information at the web-site. MWR could delegate the
       management of the website to the PIO.

    (b) Further research is needed to design the web-site in such a way that it can
       serve information needs of all key audiences, ranging from Leaders and
       academics to staff at Township working stations.

    (c) A wide range of background documents, planning tools, M&E systems and
       instruments can be downloaded from the web-site.

    (d) The website will also contain an email-alert service, about new tools, events
       relevant to the specific interest of the subscriber.

    (e) A high quality (international broadcasting standard) audiovisual
       documentary about the Loess Plateau projects. VCDs about the Loess
       Plateau projects have been prepared, but the quality is limited, both in terms
       of script, and in content. Over the 10-15 years material has been shot by
       John Liu about developments and achievements on the Loess Plateau and the
       Loess Plateau projects. At this stage it is not clear who own this material, but
       it should be used to for a VCD, which is interesting to a wide range of


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     viewers. It should have sufficient quality to be broadcasted on international
     channels, such as Discovery Channel, National Geographic, TV5, BBC etc.
     Organisation like TVE has both the capacity to produce good quality
     material and have it broadcasted at international level.

  (f) The VCD should provide in a convincing way the ‗story‘ of the CWMP. It
     addresses the urgency/crisis in soil & water resources management, the
     necessity for urgent action, the key elements of modern integrated planning
     and some examples of the Loess Plateau projects (and other projects if
     possible)

  (g) The ‗tone‘ of the VCD is more emotional than factual, much human interest,
     strong focus on the challenge in different sectors, critical factors of success

  (h) A corporate brochure about the Loess Plateau projects. The brochure will be
     of good quality, providing information about the project, some case-studies/
     statements of stakeholders.

  (i) Fact sheets specially prepared for the other sectors in watershed
     management, such as agricultural, forestry and poverty alleviation sector,
     focussing on the challenge in the sector, and arguments for intersectoral
     cooperation in watershed management, best practices, and references on how
     one can get further informed.

  (j) A modular watershed management manual, containing the products and
     deliverables from the two Loess projects as well as those which will be
     developed under output 1 and 2 of the CWMP. The manual will provide
     watershed managers at different levels the tools and instruments to facilitate
     an effective intersectoral watershed management process.

  (k) A series of high quality PowerPoint presentations will be developed on
     specific subjects. The presentations can be downloaded from the website and
     can be adapted by the officials and scientists to be more appropriate and
     relevant to the specific audience.

  (l) A series of posters to be used at watershed level, strengthening the
     awareness and understanding of inhabitants that they are living in a
     watershed and that they can have an impact on the quality of their livelihood,
     by contributing to conservation or rehabilitation of the watershed.


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Channels:

In addition to the materials, the project will need to use existing channels and
develop new ones to ensure that sufficient representatives of the target groups will
receive or have access to the materials developed.

    (a) National & Provincial TV The high quality audiovisual (a) will be
        broadcasted at provincial and county TV. The English version will also be
        broadcasted at CCTV 9 and international channels.

    (b) In Counties affecting, or affected by watershed degradation and
        rehabilitation the VCD will be provided for broadcasting and the County
        Chief will invite County TV to develop special items on watershed
        management

    (c) Editorial publicity in different magazines, journals and newspapers. Each
        sector produces magazines, which are distributed among officials and
        relations of the sector concerned. The MWR has a magazine called water
        Based on additional research in the sectors, articles etc.

    (d) A systematic approach will be followed to contribute to conferences and
        seminars organised in other sectors.

    (e) In addition in cooperation with the CAS a series of intersectoral conferences
        will be organised which bring scientists and officials from different sectors
        together to exchange views and experiences between sectors. Such
        intersectoral events will be organised at National and County level. Use can
        be made of the information materials prepared under the project.

    (f) A package of the information materials will be provided to selected Counties
        Leading groups, who will provide the materials to Township Working
        stations to be used for information activities in watershed village events.

All materials and channels need to be elaborated describing aims, objectives and
structure and intended users/readers/viewers.

In the CWMP Strategy matrix, the different materials are linked to the specific target
groups. It becomes clear that some materials can be used for leaders at all levels. The
quality of some of the materials needs to be high to meet international standards, but
for some materials reduced quality is sufficient in order to allow large amounts of
copies for distribution.

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    4.5 Planning,             Management             and       Monitoring          the

             Communication Strategy

Trying to manage the communication flow between all stakeholders is a formidable,
if not impossible task for the MWR or the Xian PIO.

It is realistic to assume that the MWR is able to reach other Ministries in Beijing, the
CAS, as well as all the Provincial Water Resources Units, the Basin Organisations
and the international/global fora and Institutions. It provides authority to other
administrative levels to communicate in their domain.

The Xian PIO is able to reach other relevant units at Provincial and County level in
the Yellow River Basin, such as Poverty Bureaus, Agricultural bureau, Forestry units
etc as well as the Water Resources units at county level and county leaders.

