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					Immobile Palestinians: ongoing plight of Gazans in Jordan
by Oroub El Abed

Jordan’s decision not to legally integrate ex-residents of Gaza has led to long-term
neglect of their civil rights and denied them opportunities to secure decent
livelihoods. Statelessness leaves many in a permanent state of legal limbo.

Palestinians who arrived in Jordan in the immediate aftermath of the nakba
(catastrophe) of 1948 were granted Jordanian citizenship. As Jordanian citizens they
and their descendants hold passports valid for five years, enjoy the right to vote and
have full access to government services. Each muwatin (citizen) has a „national
number‟, a civil registration number accorded at birth or upon naturalisation which is
recorded on national ID cards and on the family registration books which are issued
only to citizens.

Gazans in Jordan are doubly-displaced refugees. Forced to move to Gaza as a result of
the 1948 war, they fled once more when Israel occupied the Gaza Strip in 1967.
Guesstimates of the number of Gazans in Jordan range between 118,000 and 150,000.
A small number have entered the Jordanian citizenship scheme via naturalisation or
have had the financial resources to acquire citizenship. Many Gazan non-citizens live
in Amman and other Jordanian cities. A significant proportion live in two camps run
by UNRWA. Most of the 30,000 residents of Gaza (also known as Jerash) camp are
Gazans while a few thousand of the residents of Hittin Camp are 1948 refugees,
subsequently displaced from Gaza.

On arrival in Jordan, the ex-residents of Gaza were granted temporary Jordanian
passports valid for two years but were not granted citizenship rights. The so-called
„passport‟ serves two purposes: it indicates to the Jordanian authorities that the
Gazans and their dependents are temporary residents in Jordan and provides them
with an international travel document (laissez-passer) potentially enabling access to
countries other than Jordan.

Gazans are treated by Jordan as Arab foreigners and pay taxes whenever they interact
with the state. The „passport‟ they hold is in effect simply a residency permit, the
renewal of which is left to the discretion of the state. Gazan men cannot renew their
residence without clearance from the Jordanian security authorities. Their
administrative vulnerability can lead to curtailment of rights to political participation
and membership of trade unions enjoyed by Jordanian citizens. Some who have been
active in Islamic political groups have found themselves stripped of ID.

The „passport‟ – which is expensive – has value as an international travel document
only if receiving states permit the entry of temporary passport holders. Few countries
admit them, because they have no official proof of citizenship. Syria, Lebanon, Egypt
and some Gulf States are among those who refuse to honour the document. Any delay
in renewing the temporary passport or in applying for one puts an individual at risk of
becoming undocumented.

As noted in earlier articles, Arab countries refuse to grant Palestinians citizenship in
order to preserve their Palestinian identity and to remind Israel of its responsibility
towards those it expelled. Jordan, however, stands out by view of the fact that the
majority of Palestinians living within the borders of the Hashemite Kingdom of
Jordan were granted fully-fledged citizenship when Jordan formally annexed the West
Bank in 1950. The Gazans, perceived and labelled by law and administrative practice
as Palestinians, are therefore an anomaly.

UNRWA provides Gazan refugees with relief, health and education services but
cannot meet all their needs. Since 1986 it has been harder for Gazans to compete for
places in Jordanian universities as they must secure places within the 5% quota
reserved for Arab foreigners. Entry to professions is blocked as Gazans are not
allowed to register with professional societies/unions or to establish their own offices,
firms or clinics. Only those with security clearance can gain private sector
employment. Those who work in the informal sector are vulnerable to being
exploited. Many Gazans are keen to leave Jordan to seek employment elsewhere but
are constrained from doing so. Some have attempted to leave clandestinely.

