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					   The Eighteenth Century:
   An Age of Enlightenment
            AP European History
                Chapter 17



3/19/2011          John 3:16      1
                       Overview
   The Scientific
    Revolution‟s “natural
    philosophers” effected
    but a small elite
   But a group of
    intellectuals used the
    discoveries to examine all
    aspects of life

   Voltaire                            Voltaire

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                       Overview
   Paris was the cultural
    capital of Europe
   Parisian women took a
    lead in bringing together
    thinkers of many
    disciplines to cross-talk
    discoveries and new
    philosophies



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                        Overview
   Marie-Therese de Geoffrin hosted distinguished
    foreigners, philosophers, and artists
       These gatherings stimulated wide-ranging
        discussions and ideas
       Ideas generated were so significant that historians
        refer to the 18th century as the Age of
        Enlightenment




3/19/2011                     John 3:16                       4
                       Overview
   “Enlightenment”
    included a rejection of
    traditional Christianity
   Religious wars and
    intolerance of 16th and
    17th centuries alienated
    intellectuals




3/19/2011                      John 3:16   5
                          Overview
   Intellectuals and scientists of the 17th century
    were open to new ideas of science. Both saw
    science as exalting God
   The 18th century intellectuals saw it differently
           Rejected Christian orthodoxy and secularism
            emerged as dominant mentality in Western mentality
            ever since



3/19/2011                       John 3:16                        6
                              Overview
    Reason and materialism
     were beginning to
     replace faith and reason
    Although, there was an
     outburst of religious
     sensibility manifested in
     art and music
           Not all artistic and
            intellectual hearts were               Montesquieu
            captured by secularism


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               Focus Questions
   Who were the leading
    figures of the
    Enlightenment, and what
    were their main
    contributions?




                                      Diderot


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                Focus Questions
   In what type of social
    environment did the
    philosophes thrive, and
    what role did women
    play in that environment?




                                        Rousseau
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                Focus Question
   What innovations in art,
    music, and literature
    occurred in the 18th
    century?




                                           Wollstonecraft
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              Focus Question
   How did popular culture differ form high
    culture in the 18th century?




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                Focus Question
   How did popular religion differ from
    institutional religion in the 18th century?




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            Critical Thinking Question
   What is the relationship
    between the Scientific
    Revolution and the
    Enlightenment?




                                           Locke

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            The Enlightenment
                  Overview




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                    Overview
   German philosopher
    Emmanuel Kant defined
    Enlightenment as “man‟s
    leaving his self-caused
    immaturity”
   Kant: “Dare to know!
    Have the courage to use
    your own intelligence.”

                                      Emmanuel Kant
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                     Overview
   As laws were discovered
    regulating nature, then
    laws could be found to
    regulate human society
   Buzz words: reason,
    natural law, hope,
    progress




3/19/2011                     John 3:16   16
                       Overview
   Philosophes and
    scientists thought that if
    only people could throw
    off the shackles of old
    beliefs, particularly
    religious, the world be a
    better place




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                      Overview
   If Newton can discover
    the natural laws of
    science that govern the
    universe, the laws of how
    to govern a society could
    be discovered as well




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                The Paths to
               Enlightenment
             Influenced by 17th century thinkers, what
            changes occurred with 18th century thinkers
              that culminated in the Enlightenment?



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      The Popularization of Science
   Spread of scientific information was not direct
    from scientist to people.
       Books were tough to read—written by the best
        brains of the time—and tough to get (no Borders)
       Much was done through education by
        “popularizers” or philosophes themselves
   The link to the people of the scientific
    discoveries the philosophes


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      The Popularization of Science
   Bernard de Fontenelle,
    Secretary of the French
    Royal Academy from
    1691 to 1741, wrote
    books on discoveries
   Fontenelle possessed
    vast knowledge of
    discoveries


                                          Bernard de Fontenelle
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      The Popularization of Science
   Fontenelle was very witty
    and scientifically wise
   His book, Plurality of
    Worlds, two people
    discussing discoveries
           Conversation between
            lady aristocrat and lover
           “Tell me”, she exclaims,
            “about these stars of
            yours”