The County leader is able to reach the relevant offices of sectors involved ion
watershed management. He is also able to reach Township administration, County
media and NGO‘s and the general public in those townships where watershed
degradation and conservation is an important issue.

We can only assume that the other Ministries in Beijing are willing to convey
messages to their representatives at provincial and county level to make adoption of
effective intersectoral watershed management possible. However, since this whole
process is initiated in the sector of the MWR, we should not rely on this and trust on
intersectoral participator watershed management at lower administrative levels.

Only through changes in allocation of financial resources and the development of
new legislation a truly cooperative process can be achieved.

Effective implementation of the communication programme could also convince the
Ministry of Finance that modern intersectoral and participatory watershed
management will be a more effective use of financial resources. This will be an
important factor in enhancing effective watershed management in China.

The further elaboration and implementation of the CWMP communication
programme will need a core group at the level of CWMP PIO to manage output 3,
the communication programme. MWR staff at other administrative levels need to be
identified, who would become coordinator or facilitator of the communication
activities    at   the   level.   In   this   way,   by   establishing   a   temporary

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CWMP-Communication task-force, we can assure that the conditions for effective
implementation are met. Additional training can be provided for these coordinators
to enable them to monitor the implementation and adjust the communication plan
where necessary.


5 Communication Action Plan

    5.1 Audience Segmentation and Potential Application

          Scope

The Communication Strategy has made the comprehensive analysis on the project
background, objectives, target audiences and effective channels and outlined the key
strategic issues, which will serve as the framework and guideline for the following
communication action planning.


        5.1.1 Target Audience Segmentation

To guarantee the success and effectiveness of the CWMP communication, it is
crucial to develop effective approaches and appropriate messages according to the
specific roles and impacts of the stakeholders in China watershed management,
which include the central government, ministries and administrations, policy makers
of central and provincial governments and all the way to the execution officers
responsible for implementation such as the project managers and coordinators at
county and village levels. The key messages conveyed in various activities should
help the stakeholders to understand and appreciate the social and economic benefits
and values of the modern watershed management approaches and best practices, to
encourage them to adopt the new perspectives and experience and to lead the
changes from the existing function approach to participation, so that the
effectiveness of watershed management in China will be greatly enhanced.

With the strategic communication framework, further study and analysis has been
done in the areas of the roles, importance, impacts and actual issues of the different
stakeholders at levels. The following tables describe the detailed analysis and
perspectives of the stakeholders:



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National Level
          Stakeholders                   Roles            Importance           Impact                      Expectation
Ministry of Water Resource      Decision-maker/Result                  Policy & Regulations   to change the attitude and to     guide
                                Accountable                                                   the policy making in some sense
Ministry of Agriculture         Decision-maker/Result                  Policy & Regulations   to change the attitude and to     guide
                                Accountable                                                   the policy making in some sense
Ministry of Forestry            Decision-maker/Result                  Policy & Regulations   to change the attitude and to     guide
                                Accountable                                                   the policy making in some sense
The State Council’s Poverty     Decision-maker/Result                  Policy & Regulations   to change the attitude and to     guide
Relief Office                   Accountable                                                   the policy making in some sense
National Development and Reform Decision-maker                         Policy & Regulations   to change the attitude and to     guide
Commission                                                                                    the policy making in some sense
Center for Rural Development Decision-maker                            Policy & Regulations   to change the attitude and to     guide
Policy                                                                                        the policy making in some sense
The People's Congress           Decision-maker                         Policy & Regulations   to change the attitude and to     guide
                                                                                              the policy making in some sense
National Environment              Decision-maker                       Policy & Regulations   to change the attitude and to     guide
Administration                                                                                the policy making in some sense
                                  Decision-maker                       Policy & Regulations   to change the attitude and to     guide
Ministry of Finance
                                                                                              the policy making in some sense




Provincial Level
          Stakeholders                     Roles          Importance           Impact                      Expectation
Provincial Government             Decision-maker/Result                Policy/Project         to change the attitude and improve
                                  Accountable                          Execution              their compentency in decision making
                                                                                              and implementation
The Provicial People's Congress Decision-maker/Result                  Policy/Project         to change the attitude and improve
                                Accountable                            Execution              their compentency in decision making
                                                                                              and implementation
Water Resource Bureau             Decision-maker/Result                Policy/Project         to change the attitude and improve
                                  Accountable                          Execution              their compentency in decision making
                                                                                              and implementation
Forestry Bureau                   Decision-maker/Result                Policy/Project         to change the attitude and improve
                                  Accountable                          Execution              their compentency in decision making
                                                                                              and implementation
Agriculture Bureau                Decision-maker/Result                Policy/Project         to change the attitude and improve
                                  Accountable                          Execution              their compentency in decision making
                                                                                              and implementation
Poverty Relief Office             Decision-maker/Result                Policy/Project         to change the attitude and improve
                                  Accountable                          Execution              their compentency in decision making
                                                                                              and implementation
Development       and    Reform Decision-maker                         Policy/Project         to change the attitude and improve
Commission                                                             Execution              their compentency in decision making
                                                                                              and implementation
Institutes        for        Rural Decision-maker                      Policy/Project         to change the attitude and improve
Development                                                            Execution              their compentency in decision making
                                                                                              and implementation
Provincial        Environmental Decision-maker                         Policy/Project         to change the attitude and improve
Protection Bureau                                                      Execution              their compentency in decision making
                                                                                              and implementation
                                  Decision-maker                       Policy/Project         to change the attitude and improve
Provincial Ministry of Finance                                         Execution              their compentency in decision making
                                                                                              and implementation