Press articles indicated in 2005 that the Arab League and the Palestinian Authority
have explored the possibility of facilitating the return of Gazans to their first place of
exile, the Gaza Strip. However, with Gaza besieged and attacked by Israel and in the
grip of a worsening humanitarian crisis, this is not a viable option

Rami was brought up in Jordan, studied law and worked for over two years for a law
firm in the West Bank city of Hebron. Lacking a West Bank Israeli-issued ID, he was
forced to return to Jordan every three months to renew his visitor‟s visa. Due to the
high cost of living he returned to Jordan in 1999 only to find himself stripped of his
Jordanian temporary passport. Now without any form of identity, he notes that
“being Gazan in Jordan is like being guilty.”
[End box]

In Jordan, as in most other Middle-Eastern countries, women cannot pass on their
citizenship to their children. Neither is citizenship granted to a child born on the
territory of a state from a foreign father. Married women are forced to depend on their
fathers or husbands to process documents related to their children. Because of this
patriarchal conception of citizenship, children of Jordanian women married to Gazans
are at risk of being left without a legal existence.

Heba, a Jordanian national, married Ahmad, a Gazan with an Egyptian travel
document. A year after their marriage, Ahmad was arrested for being in Jordan
without a residence permit. Deported from Jordan, he was refused re-entry to Egypt
and ended up in Sudan. Heba had a child but has been unable to register the birth due
to the absence of her husband. She cannot afford to go to Sudan to be with him.
[End box]

Over half a century has passed since a British colonial officer noted that he could not
“see that there is any hope of finding a suitable home for the unfortunate Gaza
refugees”.1 Resolutions of the UN, protocols of the Arab League and expressions of
concern from the international community have led to nothing. Until such time as a
Palestinian state is established, stateless Gazans should not be forced to live in limbo,
left outside conventions which should ensure their human and civil rights.
Oroub El Abed is an Amman-based independent researcher working on Middle East
refugee issues. Email:
 Public Records Office, Foreign Office, Correspondence No 119/3/9, from T C Rapp
of the British Middle east Office to J Creswell, British Embassy, Cairo, 1952.
 a         C. a so good          D. a good
15. The U.S. is definitely a telephone country. This is due partly to ___ telephone
    service is good, whereas postal service is less efficient.
    A. the reason that                   B. the reason which
    C. the fact that                     D. the fact which
16. Our development plans should conform ___ the local conditions. I don’t
    think it is wise to concentrate on coal-mining ___ the expense of our
    A. to, at           B. at, with           C. from, at           D. from, on
17. People will always compete ___ opportunities and strive for success. It is
    almost ___ their genes.
      A. with, built into           B. for, written on
      C. on, rooted in               D. for, built into
18. I gradually ___ that culture and language cannot really be separated.
    A. perceived        B. conceived         C. received           D. deceived
19. Many churches were involved in missionary activities at that time. They
    wanted to ____ all people to their religion.
    A. convert         B. change          C. modify             D. alter
20. Do you think it ___ to buy one of those electric dictionaries?
    A. worth            B. worthy        C. worthless           D. worthwhile
21. If the fire alarm is sounded, all residents are requested to ___ in the
    A. converge       B. assemble            C. crowd             D. accumulate

                                                              22. Since mixtures are composed of two or more pure
                                                                  substances, each ___ changes state at a different
                                                                  A. company B. companion C. compound D. component
                                                              23. Plants as well as animals are ___ to insect attack, and every
     -------------------------                                      year million of dollars worth of agricultural crops are
                                                                    destroyed by insects.
                                                                  A. subject B. eager          C. beneficial        D. harmful
                                                              24. His ability and experience ___ him to the respect of his
                                                                  A. permitted B. entitled C. distinguished          D. granted
        卷                                                     25. What happened that day had a great _______ on people’s

                                                                    lives. Now they all know that no country can be
                                                                    completely __________ terrorist attack.
                                                                   A. effect, immune to              B. impact, immune from
                                                                    C. influence, free to             D. result, free from
    (                                                         26. At first many people thought that this great disaster would
    密                                                             inflict a terrible damage ___ the economy. But for some
    线 密                                                           strange reason it touched ___ a great shopping spree.