3/19/2011                               John 3:16   22
            The Popularization of Science
   Fontenelle showed that
    science need not be the
    monopoly of experts, but
    part of literature
   He downplayed the
    religious side of scientists
   He was a “skeptic” about
    religion and portrayed
    churches as enemies of
    scientific progress
3/19/2011                     John 3:16     23
              A New Skepticism
   As scientific discoveries
    spread, more men and
    women questioned long-
    held religious truths and
    values




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                     A New Skepticism
   Skepticism and
    secularism was evident in
    the works of Pierre Bayle
    (1647-1706)
           Attacked religious
            intolerance, superstition,
            and dogmatism
           Compelling people to
            believe a certain set of
            religious ideas was
            wrong—as Louis XIV
            was doing at that time
                                                     Pierre Bayle
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              A New Skepticism (cont)
   Bayle believed
           that individual conscious
            should determine one‟s
            action
           the existence of many
            religions would benefit
            rather than harm a state
           the Bible should not be
            exempt from criticism



                                                    Pierre Bayle

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                     A New Skepticism
   In Bayle‟s most famous work, Historical and Critical
    Dictionary, he wrote of King David in a very different
    way
           David was portrayed as a sensual, cruel, treacherous, and evil
            man
           The “Dictionary” attacked traditional religious practices and
            heroes
   One critic of Dictionary called it the “Bible of the
    eighteenth century”



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    The Impact of Travel Literature
   Skepticism about religion and European culture
    was nourished by travel reports
       Traders, missionaries, medical practitioner, and
        explorers—all wrote travel books
       Geographical discoveries, e.g. Tahiti, New Zealand,
        and Australia by James Cook
       Aroused much enthusiasm




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        The Impact of Travel Literature
   Exotic peoples, such as
    natives from Tahiti,
    presented an image of
    “natural man”
   The idea of the “noble
    savage” would impact
    the work of some
    philosophes




3/19/2011                     John 3:16   29
    The Impact of Travel Literature
   The literature also
    demonstrated there were
    highly developed cultures
    in other parts of the
    world
           China and Confucian
            morality were singled out
           Europeans began to
            evaluate their culture
            compared to others


                                                Confucius
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        The Impact of Travel Literature

   Certainties about European practices gave way
    to “cultural relativism”
       Accompanied by religious skepticism
       The Christian perception of God was one of many

       “…Every day they see a new religion, new customs,
        and new rites




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    The Legacy of Locke and Newton

   The intellectual inspiration for the
    Enlightenment were Locke and Newton
   Intellectuals believed that by following
    Newton‟s laws of reasoning, they could discover
    the natural laws that governed politics,
    economics, justice, religion, and art




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    The Legacy of Locke and Newton

   Newton frequently singled out
       “the greatest and rarest genius that ever rose for the
        ornament and instruction of the species”
       “God said, „Let Newton be, and all is light‟”

   Philosophes enchanted by Newton‟s world
    machine




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    The Legacy of Locke and Newton
   John Locke‟s theory of
    knowledge especially
    influenced the
    philosophes
           Wrote, Essay Concerning
            Human Understanding
            (1690)
           Denied Descates belief in
            innate ideas

                                                John Locke

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    The Legacy of Locke and Newton
   Lock denied Descartes‟
    belief in innate ideas.
    Locke argued that every
    person was born with a
    tabula rasa, a blank mind




3/19/2011                   John 3:16   35
    The Legacy of Locke and Newton
   Our mind is developed
    from our environment,
    not from heredity; from
    reason, not from faith
   People molded through
    experiences they received
    through their senses
    from their surrounding
    world
                                        John Locke

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    The Legacy of Locke and Newton
   By changing the environment, peoples and
    societies can be changed
   Reason enabled enlightened people to discover
    natural laws to which all institutions should
    conform
   The philosophes were enamored with Locke and
    Newton. Taken together, their ideas seem to
    offer the hope of a “brave new world” built on
    reason

3/19/2011               John 3:16                37
 The Philosophes and Their Ideas
   Philosophes were intellectuals and not all
    philosophers
       Literary people, professors, journalists, statesmen,
        economists, political scientists, and social reformers
       Came from the nobility and middle class, some poor

   International and cosmopolitan movement
   Dominated by French culture and Paris
    considered the capital of the Enlightenment

3/19/2011                     John 3:16                      38
      The Philosophes and Their Ideas