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County Level
          Stakeholders                       Roles           Importance           Impact                         Expectation
County Government                   Result                                Project                  to change    the attitude and master
                                    Accountable/Executant                 Implementation           the key     methodalogy, skills and
                                                                                                   tools
County People's Congress            Result                                Project                  to change    the attitude and master
                                    Accountable/Executant                 Implementation           the key     methodalogy, skills and
                                                                                                   tools
County Water Resource Bureau        Result                                Project                  to change    the attitude and master
                                    Accountable/Executant                 Implementation           the key     methodalogy, skills and
                                                                                                   tools
County Forestry Bureau              Result                                Project                  to change    the attitude and master
                                    Accountable/Executant                 Implementation           the key     methodalogy, skills and
                                                                                                   tools
County Poverty Relief Office        Result                                Project                  to change    the attitude and master
                                    Accountable/Executant                 Implementation           the key     methodalogy, skills and
                                                                                                   tools
County Development    and Reform Result                                   Project                  to change    the attitude and master
Commission                       Accountable/Executant                    Implementation           the key     methodalogy, skills and
                                                                                                   tools
County   Institues    for      Rural Result                               Project                  to change    the attitude and master
Development                          Accountable/Executant                Implementation           the key     methodalogy, skills and
                                                                                                   tools
County Environmental Protection Result                                    Project                  to change    the attitude and master
Bureau                          Accountable/Executant                     Implementation           the key     methodalogy, skills and
                                                                                                   tools
                                    Result                                Project                  to change    the attitude and master
County Ministry of Finance          Accountable/Executant                 Implementation           the key     methodalogy, skills and
                                                                                                   tools
                                    Result                                Project                  to change    the attitude and master
County Soil and Water
                                    Accountable/Executant                 Implementation           the key     methodalogy, skills and
Conservation Office
                                                                                                   tools




Township Level
          Stakeholders                       Roles           Importance           Impact                         Expectation
Township Government                 Result                                Project                  to change    the attitude and master
                                    Accountable/Executant                 Implementation           the key     methodalogy, skills and
                                                                                                   tools
Township People's Congress          Result                                Project                  to change    the attitude and master
                                    Accountable/Executant                 Implementation           the key     methodalogy, skills and
                                                                                                   tools
                                    Result                                Project                  to change    the attitude and master
Township Soil and Water
                                    Accountable/Executant                 Implementation           the key     methodalogy, skills and
Conservation Office
                                                                                                   tools

Village Level
          Stakeholders                          Roles        Importance           Impact                        Expectation
Village Government                  Executant                             Project                  to change the attitude and master
                                                                          Implementation           the skills and tools

Household Level
          Stakeholders                       Roles           Importance            Impact                       Expectation
Villagers                           Participants                          acceptance and support   to be encouraged to participate

International Level
          Stakeholders                       Roles           Importance           Impact                        Expectation
                                    Participants                          International            Knowledge transfer and experience
the Global Water Partnership
                                                                          influence                share
the World Water Forum,              Participants                          International            Knowledge transfer and experience
(www.worldwaterforum.org                                                  influence                share
                                    Participants                          International            Knowledge transfer and experience
the World Water Council
                                                                          influence                share




The above tables show that different stakeholders have different roles, leading to the
differences in importance and impact on watershed management. Specific objectives
and approaches should be developed according to their characteristics. For
developing targeted programs, ll the stakeholders are classified into four groups as
decision-makers, executives, managers and participants. In the action plan, different
activities and approaches with specific theme and objective will be developed for the
specific group.
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To ensure the sustainability of the watershed management, it is critical to have
sufficient influence on policy making by effective communication with the national
and provincial decision making organizations and institutions. The core objectives in
policy making level is to create a positive decision making and legislation
environment, by inducing changes in decision makers‘ perspectives and attitudes so
that they will reach consensus on integrated watershed management and are inspired
to introduce new approaches into policy making and legislations.
    The communications to executives and managers shall be focused on
improvements in capabilities and skills in watershed management to ensure
effectiveness in implementation.
    In addition, the overall effects of the promotion should focus on the domestic
audiences rather than the international. As for the international communication, the
main purpose is to enhance the understanding and acceptance of the new watershed
management methodologies and key technical tools among the international
watershed management organizations, institutions and donors.


