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					                                        Lesson 1

                            Where do we go form here?

Teaching Aims: The teaching of this lesson aims to enable students to master:
1 25 key words and about 100 other new words
2 20 key phrases and their translations
3 the way of analyzing the usage of metaphor, antithesis and parallel sentences in this
4 the way of dividing the lesson
5 the skills of translation in ten sentences
6 the main idea stated by the author
The teaching of this lesson is divided into five parts
Part One: Background Information(in one period)
In this part, the teacher and the students are working together to offer as much
information as possible in one period. Information comes in all directions. In this way ,
views of the students can be broadened and versions of the world can be easily seen.
We follow two procedures:
I: The teacher gives a brief introduction about the background information and guides
the students to the text by asking some questions.
1 How do you understand the title of the lesson?
2 Which rhetorical speech is repeatedly used in this lesson to achieve the fixed
3 How many sections can you divide the lesson into?
4 Tell the students what difficulties they will face in understanding the lesson.
5 How does Dr. King begin his speech?
II: Some students are asked to introduce some important notes because they have got
some relevant information from the internet to help understand the lesson.
1 Note 1 : the author , Martin Luther King ,Jr.
2 Note 3: Lincolnian Emancipation Proclamation

3 Note 4: Johnson civil rights bill
4 Note 11:Watts riot and the other riots
5 Note 14: Klansmen
6 Note 16: Saint John: “The Evangelist”, one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ
7 Note 23 : Black Power:
8 Extra Background information:
1.) Civil Right Movement: a political movement, especially during the 1950's and
1960's, devoted to securing equal opportunity and treatment for members of minority
民权运动:一次政治运动,尤指在 20 世纪 50 年代到 60 年代致力于获得对少数
2.) the counter-culture movement: A culture, especially of young people, with values
or lifestyles in opposition to those of the established culture.
3.) the feminist movement: The movement organized around the belief A Belief in the
social, political, and economic equality of the sexes.争取女权的运动; 男女平等主
4. )turbulent times: Having a chaotic or restless character or tendency:动荡的,骚乱
的:引起大动荡或混乱的;倾向于骚乱的:a turbulent period in history.历史上的
Part Two: Detailed study of the text(in six periods)
In this part, the teacher finishes the explanation of words, sentences, grammar in six
Approaches used in this part:
1 Raising questions to make the students think differently;
2 Explaining some points;
3 Discussing some topics in pairs or with the teacher
4 Communicating with the students by repeating some words, some sentences or
some explanations.
5 Asking volunteers to read each paragraph or asking them to read together.
6 Asking them to summarize the main idea in each paragraph and in each section
7 Asking them to seek some transitional paragraphs or sentences
8 Asking them to analyze the rhetorical speeches used in some sentences and master
the skills used in organizing the ideas.
9 Asking them to paraphrase as many sentences as possible
10 Making them pay attention to the special usages of some common words
Key points:
Part I (Paras. 1-2)
Para. 1
 1. (1) How does the speaker begin his speech?
               In the first sentence of paragraph 1, the speaker raises the question of
"Where we are
               now". He links this up with the theme of the speech "Where do we go from
here?" It is
               highly logical. In order to know where we go from here we must first
                recognize where we are now. Without knowing our present situation, how
                can we design a policy for the future?
      (2) to recognize: to acknowledge the existence of
 2. When the Constitution… of a person.
      Section 2 Article I of the Constitution of the United States stipulates
"Representatives and
      direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be
          included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall
          be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those
          bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three
          fifths of all other Persons. '
          This "three fifths of all other Persons" meant Negro slaves.
 3. Today another… fifty percent of a person.
        (1) The idea is when the Constitution was written, the Negro was considered as
only 60% of
            a person; but now he is even less, only 50% of a person. In other words,
his status has
        (2) What makes Dr. King say so?
            Dr. King gives a number of examples: "... half of all Negroes live in
            housing." "... Negroes have half the income of whites. ' "There are twice as
            unemployed."      "The rate of infant mortality/ Death rate among Negroes is
              double that of whites... ".
        (3) substandard: below standard, specifically below a standard established as by
  4…. there are twice as many Negroes... in the population.
        Considering the percentage of Negroes in the total population, the death rate of
Negro            soldiers in Vietnam doubled that of white soldiers.       For example,
according to the 1990         census 人口普查, the Blacks made up 12.1 per cent of the
population. So if the death toll (The amount or extent of loss or destruction, as of life,
health, or property, caused by a disaster.生命健康或财产方面等实际造成的损失或
毁坏的数量或程度) in Vietnam was 10,000, only 1,210 should be black soldiers. But
the figure was 2,420, which was twice in proportion to their size in the population.
 Para. 2
 5. Negroes lag one to three years behind whites….
       The statement means, in terms of learning, the kind of knowledge which a white
kid would
       master in Grade 2 would be grasped by a black kid sometime between Grade 4
and Grade 6.
 6. One twentieth… attend college.
       The number of white college students is twenty times that of black students or
for every       black student in college there are twenty whites.
 7. menial jobs: jobs relating to unskilled, low pay jobs, as in domestic work or
laborer's work.
Part II (Paras. 3-5)
Para. 3
 8. What role does Paragraph 3 play?
       It is a transitional paragraph. The first sentence "This is where we are" sums up
the first
       two paragraphs, linking this paragraph with the previous ones. The second
sentence, on this
       basis, raises the question "Where do we go from here?" The third sentence
starting with
       "first" begins to answer the question. The paragraph is well organized and ideas
 9. …we must massively.., worth.
       (1) massive: substantial; impressive; extensive
       (2) to assert: to state clearly
       (3) We must state clearly and in an impressive way that we should be treated
with respect
               and our value should be recognized.
10. …and develop.., of values.
       (1) to develop: to make stronger or more effective; to build up
       (2) unassailable: that cannot be successfully denied or contested; unassailable
truth.不争地真理 Not subject to attack or seizure; impregnable:攻不破的:未遭攻击
an unassailable fortress.攻不破的堡垒
       (3) majestic: very grand or dignified
       (4) Why does the speaker use "unassailable" and "majestic" to modify "sense of
              The two adjectives stress one important point, that is, the Negroes should
cultivate a
              confidence that they possess some valuable qualities which no one can
              deny and thus they should be given due respect.
11.     The following sentence actually explains what the speaker meant by
"unassailable and
        majestic sense of values".
12. The job of arousing… not easy.
        (1) manhood: the state of being human
        (2) nobody: a person of no importance
        (3) It is no easy job to educate a people who have been told over centuries that
they were
              inferior and of no importance to see that they are humans, the same as
              any other people.
 Para. 4
 13. Even semantics… degrading. 连语义学都合谋把一切凡有“黑”字的东西说
14. Roget's Thesaurus was first compiled by Dr. Peter Mark Roget and published in
      Successive improvements and enlargements were conducted by the author, his
son and
      grandson. As a result of its scholarship and erudition 博学, the Thesaurus has
  been appreciated by the public.
15. blot: a moral defect in an otherwise good character;污点          a disgraceful act or
      soot:a black substance consisting chiefly of carbon particles formed by the
                combustion 燃烧 of burning matter
      grim:   sinister