   Philosophes had different circumstances, but the
    many common threads
       The role of philosophy was the change the world,
        not just discuss it
       Reason was scientific method, an appeal to facts and
        experiences
       Rational criticism was to be applied to everything,
        including religion and politics


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      The Philosophes and Their Ideas

   Philosophes worked in environment where they
    were not free to write anything
   State censors were ever present
   Seizure of books and imprisonment of authors,
    publishers and sellers was very possible




3/19/2011              John 3:16                40
      The Philosophes and Their Ideas
                  (cont)
   Philosophes found ways around censorship
       Pseudonyms, anonymously, or abroad
       Double meanings, e.g., talk about Persians and mean
        French
       Publish secretly or in manuscript form to avoid
        censors
       Burned books often made them more popular




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      The Philosophes and Their Ideas
                  (cont)
   Although bound together by common bonds,
    philosophes often disagreed
       Each succeeding generation became more radical
       A few people tended to dominate the landscape

       Three French giants stood out

   Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot



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  Montesquieu and Political Thought
   Charles de Secondat, the Baron de Montesquieu
       From French nobility
       Received a classical education then studied law

   His first book, “Persian Letters”
       Two Persians traveling in Paris and criticizing
        French institutions, especially Catholic Church and
        French monarchy
       Much of French Enlightenment: attack on
        traditional religion, advocating religious toleration,
        denunciation of slavery, use of reason to liberate
        humans beings
3/19/2011                     John 3:16                          43
  Montesquieu and Political Thought
               (cont)
   Montesquieu‟s most famous work, “The Spirit
    of the Laws”
       Published in 1748
       Comparative study of governments in which he
        attempted to apply the scientific method to the
        social and political arena to ascertain the “natural
        laws” governing the social relationships of human
        beings


3/19/2011                     John 3:16                        44
    Montesquieu and Political Thought
   “The Spirit of the Laws” distinguished three basic kinds
    of governments
           Republics, suitable for small states and based on citizen
            involvement
           Monarchy, appropriate for the middle-size states and
            grounded in the ruling class‟s adherence to law
           Despotism, apt for large empires and dependent on fear to
            inspire obedience




3/19/2011                           John 3:16                           45
    Montesquieu and Political Thought
                 (cont)
   Praised England‟s constitution which led to his most
    lasting contribution to political thought, the importance
    of checks and balances created through the “separation
    of Powers”
           England had separate executive, legislative, and judicial
            powers
           Limited control of each other
           Served as greatest freedom and security for a state
   He wanted the nobility of France to play and active role
    in the running of the French government

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  Montesquieu and Political Thought
               (cont)
   Translation of Montesquieu‟s work ensured it
    was read by American philosophes who
    incorporated much into the U.S. Constitution
       Benjamin Franklin
       James Madison

       John Adams

       Alexander Hamilton

       Thomas Jefferson



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    Voltaire and the Enlightenment
   Francois-Marie Arouet known as Voltaire
   Greatest figure of the Enlightenment
   Classical education in Jesuit school
   Hailed as successor to Racine for his tragedy
    CEdipe and his epic on King IV
   Well liked by Parisian intellectuals, a quarrel with
    a nobleman forced him abroad to England for 2
    years

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        Voltaire and the Enlightenment

   Very impressed with England
   His “Philosophic Letters on the English” (1733)
       Expressed deep admiration for English
       Liked freedom of press, political freedom, and
        religious toleration….”there are thirty religions and
        they live together peacefully and happily
       Indirectly, he criticized France, especially absolute
        royalty, lack of religious toleration, and freedom of
        thought

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        Voltaire and the Enlightenment

   Voltaire returned to France but, at this point,
    had to live near the eastern border for security
   Lived with his mistress the marquise de Chatelet
       An early philosophe, she had published a translation
        of Newton‟s “Principia”
       The two collaborated about a book on the natural
        philosophy of Newton



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        Voltaire and the Enlightenment

   Eventually settled on magnificent estate in
    Ferney, in France near the Swiss border
       Had become wealthy through writing, investments,
        and inheritance
       Had the leisure time to write pamphlets, novels,
        plays, letters, and histories
   He was especially well known for his criticism of
    traditional religion and strong support of
    religious toleration
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        Voltaire and the Enlightenment