         5.1.2 Potential Application Scope

There are seven basins in China, including Yellow River Bsin, Yangzi River Basin,
Hai River Basin, Huai River Basin, Sonhuajiang River Basin, Pearl River Basin and
Taihu Lake Basin, with basin commissions responsible for the comprehensive
management under the Ministry of Water Resource. Until now, 4 counties in
Yellow River Basin have been set as the trial project areas.
    In the future promotion, the 6 basins and other provinces of the Yellow River
Basin become main targets. By various promotional activities, great efforts and
attention will be paid on making the related governments, project management
offices and participants of the watershed management in different basins and
provinces have a deep understand of the benefits of the model and the technical
tools.
At the same time, the Yellow River Basin, one of the primary national watershed

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management areas and the trial base of the project, will continue to be the focus of
the promotion. Based upon the success in Yellow River Basin, further introduction of
the model and practice will be gradually pushed into other basins.


          5.1.3 Specific Objectives

The overall purpose of the CWMP Communication strategy is:
To enhance effectiveness and sustainability of watershed management in China and abroad.


With the guidance of the overall purpose and full considerations of the above target
audience segmentation and potential application scope, the detailed objectives and
goals could be specified as in the following four aspects:
    (a) Policy and Regulation Level

        The major objectives to be achieved through the promotions among the
        decision makers and the related policy institutions such as central government,
        national and provincial legislation bodies, ministries, provincial governments,
        related provincial bureaus, and policy research and development institutions
        are as follows:

         To enhance the understanding of the new approaches and their benefits and
          economic values
         To introduce the participatory approach and related achievements of the trial
          projects in the process of policy and legislation and revising. At least, to
          promote one or two policy and/or legislation revisions such as the Soil and
          Water Conservation Law, the Economic Compensation Mechanism, etc.
    (b) Effective Communications Between Stakeholders (Especially the
         Decision Makers)

        Based upon the common understanding of the essence and the values of the
        new approaches, to enhance the communication among the central
        government, provincial governments, basin management commissions and
        related stakeholders and to enhance the awareness among the stakeholders in
        modern watershed management.

    (c) Best Practice Promotion and More Trial Projects Development

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  The best practice promotion focuses on the government officials, project
  management teams and professional at province, county and village levels, as
  well as rural communities an farmers, for increasing the awareness to new
  concepts and new methodologies of watershed management, enhancing the
  capabilities for methodology and tool applications.
       The promotion will be undertaken among the watershed management
        projects in 7 basins, with the Yellow River Basin as the core area, promoting
        concepts, methodologies and tools of participatory planning
       To enhance the understanding of the model among the international donors
        and their related project managers. So that they could make considerations
        to leverage the methodology and the practices in the future similar
        investment in China.
  (d) Increase Awareness

      In the respect of the overall effects and influence, it consists two parts. One is
      the domestic audiences with the main goal to make the stakeholders in
      watershed management aware of the project and understand its essence; the
      other is the international audiences which includes the international watershed
      management organizations, partners, donors and academic communities. The
      specific objectives are as the following:

       To build a permanent professional and promotion platform where the
        stakeholders and those concerned about the watershed management at home
        and abroad could track the development of the project, exchange ideas and
        share best practices;
       To expand the international influence and to attract the attention from the
        international   governmental     and/or    non-governmental      organizations.
        Moreover, to make a good window for China watershed management
        projects to attract international investment.


  5.2 Action Plans

  The communication programs will be executed in three phases, with specific
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themes and focuses for each phase.
    Phase I : Announcement and Initial Communications (July, 2006 –
December, 2006)
        1) Communicate       modern    watershed     management      approaches       and
            experience to targeted audiences at national level, provincial level,
            county level, and township level, through disseminating promotional
            materials, conducting researches, organizing small-scale seminars,
            workshops and tours to model projects villages of watershed
            management.
        2) Create interests and a positive attitude toward participation planning.
            from key stakeholders and organizations, who will eventually apply the
            methodologies and tools,
    Phase II:Communication Execution and Attitude Change (January, 2007-
  December 2007)
         1) Showcase project outputs, approaches, methodologies and tools to
            enhance the appreciation and acceptance of the value of modern
            watershed management, thorough different publications, management
            and methodology seminars at national and provincial levels, workshops
            at township and village levels as well as trainings at different levels
         2) Understanding the key project outputs, methodologies and tools by the
            key stakeholders from their specific value perspective;
         3) Encourage key stakeholders to reconsider their policy making and
            project management
    Phase III:Project Output Communication and Awareness Enhancement
(January 2008 – July 2008)
         1) Experience sharing and discussion with International Conferences
         2) Discussions with key stakeholders on further applications of the project
       approaches, methodologies, knowledge, etc, in order to change policy
       making and legislation;
         3) Expanded training and technical supports to parties and organizations
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        interested in applying project experience and methodologies.
    Based on the themes of the three phases, key actions and programs are
developed as the following:.