      foul: offensive to the senses; revolting; disgusting
16. A white lie is better than a black lie.
      (1) Does English have such phrases as "white lie" and "black lie"?
              White lie is a set phrase, meaning a lie concerning a trivial matter, often
one told to
              spare someone's feelings. Black lie is coined by the speaker playing on the
                earlier         mentioned definition of black by Roget's Thesaurus.
      (2) A lie concerning a trivial matter used for good intention is certainly better
            than a sinister           lie.    一个无关紧要的谎言总比一个恶意的谎言
      (3) The speaker skillfully turns a set phrase (white lie) into a comparison of color
              illustrate his argument that the English language prefers white color to
17. The most degenerate... "black sheep".
      (1) black sheep: a family member shunned (keep away from) because of
           disreputable 声名狼藉的 behavior
          degenerate: having sunk below a normal condition, character, etc.; morally
      (2) The person in a family of whom everyone else is ashamed is called a "black
Para. 5
18. What is the main idea of this paragraph?
      The main idea is the African-American must "rise up with an affirmation of his
      “Olympian manhood". That is to say, he/she must rid himself/herself of any
      complex 自卑感 the superiority complex 优越感;This is considered by Dr. King
as the first task in the struggle for genuine freedom.
19. The tendency to ignore… the morning's newspaper.
     (1) personhood: the quality or condition of being an individual person
     (2) What is the tendency mentioned here?
  The tendency is two-fold, the first is not acknowledging that the Negroes have
made               great contributions to the development of the United States, in the
War of Independence, in the Civil War, in WW II, in the development of science and
technology, in education, arts and literature and architecture. The second is to spread
and sustain the fallacy that the Negroes, as an ethnic (of or relating to sizable groups
of people sharing a common and distinctive racial, national, religious, linguistic, or
cultural heritage 种族的,人种的) group, are inferior to the Whites.
     (3) What is meant by "to strip him of his personhood"?
         It means to cultivate in him a sense of inferiority. It echoes the statements in
          Paragraph                  l: The Negro is only 60% of a person, according to
          the Constitution and 50% of a
             person nowadays.
     (4) Is the tendency an old one or a new one?
             It is both old and new. In the earliest history books you find this tendency.
But you can
             also detect such a tendency today in the newspapers you read every day.
20. To upset... Olympian manhood.
       (1) to upset: to overthrow or defeat, esp. unexpectedly
             homicide: any killing of one human being by another
             Please note the word formation: "homo" meaning a man; "cide' coming
               from "caedere", meaning "to cut down", kill, e.g. genocide 种族屠杀,
               suicide, pesticide.
             Olympian… like an Olympian god; majestic (Note:In Greek mythology,
the twelve
             major gods were supposed to live on the slopes of Mount Olympus. )
       (2) Why does the speaker compare the tendency to "cultural homicide"?
               Cultural homicide here means the killing of the minds of an ethnic group
by training,
               cultivation. If the Negro was subject to the fallacy, from childhood to
adulthood, that
               he/she was born inferior, it would amount to conditioning him/her to a
sense of
               inferiority. That is why the author considers this as cultural homicide.
       (3)Paraphrase this sentence.
            In order to defeat the practice of conditioning the Negro's mind to a sense
of inferiority,
            the Negro must stand upright and declare to the world that He is a Man, in
           the full sense of the word.
21. Any movement… waiting to be buried.
       Why does the speaker say so?
       If the Negro thinks that he/she is inferior to the white, then all the
discrimination would
       become justifiable. How can he/she fight for freedom and equality? Only when
the Negro is
       convinced that he/she is equal to all others in the world can he/she join the
struggle for
       freedom and equality. Therefore, without the liberation of the mind, there can
be no victory
       for the Negro's struggle.
 22. As long as... can never be free.
        What is the rhetorical device used here?
        Antithesis is used here: mind vs. body, enslaved vs. free.
 23. Psychological freedom.., physical slavery.
        (1) How could you paraphrase this statement?
        If you break the mental shackles 手铐,脚镣,桎梏, imposed on you by white
        supremacists, if you really respect yourself, thinking that you are a Man, equal
        to anyone else, you will be able to take part in the struggle against racial
        (2) the long night of physical slavery
        This is a metaphor, comparing the long history of slavery to a long night. The
               "night" is used here to indicate a period of darkness or gloom, a period
of moral
           degeneration. A Chinese translation might be:肉体奴役的漫漫长夜。
       (3) Antithesis is also employed in this statement: psychological freedom vs.
24. No Lincolnian emancipation proclamation… of freedom.
    (1) Liberation of mind cannot be achieved by pure legal measures.
    (2) The Emancipation Proclamation (1863) was Lincoln's presidential order to
free Negro
             slaves in the states in rebellion against the United States and the Civil
Rights Acts of
             1964 and 1965 under President Lyndon Johnson are considered to be two
           very important acts in the Negro struggle for freedom. But these federal
           laws cannot solve the
             psychological problem, that is, the sense of inferiority.
25. The Negro... his own emancipation proclamation.
    (1) How could you paraphrase this statement?
           The liberation of mind can only be achieved by the Negro himself/herself.
Only when
           he/she is fully convinced that he/she is a Man/Woman and is not inferior to
anyone else,
             can he/she throw off the manacles 手铐, 脚镣, of self-abnegation and
become free.
    (2) The idea is expressed with a metaphor, making the idea more vivid. The
metaphor is              “signs with the pen and ink of assertive manhood his own
emancipation proclamation".
   The idea is the same as the lines in the International:没有神仙和皇帝,全靠自己

