2 Amsterdam Schiphol Airport
Location Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is situated 15 km to the South-west of the centre of
Amsterdam. It is the main airport of the Netherlands that has 16 mln. inhabitants.
Catchment area The airport’s catchment area is estimated at about 12 mln. people within two
hour’s driving time from the airport.
Passengers traffic Schiphol served 39,5 mln. travellers during 2001, of which 23,2 mln. were ori-
gin/destination passengers. The number of origin/destination passengers is fore-
casted at 39,6 mln. in 2010. Fifty percent of passengers travel for leisure reasons,
the other fifty percent for travel for business.
Employment In total, 53.880 are employed at the airport of which some 38.000 in the central
terminal area, 9.000 at Schiphol-East and 7.000 at other locations. The number of
employees is forecasted at 86.000 in 2010 (of which 53.000 in the central terminal
area). The main airline and employer at the airport is KLM.
Ownership and management Schiphol is managed by the Schiphol Group.
General information about accessibility
Schiphol can be reached by road (car, bus), train, high-speed train and via individ-
ual modes such as cycling. The airport is an important public transport hub for the
region with numerous rail and bus connections.
Access by road Schiphol is located along the A4 (north-south) and A9 (west-east) highways. Both
are quite heavily affected by congestion, depending on the time of day and the
Car parks are located at various locations at the airport. There are separate parking
facilities for passengers and employees.
Passenger car parking Passengers have 16.000 parking spots at their disposal – 6.000 close to the air ter-
minal at walking distance for short-term parking (P1 and P2), and 10.000 for long-
term parking more remote, to be reached by a dedicated bus service (P3). P7 is a
luxury parking facility, only accessible for paying members (not further described
here). There is also a valet parking service for which reservations have to be made
in advance (figure 2.1).
Parking fees for short-term parking are €3.40 an hour up to 3 hours, after which
the rate is €2,00 per hour. The maximum amount is €22,50 a day.
Long-term parking fees are €40,00 for the first 72 hours, after which the fee is
€4,50 for each additional 24 hours. The dedicated shuttle bus is free of charge and
drives every 10 minutes day and night.
Figure 2.1 Passenger parking facilities
Employee parking facilities For the central terminal area, there are a total of 9.000 parking places available for
employees. The number of spots is restricted; not every employee (38.000 in the
central terminal area) is entitled to parking space.
Of the 9.000 spots, 3.000 are located near to the terminal, the remaining 6.000 are
located remotely and can be reached by shuttle bus. All future growth of employee
parking spots is planned remote (another 4.000 in 2010).
Taxi services A taxi ride to downtown Amsterdam takes about 20 to 25 minutes (30 to 40 min-
utes in case of congestion) and costs €36 to € 40 depending on congestion.
Access by bus and coach All areas of the airport are accessible by bus, either through the regional bus net-
services work, the Schiphol ‘Sternet’ bus services or hotel shuttle services.
Regional bus services and Sternet - Many regional bus services stop at Schiphol,
connecting it to villages and towns in the direct vicinity and Amsterdam (see figure
2.2). Some of these services are high-quality services specifically aimed at commut-
ers. The Schiphol Sternet complements these regional services, focusing specifi-
cally on the Schiphol region. Sternet services are free for Schiphol-based employ-
ees at the airport premises; beyond it the regular fare system applies.
Figure 2.2 Schiphol Sternet
Some 10 lines in total stop at Schiphol (3 an hour to Amsterdam and 15 to the
region, during daytime), some at Schiphol Plaza (the central transport hub), some
at various other areas of the airport. To the city centre, a single trip by bus takes 30
minutes and costs €2,95.
Hotel shuttle services operate from the early morning to the late evening to a selec-
tion of downtown Amsterdam hotels and hotels in the vicinity of the airport. Most
have a frequency of 2 to 4 rides per hour.
Access by rail The Schiphol rail station was opened in 1978. It was then only connected to the
Amsterdam South station. Since, it has developed into the fifth largest rail station
in the Netherlands with direct connections to Amsterdam Central, Groningen,
Enchede and Brussels (figure 2.3). On average, 49.000 train passengers board or
unboard at the rail station daily. Schiphol will be a high-speed rail station. Now
already Thalys high-speed rail services are offered to Brussels and Paris, still using
low speed track in the Netherlands.
To Amsterdam central station, there are seven services an hour throughout the day
with hourly night services. Travel time is about 19 minutes. A single ticket costs
The Schiphol station itself has developed from a stand-alone station into the heart
of Schiphol’s multi-modal public transport interchange at ‘Schiphol Plaza’. There
are six underground platforms, covered by the aboveground terminal building with
adjacent bus and taxi platforms. Schiphol Plaza is integrated in the air terminal.