        5.2.1 Announcement & Initial Communications

    (1)      Objectives
           Initial understanding of CWMP projects and its outputs by national
            level ministries, policy research and academic institutes;
           Completion of key research projects, to create, from policy making
            institutes, an positive altitude toward changes in perspective and
            framework in policy making and revision;
           Overall understanding of CWMP projects as well as its outputs by
            related provincial, county level, and township level watershed
            rehabilitation institutions, and exploring the initial framework for ―1+1‖
            promotion campaign.
           Stimulate interests from Chinese and international institutes for
            watershed management in reconsidering respective project planning
            and framework and in specific methodologies, tools, etc.

    (2)      Key Programs and Actions
     This phase will focus on a full coverage of the key audiences through
disseminating promotional materials, conducting researches, organizing seminars,
workshops, for accomplishing the objectives of announcement and initial
communications, with the following key programs and actions:
    Key Action 1:Researches
       Time:July, 2006, - November 2006
       Goals:organizing specific researches to attract   participations from the key
        audiences, especially policing making and project execution institutes at
        national and provincial levels, to accomplish the goal of announcement,
        communication and participation.

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     Organization : MWR and Project Execution Office will develop and
      determine research requirements and outlines and shall be responsible for
      the authority of the final research reports. During this period, 3rd party
      consulting services may be considered. The research teams shall conduct
      studies and surveys, covering national level ministries, central government
      policy research institutes, academic organizations, as well as related
      institutes in provincial level, county level, township level of Yellow River
      Basin. In addition, the researches will also involve institutes related to the
      other 6 watershed management committees, as well as international
      watershed management organizations and donors, for generating interests
      and inputs.
     Research project and purposes:
      Research project I:Researches on compensation mechanism of water and
      soil conservation for revision of Water Conservation Law
  Watershed rehabilitation needs systematic approaches, and each projects will
  involve the communities of both the up-stream and the down-steam and have
  impact on their respective ecological environment, economic well-being and
  social development. In order to improve the effectiveness and watershed
  management and to protect the interest of the related stakeholders, it is
  necessary to develop compensation mechanisms for overall planning with the
  principle of ―protection of the developing parties, compensation from the
  beneficiary parties‖. With this research project, a feasibility study for
  establishing mechanism with the participation from the related stakeholders will
  be conducted, for recommending revisions and additions of related policies and
  laws, based on summarizing research results and recommendations from experts,
  professional and the public on resource and environment related legislations,
  including reports review meetings at kicking-off, middle and final stages by
  consultation experts, supporting more scientific legislation process of China in
  related areas