26. And, with a spirit… self-abnegation
     (1) to strain= to exert, use or tax to the utmost
             manacle: (usually in plural) any restraint: fetter or shackle for the hand
             self-abnegation: lack of consideration for oneself or one's own interest:
self-denial (为信仰或为他人而)自欺欺人克制, 自我牺牲, 克己
     (2) Translate this part into Chinese.黑人必须以一种竭尽全力自尊自重的精
27. I am somebody.... to make me a slave.
     (1) somebody: a person of importance
             sinful: wicked, immoral
     (2) What shouldn't the Negro be ashamed of and what should he be ashamed of,
according to
             the author?
             The Negro should not be ashamed of the fact that his ancestors were slaves.
In other
             words, being a slave is nothing to be ashamed of. Rather, those who
willfully enslaved
             the black people were immoral and they should feel ashamed for them.
28.... this self-affirmation… crimes against them.黑人需要这种自我肯定,而白人反
Part III (Paras. 6 9)
In this part the author puts forward the second task: how to organize the strength of
the Negro in
terms of economic and political power. Then the author goes on to define power and
points out
the consequence of the misinterpretation of power.
Para. 6
29. What is the role of Para. 6?
     It introduces the second task. The introduction is indicated by "another basic
30. How is the paragraph organized?
      The first sentence is the topic sentence. Then the author points out that the
Negro is in need
      of power which is followed by illustrations. After that, the author gives his
definition of
      power, that is, the ability to achieve purpose. He ends the paragraph with a
quotation from
      Walter Reuther which is used to reinforce his definition.
31. Stripped of the right ... this white power structure.被剥夺了决定自己生活的命运
32. Why does the speaker view the transformation of the ghetto as a problem of
         Since the ghetto was created by those who had power to confine those who
         had no power and to perpetuate (To cause to continue indefinitely; make
         perpetual.使无限期地延续下去;使永久)their powerlessness, these people
         would do their best to maintain the ghetto.
         Those who had no power in the ghetto, that is, the Negro, wanted to change
the situation.
         Therefore, whether the ghetto can be transformed or not depends on who
prevails over
       whom, that is, whether the forces for change can prevail over the forces for
       status quo 现状 or not。
 33. …' confrontation of the forces.., the status quo.
         Please note the balance in the structure of this part of the statement:
         forces of power                 demanding                         change
                                           (present participle)
           forces of power                 dedicated to                the preserving of
                                                (past participle)             status quo
  34. What is the speaker's definition of "power"?
           He defines power as "ability to achieve purpose" and "strength required to
bring about
           social, political and economic change".
  35. What is the meaning of the example given by Walter Reuther?
           The example is intended to show that when a trade union puts forward a
demand, a most
           powerful corporation has to accept it however unwillingly, that is power. The
             example goes to illustrate the speaker's definition.
      Para. 7
      36. Now a lot of us... problems with power.
             What is the connection between "being preachers" and "having problems
with power"?
             Preachers are supposed to spread God's teaching, that is, peace on earth and
love. The
             common concept of power is force, physical force. So these two things have
          been contrasted as polar]两极的 opposites. That is why preachers have
          problems with power.
        37. Does the speaker think this should be the case?
                No, he thinks that the concepts of love and power should not be
        38. …love is identified.., denial of love.
          (1) What rhetorical device is used here? Please explain. Antithesis is used
          (2) resignation: giving up
          (3) love: a resignation of power
             power: denial of love
      The speaker works on the two words "love" and "power" in order to bring out the
39. off base= (slang) taking a position/ attitude, etc. that is unsound or in error;
absolutely wrong
40. Why do people consider love and power incompatible?
      This is a misinterpretation caused by some philosophers over history.
Para. 8
41 What is needed.., and anemic.
      (1) Translate this statement into Chinese.必须懂得没有爱的权利是毫无节制、易
      (2) Point out the rhetorical device used here.
             This is a parallel structure, with attention to rhythm:
             power without love        is      reckless and a'busive
             love without power       is     'sentimental and a'nemic
             The part after "is" is the same, two adjectives with the same stress, echoing
             reinforcing the rhythm.
42. Power at its best ... against love.
      (1) at its best= in one's best form
      (2) Power in its best form of function is the carrying out of the demands of justice
with love
             and justice in its best form of function is the overcoming of everything
standing in the
             way of love with power.
      (3) Point out the rhetorical device used here.
      This is again a parallel structure:
      power at its best        love         implementing     demands of justice
      justice at its best        power correcting              against love
43. What is the consequence of misinterpreting the relation between love and power
in the United
    It has led Negro Americans to think that they should achieve their goal through
power         without love.
Para. 9
44. Who are the extremists referred to by the speaker?
    They may be those led by Malcolm X or members of the Black Panthers.
45. conscienceless:without a sense of right and wrong;without sound moral judgment
46. What do the extremists advocate?
    They advocate the use of power, that is armed revolt 反抗, against the white power
Such use of violence, according to the speaker, is destructive and immoral. The Negro
Americans rightly detest and hate the abuse of power of the White supremacists but
now the        extremists are advocating the use of the same kind of destructive power.
48. It is precisely this collision… of our times.
        (1) Translate this statement into Chinese.正是这种邪恶的权力与毫无权力的
        (2) immoral power vs. powerless morality
              Special rhetorical term applies here: chiasmus 交错法, meaning inversion
of the second of two parallel phrases. Note, the speaker used only two words: moral
and power and played on their derivatives.
Part IV (Paras. 10- -15)
This part deals with economic security for the Negro Americans. The speaker
advocates guaranteed annual income which he thinks is possible and achievable. He
also deals on the advantages of this security.
Para. 10
48. Now, early in this century… and responsibility.
        (1) Translate the statement into Chinese.在本世纪初,这种建议会受到嘲笑和
        (2) to greet: to meet, receive (utterance) in a specified way
49. At that time… ability and talents.
      (1) measure: a standard for determining extent, dimensions, etc.
      (2) Explain the meaning of this statement:
               At that time, the way to evaluate how capable and resourceful a person
was to see
               how much money he had made (or how wealthy he was).
50. And, in the thinking of that day ... moral fiber.
      (1) And, the common view at that time was a person was poor because he was
lazy and not
               hard-working and lacked a sense of right and wrong.
      (2) Pay attention to the pattern used here:
               the absence of worldly goods indicated a want of...
               the absence of      vs.      a want of
               worldly goods       vs.      (qualities)
               The idea is expressed in a balanced, succinct 简洁的 way.
51. We've come a long way…economic system 在对人的动机的理解,和对我们的
52. Now we realize...against their will.我们现在懂得,我们经济的市场运作混乱、
 (2) What are the causes of unemployment, according to the speaker?
 The causes are: the market operation is out of order and discrimination is
53. What was the prevalent view of the poor in the early 20th century?
     What is the view in the 1960s?
The prevalent view was the poor people were lazy and devoid of moral strength, that
is to say, they were inferior and incompetent. The speaker hopes this kind of view has
diminished, has become less and less popular, so that people have become more
sympathetic to the poor. He uses the phrase "I hope" because he is not so sure but he
wishes this would be the case.
Para. 11
54. How can guaranteed annual income be achieved?
     It can be achieved by creating full employment or creating income so that
everyone will
     become a consumer.
55. New forms of work…are not available.有必要创造对社会有好处的新的工作形
Para. 12
56. The fact is... to secure a living.事实上,人们从事改善人类处境的工作,从事传
57. It is not the work.., necessity.
     This kind of work (work mentioned in the previous sentence) cannot be done by
slaves who
     work because the work has to be done, because they are forced to work by
slave-drivers or
     because they need to work in order to be fed and clothed.
58. It is the work of men ... want is abolished.这是这样一类人的工作,他们通过某
Para. 13
59. The poor transformed into purchasers ... decay.
     When the poor have money to buy worldly goods, they themselves will be able
to do a lot to
     change the dilapidated state of their housing.
60. Negroes ... in their struggle.
     What is the meaning of this statement?
     Negroes are in a two-fold disadvantage, that is, they are poor and black, but
when they have
     money in their hands, they will have an additional weapon to fight more
effectively against
Para. 14
61…. when the unjust ... is eliminated
     (1) ...when the unfair practice of judging human value by the amount of money a
person              has is done away.
     (2) What is the metaphor used in the statement?
 The metaphor is about measurement so "measurement" and "scale" are employed
here, as if you could weigh value on a scale, and not an ordinary scale but a scale of
62. What are the advantages of having economic security?
     The advantages are: (1) the Negroes will have an additional weapon to fight
      (2) they will be able to solve many problems in education and housing by
themselves. (3)
     the dignity of the individual will grow and (4) family conflicts will diminish.
Para. 15
63. … if our nation can spend.., here on earth.
      (1) How does the speaker describe the Vietnam war?
            He considers the war as unjust and evil. This shows his stand. Originally,
            Luther King Jr. did not get involved in the anti-war movement. He wanted
to            concentrate on the civil-rights movement. But later he came to realize he
could not stay              aloof to such an important issue. Hence this statement.
      (2) To put a man on the moon refers to the landing on the moon which was
realized in July,
            1969. Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Aldrin stepped onto the surface of
the moon and
            planted an American flag there. All this came after King's speech and even
after his             death. But the plan had been going on for some time when King
mentioned it.
      (3) ... it can spend billions ... on earth.它能够花几十亿美元帮助上帝的孩子