索   内
    不                                                             A. to, of      B. on, upon      C. on, off      D. for, down
    答                                                         27. The _________ victories turned his head, so that he made a
    题                                                               fatal mistake which led to the total destruction of his
                                                                    A. successful B. success C. successive D. succeeded
                                                              28. The profits will be ___ our partners ___ their contributions
                                                                  to the total investment.
     --------------------------- --------------------------

                                                                  A. shared with, in proportion to
                                                                  B. shared among, in proportion
                                                                  C. divided among, according
                                                                  D. shared with, on the basis of
                                                              29. These media stars were admired for their wealth and
                                                                    glamour _____ their achievements and moral strength of
                                                                     A. except B. except for C. rather D. rather than
                                                              30. Yong couples should think twice before they ___. Divorce
                                                                    is very often not a very good idea ___ their differences.
                                                                   A. break, in spite of     B. break up, regardless of
                                                                   C. break off, instead of D. break away, for
31. ________ he needed money for his mother’s operation, the driver resisted the
     temptation to keep the fat wallet a customer had left behind in the car.
     A.Much as            B. So much          C. As much            D. Much so
32. The construction of the dam is already ________. But its completion is still a
     long way _______.
     A. under its way, off                      B. in progress, away
     C. under progress, to go                  D. under way, off
33. Products tend to sell well that are packed in ______ catch the consumer’s eye.
    A. such ways as to                          B. such way as to
    C. ways so as                               D. a way that
34. _____ anyone can grow up in the world today without worrying about nuclear
     weapons is no tribute to the discovery of radium----- Madame Curie and her
     husband, Pierre Curie.
     A. That hardly         B. How scarcely       C. Whether          D. If
35. __________, Shanghai is probably the best place for the next Asian Games.
    A. Considering all things                  B. All things being considered
    C. All things considered                   D. To consider all things
36. In ________ the most primitive cultures, people do not directly exchange
     goods for other goods.
     A. all          B. all but       C. most of          D. every one of
37. With so many people around, he found it difficult to leave the hall____.
    A. without noticing B. not noticing C. unnoticed           D. not noticeable
38. Young people’s plans are _________ those of their parents. They are not
     satisfied ______ the life arranged for them. They want to ________ out
     _______their own.
    A. different from, of, strike, on       B. contradictory to, with, strike, for
    C. opposed to, to, strike, in           D. in conflict with, with, branch, on
39. _______ we seem to have conquered nature. But this is not true. Many
     scholars actually say that we should stop _______ nature before it is too late.
    A. On the surface, tempering to      B. On the surface, tampering with
    C. In surface, interfering with       D. On the appearance, tampering with
40. Basketball is one of the few sports that are just ________ satisfying playing
     by yourself as it is _______ a team.
     A. very, for      B. equally, on        C. as, with        D. so, in

Part II       Cloze (10 %)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there
are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You

          ----------------------- -------------------------
                                                                   should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then
                                                                   mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a
                                                                   single line through the centre.
                                                                        Historians tend to tell the same joke when they are
                                                                   describing history education in America. It's the one 41         the
             阅                                                     teacher standing in the schoolroom door             42 goodbye to
                                                                   students for the summer and calling          43 them, "By the way,
                                                                   we won World War II."
                                                                        The problem with the joke, of course, is that it's 44
                                                                   funny. The recent surveys on 45 illiteracy ( 无 知 ) are
                                                                   beginning to numb(令人震惊): nearly one third of American
             卷                                                     17-year-olds cannot even        46      which countries the United

                                                                   States 47       against in that war. One third have no            48
                                                                   when the Declaration of Independence was           49 . One third
                                                                   thought Columbus reached the New World after 1750. Two
                                                                   thirds cannot correctly 50           the Civil War between 1850
         (                                                         and 1900.      51     when they get the answers right, some are
         密                                                         52     guessing.
         线 密                                                            Unlike math or science, ignorance of history cannot be


         不                                                         53     connected to loss of international 54 . But it does
         答                                                         affect our future 55        a democratic nation and
         题                                                         as individuals. The        56      news is that there is growing
                                                                   agreement 57       what is wrong with the 58 of history and
                                                                   what needs to be       59     to fix it. The steps are tentative (尝
                                                                   试性的) 60             yet to be felt in most classrooms.
                                                                   41. A. in           B. by          C. for            D. about
          --------------------------- --------------------------

