2 Amsterdam Schiphol Airport

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					2 Amsterdam Schiphol Airport
Airport profile

Location                Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is situated 15 km to the South-west of the centre of
                        Amsterdam. It is the main airport of the Netherlands that has 16 mln. inhabitants.

Catchment area          The airport’s catchment area is estimated at about 12 mln. people within two
                        hour’s driving time from the airport.

Passengers traffic      Schiphol served 39,5 mln. travellers during 2001, of which 23,2 mln. were ori-
                        gin/destination passengers. The number of origin/destination passengers is fore-
                        casted at 39,6 mln. in 2010. Fifty percent of passengers travel for leisure reasons,
                        the other fifty percent for travel for business.

Employment              In total, 53.880 are employed at the airport of which some 38.000 in the central
                        terminal area, 9.000 at Schiphol-East and 7.000 at other locations. The number of
                        employees is forecasted at 86.000 in 2010 (of which 53.000 in the central terminal
                        area). The main airline and employer at the airport is KLM.

Ownership and management Schiphol is managed by the Schiphol Group.

General information about accessibility

                        Schiphol can be reached by road (car, bus), train, high-speed train and via individ-
                        ual modes such as cycling. The airport is an important public transport hub for the
                        region with numerous rail and bus connections.

Access by road          Schiphol is located along the A4 (north-south) and A9 (west-east) highways. Both
                        are quite heavily affected by congestion, depending on the time of day and the
                        direction taken.

                        Car parks are located at various locations at the airport. There are separate parking
                        facilities for passengers and employees.

Passenger car parking   Passengers have 16.000 parking spots at their disposal – 6.000 close to the air ter-
                        minal at walking distance for short-term parking (P1 and P2), and 10.000 for long-
                        term parking more remote, to be reached by a dedicated bus service (P3). P7 is a
                        luxury parking facility, only accessible for paying members (not further described
                        here). There is also a valet parking service for which reservations have to be made
                        in advance (figure 2.1).

                        Parking fees for short-term parking are €3.40 an hour up to 3 hours, after which
                        the rate is €2,00 per hour. The maximum amount is €22,50 a day.

                        Long-term parking fees are €40,00 for the first 72 hours, after which the fee is
                        €4,50 for each additional 24 hours. The dedicated shuttle bus is free of charge and
                        drives every 10 minutes day and night.

                              Figure 2.1   Passenger parking facilities

Employee parking facilities   For the central terminal area, there are a total of 9.000 parking places available for
                              employees. The number of spots is restricted; not every employee (38.000 in the
                              central terminal area) is entitled to parking space.

                              Of the 9.000 spots, 3.000 are located near to the terminal, the remaining 6.000 are
                              located remotely and can be reached by shuttle bus. All future growth of employee
                              parking spots is planned remote (another 4.000 in 2010).

Taxi services                 A taxi ride to downtown Amsterdam takes about 20 to 25 minutes (30 to 40 min-
                              utes in case of congestion) and costs €36 to € 40 depending on congestion.

 Access by bus and coach      All areas of the airport are accessible by bus, either through the regional bus net-
services                      work, the Schiphol ‘Sternet’ bus services or hotel shuttle services.

                              Regional bus services and Sternet - Many regional bus services stop at Schiphol,
                              connecting it to villages and towns in the direct vicinity and Amsterdam (see figure
                              2.2). Some of these services are high-quality services specifically aimed at commut-
                              ers. The Schiphol Sternet complements these regional services, focusing specifi-
                              cally on the Schiphol region. Sternet services are free for Schiphol-based employ-
                              ees at the airport premises; beyond it the regular fare system applies.

                 Figure 2.2    Schiphol Sternet

                 Some 10 lines in total stop at Schiphol (3 an hour to Amsterdam and 15 to the
                 region, during daytime), some at Schiphol Plaza (the central transport hub), some
                 at various other areas of the airport. To the city centre, a single trip by bus takes 30
                 minutes and costs €2,95.

                 Hotel shuttle services operate from the early morning to the late evening to a selec-
                 tion of downtown Amsterdam hotels and hotels in the vicinity of the airport. Most
                 have a frequency of 2 to 4 rides per hour.

Access by rail   The Schiphol rail station was opened in 1978. It was then only connected to the
                 Amsterdam South station. Since, it has developed into the fifth largest rail station
                 in the Netherlands with direct connections to Amsterdam Central, Groningen,
                 Enchede and Brussels (figure 2.3). On average, 49.000 train passengers board or
                 unboard at the rail station daily. Schiphol will be a high-speed rail station. Now
                 already Thalys high-speed rail services are offered to Brussels and Paris, still using
                 low speed track in the Netherlands.

                 To Amsterdam central station, there are seven services an hour throughout the day
                 with hourly night services. Travel time is about 19 minutes. A single ticket costs

                 The Schiphol station itself has developed from a stand-alone station into the heart
                 of Schiphol’s multi-modal public transport interchange at ‘Schiphol Plaza’. There
                 are six underground platforms, covered by the aboveground terminal building with
                 adjacent bus and taxi platforms. Schiphol Plaza is integrated in the air terminal.