       (4) to put ... on their own feet: to put them in a healthy condition; to make
them become
            financially independent.
Part V (Paras. I6~20)
In this part, Martin Luther King reaffirms his commitment to nonviolence. He
explains why he thinks violence is no solution to racial discrimination. He refutes the
idea of Black revolution.
Para. 16
64. The futility of violence… all the recent Negro riots.
      (1) In August 1965 a confrontation between police and young blacks in the
Watts section of
  Los Angeles led to six days of rioting. Thousands of rioters battled police officers,
  firefighters and national guardsmen. In the end, an estimated $ 30 million worth of
  property was destroyed, 34 people killed, 900 injured, and nearly 4,000 arrested.
  Riots            followed in Chicago and Springfield, Massachusetts.
     The following summer, in 1966, racial riots broke out in 38 cities. Cleveland
  experienced the most sustained outbreak, but the police and national guardsmen
  were also called out in San Francisco, Chicago, Dayton, and Milwaukee. Cries of
  "Get whitey" and "Burn, baby, burn" were heard through the conflagrations 大火
  (2) The riots which took place in 175 cites in 1965, 1966 and 1967 tragically proved
  that you              could not get equal treatment and put an end to racial
  discrimination by violence. Violence would only breed greater violence.
5. There is certainly something painfully sad…a kind of suicidal longing.
   (1) What is the thing that Dr. King saw in the riots that made him feel sad?
           The thing that Dr. King saw in the riots that saddened him was the angry
Blacks were
           fighting in a desperate mood. They saw no future. They saw no solution.
Rioting was an

              expression of their pent-up 被 压 抑 的             anger. It was an act of
              self-destruction. But this was what they wanted to do and seemed to be all
              they could do.
              Such psychology is again shown in Gaza 加沙 and other places when
              young Palestinians engaged in suicidal bombing. Again this is an act of
              deep frustration and desperation.
    (2) How does Dr. King describe the fighting in the riots?
              He is very careful in the choice of words in the description. The people
taking part in the
              riots were screaming youngsters and angry adults. Teenagers were more
expressive and
              they were screaming while fighting. The adults were more mature, but their
anger was
              actually stronger and deeper.
              Their fighting, however, was hopeless and aimless. Hopelessness referred to
the result,
              that is, violence would not and could not solve any problem. Aimlessness
referred to the
              fact that the riots were not planned; they were spontaneous 自发的, 自然产
              生的; the participants did not have any clear goal. Violence was just an
              expression of desperation~ The other party in the riots was the
              establishment, the "impossible odds". The implication was the white power
              structure was much more powerful and much stronger. There was no way
              that the rioting Blacks could triumph over such power structure.
              "A desire for self-destruction" and "suicidal longing" bring out the desperate
              mood of the participants.
Para. 17
66. Occasionally... effective civil rights action.
     (1) to contend, to argue: to strive in debate or controversy 论争, 辩论, 论战