                                                                   42. A. waving      B. nodding C. shaking              D. speaking
                                                                   43. A. in          B. up           C. after          D. for
                                                                   44. A. not       B. too           C. so              D. rarely
                                                                   45. A. political B. cultural C. educational         D. historical
                                                                   46. A. convey B. identify C. acknowledge D. distinguish
                                                                   47. A. struck B. attacked        C. fought          D. defeated
                                                                   48. A. doubt     B. idea          C. reason          D. sense
                                                                   49. A. signed B. edited           C. marked          D. printed
                                                                   50. A. get      B. judge          C. place           D. lock
                                                                   51. A. Thus     B. So           C. Though            D. Even
                                                                   52. A. just     B. ever          C. still            D. hardly
                                                                   53. A. shortly B. directly C. exclusively D. practically
54. A. community B. commitment       C. comprehension        D. competitiveness
55. A. with      B. for               C. as                 D. of
56. A. good      B. fine            C. surprising            D. nice
57. A. of         B. to              C. on                   D. with
58. A. coaching B. teaching         C. consulting           D. instructing
59. A. dealt     B. done            C. met                  D. reached
60. A. and       B. or              C. as                   D. Therefore

III. Reading Comprehension (30%)

                                     Passage One
    In recent years American society has become increasingly dependent on its
universities to find solutions to its major problems. It is the universities that have
been charged with the principal responsibility for developing the expertise to
place men on the moon; for dealing with our urban problems and with our
deterioration environment; for developing the means to feed the world’s rapidly
increasing population. The effort involved in meeting these demands presents its
own problems. In addition, this concentration on the creation of new knowledge
significantly impinges on the universities efforts to perform their principal
functions, the transmission and interpretation of knowledge—the imparting of the
past and the preparing of the next generation to carry it forward.
    With regard to this, perhaps their most traditionally sanctioned task, colleges
and universities today find themselves in a serious bond generally. On one hand,
there is the American commitment, entered into especially since WWII, to provide
higher education for all young people with a radical shift from the private to the
public sector of higher education. On the other hand, there are serious and
continuing limitations on the resources available for higher education.
    While higher education has become a great “growth industry”, it is also
simultaneously a tremendous drain on the resources of the nation. With the vast
increase in enrollment and the shift in priorities away from education in state and
federal budgets, there is in most of our public institutions a significant decrease in
per capita outlay for their students. One crucial aspect of this drain on resources
lies in the persistent shortage of trained faculty, which has led, in turn, to a
declining standard of competence in instruction.
    Intensifying these difficulties is, as indicated above, the concern with research,
with its competing claims on resources and the attention of the faculty. In
addition, there is a strong tendency for the institutions’ organization and
functioning to conform to the demands of research rather than those of teaching.


                                                                   61. According to the author, which of the following is the most
                                                                       important function of institutions of higher education?
                                                                       A. Providing solutions to social problems.
                                                                       B. Creating new knowledge.
                                                                       C. Preparing their students to transmit inherited knowledge.
             -------------------------                                 D. Marking experts on sophisticated industries out of their
                                                                   62. What does the underlined phrase “impinges on” (Line8,
                                                                       Para1) probably mean?
                                                                       A. block B. have an impact on C. rely on D. promote
                                                                   63. According to the passage, one of the causes for the
                卷                                                      difficulties of American higher education is that___.

                                                                       A. the government has stopped giving public institutions as
                                                                            much financial support as it used to
                                                                       B. many public institutions have replaced private ones.
                                                                       C. American universities spend too much time finding
            (                                                               solution to major problems of the society
            密                                                          D. the government only finances such researches as that of
            线 密                                                             placing man on the moon.