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       Research Project II:Research on related legal and policy environment of
       China and other countries
       The successful execution of modern watershed management approaches
  need changes in legislation and policy making. This research will focus on
  providing support to related legislation and policy making in the areas of
  scientific methodologies and empirical experience frameworks, through
  studying and collecting existing researches and ideas on resource conservation
  and environment protection legislation from experts, research groups and
  general public, and undertaking analysis and research on domestic and
  international laws, regulations and systems related to ecological and
  environment rehabilitation and watershed management, so as to make
  suggestions on experiences to be adopted for soil and water protection in China,
  for the purpose of supporting further improvements in China's related legislation
  and system developments (including reports reviews meeting at kicking-off,
  middle and final stages by consultation experts).
       Research Project III: Research on operational mechanism and
       assurances on farmers' sustainable livelihood of Yellow River Losses
       Project
       Analysis and summery on operational experience of the ecological
  constructions of Yellow River Losses, recommendations on operation
  management models of ecological rehabilitation projects, especially the optimal
  operation mechanisms suitalbe to the local conditions, research on assurance
  measures on      further improving the benefits of ecological rehabilitation
  projects and sustaining development.
       Research IV : Research on the economic benefits of water and soil
       conservation projects as well as management approaches and assurance
       mechanisms
  The acceptance and expanded application of modern watershed management
 approaches and experience largely depend on the recognition and appreciation of
 their economic value, which include direct and indirect benefit to macro economy,
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  micro economy and regional economy as measured by production income,
  production costs, crop outputs, agriculture income, GDP, etc. Therefore, it is
  necessary to systematically evaluate, based on the experience of the current trial
  projects, the economic return and potential value of modern watershed
  management, which will be valuable to feasibility studies of future water and soil
  protection project in terms of providing theoretical framework and references.
    At the same time, the acceptance and expanded application of modern watershed
management approaches and experience also depend on the recognition and
appreciation of their social benefits, which are represented by the respective impacts
on poverty reduction, food security, public health as well as improvement on other
social issues. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically evaluate, based on the
experience of the current trial project, the social benefits of modern watershed
management, which will have significant impact on continuous and sustaining
promotion    of modern watershed management.
    This project will undertake comprehensive evaluation on investment and return
status of major domestic water and soil rehabilitation projects, establish scientific
and practical evaluation model based on new water and soil protection requirements,
and make recommendations on scientific and appropriate evaluation methodologies
and KPIs, so as to providing theoretical supports for the planning and investments of
future water and soil protection projects, including report review meetings at
kicking-off, middle and final stages by consulting experts.
    Key Action 2:Promotion Publication Development and Distribution
       Time:July, 2006 –March 2007
       Goals:To attract attention from related ministries, provincial governments
        watershed management institutes, as well as governments and NGOs of
        other countries for their initial understanding of the approaches and
        experience of modern watershed management.
       Organization : The project execution office will be responsible for
        developing, printing and delivering the promotional materials, covering all
        the key audiences identified with county level, city level, township level,
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      village level and farmers as the priorities.
     Content and Format:
      Promotion       Publication   I:   Experience    Collections   on   Watershed
      Management, Soil and Water protection, Ecological rehabilitation
      Introduction to methodologies and successful domestic and international
  experiences on watershed management, soil and water protection, ecological
  rehabilitation
      Promotion Publication II: Researches on the best practices of
  comprehensive watershed rehabilitation management
      Introduction to development processes and experience of watershed
  rehabilitation management, and summery of best practices.
  Key Action 3:Website and its Promotion
     Time:July, 2006 – December 2006
     Goals:A Website will be set up to attract attention from the general public,
      to enhance the positive impact of watershed management projects to its
      maximum intensity and coverage on target audiences, and to provide
      real-time support and feedbacks to project execution and management. The
      website will become a fast and convenient promotional media, providing
      access to international and domestic audiences directly or indirectly related
      to watershed management. With the promotion and the website, the eventual
      objective is to make it an academic and project management exchange and
      promotion platform for watershed management.
     Organization:The website will be set up and managed by MWR and
      supported by watershed management               committees,    other institutes
      responsible for watershed management, international donors. In order to
      maximum its promotional effectiveness, the website will have close
      working relationships with and links to the websites of other key
      stakeholders.
     Website Description:The web design style needs to meet the requirements
      of watershed management, with functions supporting communication and
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      promotion. The initial functions and contents recommended for its initial
      setting up include organization, trial models, project outputs, co-operations
      and exchanges, on-line video, pictures and news, contacting us, on-line
      administration, BBS, email, etc.. Website will be updated and adjusted
      periodically and the interactive channels will be managed by full-time staff.
  Key Action 4 : Round-table Meeting for International (Donor) Project
  Managers of Water and Soil Protection and Ecological Development
     Time:September, 2006 – December 2006
     Goals : The Round-table Meeting for International (Donor) Project
      Managers of Water and Soil Protection and Ecological Development will
      provide an unique opportunity for the project managers of international
      watershed management institutes and donors in China to understand modern
      watershed management approaches and best practices, so that the
      experience will be applied to future projects. The roundtable meeting will
      also serve as an exchange platform for Chinese government organizations,
      watershed management institutes and international organizations.
     Organization:World Bank China Representative Office , supported by
      MWR, will be responsible for organization the meeting(s), with
      participation from the China representative offices of international
      organization and donors, as well as project officers from government arms
      and related institutes.
     Themes:The promotion and application of the approaches and experiences
      of Loess Plateau watershed management projects.
  Key Action 5: Developing/distributing promotional materials
     Time:4th Quarter, 2006 – June 2008
     Goals:Communicating watershed rehabilitation management approaches
      and experiences, increasing the awareness of CWMP project, focusing on
      provincial, county governments, project cities and counties as well as
      students and farmers in Yellow River Basin.


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     Organization:Developed and distributed by project execution office and
      provincial and county project offices.
     Content
  Promotion Material I: Promotional Pamphlets on Watershed Rehabilitation
  Management
  Brief introduction on project methodologies, tools, successful experiences an
  project implementation process
  Promotion Material II: Printing/distributing project report collections and
  periodicals, including project status briefings, on Yellow River Loess Project
  and watershed rehabilitation management projects (at different levels and with
  different focus)
  Summery and promotion of the benefits and experiences of Yellow River Loess
  Project, showcasing the project concepts and deliveries of CWMP projects, news
  reports reflecting the latest project activities, methodologies, process and results,
  reporting the latest status, major events and important activities in different
  phases..
  Promotion Material III: Cartoon Pamphlets for Project Promotion
  Focusing on concepts of participation and sustainable development and project
  experience
  Promotion Material IV: Promotion Materials on Project Results
  Project and its methodologies and results
  Promotion Material V: Community Experience of Watershed Rehabilitation
  Management
  Comprehensive collections on community experience in watershed rehabilitation
  management


