Food Safety Efforts Accelerate in the s - A safe food supply by NASSdocs

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									                                                                   Food Safety




              Food Safety Efforts
            Accelerate in the 1990’s
                                              Stephen R. Crutchfield            Tanya Roberts
                                                 (202) 694-5460                (202) 694-5464
                                               scrutch@ers.usda.gov          tanyar@ers.usda.gov




                                                      in the Nation’s history, it had an       food thermometers to ensure that

A
         wareness of the health risks
         from foodborne disease has                   important impact on public aware-        hamburgers reach an internal tem-
         increased over the past 10                   ness of the risks from microbial         perature of 160o F.
years. Although the Nation’s food                     pathogens. The outbreak received
supply remains among the safest in                    wide publicity because the source of     Food Inspection Systems
the world, widely publicized out-                     the illness was a frequently con-
                                                      sumed food (hamburgers) and
                                                                                               Are Modernized
breaks of foodborne illness caused
by such sources as Escherichia coli (E.               because children were particularly          Increasing concerns about food-
coli) O157:H7 in hamburger, Listeria                  susceptible.                             borne illnesses linked to microbial
monocytogenes in hot dogs, and Sal-                      The Federal Government re-            pathogens in meat and poultry
monella in poultry and eggs have                      sponded in several ways. The Food        accelerated efforts to modernize and
raised the public’s concerns about                    and Drug Administration (FDA)            strengthen the Nation’s meat and
risks from microbial pathogens in                     raised the recommended internal          poultry inspection system. Since the
food.                                                 temperature to which restaurants         turn of the century, national food
   The Federal Government and the                     cook hamburgers to 155o F. USDA’s        safety laws have required inspection
private sector have responded with                    Food Safety and Inspection Service       of all carcasses and meat products in
a variety of efforts to protect and                   (FSIS) responded by declaring E. coli    interstate commerce; poultry was
enhance the safety of the foods we                    O157:H7 an adulterant in raw             added in 1957. Inspection ensured
eat. This article reviews the impor-                  ground beef and implementing a           meat and poultry products were
tant events in food safety of the last                sampling program to test for the         sound, healthful and wholesome,
decade and looks ahead at new                         pathogen in raw ground beef pre-         with no dyes, chemicals, preserva-
efforts to reduce microbial contami-                  pared in federally inspected estab-      tives, or ingredients that would ren-
nation of foods.                                      lishments and in retail stores. FSIS     der products unfit for people to eat.
                                                      also required a label with safe food        In federally inspected meat and
                                                      handling instructions be placed on       poultry slaughterhouses, FSIS con-
Foodborne Illness                                     consumer packages of raw meat and        ducted a labor-intensive examina-
Outbreak Raises Concern                               poultry. The label emphasizes cook-      tion of each carcass, its lymph
                                                      ing foods thoroughly, storing foods      nodes, and its internal organs. If
and Action                                            in the refrigerator, discarding left-    there was no evidence of disease,
   In 1993, an outbreak of foodborne                  overs if not refrigerated immedi-        the animal was considered suitable
illness attributed to E. coli O157:H7                 ately, and washing surfaces, uten-       for human consumption. In all meat
in undercooked hamburgers from                        sils, and hands after touching raw       and poultry establishments, inspec-
fast-food restaurants in several                      meat or poultry. USDA also re-           tors also checked the operation of
western States led to 700 illnesses                   sponded with an information cam-         equipment (such as verifying refrig-
and 4 deaths. Although not the                        paign in schools to alert children not   eration and cooking temperatures);
largest outbreak of foodborne illness                 to eat hamburgers that are still pink    oversaw plant sanitation during
                                                      inside after cooking. This advice        processing and cleanup; and in pro-
                                                      was subsequently changed due to          cessing plants, inspectors checked
  Crutchfield is a branch chief and Roberts is an     new scientific findings, and con-        labels, product net weight, and the
economist with the Food and Rural Economics
Division, Economic Research Service, USDA.            sumers are now encouraged to use


