Maj JW Paul
Tell a man there are 300 billion
stars in the universe, and he will
Tell him the bench has wet paint,
and he will have to touch it to be sure.
• Why are 4 satellites required for a fix?
• Why is P code better than C/A?
• Two sources for GPS errors?
• Limitations of GPS?
• What is the principle of DGPS?
• Organizations & Projects
Several ways of classifying SATCOM capabilities:
By Level of Robustness/Survivability
By Level of Capacity
By Type of Service
By Frequency Bands
By robustness/survivability as defined by DoD:
Hard Core: dedicated, secure, enduring,
survivable, autonomous (Ex: Milstar)
Core: secure either through dedicated
encryption (Ex: Milstar, DSCS, UFO) or
augmented encryption (Ex: INMARSAT or
Iridium with STU III)
General Purpose: commercial non secure (Ex:
Iridium without STU III or Globalstar)
By level of capacity:
Narrowband: used for low traffic data rates
(Ex: UFO, Milstar’s LDR, INMARSAT, MSAT,
Wideband: used for high traffic data rates
(Ex: DSCS, Milstar’s MDR, INTELSAT, Aniks,
Broadband satellites: Astrolink, Skybridge,
Broadcast: used for broadcasting services
(Ex: Military GBS or Commercial DBS: Aniks)
By type of service:
Fixed Satellite Service (FSS): to fixed earth
stations (Ex: Milstar, DSCS, INTELSAT).
Mobile Satellite Service (MSS): to vehicles, ships
and aircraft (Ex: Military UHF, INMARSAT,
Personal Satellite Service (PSS): to handhelds.
Truly for the soldier on the move
(Ex: Iridium, Globalstar).
By frequency bands:
UHF: 300 MHz - 3 GHz
UHF, L, and part of S band.
SHF: 3 GHz - 30 GHz
Part of S, C, X, Ku, K, and part of Ka band.
EHF: 30 GHz - 300 GHz
Part of Ka, V, and W band.
1 2 4 8 12 18 27 40 75 110 GHz
UHF L S C X Ku K Ka V W
UHF SHF EHF
– Small mobile terminals (narrow BW, low power).
– Good in bad weather and dense foliage.
– Mature reliable technology.
• Most common military terminal.
– Crowded spectrum.
– Small bandwidth limited to low data rates and does
not permit anti-jamming (A/J) and Low Probability
of Detection (LPD) schemes.
– Greater capacity due to wider bandwidth available.
– Better A/J capability possible.
– More likely to survive austere and hostile
– Poor mobility: larger ground equipment (narrow
beam antennas, and higher power to accommodate
wider BW needed for A/J capability).
– More vulnerable to attacks due to larger physical
– Widest bandwidth available.
– Greatest A/J capabilities.
– Least affected by scintillation.
– Better guaranteed communications.
– New technologies (greatest growth potential).
– May need large power and/or large ground
terminals due to high susceptibility to
atmospheric absorption and foliage blockage.
– Can trade mobility for A/J capability & capacity.
– New technologies (efficiency not yet optimized).
UHF SHF EHF
A/J Trade Offs
DND Organizations & Projects
D Space D - mission
To provide effective space-related
Departmental planning, coordination,
and direction in support of CF
operations, programs and the
protection of Canada
SPACE IN DND
Space Training Requirements
• Level 1 (Basic Knowledge)
– Gradual integration into existing programs
– Variable scope corresponding to DP level
– Targeted program for NCM
• Level 2 (Detailed Knowledge - Joint)
– Concentrated format (3 - 4 Weeks)
– Throughput 20 students/yr
D Space D - projects
• G1945 CANMILSATCOM $646M
• M1713 FLEETSATCOM $20M
• A2371 NAVSTAR GPS $153M
• L2683 Positioning for LF $69M
• “our” space segment
• Divided into 4 independent Projects:
– 2803: Protected MILSATCOM (AEHF) – $470M
• launch in 2006 + user terminal
– 2802: Enhanced UHF Terminals - $22M
– TBD: GBS Capability - $30M
– TBD: Advanced Mobile Capability - $111M
D Space D - projects
• G2667 JSP $624M
• G2773 TROODOS $28M
• A2040 SARSAT $65M
Intel $30M - $50M
S of S $10M to $60M
S frm S
Warning $3M - $6M
98/99 00/01 02/03 04/05 06/07 08/09 10/11
• RADARSAT II
• Small Satellite Project
• research initiatives
David Florida Lab crest
David Florida Laboratories
• Spacecraft design & testing facility
– temperature extremes
– RF spectrum performance
• Assembly & Integration
CTC spacecraft in assembly area
SRMS in Thermal Vacuum chamber
CSA - Objectives
• to ensure the development and
application of space science and
technology to meet Canadian needs
• to ensure the development of an
internationally competitive space
industry in Canada
CSA - Industry Partners
• Spar • Bristol Aerospace
• COM DEV • IMT Comm Systems
• CAL Corp • Calian Technolgies
• MDA • SED Systems
$300M annual budget
It’s time we
DND’s Current Providers
• Telesat (Aniks & MSAT)
• INTELSAT Commercial
• UHF Follow-On (UFO)
• NATO IV
• Skynet IV
• Founded in 1969 by act of parliament
• World’s most experienced commercial
• Sole operator of communications
satellites in Canada
• ANIK E & F series, and MSAT
– (through Telesat Mobile).
• used by
• MMs use
• Canada’s first mobile satellite network
• Designed by CRC and built by SPAR
• GEO Satellite - Launched in 1996
• Backs up the American Mobile Satellite
Corporation (AMSC 1) launched 1995
• Coverage of North America & Mexico
under Magnetic Dome
Tripod-mounted, 1-m dish
can be used via coax cable.
• International Telecommunication
• MM terminals
• pay by the month ($60K)
• requires host nations approval
• International Maritime Satellite
• 4 INMARSAT-2 and 5 INMARSAT-3
• $6 per minute
• “non-military” uses
• SKYNET (British)
• SYRACUSE (French)
• FLTSATCOM (US)
• DCS (US)
• MILSTAR (US)
• geosynchronous satellite
• Coverage from east coast of North
America to central Turkey
• 2 UHF, 4 X band, 1 Q band
• System of RAdio Communication
.Using a SatellitE
• French military space segment on
TELECOM-2 commercial satellite
• coverage from Newfoundland to
• 2x40 MHz single channel repeaters
• 4 satellites in geosynchronous orbit
• 24 x UHF/X-band & 32 Q-band
• launched in 1978
– dated technology but still in use
• Defence Satellite Communication
• DSCS III now in orbit
• 8 satellites
• 6 channels
• UHF and SHF bands
To be replaced by WGS
• Military Strategic and Tactical Relay
• very expensive
• EMP hardened
• Medium Data Rate (MDR)
• 37 Frequency Agile Spot Beams
• Antenna Nulling, Frequency Hopping
Switchboard in the sky