    索       内
            不                                                      64. A serious outcome brought out by the shortage of resource
            答                                                          is that ___.
            题                                                          A. some institutions have to reduce the expenses on
                                                                       B. many public institutions have to cut down enrollments
                                                                         of students
                                                                       C. teachers are not qualified enough for satisfactory
             --------------------------- -----------------------

                                                                            performance in classes
                                                                       D. there is keen competition for resources and attention of
                                                                            faculty between public and private institutions
                                                                   65. Which of the statements is not true?
                                                                       A. Though in difficulty, these institutions are determined to
                                                                            fulfill both research and teaching functions.
                                                                       B. More resources and effects of faculty are needed for
                                                                            research work than teaching work.
                                                                       C. American society has relied too much on their
                                                                            institutions of higher education to allow them for easy
                                                                            adjustment to all their functions.
                                                                      D. American society has failed to provide these institutions

                                                                   with adequate resources to meet their needs.
with adequate resources to meet their needs.
                                        Passage Two
       With the possible exception of equal rights, perhaps the most controversial
issue across the United States today is the death penalty. Many argue that it is an
effective deterrent (威慑) to murder, while others maintain there is no convincing
evidence that the death penalty reduces the number of murders.
      The principal argument advanced by those opposed to the death penalty,
basically, is that it is cruel and inhuman punishment, that it is the mark of a brutal
society, and finally that it is of questionable effectiveness as a deterrent to crime
       In our opinion, the death penalty is a necessary evil. Throughout recorded
history there have always been those extreme individuals in every society who
were capable of terribly violent crimes such as murder. But some are more extreme
than others.
       Fox example, it is one thing to take the life of another in a fit of blind rage,
but quite another to coldly plot and carry out the murder of one or more people in
the style of a butcher. Thus, murder, like all other crimes, is a matter of relative
degree. While it could be argued with some conviction that the criminal in the first
instance should be merely isolated from society, such should not be the fate of the
latter type murderer.
     The value of the death penalty as a deterrent to crime may be open to debate.
But the overwhelming majority of citizens believe that the death penalty protects
them. Their belief is reinforced by evidence which shows that the death penalty
deters murder. For example, from 1954 to 1963, when the death penalty was
consistently imposed in California, the murder rate remained between three and
four murders for each 100, 000 population. Since 1964 the death penalty has been
imposed only once, and the murder rate has risen to 10.4 murders for each 100, 000
population. The sharp climb in the state’s murder rate, which began when
executions stopped, is no coincidence (巧合). It is convincing evidence that the
death penalty does deter many murderers. If the bill reestablishing the death
penalty is vetoed (否决), innocent people will be murdered—some whose lives
may have been saved if the death penalty were in effect. This is literally a life or
death matter. The lives of thousands of innocent people must be protected.
66. The principal purpose of this passage is to ______.
     A. criticize the government
     B. argue for the value of the death penalty
     C. speak for the majority
     D. initiate a veto
67. The passage attempts to establish a relationship between ______.
                                                                  A. the importance of equal rights and that of the death
                                                                   B. executions and murders
                                                                   C. the murder rate and the imposition of the death penalty
                                                                   D. the effects of execution and the effects of isolation
     -------------------------                                68. The author’s response to those who urge the death penalty
                                                                    for all degrees of murder would most likely be ______.
                                                                   A. supportive B. hostile C. negative           D. friendly
                                                              69. In the passage the author is primarily concerned with ____.
                                                                   A. supporting a position            B. describing an event
                                                                   C. analyzing a problem objectively D. settling a dispute
        卷                                                     70. It can be inferred that the author thinks that ______.