                                                        FoodReview • Volume 23, Issue 3
                                                                       44
                                                      Food Safety


ingredients used in making the           poultry products to ensure that the       cessors using a HACCP plan con-
products.                                system meets the target level of          tinue to be monitored under FDA
   This inspection system removed        safety. Plants and FSIS share respon-     surveillance and inspection pro-
diseased animals from the food sup-      sibility for verifying the effective-     grams. This rule was implemented
ply and enforced sanitary standards      ness of the HACCP system. FSIS            in stages, with complete implemen-
in slaughter and processing, but a       tests for Salmonella on raw meat and      tation effective in late 1997.
serious gap remained. Today, we          poultry products, and slaughter              Outbreaks of foodborne illness
know that some human pathogens           plants test for generic E. coli on car-   associated with contaminated fruit
live in the gastrointestinal tract of    casses. Another component of the          juices led to new safety rules for
food animals without harming             new system requires federally             juices. In October 1996, at least 66
them. The former inspection system       inspected meat and poultry plants         people in the Western United States
relied largely on organoleptic (sen-     to develop written sanitation stan-       and Canada became ill after drink-
sory) methods—sight, smell, and          dard operating procedures to show         ing unpasteurized apple juice conta-
sense of touch—to identify unsafe        how they meet daily sanitation            minated with E. coli O157:H7. In
products. This method of inspecting      requirements.                             response, FDA proposed regulations
raw meat and poultry missed micro-          USDA’s Economic Research Ser-          to increase the safety of fresh and
bial pathogens, such as E. coli          vice (ERS) conducted a benefit/cost       processed juices. Initially, in 1998,
O157:H7 or Salmonella, that did not      analysis of the new inspection sys-       FDA began requiring warning labels
cause illness in animals.                tem. The estimated savings in med-        on all unpasteurized juice or juice
   To close this gap, FSIS strength-     ical costs and productivity losses        not otherwise treated to control ill-
ened the meat and poultry inspec-        due to prevention of foodborne ill-       ness-causing pathogens. The labels
tion process. On February 3, 1995,       nesses caused by four microbial           allow consumers to avoid unpas-
FSIS published a proposal for a new      pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, Salmo-        teurized or untreated juices, thereby
inspection system for all federally      nella, Listeria monocytogenes, and        lessening risk. On January 18, 2001,
inspected meat and poultry plants.       Campylobacter) were compared with         FDA published final regulations
The new system was implemented           the Federal and industry costs            requiring that all domestic and
in stages. By January 1998, plants       involved with assessing and devel-        foreign fruit and vegetable proces-
with more than 500 employees,            oping control procedures, antimicro-      sors use HACCP procedures to pre-
which slaughter 75 percent of U.S.       bial treatments, recordkeeping,           vent, reduce, or eliminate hazards
meat and poultry, were using the         employee training, and microbial          in juices. Depending on size,
new system. Plants with 10 to 500        testing. ERS found that the public        companies have 1 to 3 years to
employees came under the new reg-        health benefits of the new system,        implement HACCP programs.
ulations in January 1999. Very small     even under low-range assumptions          Processors must continue to use the
establishments, those with fewer         about the effectiveness of the rule,      previously required warning label
than 10 employees or annual sales        were greater than its costs.              statement until they implement
of less than $2.5 million, had until                                               HACCP programs.
January 2000 to comply.                  New Regulations Cover
   The new system required all regu-                                               Food Safety Initiatives
lated plants to adopt Hazard Analy-
                                         Seafood and Juice
sis and Critical Control Points             In December 1995, FDA an-
                                                                                   Bring New Resources
(HACCP) procedures. Plants had to        nounced a rule requiring seafood             On January 25, 1997, President
develop HACCP plans to monitor           processors to identify hazards that,      Clinton announced the National
and control production operations.       without preventive controls, are rea-     Food Safety Initiative, a multi-
Plants first identify food safety haz-   sonably likely to affect the safety of    agency effort to strengthen and
ards and critical control points in      seafood products. If at least one         improve food safety in the United
their production, processing, and        such hazard can be identified, the        States. The initiative included sev-
marketing activities. Plants then        seafood firm is required to adopt         eral new programs to promote food
establish critical limits, or maximum    and implement an appropriate              safety, including improved inspec-
or minimum levels, for each critical     HACCP plan. In addition to helping        tion and preventive systems, such
control point. Finally, plants develop   ensure that seafood products are          as HACCP, new tests to detect
monitoring procedures to ensure the      free of contaminants, this process        pathogens, and increased funding
critical limits are met.                 helps processors who subsequently         for FDA inspections and for food
   HACCP includes steps for record-      have food safety problems deter-          safety research. This research would
keeping and verification, including      mine how and when those problems          include ways to assess risks in the
some microbial testing of meat and       could have occurred. Seafood pro-         food supply, improve response to