   Used prestige and skills as a polemicist to fight
    cases of intolerance in France
   Most famous case: Jean Calas
       Accused of murdering his son to stop him from
        becoming Catholic
       Tortured to confess, he soon died

       Voltaire, through his writings, forced a retrial in
        which Calas was exonerated. His son had
        committed suicide

3/19/2011                     John 3:16                       52
        Voltaire and the Enlightenment
   Calas‟ family paid an indemnity and Voltaire‟s
    appeals for moderation seemed more reasonable
   He wrote, “Treatise of Toleration”
       Reminded people that religious toleration had
        created no problems for England or Holland
       Reminded governments “all men are brothers under
        God”
   Voltaire, “Crush the infamous thing.”
           Religious intolerance, fanaticism, and superstition

3/19/2011                         John 3:16                       53
        Voltaire and the Enlightenment

   Accepted Deism
       Accepted by most philosophes
       Built on the Newtonian world machine theory

       The mechanic—God—created the universe

       God had no direct involvement in the world and let
        it run according to its own natural laws
       God did not extend grace nor answer prayers

       Jesus might be a “good fellow,” as Voltaire called
        Him but he was not divine as Christianity claimed
3/19/2011                   John 3:16                        54
        Voltaire and the Enlightenment
   Voltaire said, “In the
    opinion that there is a
    God, there are
    difficulties, but in the
    contrary opinion there
    are absurdities.”




                                           Voltaire
3/19/2011                      John 3:16              55
      Diderot and the Encyclopedia
   Son of skilled craftsman
    form eastern France
   Freelance writer—many
    languages and subjects




                                              Diderot
3/19/2011                      John 3:16                 56
      Diderot and the Encyclopedia
   Condemned Christianity
    as fanatical and
    unreasonable—
    considered it the worst
    religion
           “the most absurd
            and…atrocious in its
            dogma”


                                               Diderot

3/19/2011                          John 3:16             57
      Diderot and the Encyclopedia
   Most famous work was
    his “Encyclopedia” or
    “Classified Dictionary of
    the Sciences, Arts, and
    Trades.” Called it, “the
    great work of his life”

   Diderot

                                        Diderot

3/19/2011                   John 3:16             58
 Diderot and the Encyclopedia (cont)
   The purpose of the encyclopedia was to “change
    the general way of thinking”
       Became a weapon against the old French society
       Attacked religious superstition and promoted
        toleration
       Sought social, legal, and political improvements

       Sought more cosmopolitan, tolerant, humane, and
        reasonable society
       Ideas of the Enlightenment spread even further


3/19/2011                   John 3:16                      59
            The New “Science of Man”
   Newton‟s scientific methods were thought to be
    useful to address the natural laws of social man
   Could the scientific process be used to solve the
    inherent problems and challenges of society?
   Eighteenth century movement called the
    “science of man” or the “social sciences”
   Philosophes arrived at natural laws they believed
    to be universal

3/19/2011                John 3:16                  60
    The New “Science of Man” (cont)

   Scottish philosopher David Hume thought that
    a science of man was possible
   “A Pioneering social scientist”
   Wrote “Treatise on Human Nature”
       Experimental method of reasoning with reference to
        moral subjects
       Observation and reflection grounded in “systemized
        common sense” made conceivable a science of man


3/19/2011                   John 3:16                    61
            The New “Science of Man”
   The Physiocrats and Adam Smith
      Founders of economics
      Physiocrat leader was Francois Quesnay, French court physician
         Claimed they could discover natural economic laws
         Land constituted only source of wealth, their first principle
         Agriculture was only means to increase wealth—all other
          activities were sterile and unproductive
         Revenues should come from a single tax on the land
         Rejected mercantilism, their second principle, and the idea of
          money—gold and silver



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            The New “Science of Man”
   The second principle of the physiocrats was the
    rejection of mercantilism
   Emphasized the natural economic forces of the
    supply and demand
       Individuals should pursue their own economic self
        interests—all society will benefit
       Government should leave the system alone. Don‟t
        regulate
       Doctrine became known as laissez-faire
        (noninterference—let people do as they choose)