Figure 2.3 Rail network
Passengers The modal split for passengers in the years 1990 and 2000 is shown in table 2.1.
Table 2.1 Passenger modal split
Mode 1990 2000
Private car 14% 10%
Car, as passenger (kiss&ride) 40% 33%
Taxi/rent-a-car 15% 12%
Total individual transport 69% 55%
Train 25% 35%
Bus 3% 1%
Coach/hotel-services 3% 3%
Taxibus 0% 6%
Total collective transport 31% 45%
Total 100% 100%
Source: Schiphol Group
The modal split for employees in the years 1996, 1998/1999 and 2000/2001 was as
Employees follows (table 2.2):
Table 2.2 Employee modal split
Mode 1996 1998/1999 2000/2001
Car, alone 55,4% 55,5% 54,7%
Car, as passenger 3,3% 2,1% 2,1%
Car, as carpooler 13,4% 11,2% 12,8%
Total car 72,0% 68,8% 69,6%
Train 13,3% 14,8% 13,4%
Bus 6,1% 6,8% 7,9%
Total public transport 19,4% 22,6% 21,1%
Motorbike 2,3% 2,1% 2,8%
Bicycle / moped 5,4% 6,3% 6,4%
Other 0,8% 0,3% 0,1%
Total 100% 100% 100%
Source: Schiphol Mobility Studies 1996, 1998/1999, 2000/2001
Responsibility and financial Many parties are directly and indirectly involved with the accessibility of the air-
structures port. Direct involvement assumes that parties are able to determine the quality of
transport services through specific activities such as building and maintenance of
infrastructure and the operation of transport services. Indirect involvement as-
sumes that parties (partly) contribute to the quality of the surroundings of the air-
port in a way that affects the quality of transport services.
The following parties have are directly involved with the quality of accessibility
(parties having an indirect effect are not taken into consideration):
Central government maintains and invests in the main road system and deter-
mines transport policy. It is responsible for land planning, land planning proce-
dures, construction and financing. Infrastructure construction and maintenance are
funded from the central state budget. The state takes the initiative in infrastructure
policy, construction and maintenance.
Central government also determines policies with respect to connections to the
main road system, signposting, maintenance planning, etc. These tasks are carried
out under the responsibility of the Ministry of Transport’s Dorectorate-General of
Public Works and Water Management.
Provinces (of which there are 13 in the Netherlands) have a task similar to that of
central government, but it is limited to the provincial road network. For financing,
the provinces heavily depend on central government. Provinces take the initiative.
Municipalities are responsible for management and maintenance of the municipal
road network. For development of the road network however municipalities de-
pends on the provinces and central government. Municipalities are the party taking
The airport authority is responsible for all aspects related to road infrastructure
within the boundaries of the airport. In the case of Schiphol airport, Schiphol
Group does not consider itself to be responsible for financing infrastructure be-
yond its boundaries. Incidentally however, Schiphol Group has contributed to the
financing of infrastructure in the vicinity of the airport.
With respect to public transport, investments in heavy rail and fast rail connec-
tions are fully done by central government. For investments in regional public
transport facilities, a 5 to 10% contribution from the municipality or the region is
Also when it comes to the provision of public transport services, central govern-
ment plays a dominant role. Railway services are provided by Nederlandse Spoor-
wegen (Dutch Railways) following an agreement with the Ministry of Transport.
On the regional level, a similar structure between (local) government and operators
exists. In the case of Schiphol and surroundings, the “Regionaal Orgaan Amster-
dam” (ROA) contracts parts of the transport network in its own capacity or as a
joint venture with other parties. In the case of Schiphol Sternet (bus network
around Schiphol), ROA co-operates with Schiphol Group.
Specific accessibility policies Central government has stimulated the development of several major infrastruc-
ture projects near Schiphol. This was done to ensure the accessibility of the airport.
Schiphol Sternet is a formula for the provision of bus services in which dedicated
airport services and regional services are combined in one network. The service
has been in operation since March 2000.
New or innovative plans In January 2002, the “Zuidtangent” was taken into service. Zuidtangent is a 24-km
long two-way lane dedicated to bus services. Bus services making use of the Zuid-
tangent have a number if special features, including ground-level entries, informa-
tion provision at bus tops, and a management system that improves reliability and
punctuality. With the system, for example, traffic lights can be controlled to reduce
The long-term aim is to expand the service, which is currently offered on one line
only, to a number of services. The network structure which is to be created in this
way will contribute to the realisation of a high-quality regional transport concept
meeting the transport needs of the surrounding sub-urban municipalities.