                                              September-December 2000
                                                          45
                                                     Food Safety


foodborne illness outbreaks, and                                                   The FoodNet surveillance system
improve coordination among the                                                  has led to a more comprehensive
Federal agencies responsible for                                                assessment of the scope and extent
food safety.                                                                    of foodborne disease in the United
   The initiative established a                                                 States. Using surveillance data from
national educational campaign for                                               FoodNet, researchers in 1999 esti-
safer food handling practices in                                                mated that foodborne diseases cause
homes and retail outlets. The Fight                                             approximately 76 million illnesses,
BAC!TM campaign is the product of                                               325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,200
the Partnership for Food Safety                                                 deaths in the United States each
Education, a unique public-private                                              year. Known pathogens account for
partnership of industry, Govern-                                                an estimated 14 million illnesses,
ment, and consumer groups dedi-                                                 60,000 hospitalizations, and 1,800
cated to increasing the awareness of                                            deaths. Unknown agents account for
food safety and reducing the inci-                                              the remaining illnesses, hospitaliza-
dence of foodborne illness. This        systems in foreign countries to         tions, and deaths. Three pathogens,
education effort augmented efforts      ensure that foods coming from over-     Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes,
by farmers, processors, and retailers   seas are as safe as those produced at   and Toxoplasma, are responsible for
to reduce risk of foodborne hazards.    home. The initiative enhanced FDA       1,500 deaths each year. ERS has
Through this public education cam-      oversight for imported foods,           used these new estimates of the
paign, a focused and more unified       improved inspection activities          number of cases and deaths to
program is available to consumers,      abroad, and provided guidance           revise its estimate of the annual
who share in the responsibility of      about good agricultural and manu-       costs of foodborne disease (see box).
safe food handling. The core mes-       facturing practices.                       The 1999 FoodNet data suggest
sage of the Fight BAC!TM campaign                                               that foodborne diseases cause more
is similar to the food handling mes-                                            illnesses but fewer deaths than pre-
sage for meat and poultry:              FoodNet System                          viously thought. CDC estimated in
                                        Increases Scientific                    1994 that 6 million to 33 million cases
  1) Clean: Wash hands and sur-                                                 of foodborne illness occur each year,
     faces often.                       Knowledge                               resulting in 4,000 to 9,000 deaths.
  2) Separate foods: Don’t cross-          The early-warning surveillance          Data from the last few years show
     contaminate.                       system called FoodNet was estab-        that private and public efforts to
  3) Cook: Cook to proper               lished in 1996 to monitor illness due   promote safer food are beginning to
     temperatures.                      to foodborne pathogens in five areas    show results. Due in part to the
                                        around the country. FoodNet is a        implementation of HACCP systems
  4) Chill: Refrigerate foods
                                        joint effort by the Centers for Dis-    in meat and poultry processing,
     promptly after cooking.
                                        ease Control and Prevention (CDC),      progress is being made in reducing
   This campaign has been imple-        USDA, FDA, and State health             the presence of microbial pathogens
mented in brochures, outreach           departments to capture a more accu-     in the food supply. Data from USDA
efforts, TV and radio spots, and        rate and complete picture of food-      show a reduction of up to 50 percent
through the Internet. This campaign     borne illness trends and to gather      in Salmonella in meat and poultry in
is very successful and widely used      data necessary to prevent outbreaks.    recent years. Preliminary data from
in schools.                                In 1997, FoodNet was expanded        CDC show a decline in the inci-
   In the past few years, there have    to monitor illness due to nine          dence of several foodborne diseases.
been some highly publicized cases       pathogens in eight sites: Connecti-     FoodNet data show that from 1997
of foodborne disease outbreaks          cut, Georgia, Minnesota, Oregon,        to 1999, illness from the most com-
linked to fruits and vegetables, and    and selected counties in California,    mon bacterial foodborne pathogens
some linked to imported foods. In       Maryland, New York, and Ten-            declined nearly 20 percent. This
response, the Clinton Administra-       nessee. In 2000, additional counties    decline represents at least 855,000
tion announced the Produce and          in Tennessee were added to the          fewer Americans each year suffering
Imported Food Safety Initiative on      FoodNet surveillance area. The pro-     from foodborne illness caused by
October 2, 1997. This initiative        gram currently surveys a population     bacteria since 1997. Between 1998
aimed to upgrade domestic food          of 29 million people. Colorado will     and 1999, the data show a 25-per-
safety standards and to strengthen      join FoodNet surveillance in 2001.      cent decline in the number of E. coli
domestic inspection and food safety                                             O157:H7 infections, although there