                                                                A. the veto of the bill reestablishing the death penalty is of
                                                                     little importance
                                                                B. the value of the death penalty as a deterrent to crime is
                                                                     not to be debated
    (                                                           C. the death penalty is the most controversial issue in the
    密                                                                United States today
    线 密                                                         D. the second type murderers (in Paragraph 4)should be

索   内
    不                                                                sentenced to death
                                                                                         Passage Three
                                                                 Imagine a world in which there was suddenly no emotion—a
                                                              world in which human beings could feel no love or happiness,
                                                              no terror or hate. Try to imagine the consequences of such a
     --------------------------- --------------------------

                                                              transformation. People might not be able to stay alive: knowing
                                                              neither joy nor pleasure, neither anxiety nor fear, they would be
                                                              as likely to repeat acts that hurt them as acts that were
                                                              beneficial. They could not learn: they could not benefit from
                                                              experience because this emotionless world would lack rewards
                                                              and punishments. Society would soon disappear: people would
                                                              be as likely to harm one another as to provide help and support.
                                                              Human relationships would not exist: in a world without
                                                              friends or enemies, there could be no marriage, affection
                                                              among companions, or bonds among members of groups.
                                                              Society’s economic underpinnings (支柱) would be destroyed:
                                                              since earning $10 million would be no more pleasant than,
earning $10, there would be no incentive to work. In fact, there would be no
incentives of any kind. For as we will see, incentives imply a capacity to enjoy
    In such a world, the chances that the human species would survive are next
to zero, because emotions are the basic instrument of our survival and
adaptation. Emotions structure the world for us in important ways. As
individuals, we categorize objects on the basis of our emotions. True we consider
the length, shape, size, or texture, but an object’s physical aspects are less
important than what it has done or can do to us—hurt us, surprise us, anger us or
make us joyful. We also use categorizations colored by emotions in our families,
communities, and overall society. Out of our emotional experiences with objects
and events comes a social feeling of agreement that certain things and actions are
“good” and others are “bad”, and we apply these categories to every aspect of
our social life—from what foods we eat and what clothes we wear to how we
keep promises and which people our group will accept. In fact, society exploits
our emotional reactions and attitudes, such as loyalty, morality, pride, shame,
guilt, fear and greed, in order to maintain itself. It gives high rewards to
individuals who perform important tasks such as surgery, makes heroes out of
individuals for unusual or dangerous achievements such as flying fighter planes
in a war, and uses the legal penal system to make people afraid to engage in
antisocial acts.
71. The reason why people might not be able to stay alive in a world without
    emotion is that ___.
    A. they would not be able to tell the texture of objects.
    B. they wouldn’t know what was beneficial and what was harmful to them.
    C. they would not be happy with a life without love.
    D. they would do things that hurt each other’s feelings
72. According to the passage, people’s learning activities are possible because
    they ___.
    A. believe that emotions are fundamental for them to stay alive.
    B. benefit from providing help and support to one another.
    C. enjoy being rewarded for doing the right thing.
    D. know what is vital to the progress of society.
73. It can be inferred from the passage that the economic foundation of society is
    dependent on___.
    A. the ability to make money.          B. the will to work for pleasure
    C. the capacity to enjoy incentives.
    D. the categorizations of our emotional experiences

                                                              74. Emotions are significant for man’s survival and adaptation
                                                                  because ____.
                                                                  A. they provide the means by which people view size
                                                                      /shape of objects.
                                                                  B. they are the basis for the social feeling of agreement by
     -------------------------                                       which society is maintained.
                                                                  C. they encourage people to perform dangerous
                                                                  D. they generate more love than hate among people.
                                                              75. The emotional aspects of an object are more important than
                                                                   its physical aspects in that they ___.
        卷                                                         A. help society exploit its members for profit.

                                                                  B. encourage us to perform important tasks.
                                                                  C. help to perfect the legal and penal system.
                                                                  D. help us adapt out behavior to the world surrounding us

                                                              IV. Paraphrase (10%)
    密                                                         1. And today, at 29, he had discovered the power of another
    线 密                                                          good idea that has helped him rise in just a few years from

索   内
    不                                                            teen to tycoon.
    答                                                         2. I italicize the need for power because, unlike the other four
    题                                                            needs that are shared to some extent by many higher animals,
                                                                 the way we continually struggle for power in every aspect of
                                                                 our lives seems uniquely human.
                                                              3. Identity is determined by genetic endowment, shaped by
                                                                 environment, and influenced by chance events.
     --------------------------- --------------------------