  Key Action 6: Media Coverage and Communication
     Time:4th Quarter, 2006 – June 2008
     Goals: Increasing the awareness of watershed rehabilitation of Yellow
      River Basin through public media, industry media, local media and other
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         media
        Organization:Developed and distributed by project execution office and
         provincial and county project offices.
Media and Content
Media I: Local Media
Promoting CWMP's participatory methodology, project introduction, technology
discussion (participation, application techniques, case studies), local newspaper,
broadcasting and TV coverage of latest project status, project results and experience
Media II: Pictures and Wall Paintings
Promotional pictures at different project stages, focusing on the importance of
farmer in environment protection, farmers' rights in CWMP projects and project
benefits, wall painting in project areas.
Media III: International Exchanges and Promotions
Cooperation with John Liu's road show to Africa, showing CWMP introduction
movie, distributing promotional materials on project results and project
introductions, international tele-conference for project introductions
Media IV: Promotion with video production
Disseminating VCD of the documentary on Yellow River Loess projects to
government agencies at different level, and showing them in government agencies.
HD documentary featuring CWMP experience, and case studies, focusing on the
importance of comprehensive rehabilitation management. The other documentary
featuring multi-department co-operative planning and CWMP participation
applications, reflecting project development and results, especially the changes in
environment, department attitudes and farmers during different project phases
Media V: News coverage on latest status and project results of China watershed
rehabilitation management
News coverage through MWR newspaper and magazines
Media VI: Media promotion in related provincial, city and county media
    Promoting CWMP's participatory methodology, project introduction, technology
discussions(participation, application techniques, case studies)
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  Key Action 7: Organizing Seminar and on-site Visits
     Time:4th Quarter, 2006
     Goals:Conference on comprehensive watershed rehabilitation management
      approaches and Loess Plateau Project experiences and On-site visit to
      project sites, participated by officials of MWR, project offic of Loess
      Plateau Projects, Gansu Project Offices, introducing upcoming CWMP
      projects and project results and experience of Yellow Loess Projects,
      analysing   current      watershed   rehabilitation   approaches   in   China,
      establishing the urgency and necessity for comprehensive rehabilitation and
      cross-function co-operations.
     Organization:Project execution office


      5.2.2 Communication Execution and Attitude Change

  ( 1)     Objectives
         Discussion on research reports and outputs,to encourage inputs from
          the target audiences, to enhance the understanding and appreciations of
          new approaches and key methodologies and tools from national and
          provincial decision making and implementation institutes, and to
          support legislation revision project for defining the following-up
          legislation steps.
         Enhancement on disseminating knowledge, skills and tools, especially
          to the related stakeholders at provincial, county, township, village levels,
          to sure their initial acquirement of the new approaches, key skills and
          tools for application in their future work.
         Continuing media promotion and communication

  ( 2)     Key programs and Actions
  This phase will focus on organizing major conferences, seminars at provincial,
  county, township and village levels, training and promotion workshops, as well
  as disseminating booklets presenting best practices and special tools of the new

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  approaches, in order to promote the value of modern watershed management and
  to initially enhance application capabilities for the purpose of transforming
  attitudes and perspectives of related institutes, with the following programs and
  actions.
  Key Action 1 : National (inter-ministry) Conference on Watershed
  Management and Policies
  Time:2nd Quarter of 2007
     Goals : Presenting research reports on policies and new management
      approaches, encouraging inputs, feedbacks and suggestions from related
      ministries and institutes to determine the next step actions.
     Organization:The conference will be organized by MWR supported by
      Project Offices, with participation from related ministries, provincial
      departments, research institutes of watershed management, members of
      project execution teams (such as county leaders, project managers, technical
      engineers), as well as international experts.
     Theme : Discussions on the likelihood of policies making changes in
      China‘s watershed management
  Key Action 2 : Supporting Conference on Water and Soil Conservation
  Scientific Exploration and Ecological Safety and seminars during the
  conference
  Time:September of 2006
     Goals:Supporting Conference on Water and Soil Conservation Scientific
      Exploration and Ecological Safety organized by MWR and plan to organize
      a seminar during the conference to communicate with related ministries,
      discussing CWMP approaches and experience.
  Organization:Project secretariat office at MWR
  Key Action 3: Seminar during Yellow River Forum
     Time:3rd Quarter of 2007
     Goals:Promoting Yellow River Loess Projects and CMWP concepts, results
      and experiences to State Officials, international leaders, Yellow River
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      watershed leaders, experts and professionals, NGOs
     Organization:Project execution office
  Key Action 4: Promotion meeting on monitoring and evaluating results of
  CWMP project
     Time:3rd Quarter of 2007
     Goals:Promotion the revised and improved result repors on the monitor
      and evaluation of CWMP project
     Organization: Project execution office supported by Provincial Project
      offices


  Key Action 5:Continuing Developing and Distribution Publications
     Time:July 2007 – Dec. 2007
     Goals:To attract attention from related ministries, provincial governments
      watershed management institutes, as well as governments and NGOs of
      other countries for their initial understanding of the approaches and
      experience of modern watershed management.
     Organization : The project execution office will be responsible for
      developing, printing and delivering the promotional materials, covering all
      the key audiences identified with county level, city level, township level,
      village level and farmers as the priorities.
     Content and Format:
  Promotion Publication I: Cases studies on participatory watershed planning
  and implementation and participatory methodologies
  Case studies on participatory planning and implementation process and
  applications of participatory approach in watershed management and rural
  community development
  Promotion Publication II: Project Reports Collection
  Collection of policy research reports and other related research reports