                                          FoodReview • Volume 23, Issue 3
                                                        46
                                                       Food Safety


are year-to-year fluctuations in the         Limited markets for irradiated        eggs. The regulation also required
number of infections and it may be        poultry developed in the mid-            that, when held by retail establish-
too early to tell if this represents a    1990’s, primarily selected hospitals     ments, shell eggs be stored and dis-
permanent decline. The data also          and nursing homes feeding people         played at a temperature of 45o F or
show a 41-percent drop in the inci-       at risk for foodborne disease, such      lower.
dence of Shigella infections and a 19-    as the elderly. Huisken Meats, a            The risk assessment also con-
percent decline in the number of ill-     Minnesota-based food manufac-            cluded that a broadly based, ‘farm-
nesses caused by Campylobacter.           turer, began marketing irradiated        to-table’ approach to reduce risks
  The incidence of infections by Sal-     hamburger patties in the Minneapo-       from Salmonella Enteriditis could
monella Enteritidis, a serotype of Sal-   lis-St. Paul area in May 2000, and       potentially achieve a 25-percent
monella infection often associated        other firms have since introduced        reduction in human illnesses from
with egg consumption, declined 7          irradiated beef products in addi-        this pathogen. Controlling
percent during 1998-99, according to      tional markets.                          pathogens at the farm level, holding
the FoodNet data. However, overall           Still, the potential for widespread   eggs at proper temperature during
incidence of Salmonella infection         use of irradiation is uncertain. Sur-    transport and sale, and safe han-
increased from 1998 to 1999, due to       veys of consumers in the FoodNet         dling by consumers can all help pre-
several large outbreaks of salmonel-      sites indicate that about half of con-   vent salmonellosis.
losis from other sources, including       sumers questioned had heard about           In August of 1999, the President’s
unpasteurized orange juice,               food irradiation, and that about half    Council on Food Safety announced
imported mangos, and raw sprouts.         would buy irradiated meat or poul-       an Egg Safety Action Plan. The plan
                                          try. Education about the potential       set goals of a 50-percent reduction in
                                          benefits of irradiation might pro-       egg-associated Salmonella Enteriditis
Possible Future Direction                 mote consumer acceptance. Accord-        illnesses by 2005 and the eventual
for Meat and Poultry                      ing to the FoodNet survey, the most      elimination of Salmonella Enteriditis
                                          frequent reason respondents gave         in eggs as an important source of
Safety                                    for not being willing to buy irradi-     human illness by 2010, through sci-
   Government and industry con-           ated meat or poultry was “insuffi-       ence-based and coordinated regula-
tinue to look for ways to increase        cient information” about food irra-      tion, inspection, enforcement,
the safety of our foods. Several tech-    diation.                                 research, and education programs.
niques are being explored, including
irradiation. Irradiation, a process       Action Plan Announced                    New Educational Efforts
that exposes products to ionizing
radiation, can control or reduce
                                          for Egg Safety                           Underway
microbial pathogens that may cause           The safety of eggs and egg prod-         Along with farmers, processors,
foodborne disease. Use of this tech-      ucts remains a concern, particularly     retailers, and foodservice workers,
nology on foods requires approval         the risk of human infection from         consumers are integral to improving
by FDA. FSIS must also approve its        Salmonella Enteritidis. Each year,       food safety. In May 2000, USDA
use on meat and poultry. FDA              100,000 to 150,000 cases of food-        took two steps to increase consumer
approved the use of irradiation to        borne illnesses are caused by Salmo-     awareness of the importance of food
control microbial pathogens on            nella Enteritidis from shell eggs. A     safety and to encourage safe food
poultry in 1990 and on meat in 1997.      comprehensive risk assessment by         handling and preparation behavior.
USDA granted its approvals in 1992        USDA in 1998 estimated that of the       On May 25, USDA launched a
and 1999.                                 47 billion shell eggs consumed           national campaign to promote the
   Although scientific evidence indi-     annually, 2.3 million are Salmonella     use of food thermometers in the
cates that irradiation is safe and        Enteritidis-positive, exposing a large   home. Previous education
effective for these uses, few proces-     number of people to the risk of ill-     stressed the               
sors or retailers offered irradiated      ness. The risk assessment also deter-    importance
foods during the 1990’s. Many food        mined that 8 percent of egg-trans-       of thorough
processors and retailers were con-        mitted Salmonella Enteritidis            cooking, par-
cerned that some consumers would          illnesses could be avoided if all eggs   ticularly of
not buy irradiated foods. Retailers       are refrigerated at 45o F throughout     hamburgers.
and processors were also reluctant        processing and distribution.             Consumers
to supply such foods for fear of boy-        On November 30, 2000, FDA             were advised
cotts by groups opposed to food           issued a regulation requiring safe       to cook
                                                                                                       Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA




irradiation.                              handling labels on untreated shell


                                               September-December 2000
                                                          47
                                                        Food Safety



 ERS Updates Foodborne Illness Costs
    Using revised estimates of the        people employed in high-risk occupa-       ness costs for E. coli O157:H7 by age
 annual number of foodborne illnesses     tions. This single value was applied       at time of death increases the esti-
 in 1998 released by CDC in Septem-       to all premature deaths, regardless of     mates by $68 million because most
 ber 1999, ERS updated foodborne ill-     the age at which the death occurred.       deaths occur in children under the
 ness costs for four major pathogens:     The value of a premature death was         age of 5.
 Campylobacter (all serotypes), Salmo-    $6.5 million in August 2000 dollars.          ERS currently measures the pro-
 nella (nontyphoidal serotypes only),     Using new data on the age distribu-        ductivity losses due to nonfatal food-
 E. coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocy-    tion of deaths caused by the five          borne illnesses by the value of fore-
 togenes. The new estimates of the        pathogens, ERS now adjusts the eco-        gone or lost wages, regardless of
 number of cases, hospitalizations,       nomic cost of premature deaths to          whether the lost wages involved a
 and deaths from these foodborne          account for age at time of death.          few days missed from work or a per-
 pathogens were derived, in part, from    Under the age-adjusted approach, the       manent disability that prevented an
 data gathered by the FoodNet sur-        assumed cost of each death ranges          individual from returning to work.
 veillance system. For the first time,    from $8.9 million for a child who dies     Using the value of lost wages for
 ERS also included the costs due to       before his or her first birthday to $1.7   cases resulting in disability under-
 other Shiga toxin-producing strains of   million for a person who dies at age       states an individual’s willingness to
 E. coli, collectively known as E. coli   85 or older.                               pay to avoid disability because it
 non-O157:H7 STEC. ERS estimates             Because the five microbial              does not account for the value placed
 that the annual economic costs of        pathogens have different health out-       on avoiding pain and suffering.
 medical care, productivity losses, and   comes for different age groups,               The willingness-to-pay measure
 premature deaths due to foodborne        adjusting for the age of death raises      derived from labor market studies
 illnesses caused by these five patho-    the cost of some foodborne illnesses       that ERS uses to value a premature
 gens are $6.9 billion (see table next    and lowers the cost of others. For         death is not an appropriate measure
 page).                                   example, the annual cost of food-          of willingness to pay to avoid disabil-
    Along with new data on illnesses,     borne illnesses caused by Salmonella       ity because it measures the higher
 cases, and deaths, ERS also revised      decreases from $3.7 billion to $2.4 bil-   wages paid to workers to accept a
 the methodology for valuing prema-       lion, when adjusted for age at the         higher risk of premature death, not
 ture deaths. In the past, ERS valued a   time of death, because over two-           disability. Methods have been sug-
 premature death by using a “risk pre-    thirds of the deaths from salmonel-        gested to adjust willingness to pay to
 mium” revealed by labor market           losis occur in people over 65. On the      reduce the risk of premature death
 studies of the higher wages paid to      other hand, adjusting foodborne ill-       downward to estimate willingness to