     (2) But those… end up with stumbling words. 结结巴巴地说话
              Those people cannot clearly show what they have gained as a result of
67. At best… of the ghettos.
     (1) at best: at most
     (2) What, according to Dr. King, have the riots produced?
  The Blacks may have got a little more money for poverty relief and minor
improvements in the ghettos.
     (3) water-sprinklers 喷水设施
     (4) a few water-sprinklers.., of the ghettos.在街上增加一点喷水设施,使得贫民

68. It is something like        behind bars.
         (1) What does Dr King compare antipoverty money and the water-sprinklers to?
            He compares them to locking people up in prison while improving food in
         the prison.
             In other words, these measures are minor changes while the basic situation
              Unchanged; these measures only deal with the surface of the issue, not the
              cause of the issue.
     (2) The comparison is a simile.
     (3) while the people.., behind bars
              to incarcerate: to imprison; to jail; to shut up while the people are still shut
up in prison
69. Nowhere have the riots…protest demonstrations.
         (1) such as: "such" modifies improvement and "as" introduces an attribute
clause, at the
              same time "as" is the object to "have (won)" in the attributive clause.
              Other examples:
              We had hoped to give you a chance such as nobody else ever had.
              It is the purpose of this article to furnish information such as is not
               furnished by 99% of the newspapers in the United States.
       (2) The riots, wherever they have taken place, have not won the kind of
improvement that
              organized non-violent struggles have won.
70. What are the two preconditions for a successful internal revolution, according to
Dr. King?
       The two preconditions are: (1) the armed forces are no longer loyal to the
government. (2)
       the revolution must have the support of the vast majority of the people.
       Two examples can be given. One is the downfall of the Suharto government in
       The armed forces and the police were no longer loyal to Suharto. The other is
        the Sandinistas in Nicaragua. In their struggle against Somoza, they had the
        support of the vast majority of the people.
71. Does Dr. King think a minority Black revolution can succeed in the United States?
       No, he thinks that in a violent racial situation, the white power structure can
rely on the
       local police, the state troopers, the National Guard and the army, all of which
are mostly
       white. And such a revolution will have no support from the white majority and
very little
       even from the majority of the Negro population.
72. Furthermore, few if any…the nonresistant majority.除非主张暴力的少数人得到
Para. 18
73. This is no time…for action.
        (1) Pay attention to the pattern,
               This is no time for ... This is a time for...
        And the second one is a short sentence so the idea of "action" is emphasized.
 74. What is needed…by the nonviolent movement.
     What does Dr. King think is needed now?
    He thinks that there should be a strategy for change and a policy to make the
Blacks live
    peacefully and harmoniously with the whites as part of the mainstream American
life. And
    only SCLC(Southern Christian Leadership Conference(美国) 南方基督教领袖
     会议 )has so far offered such a program.
75. Without recognizing this… that don't explain.
     (1) What does "this" refer to?
             It may refer to the present need and the fact that only the nonviolent
             movement has              offered a strategy and a program.
     (2) The speaker here employs two rhetorical devices: paradox and parallel
              Paradox is a statement that appears to be logically contradictory and yet
             may be true, the purpose of which is to provoke fresh thought.
              In this sentence, the following are paralleled paradoxes:
              solutions that don't solve
              answers that don't answer
              explanations that don't explain
Para. 1 9
76. What is the weapon most useful to the Negro in his struggle for racial justice,
according to
     Dr. King?
     The most potent (effective or powerful in action) weapon is nonviolence.
77. to stand by: to support; to maintain
78. Why does the speaker say when one is concerned about (to be worried about, to be
uneasy about) these, he can never advocate violence?
      When one is concerned about justice, truth, brotherhood and a better world, he
knows very
      well that these cannot be achieved by force, by violence. Brotherhood, a better
world, etc.
      are concepts one would find in Christian teachings. Christian teachings oppose
the use of
 79. For through violence…but you can't murder hate.
      (1) Note the use of antithesis.
              You may murder a murderer but you can't murder murder. This is an
antithesis and the
              speaker also plays on the word "murder".
       (2) The three sentences are also parallel.
 80. Darkness cannot put out darkness. Only light can do that.
       (2) What is the implication of these two sentences?
           The implication is you cannot eliminate violence by violence. You have to
use love. This
              leads to the main idea in the following paragraph.
Para. 20
81. And I say to you…to love.
     Why do you think Dr. King expresses his view in this way?
     Two words stand out clearly in this statement: "decide" and "stick".   In using
the verb
     "decide", Dr. King wants to show that he has thought over the issue once again
and has once
     again made up his mind. To "stick" reveals that he has all along been following
love, using
       love as the only weapon and he decides to continue to do so.
82. I know it isn't popular ... in some circles today.
     Dr. King was referring to the break of the civil rights coalition 联盟. The SNCC
     (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) and its new chairman Stokeley
     Carmichael advocated Black Power. In a speech at a public rally 集会 in
     Mississippi in 1965, Carmichael declared, "The time for running has come to an
     end ... Black Power. It’s time we stand up and take over... '.
       In the summer of 1966, another SNCC leader H. Rap Brown openly stated:
"Violence is as
       American as apple pie." Black Power means that blacks control their own
institutions, their
       own programs, their own demands. Therefore, King was not welcomed among
these groups
       of people.
83. I'm not talking about ... strong, demanding love.
       (1) demanding: making difficult claim on one's resources, patience, energy
       (2) When I talk about love, I’m not talking about sentimental feeling, I am
talking about a
              love which requires one's resources 智谋, patience and energy.
84. And I have seen too much hate…too great a burden to bear.
       (1) The three sentences are parallel in form, with slight changes.
              I have seen too much hate
              I've seen too much hate on
              I’ve seen hate on ... too many Klansmen ... (In this sentence, instead
of too much
              hate, the speaker changes to hate on the faces of too many Klansmen,
from modifying
              hate to large number of people. )
       (2) I've seen such intense and twisted hate on the faces of many white
           supremacists in the                South that I do not want to hate any more.
            Whenever I see hate on their faces I know
              that hate has changed their appearance and their characters and I tell
myself that hate
              is such a heavy weight on them that they will be crushed some day.
 85. If you are seeking the highest good...       If you are trying to find the highest
 86. He who hates…ultimate reality.
        (1) Those who harbor(give shelter to:窝藏) hate in their hearts cannot grasp
              the teaching of God. Only those who have love can enjoy the ultimate
              happiness in Heaven.
        (2) The metaphor of owning a key to open a door is employed here.
        (3) The whole statement can be regarded as an epigram (A concise, clever,
              often paradoxical statement.隽语:一个简明,机智,常常似是而非的
              陈述参见), that is a short, pithy statement, usually with a touch of wit,
              often antithetical 对立的.
        (4) This statement comes from John Chapter 3 of the New Testament which
             "And this is the condemnation, that the light has come into the world, and
men loved
             darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.
             "For everyone practicing evil hates the light and does not come to the light,
              lest (for fear that) his deeds should be exposed."
Part VI (Paras. 21--25)
In this part Dr. King raises a fundamental question—— the restructuring of the whole
of American society. He points out that the problem of racism, the problem of
economic exploitation and the problem of war are tied together. They are the triple
evils of the society. His analysis is sound. But how will the society be restructured?
King does not state clearly in this section。But the
implication of Paragraph 25 seems to tell people to restructure the society with love,
linking the idea up with the idea in Paragraph 20.
Para. 21
87. What is the role of the first sentence of this paragraph?
     (l) It is the topic sentence of this paragraph. The key idea of this paragraph is
             the whole of American society". The following part explains why this
should be the
     (2) It is at the same time a transitional sentence, linking this section up with the
other two
             tasks Dr. King mentions earlier.
88. Why does the speaker stress "we honestly face the fact... '?
     The implication is people used to avoid facing this fundamental issue.            It is too
big, too
     serious an issue and people want to shy away from 躲避 it. By using the word
"honestly", Dr.
     King means we should not deceive ourselves, we should not comfort ourselves,
but we
     should face the issue and get down to solving it.
89. to address (oneself) to ... : to direct (one's energy) to; to apply (oneself) to