              Figure 2.3   Rail network

Modal split

Passengers    The modal split for passengers in the years 1990 and 2000 is shown in table 2.1.

              Table 2.1    Passenger modal split
              Mode                            1990           2000
              Private car                             14%              10%
              Car, as passenger (kiss&ride)           40%              33%
              Taxi/rent-a-car                         15%              12%
              Total individual transport              69%              55%
              Train                                   25%              35%
              Bus                                      3%               1%
              Coach/hotel-services                     3%               3%
              Taxibus                                  0%               6%
              Total collective transport              31%              45%
              Total                                  100%             100%
              Source: Schiphol Group

                               The modal split for employees in the years 1996, 1998/1999 and 2000/2001 was as
Employees                      follows (table 2.2):

                               Table 2.2    Employee modal split
                               Mode                                 1996            1998/1999         2000/2001
                               Car, alone                               55,4%              55,5%             54,7%
                               Car, as passenger                          3,3%              2,1%              2,1%
                               Car, as carpooler                        13,4%              11,2%             12,8%
                               Total car                                72,0%              68,8%             69,6%
                               Train                                    13,3%              14,8%             13,4%
                               Bus                                        6,1%              6,8%              7,9%
                               Total public transport                   19,4%              22,6%             21,1%
                               Motorbike                                  2,3%              2,1%              2,8%
                               Bicycle / moped                            5,4%              6,3%              6,4%
                               Other                                     0,8%               0,3%              0,1%
                               Total                                     100%              100%               100%
                               Source: Schiphol Mobility Studies 1996, 1998/1999, 2000/2001

Policy context

Responsibility and financial   Many parties are directly and indirectly involved with the accessibility of the air-
structures                     port. Direct involvement assumes that parties are able to determine the quality of
                               transport services through specific activities such as building and maintenance of
                               infrastructure and the operation of transport services. Indirect involvement as-
                               sumes that parties (partly) contribute to the quality of the surroundings of the air-
                               port in a way that affects the quality of transport services.

                               The following parties have are directly involved with the quality of accessibility
                               (parties having an indirect effect are not taken into consideration):

                               Central government maintains and invests in the main road system and deter-
                               mines transport policy. It is responsible for land planning, land planning proce-
                               dures, construction and financing. Infrastructure construction and maintenance are
                               funded from the central state budget. The state takes the initiative in infrastructure
                               policy, construction and maintenance.

                               Central government also determines policies with respect to connections to the
                               main road system, signposting, maintenance planning, etc. These tasks are carried
                               out under the responsibility of the Ministry of Transport’s Dorectorate-General of
                               Public Works and Water Management.

                               Provinces (of which there are 13 in the Netherlands) have a task similar to that of
                               central government, but it is limited to the provincial road network. For financing,
                               the provinces heavily depend on central government. Provinces take the initiative.

                               Municipalities are responsible for management and maintenance of the municipal
                               road network. For development of the road network however municipalities de-
                               pends on the provinces and central government. Municipalities are the party taking
                               the initiative.

                               The airport authority is responsible for all aspects related to road infrastructure
                               within the boundaries of the airport. In the case of Schiphol airport, Schiphol
                               Group does not consider itself to be responsible for financing infrastructure be-
                               yond its boundaries. Incidentally however, Schiphol Group has contributed to the
                               financing of infrastructure in the vicinity of the airport.

                                  With respect to public transport, investments in heavy rail and fast rail connec-
                                  tions are fully done by central government. For investments in regional public
                                  transport facilities, a 5 to 10% contribution from the municipality or the region is

                                  Also when it comes to the provision of public transport services, central govern-
                                  ment plays a dominant role. Railway services are provided by Nederlandse Spoor-
                                  wegen (Dutch Railways) following an agreement with the Ministry of Transport.
                                  On the regional level, a similar structure between (local) government and operators
                                  exists. In the case of Schiphol and surroundings, the “Regionaal Orgaan Amster-
                                  dam” (ROA) contracts parts of the transport network in its own capacity or as a
                                  joint venture with other parties. In the case of Schiphol Sternet (bus network
                                  around Schiphol), ROA co-operates with Schiphol Group.

Specific accessibility policies   Central government has stimulated the development of several major infrastruc-
                                  ture projects near Schiphol. This was done to ensure the accessibility of the airport.

                                  Schiphol Sternet is a formula for the provision of bus services in which dedicated
                                  airport services and regional services are combined in one network. The service
                                  has been in operation since March 2000.

New or innovative plans           In January 2002, the “Zuidtangent” was taken into service. Zuidtangent is a 24-km
                                  long two-way lane dedicated to bus services. Bus services making use of the Zuid-
                                  tangent have a number if special features, including ground-level entries, informa-
                                  tion provision at bus tops, and a management system that improves reliability and
                                  punctuality. With the system, for example, traffic lights can be controlled to reduce
                                  travel times.

                                  The long-term aim is to expand the service, which is currently offered on one line
                                  only, to a number of services. The network structure which is to be created in this
                                  way will contribute to the realisation of a high-quality regional transport concept
                                  meeting the transport needs of the surrounding sub-urban municipalities.