ground beef until the meat is no          and diet education efforts. In May          responses by producers have helped
longer pink.                              2000, USDA released the newest edi-         control and reduce risks from micro-
   However, more recent research          tion of Dietary Guidelines for Ameri-       bial pathogens. New research and
has shown that color alone may not        cans (see “Nutrition Policy in the          surveillance efforts have helped us
be a good indicator of the presence       1990’s” elsewhere in this issue). The       better determine the extent of food-
of potentially dangerous bacteria in      2000 edition of the Dietary Guidelines      borne illness in the United States
hamburger. USDA research shows            for the first time includes a message       and the most important sources of
that as many as one out of four           on food safety. One of the 10 guide-        food safety risks. Educational efforts
hamburgers turns brown in the mid-        lines says, “Keep food safe to eat,”        have increased public awareness
dle before reaching a safe internal       and repeats the message of the              and enabled consumers to protect
temperature. Consumers are now            FightBAC!TM campaign to “Clean,             themselves from foodborne dis-
encouraged to use food thermome-          Separate, Cook, and Chill.” The             eases. ERS will continue to assess
ters to ensure that meat and poultry      food safety guideline concludes             the economic consequences of pub-
(including ground meats) reaches an       with the sensible message taught to         lic and private efforts to increase the
internal temperature of 160º F. The       many of us by our parents: “When            safety of our food supply.
campaign features a digital ther-         in doubt, throw it out.”
mometer messenger called                     The developments in food safety          References
Thermy™ that proclaims, “It’s safe        policy during the last decade have
to bite when the temperature is           helped the Nation make progress in            Buzby, J. C., and R. M. Morrison.
right!”                                   the goal of ensuring the safest possi-      “Food Irradiation—An Update,”
   Food safety messages are also          ble food supply. Changes in regula-         FoodReview, Vol. 22, No. 2, May-
being incorporated in other food          tions governing food production and         August 1999, pp. 21-22.


                                            FoodReview • Volume 23, Issue 3
                                                           48
                                                             Food Safety



 Estimated Annual Costs of Five Foodborne Pathogens Total $6.9 Billion

                                                                                                                           Estimated
                                                                    Estimated annual foodborne illnesses1                    annual
                                                                                                                          foodborne
   Pathogen                                                       Cases           Hospitalizations       Deaths          illness costs2
                                                                                      Number                              $ billion3