90. We are called upon to help the discouraged beggars in life's marketplace.
     (1) What is meant by this statement?
         It simply means that we are asked to help the beggars.
     (2) Why is the passive voice used here?
           The speaker does not want to say who calls upon them to help or there are
too many
            sources calling upon them so he uses the passive voice.
     (3) "The discouraged beggars in life's marketplace" is a metaphor, meaning these
             are those who have been defeated in life and they see no hope in the future.
91. But one day we must come to see…restructuring.
     (1) edifice 大厦: any elaborately constructed institution, organization 精心构建
     (2) What is the meaning of this sentence?
              Sometime in the future we will realize that when in a society, especially an
              society, there are many poor people, then there must be something
           fundamentally wrong with the society which demands important change and
    government of Guatemala (危地马拉) in 1954 was partly to protect the interest of
     Fruit (联合国果品公司) there. The invasion of CIA 中央情报局 trained
mercenaries 雇佣兵 at Bay of Pigs, Cuba, to overthrow the Castro government is
another case in point. Dr. King must have many of these incidents in mind when he
makes this statement.
99. What does Dr. King mean when he says, "America, you must be born again! "?
     Dr. King means that there should be fundamental changes in America. He does
not mean
     changes toward socialism but changes according to the teachings of the Gospel
Para. 25
100. What do you think is the role of this paragraph?
      This paragraph can be regarded as the climax of this speech. In this paragraph,
Dr. King
      makes clear his idea of the rebirth of America. In presenting his ideas, he is at
his best in
101. What rhetorical devices does he use?
        (1) Parallel structure: There are 11 sentences beginning with "let us be
dissatisfied until"
               and two short sentences of "let us be dissatisfied".
          (2) Antithesis:outer city of wealth and comfort vs. inner city of poverty and
                                 dark yesterdays vs. bright tomorrows;
                                 on the basis of the content of their character vs.
                                 on the basis of the color of their skin
          (3) Metaphors and Similes:
                                 the battering rams of the forces of justice;
                                 the junk heaps of history;历史的垃圾堆
                                 justice will roll down like waters and righteousness like
                                 a mighty stream
          (4) biblical allusion 典故引用:
                                 when the lion and the lamb shall lie down together
                                 every man will sit under his own vine and fig tree 无花
                                 果树 and none shall be afraid
          (5) Anaphora 首语重复法:the rhetorical device of repeating a word or phrase
                                 at the beginning of successive clauses or sentences
 102. Why does Dr. King use "divine dissatisfaction" in the first sentence of this
          (1) divine: inspired by God, holy
          (2) By using divine dissatisfaction, Dr. King may mean two things: (a) this
kind of
                dissatisfaction does not involve bitterness, hatred and would not lead to
                 confrontation 对 抗 ; the remedy lies in love; (b) the cause of
                 dissatisfaction comes from the teachings of God—— God creates
                 people equal but now there is injustice on the basis of race, ethnicity 种
 103. Let us be dissatisfied until… an anemia of deeds.
          (1) creed: a statement of belief, principles, or opinions on any subject
          (2) What does Dr. King mean by "high blood pressure of creeds" and "anemia
of deeds"?
              He means that people (including government) talk emotionally about racial
equality and
              condemn racial discrimination but when it comes to taking action to put an
end to such
              evil practice, they are not active.
104. Let us be dissatisfied until the tragic walls ... the forces of justice.
          (1) What rhetorical devices are used here?
                Metaphor: "the tragic walls" and "the battering rams (古代)攻城(木或铁
                的)槌" are used in a metaphorical way.
                They are used in the same vein 风格 since walls can be crushed by
battering rams.
           Antithesis: the antithesis is well balanced: outer city vs. inner city; wealth vs.
                  (economic); comfort vs. despair (mood, psychology).
                  Transferred epithet: the transference of an adjective to a noun to which
                   it is not wholly appropriate.
                  Tragic walls: walls obviously cannot be tragic, the separation of racesis
                   tragic. Hence, the transferred epithet.
          (2) battering ram: an ancient military machine having a heavy wooden beam,
                  with an iron ram's head at its end, for battering down gates, walls, doors,
          (3) Dr. King is referring to a social phenomenon. In the 1960s, there emerged
                  population movement in the United States, that is, many white upper
middle and
                  middle class people moved to live in suburban towns, leaving the inner
city to the
                  minorities and the poor. This put the city government in a very difficult
state because
               the local government could not collect enough tax to improve city
               Therefore you have the contrast of inner city and outer city here.
105. Let us be dissatisfied until…daily security.
         (1) This is a continuation of the idea expressed in the previous sentence.
Since the inner
                  city was dilapidated 毁坏的 and the people living there were poor and
                  in despair, crime rate was high and drug trafficking was serious. When
                  a change is brought about, inner city may become secure again and
                  people may move back.
         (2) metropolis: any large city or center of population, culture, etc.
 106. Let us be dissatisfied until slums.., sanitary home.
            Why does Dr. King talk about sanitary home?
            That is because many slum houses do not have bathrooms, sewage systems,
              sometimes                            not even clean, running water. Hence, a
              sanitary home would be desirable.
 107. Let us be dissatisfied until the dark yesterdays…. integrated education.
         (1) So far Dr. King has been talking about housing, about living conditions.
Now he is
                  turning to segregation 种族隔离 in schools. In spite of Supreme Court
                  ruling 法庭裁决 in 1954 that segregation in schools is unconstitutional,
                  the progress in integration has been slow and difficult.
          (2) Again you'll find a fine example of balanced antithesis: dark vs. bright,
                  yesterdays vs.                        tomorrows, segregated schools vs.
                  integrated education.
                  Yesterdays in the plural form stand for the past, not just one day. The
same with
                  The concept of quality, integrated education is broader than school in
 108. Let us be dissatisfied until integration ... diversity.
      What is meant by this statement?
      The idea here is more general than integrated schools.
      It means the breaking down of racial barriers is not seen as a problem, a challenge
to the
      status of the whites but as a chance for everyone, white and black, to engage in
      construction of a multicultural society.
109. Let us be dissatisfied until men and women…of their skin
      Note the antithesis in this sentence:
      Content (内在的 internal quality /substance) vs. color (superficial)
      character (fundamental) vs. skin (outward appearance)
      The implication is we should lay emphasis on the more essential things, not
110. Let us be dissatisfied until every state capitol… with his God.
      (1) Dr. King now comes down to the states since many of the southern states
            strong resistance to the breaking down of racial barrier. Some of the state
            were notorious for their racist views and actions.
            Orval Faubus, governor of Arkansas 阿肯色州, instructed state National
            Guard troops to block the entry of black children into Central High School
            in Little Rock in 1954. Hence the Little Rock incident.
            Alabama's governor, George Wallace, refused to admit two black students to
            the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa in 1963.
            Governor Ross Barnett of Mississippi declared that "the Negro is different
because God
            made him different to punish him". That was in 1961.
    (2) What is the function of "houses"?
          "House" is a verb here.
          State capitol 国会大厦 refers to the building in which a state legislature
          meets. The sentence contains a biblical allusion to Micah 希伯来的先知,
          弥迦书 6:8: "What does the Lord require of thee but to do justly, to love
          mercy and to walk humbly with thy God."
111. Let us be dissatisfied until from every city hall… a mighty stream.
    (1) city hall: a municipal government. This can be called synecdoche 提喻法 in
rhetoric, that is the naming of a part to mean the whole. Here, the naming of the
building for the          government.
    (2) The image of the metaphor here is the flowing of water.
    (3) In "righteousness like a mighty stream", "rolls down" has been omitted. The
          unomitted part should be: righteousness rolls down like a mighty stream.
112. Let us be dissatisfied until that day… none shall be afraid.
    (1) the lion and the lamb shall lie down together
          This is a biblical allusion. Dr. King is not citing verbatim 逐字地 but
          according to the spirit of some key passages. Isaiah 以赛亚书 ll:6 "The
          wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the
          kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling 肥畜 together; and a
          little child shall lead them."