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  Key Action 6:Continuing Distribution of Promotion Materials
     Time:4th Quarter, 2006 – June 2008
     Goals:Communicating watershed rehabilitation management approaches
      and experiences, increasing the awareness of CWMP project, focusing on
      provincial, county governments, project cities and counties as well as
      students and farmers in Yellow River Basin.
  Organization : Developed and distributed by project execution office and
  provincial and county project offices.
  Promotion Material I: Developing result report collections on monitoring and
  evaluating systems
  Printing and promoting result report collections on monitoring and evaluating
  systems
  Promotion Material II: Project Exhibition Board
  Introducing management and implementation methodologies, management
  practices and process, tools and equipment application as well as related
  experience on watershed management projects
  Promotion Material III: Developing/printing operational and management
  manuals for watershed management
  Covering management and operation method, process, tools and equipment
  manuals, and related experiences
  Key Action 7:Website Maintenance and Promotion
     Time:October, 2006 -
     Goals:Maintaining updating the website to keep its accessibility among the
      target audiences.
     Organization:MWR will be responsible for the website‘s maintenance.
     Activities:Timely updating contents of the website keeping pace with the
      latest industry development and current communication to increase the
      positive impact of the website.




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      5.2.3 Project Output Communication and Awareness Enhancement

  ( 1)     Objectives
         Fully presenting the methodologies, best practices and project outputs
          to domestic and international institutes, organizations, academic
          institutes and responsible organization for project implementations, to
          promote further applications of the new approaches and professional
          tools.
         Supporting the finalizations of the related policy making changes and
          institution adjustments
         Providing technical support and guidance to new trial sites, to ensure
          effective application and implementation of the new approaches and
          tools.

  ( 2)     Key Programs and Actions
  The phase will focus on presenting project outputs to international and domestic
  experts and related institutions with international conference, domestic technical
  seminars and promotional workshops, to promote further application the new
  approaches and tools, to close the project with the high pitch, and to lay a solid
  foundation for continuous and effective promotions in the future, with the
  following as the key programs and actions.


  Key Action 1:CWMP Promotion Meeting
     Time:3rdQuarter of 2008
     Goals:Promoting project results in Loess regions
     Organization:Project Execution Office


  Key Action 2: Provincial Conference on Promoting Modern Watershed
  Management
     Time:2008
     Goals:Increasing awareness, generating interests, establishing contacts for

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          future co-operations with participation from city level water resource and
          water conservation agencies, agriculture, forestry, poverty relief agencies,
          NGOs, Academic organizations
         Organization:Gansu Project Office


    Key Action 3: City level Project Promotion Meetings
         Time:2008
         Goals:Analysing current watershed rehabilitation approaches in China,
          establishing the urgency and necessity for comprehensive rehabilitation and
          cross-function co-operations, discussing issues and resolutions, exchange
          ideas, expanding co-operations, with participation from County level water
          resource and water conservation agencies, agriculture, forestry, poverty
          relief agencies, NGOs, Academic organizations in Pingliang and Qingyang
         Organization:Pingliang and Qingyang Project Office


    Key Action 4: County level Project Promotion Meeting
         Time:2008
         Goals:4 promotion meetings with participants from village officials in
          Jingning, Kongtong, Huachi, and Huan Counties
         Organization: Jingning, Kongtong, Huachi, and Huan Project Office


    Action 5:International Water Association Conference
         Time:July,2008
         Goals:Promotion the revised and improved result repors on the monitor and
          evaluation of CWMP project
         Organization:Project Execution Office


    Action 6:Promotion meeting on monitoring and evaluating results of CWMP
project


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                                                              项目成果推广策略和行动计划



        Time:2008
        Goals:Participating the conference, exchange international experiences,
         distributing CWMP introductions, promoting CWMP projects
    Organization:Project Execution Office


    Key Action 7:Continuing Developing and Distribution Publications


    Key Action 8:Continuing Distribution of Promotion Materials


    Key Action 9:Website Maintenance and Promotion




6 Organization and Responsibilities

    Appropriate organization structure and clear responsibilities are needed for the
successful project execution and effectiveness of the project. With MWR as the final
responsible   organization   for   CWMP‘s      implementation    and    outputs   and
communication project as one of the primary outcome of CWMP, it is recommended
that the existing organization structure should be the implementation organization for
communication strategy execution, with the specific responsibilities listed in the
action plan table.



7 Evaluating Communication Effects

Establishing appropriate evaluation mechanism is an important tool to ensure the
effective ness of communication strategy. At the same time, with diversified
communication actions, it is not practical to use single evaluation method. It is
suggested that responsible parties develop different evaluation methods based
objectives and target audiences of the actions for evaluation and adjustments.


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 For policy research activities, it is suggested that evaluation be based on actual
    policy making/revisions.
 For conference, seminars, meeting, it is suggested that evaluation be based on
    number of participants, rankings of the participants and the coverage of target
    audiences.
 For publication activities, it is suggested that evaluation be based on actual
    number of distributions.
 For capacity enhancing activities, it is suggested that evaluation be based on
    examinations or tests.
 For promotional activities, simple survey may be used for evaluation
 For industry and local media coverage, the number of news reports may be used
    for evaluations.
 For public media activities, the number of times of featuring the documentaries
    may be used for evaluation.




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