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					Essentials of Marketing
       Research
        Kumar, Aaker, Day
  Instructor’s Presentation Slides
 Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
                     Chapter Six
       Standardized Sources of
           Marketing Data

Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
           Standardized Sources

Syndicated sources of marketing data:
 Store   audits
 warehouse          withdrawal services
 consumer         panels
 scanner        based systems and single source
 data


    Essentials of Marketing Research       Kumar, Aaker, Day
           Motivation for using
            standardized data
 “PipelineEffect” in distribution channels
 Unknown competitor actions
 Store behavior unknown (i.e. promotion
  execution)




     Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
                   Example for packaged goods
                     sales: margarine brand
                                                Margarine Sales in units for 28 w eeks
        4500
                                                                                           Actual Sales
        4000

        3500

        3000

        2500
Sales




        2000

        1500

        1000

        500

          0
               1   2    3   4   5   6   7   8    9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28




                       Essentials of Marketing Research                                  Kumar, Aaker, Day
                             Motivation for using
                              standardized data
             450   Factory Sales Peak                   Retail Sales Peak
             400
                                                                               Production
             350
             300                                                               Factory
Unit sales




             250                                                               Sales
                                                                               Retail Sales
             200
             150
             100
              50
               0
                   Week Week Week Week Week Week
                    1    2    3    4    5    6
                     Essentials of Marketing Research      Kumar, Aaker, Day
Growth of Standardized Sources
 Factors
 Multitudeof information users having
 common information needs
 When   cost of satisfying individual user's
 need is prohibitive
 Theincreasing use of scanner systems at the
 check out points

    Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
                Retail Store Audits

 Personallyrecord store inventories and
  movements for any brand and size
 Basic measurement tool in lieu of scanning
  data
 Common categories: Health and Beauty,
  Durable, Confectionery, Liquor,
 Example: Nielsen Retail Index



      Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
               Retail Store Audits
  Beginning Inventory
+ Deliveries
- Ending Inventory
= Sales for Period




     Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
            Nielsen Retail Index
 Biggest      research company in the world
 Their   auditing services cover four groups
      Grocery        products
      Drugs

      Mass       merchandisers
      Alcoholic         beverages




    Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
          Audits and Surveys:
         National Market Audit
 Bimonthly   audit focussed on products
 irrespective of the outlet carrying the
 product




    Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
      Consumer Purchase Panels
Audits and scanner data do not cover:
 Who buys         (consumer demographics)
 Frequency         of purchases
 Switching        behavior between brands and
  stores
 Level    of deal sensitivity


       Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
What is a “Panel”?
  Representative sample
   of households
  Records all purchases
   made over time (cross-section/time-series)
  Records all coupons used
  Receive incentive for co-operation
  ACNielsen’s Consumer Panel: “Homescan”
   Consists of 40,000 demographically balanced U.S.
   households that use hand-held scanners to record
   every bar-coded item purchased.
      Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
      Consumer Purchase Panels
    To Cover the Gap Between Warehouse Withdrawal
    Audits and Actual Purchases Following Methods Can
    Be Used
   Home Audit Approach
           Panel member agrees to permit an auditor to check the
            household stocks of certain product categories at regular
            intervals
   Mail Diary Method
           Panel member records the details of each purchase and
            returns the diary by mail at regular intervals




       Essentials of Marketing Research          Kumar, Aaker, Day
         Advantages of Panels
Can Provide Information On
    Aggregate          Sales Activity
    Brand       Shares
    Shifts     in Buyer Characteristics
    Shifts     in Retail Outlets




  Essentials of Marketing Research         Kumar, Aaker, Day
 Limitations of Consumer Panels
Possibility of
 Selection        Bias
 Mortality Effect

  – e.g. move, illness, refusal
 Testing      Effects
  – first month records are discarded


     Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
                        Scanner Data
 Have revolutionized grocery (and retail ) industry
 Generates huge amounts of data
 Main suppliers: IRI, Nielsen
 Kraft Food spends more than $30 million per year
  on scanner data
 In comparison to survey
  research: scanner data
  reveal actual consumer
  behavior

     Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
          Single-source Systems
 Combine scanner data, panels, and TV-
  measurement
 Usually setup in self-contained
  communities with their own newspapers
  and cable TV and are roughly representative
  of the demographics of the country
 A test panel of community households is
  recruited and monitored
 Example:          BehaviorScan by IRIKumar, Aaker, Day
     Essentials of Marketing Research
         Single-source Systems
 Experiment           like setting
 Control      of
  – advertising exposure in TV, newspapers, …
  – couponing
  – buying behavior




    Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
   Advantages of Single Source
            Systems
 Availability of              exclusive pre-test records
 Immediate           availability of test results
 Ability to compare households prior to and
  after exposure to the message
 Ability to        control settings




     Essentials of Marketing Research          Kumar, Aaker, Day
Media Related Standardized Sources
  NielsenMedia Research (previously
  Nielsen Television Index)
      A     system for estimating national TV audiences

  Arbitron       Diary Panel
       Both      regional and national radio and TV panels

  Starch    Scores
       Print     media

  Multi Media            and Web Services
     Essentials of Marketing Research        Kumar, Aaker, Day
       Nielsen Media Research
       (http://www.nielsenmedia.com)
 Nielsen      Media Research (New York)
  – National People Meter Service: audience
    estimates for all national programming sources,
    including six broadcast networks, 41 cable
    networks.
  – Used by more than
    100 advertising agencies
    and 45 advertisers.



    Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
                                                Source:
                                                New York Times
                                                1997
Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
 Roper Starch (http://www.roper.com)
 Starch Ad Readership Reports measure ad
  readership within specific publications
 Covers over 500 magazine issues and about
  25,000 ads each year.
 Raw readership scores (the percent of readers who
  saw the ad and read the copy)
 Ad is ranked against other ads in the issue.
 Ad is ranked against other ads in its product
  category over the past two years.
 Interviews are conducted in person
 Standard demographic breakdowns
     Essentials of Marketing Research   Kumar, Aaker, Day
Expert Systems Based on Single-
        source Services
 Since users of scanner data are flooded with
  massive amounts of data, expert systems are
  used to help the users understand the data
  quickly
 Examples         of Expert Systems Are
       Apollo       Space Management Software
       Cover       Story
       Sales      Partner
       Promotion          Stimulator
       Spotlight
     Essentials of Marketing Research      Kumar, Aaker, Day
    Marketing Decision Support Systems
   A typical marketing manager receives some or all of
    following data
           Factory shipments or order
           Syndicated aggregate (industry) data services
           Sales reports from sales personnel
           Consumer panel data
           Scanner data
           Demographic data
           Internal cost and budget data
    Purpose of MDSS is to combine marketing data from
    diverse sources into single database


       Essentials of Marketing Research              Kumar, Aaker, Day
  Applications of Standardized
        Sources of Data
 Measuring          product sales and market share:
  – Panels, audits, scanner data, internal records
 Measuring advertisement exposure and
 effectiveness:
  – Starch Scores, Nielsen Media Research,
    Arbitron




    Essentials of Marketing Research    Kumar, Aaker, Day
Applications of Standardized Sources of Data


Measuring promotion effectiveness:
    scanner data, panels
Estimation and evaluation of models
    scanner data, starch scores, panels, internal records




     Essentials of Marketing Research       Kumar, Aaker, Day

				
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