       (2) Why vine and fig tree?
            Micah 4: 3, 4 : 4 and I Kings 4 :25
            Martin Luther King's Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech
                                                                       December 10,
            Oslo 奥斯陆, Norway
            I have the audacity 大胆, 厚颜 to believe that peoples everywhere can
            have three meals a day for their bodies, education and culture for their
                minds, and dignity, equality and freedom for their spirits. I believe that
                what self-centered men have torn down, men other- centered can build up.
                I still believe that one day mankind will bow before the altars 祭坛 of
                God and be crowned triumphant over war and bloodshed, and nonviolent
                redemptive 用于补偿的 goodwill will proclaim the rule of the land.
                "And the lion and the lamb shall lie down together and every man shall
sit under his
                own vine and fig tree and none shall be afraid,"
       (3) What is meant by this statement?
                People who are powerful and people who are weak can live together
       (4) Note the use of alliteration here. Alliteration means the use of words
                beginning with the same letter or sound: lion, lamb, lie.
113. And men will recognize… will talk about God's power and human power.
       (1) This is a reference to the Genesis which says "So God created man in His
                own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He
                created them". (Genesis 1, 27)
                Dr. King means that we all come down from the same ancestors: Adam
                and Eve, so we are brothers and should co-exist peacefully.
       (2) What is meant by "white power" "black power"?
                 White power refers to the view of white supremacists. These people
think the whites
                 are superior racially and they should control power and run the country.
They oppose
                 desegregation and the Civil Rights movement. Sometimes they resort to
force and
                 violence to resist the march of desegregation.
                 Black power is a slogan put forward by the Student Non-violent
                 Committee (SNCC) in 1965. By then these young students had broken
with Dr. King
                and embarked on a campaign of systematic rebellion against the
government of the
                United States and the values and institutions it represented. (See Note
        (3) Here Dr. King openly criticizes not only the idea of white power but also
the idea of
                black power, Link this paragraph up with Paragraphs 17 and 18.