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              The New “Science of Man”
   Scottish philosopher
    Adam Smith
           Best statement of laissez-
            faire
           Made in 1776




                                                     Adam Smith

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            The New “Science of Man”
   Wrote The Wealth of Nations
       Three basic principles of economics, including an
        attack on mercantilism
       First principle--condemned the use of tariffs. Better
        to purchase a product from another nation rather
        than try to produce it if the other nation produces it
        cheaper




3/19/2011                     John 3:16                      65
             The New “Science of Man
   Second principle, labor
    theory of value
           Gold and silver do not
            constitute true wealth
           Labor of individuals—
            farmers, artisans,
            merchants, etc., constitute
            the true wealth of nations


                                                  Adam Smith

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            The New “Science of Man”
   Third Principle,
    Government should not
    interfere with economic
    management




                                          Adam Smith
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            The New “Science of Man”
   Adam Smith
   Principle three (cont)—government only has
    three jobs
       To protect society from invasion
       To defend individuals from injustice and oppression
       To keep up certain public works, such as roads and
        canals, that private individuals could not afford




3/19/2011                   John 3:16                     68
            The New “Science of Man”
   Between the Physiocrats
    and Adam Smith, they
    laid the foundation of
    19th century economic
    liberalism
           Government: stay out
           Economic liberty



                                               Adam Smith
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             The Later Enlightenment
   By the 1760s, new group
    of philisophes emerged
           Grew up in the
            Enlightenment
           Went beyond the original
            group




3/19/2011                          John 3:16   70
            The Later Enlightenment
   Movement beyond the beliefs of predecessors
   Baron Paul d‟ Holback, German aristocrat who
    settled in Paris
       Doctrine of strict atheism and materialism
       Wrote System of Nature
             Everything in universe is matter and motion
             Humans are machines and God is only in the mind

             People need only reason to live in the world

             Please ourselves because we must live with each other



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             The Later Enlightenment
      Baron Paul d‟Holback…
           “Let us persuade men to be just, beneficent,
            moderate, sociable; not because the gods demand it,
            but because they must please men”
   Most intellectuals remained deists, as they the
    effect of atheism on society




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              The Later Enlightenment
   Marie-Jean de
    Condorcet, French
    philosophe
           Victim of turmoil of
            French Revolution
           Wrote his chief work
            while in hiding during the
            Reign of Terror




3/19/2011                            John 3:16   73
            The later Enlightenment
   Marie-Jean de Condorcet wrote The Progress of the
    Human Mind
       Humans had progressed through 9 historical stages
       With science and reason, humans will enter tenth

       Tenth stage would be one of perfection. “There is
        no limit to the perfecting of the powers of man”
       Shortly after composing his work, he died in a
        French revolutionary prison


3/19/2011                   John 3:16                       74
Rousseau and the Social Contract
   Jean-Jacques Rousseau,
    born in Geneva
   As youth, wandered
    France and Italy doing
    jobs




                                         Jean-Jacques Rousseau
3/19/2011                    John 3:16                           75
Rousseau and the Social Contract
   Later, studied classics
    and music
           A paid lover of an older
            woman
           Eventually made his way
            to Paris
   Introduced to
    philosophes in Paris


                                                   Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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     Rousseau and the Social Contract
   Rousseau‟s political
    beliefs in two major
    works, Discourse on
    the Origins of the
    Inequality of Mankind
    and The Social
    Contract



                                       Jean-Jacques Rousseau
3/19/2011                  John 3:16                           77
Rousseau and the Social Contract
   Discourse…
       Humans were happy in their primitive state—no
        laws, judges, equality--but then they made changes
       To preserve private property, people adopted laws
        and governments
       “…rushed headlong not to liberty but into chains”
       Government is an evil, but a necessary one




3/19/2011                    John 3:16                       78
     Rousseau and the Social Contract
   He wrote, The Social Contract
       Tried to harmonize individual liberty with
        government authority
       Society agrees to be governed by their general will
       Individuals compelled to abide by the general will
             People should be forced to be free
             General will is community‟s highest aspirations
             What is good for all is good for each individual




3/19/2011                           John 3:16                    79
Rousseau and the Social Contract
   “This means nothing less than that he will be
    forced to be free”
       What was best for all was best for the individual
       True freedom is adherence to laws that one has
        imposed on oneself