                                                              4. He was not the first to inhabit such a thing. But he was the
                                                                 first who ever did so by choice, out of principle.
                                                              5. When word of the surrender reached the nearby Union
                                                                 headquarters it touched off a spree of cannon firing. Grant
                                                                 put an end to it.
        线                                                     V. Translation (15%)
                                                              1. 对大多数中国人来说,统一我们的国家是一个非常严肃
                                                              2. 在外交上,我们奉行和平共处的政策。
                                                              3. 他在最近出版的书里整整一章讲这个题目。
                                                              4. 今天,腐败问题已经成为全球关切的问题。
5. 我们把我们所有的毕业生,不只是几个名人,都看作我们学校的荣耀。

VI. Composition (15%)
Directions: In this part, you should write a composition of about 150 words on
            College Students and Cell Phones . The outline is given below:

1. 大学生使用手机人数在增多及其原因
2. 手机也给学生带来了一些问题
3. 你的观点

   课 程 名 称       综合英语(III)
   试 卷 适 用 班 级   4051080101/02
   命 题 负 责 人
   授 课 教 师
   命 题 日 期

Keys (A)
I. 1-5 CBBAD 6-10 DDCCC 11-15 DBBAC 16-20 ADAAD 21-25 BDABA
26-30 CCADB 31-35 ADAAC 36-40 BCDBC
II. 41-45 DACAD 46-50 BCBAC 51-55 DABDC 56-60 ACBBA
III. 61-65. CBACA 66-70 CACDD 71-75 BCCBD
IV. 1. And today, at 29, he has discovered that his another good idea has helped him become a
   wealthy person in just a few years.
2. The reason why I italicize the need for power is that, unlike the other four needs which many
   higher animals also have, the need for power seems exclusively a human need.
3. Who we are is determined by three things: First, our genes, or what our parents have given
   us, our legacy; second, environment, and third, luck or opportunities.
4. He was not the first to live in a cask. But he was the first who ever did so because he wanted
   to, based on a principle, and not by necessity, not because he was forced to.
5. When the soldiers nearby Union headquarters heard the news of surrender, they fired a
   period of cannon to celebrate the victory. But Grant stopped it.
V. 1. For most Chinese people, the unification of our country is a serious / solemn commitment.
2. In foreign affairs, we pursue a policy of peaceful co-existence.
3. He devoted a whole chapter to this subject in his recently published book.
4. Today the corruption problem has become a matter of international concern.
5. We regard all our former students, not just a few celebrities, as the credit to our university.
1-60 每个 0.5 分,61-75 每个 2 分
IV. Paraphrase: (每题 2 分)
      第一档(1.5--2.0 分):要求所写句子忠实于原文的意思和风格;语句流畅 (必须
      第二档 (1.0--1.5 分):要求所写句子忠实于原文的意思;语句比较流畅 (合乎英
      第三档 (0--0.5 分):所写句子与原文有很大偏差;语句不通顺,不符合英文的语
IV. Translation:(每题 3 分)
      第一档(2.0--3.0 分):要求译文忠实于原文(忠实于原文的意思和风格);要求
译文流畅 (必须合乎所译英文或中文的语法习惯);无语法错误。
      第二档 (1.0--2.0 分):要求译文忠实于原文(忠实于原文的意思);要求译文比
较流畅 (合乎所译英文或中文的语法习惯);语法错误不得多于两处。
      第三档 (0—1.0 分):译文与原文有很大偏差;译文不通顺,不符合所译英文或中
V. 作文一个,满分十五分。

  第一档(14-15 分):字数达到 150 个单词;结构合理;条理清楚,观点明确;语言
  第二档(10-13 分):结构比较合理;条理比较清楚,观点明确;语言比较准确;语
  第三档 (6-9 分):结构基本合理;条理不甚清楚,观点基本明确;语言不甚准确;
第四档 (0-5 分):结构混乱;条理不清,观点不明;语言不准;语法错误很多;字迹潦
注:字数不够,每少于 20-30 字扣 1-2 分。


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