   Campylobacter spp.                                           1,963,141             10,539                 99               1.2
   Salmonella, nontyphoidal                                     1,341,873             15,608                553               2.4
   E. coli O157:H7                                                 62,458              1,843                 52                .7
   E. coli, non-O157 STEC                                          31,229                921                 26                .3
   Listeria monocytogenes                                           2,493              2,298                499               2.3
   Total                                                        3,401,194             31,209              1,229               6.9
 1From   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (see Mead et al.,1999).
 2The total estimated costs include specific chronic complications in the case of Campylobacter (Guillain-Barré syndrome),
 E. coli O157:H7 (Hemolytic uremic syndrome), and Listeria monocytogenes (congenital and newborn infections resulting in
 chronic disability or impairment). Estimated costs for Listeria monocytogenes exclude less severe cases not requiring hospitalization.
 3August 2000 dollars.
 Source: USDA’s Economic Research Service.



 pay to avoid disability, but there is no        As these new estimates of food-            increasing over time. ERS will con-
 consensus among economists. ERS’             borne illness costs are based on new          tinue to update and refine these cost
 conservative estimates of the annual         data and improved methodologies for           estimates. Research is also underway
 costs due to foodborne illnesses (par-       valuing these costs, the estimates pre-       to estimate the costs of arthritis
 ticularly the chronic conditions asso-       sented here are not directly compara-         caused by exposure to foodborne
 ciated with Campylobacter) would be          ble to earlier ERS estimates of the           pathogens.
 substantially increased if willingness       costs of foodborne disease. In addi-             For more information, contact
 to pay to avoid disability, pain, and        tion, because the underlying data are         Paul Frenzen at 202-694-5351 or
 suffering were also taken into               for a single year, the new cost esti-         pfrenzen@ers.usda.gov, or contact
 account.                                     mates should not be used to infer             Jean Buzby at 202-694-5370 or
                                              whether these costs are decreasing or         jbuzby@ers.usda.gov.


  Council for Agricultural Science            Bulletin 757. U.S. Department of                 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (fifth
and Technology Report. “Foodborne             Agriculture, Economic Research Ser-              edition). Home and Garden Bulletin
Pathogens: Risks and Conse-                   vice, August 2000.                               232. May 2000.
quences,” Task Force Report, No.                Frenzen, P., T. Riggs, J. Buzby, T.
122. Washington, DC: Council for              Breuer, T. Roberts, D. Voetsch, S.               For more information, go to:
Agricultural Science and Technol-             Reddy, and the FoodNet Working                   http://www.usda.ers.gov/empha-
ogy, September 1994.                          Group. “Salmonella Cost Estimate                 ses/SafeFood—ERS’s website.
  Crutchfield, S. R. “New Federal             Updated Using FoodNet Data,”                     http://www.foodsafety.gov—Infor-
Policies and Programs for Food                FoodReview, Vol. 22, No. 2, May-                 mation about food safety from sev-
Safety,” FoodReview, Vol. 22, No. 2,          August 1999, pp. 10-15.                          eral U.S. government agencies.
May-August 1999, pp. 2-5.                       Mead, Paul S., Laurence Slutsker,
                                                                                               http://www.usda.gov/fsis—Infor-
  Crutchfield, S. R., J. C. Buzby, T.         Vance Dietz, Linda F. McCaig,
                                                                                               mation about food safety from
Roberts, and M. Ollinger. “Assess-            Joseph S. Bresee, Craig Shapiro,
                                                                                               USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection
ing the Costs and Benefits of                 Patricia M. Griffin, and Robert V.
                                                                                               Service.
Pathogen Reduction,” FoodReview,              Tauxe. “Food-Related Illness and
Vol. 22, No. 2, May-August 1999, pp.          Death in the United States,” Emerg-              http://www.fightbac.org—Informa-
6-9.                                          ing Infectious Diseases, Vol. 5, No. 5,          tion about the Fight BAC!TM cam-
  Frenzen, P., A. Majchrowicz, J. C.          September-October 1999, pp. 607-                 paign.
Buzby, B. Imhoff, and the FoodNet             625.                                             http://www.csfan.fda.gov—Infor-
Working Group. Consumer Accep-                  U.S. Department of Agriculture,                mation from FDA’s Center for Food
tance of Irradiated Meat and Poultry          Center for Nutrition Policy and Pro-             Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Products. Agriculture Information             motion. Nutrition and Your Health:


                                                    September-December 2000
                                                                 49

								
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