Part VII (Paras. 26--28)
Para. 26
114. What is the role of Paragraph 26?
       This paragraph serves as a transitional paragraph leading to the concluding
remark: we shall
115. What is the key idea of this paragraph?
        In this part, Dr. King warns that the path ahead would not be smooth and
people should be
        prepared to face setbacks and frustrations.
116. There will be still rocky places ... of bewilderment.
      (1) frustration: being prevented from achieving an objective; efforts directed to
some end
              being rendered (made) worthless
              to meander: to take a winding or tortuous course
              bewilderment: being totally confused as a result of the issue being too
complicated and
              failure of thinking clearly
      (2) What is meant by this statement?
              It means the path ahead is full of difficulty and setbacks and sometimes
people might
              lose direction and become utterly confused.
      (3) "Rocky places of frustration" and "meandering points of bewilderment" are
               metaphorical phrases. The first refers to a land path that is bumpy and
uneven the
               second refers to a stream that has so many windings that people easily get
lost. Both
               emphasize difficulty.
117. There will be inevitable setbacks.., fatigue of despair.
       (1) Why does Dr. King use "inevitable" here?
              Dr. King is well aware that there would be many setbacks ahead because
the enemy is
              so strong and in fighting against these forces of racism, setbacks are
              Hence the word "inevitable".
       (2) Note the antithesis here~ buoyancy of hope vs. fatigue of despair.
              buoyancy: cheerfulness; lightness or resilience of spirit
              fatigue: mental exhaustion
              When you have hope in your heart, even if you encounter some setback,
you will be
              able to recover your spirits quickly. This is what is meant by "buoyancy of
hope". But
              when you are filled with despair, you are mentally exhausted. Hence
"fatigue of
118. Our dreams ... blasted.
       (1) Draw the students' attention to the collocations used here:
              dream -- shattered 打破梦想,
              hope    blasted   希望破灭
              In English, certain verbs will take certain nouns as objects. This cannot be
             This is what we call v-n collocation 词的搭配.
        (2) ethereal: heavenly 轻飘的,优美的;天上的;天国的
119. We may again… bloodthirsty mobs.
        (1) bier: a coffin and its supporting platform
            dastardly 懦 弱 的 , 卑 鄙 的 : a sneaking, malicious cowardice that is
            manifested in a despicable act
        (2) The sentence means: We may still have to pay last respects to certain civil
            rights            workers with tears in our eyes as we have done so many
            times in the past. These civil
             rights workers are despicably murdered by those white supremacists.
120. audacious: fearless
        charted course: planned or mapped out path

bard: a poet
121.What is the main idea of the quoted poem of Johnson's?
The four stanzas describe how the blacks were brought over to America and the
passage was
 a passage of tears and blood. Today the blacks begin to see the first light of bright
122. In reading the stanzas, pay attention to meter and rhyme. For example: trod, rod:
heat,          feet watered, slaughtered; and past, last, cast.

Para. 27
123. Let this affirmation be our ringing cry.
          (1) This sentence serves as a transition, linking this paragraph with the
previous one.
          (2) Affirmation refers to the last few lines of the poem, that is, we can now see
the first
                light of bright future.
       (3) Let us take these lines as our rallying call.
124. It will give our tired feet…city of freedom.
125. When our days.., into bright tomorrow.
           (1) The rhetorical devices used in this statement are,
                 Metaphor: low-hovering 盘旋 clouds of despair; gigantic mountains of
                 Antithesis: dark yesterday vs. bright tomorrow
                 Paradox: Paradox means a statement that appears to be logically
                 contradictory and yet may be true, the purpose of which is to provoke
                 fresh thought.
                  to make a way out of no way
           (2) Translate the sentence into Chinese.当绝望的阴云密布,我们的日子变
           (3) Dr. Ring is saying that we should have faith in God. The force, the power
he mentions
                 is the power of God. Do not forget King is a minister and he has deep
                 faith in what he preaches.
126. Let us realize… toward justice. 我们要懂得道义的苍穹长又长,但它终将落向
  Para. 28
127. How does Dr. King end his speech?
            Dr. Ring ends his speech with a note of optimism and confidence but this
            optimism is not strong. By then, with the spilt within the rank of the Civil
            Rights Movement and the
            suppression of riots in the "long hot summers" starting from 1965, Dr. King
was less
            optimistic than he had been in 1963 when he delivered his famous "I Have
A Dream"
 128. What is the role of the first sentence of Paragraph 28?
      It serves as a transition and a topic sentence. As a transition, it links this
paragraph up with
      the previous because the last sentence of Paragraph 27 also begins with "let us
realize". In
      Paragraph 28, there are two parallel sentences beginning with "let us realize".
129. What does Dr. King want people to realize?
      He wants people to realize that (a) the path would be long but it leads to justice;
(b) truth
      cannot be crushed; and (c) those who disobey God's teachings will be punished
in the end.
130. Be not deceived ... shall he also reap.
      (1) What is the meaning of this statement?
                You can be assured that showing no respect for God's words will not go
                You shall get the bitter fruit of your heedless actions.
      (2) Whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.
                Galatians (新约圣经中的)迦拉太书
                6:7 Be not deceived, God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth,
that shall he
                also reap.
                6:8 For he that soweth to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but
he that
                sowerh to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting.
131.. we will be able to sing… we would overcome.
      (1) Why does the speaker say "with a cosmic past tense"?
                cosmic: of the universe exclusive of the earth; grandiose 宏伟的, 堂皇的,

               The speaker, in using "cosmic" may have two things in mind: one is, in
terms of the
               universe, the time is not long; the second is, it is a great past tense
because the terrible
               time of racial oppression will then be over.
      (2) The Civil Rights song is "We Shall Overcome".
               1. We shall overcome
                  We shall overcome
                  We shall overcome some day
                  Oh deep in my heart
                   I do believe
                  We shall overcome some day
               2. We'll walk hand in hand
                  We'll walk hand in hand
                  We'll walk hand in hand some day
               3. We shall all be free
                  We shall all be free
                  We shall all be free some day
               4. We are not afraid
                  We are not afraid
                  We are not afraid some day

23                5. We are not alone
                    We are not alone
                    We are not alone some day
               6. The whole wide world around
                   The whole wide world around
                   The whole wide world around some day
               7. We shall overcome
                   We shall overcome
                   We shall overcome some day
               In the speech, Dr King changes the tense into past tense therefore you
have "we have
               overcome... ".
Part Three: Summary of the whole lesson and the discussion of the questions
 ( in two periods)
In this part , the teacher is summarizing the whole lesson to make the students aware
of the thoughts and ideas offered by the author and make the students know what we
should learn from the lesson.
I: sections in this lesson:
  Section One:( Para.1 –Para2.)
  Section Two:(Para3.-Para5).
  Section Three: (Para6.-Para9)
  Section Four: (Para.10-Para.15)
  Section Five: (Para16-Para.20.)
  Section Six :(Para.21-Para25)
  Section Seven:(Para.26-Para28)
Part Four Assignments
In this part, all the assignments will be listed , the teacher will assign them to the
students after each two periods.
1 seek out some information about each note on the internet and hand them in to the
2 read the whole lesson
3 memorize the new words
4 prepare for the discussions
5 do the exercises
6 pre-review of the next lesson
7 write a composition with the title “Where do we go from here?”


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