3/19/2011                     John 3:16                     80
     Rousseau and the Social Contract

   The creation of laws could never be delegated to
    a parliamentary institution—or legislature
   “Any law which the people has not ratified in
    person is void; it is not law at all”
   “…as soon as Members are elected, the people
    is enslaved; it is nothing.”
   The ultimate statement of participatory
    democracy

3/19/2011                John 3:16                 81
     Rousseau and the Social Contract

   He wrote, Emile
       Important work on education
       Education should foster children‟s natural instincts

       Saw a necessary balance between feelings and reason

       Importance of promptings of the heart

       Precursor of the intellectual movement called
        Romanticism—emphasis on the heart, that
        dominated Europe at the beginning of the
        nineteenth century

3/19/2011                    John 3:16                     82
     Rousseau and the Social Contract
   Rousseau: did he practice
    what he preaches?
           His children sent to
            foundling homes
           Viewed women as
            naturally different




3/19/2011                          John 3:16   83
Rousseau and the Social Contract
   Rousseau…
       “…She needs a soft sedentary life to suckle her
        babies.”
       In Emile, Sophie, Emile‟s intended wife was educated
        to be a wife and mother by learning obedience and
        nurturing skills to provide loving care to her
        husband and children
   Made ideas of gender an important issue


3/19/2011                    John 3:16                     84
     Rousseau and the Social Contract

   Rousseau was described in three ways:
       The father of romanticism
       A prophet of democracy

       An apologist for totalitarianism

   Which was he?




3/19/2011                     John 3:16     85
       The “Woman’s Question” in the
              Enlightenment
   Men framed debate of value and nature of
    women
   Many male intellectuals argued the nature of
    women made them inferior to men
           Based on “natural” biological differences
   Some male writers critical of women‟s intellect




3/19/2011                        John 3:16              86
    The “Woman’s Question” in the
           Enlightenment
   Two intellectual men
    asserted women were
    “not all that different”
    (Diderot), and “capable
    of all men are”
    intellectually (Voltaire)



                                            Denis Diderot

3/19/2011                       John 3:16                   87
       The “Woman’s Question” in the
              Enlightenment
   Some women writers made suggestions
   Mary Astell, daughter of wealthy English coal
    merchant, wrote, A Serious Proposal to the
    Ladies
       Women needed to become better educated
       (of critical men) “…excuse me, if I be as partial to
        my own sex as they are to theirs….”



3/19/2011                     John 3:16                        88
       The “Woman’s Question” in the
              Enlightenment
   Mary Astell
   She wrote, Some Reflections upon Marriage
       Argued for the equality of the sexes in marriage
       “If absolute sovereignty be not necessary in a state,
        how comes it to be so in a family”




3/19/2011                     John 3:16                         89
  The “Woman’s Question” in the
         Enlightenment
   Mary Astell: Some Reflections Upon
    Marriage
       “…if arbitrary power is evil…it ought not be
        practiced anywhere”
       …if all men are born free, how is it that all women
        are born slaves?”




3/19/2011                    John 3:16                        90
       The “Woman’s Question” in the
              Enlightenment
   Mary Wollstonecraft, an
    English writer
           Viewed by many as the
            founder of modern
            European feminism




                                                Mary Wollstonecraft
3/19/2011                           John 3:16                         91
      The Woman’s Question in the
            Enlightenment
   Mary Wollstonecraft
     Wrote,Vindication of the Rights of Woman
        Subjection of women to men is as wrong as the
         arbitrary power of monarchs over people
        Writers like Rousseau seen to contradict their
         own statements about the power on monarchs
         over people or slave owners over people




3/19/2011                  John 3:16                      92
  The “Woman’s Question” in the
         Enlightenment
   Mary Wollstonecraft: Vindication of the Rights of
    Women
       The Enlightenment appealed to reason. If women
        have reason, then they are entitled to the same rights
        as men
       Women should have the same education, economic,
        and political rights




3/19/2011                     John 3:16                      93
            The Social Environment of the
                    Philosophes
   Social background of
    philosophes varied
           Aristocratic to lower
            middle class
   Appeal of the
    Enlightenment mostly
    aristocracy
   Common people not
    effected much


3/19/2011                           John 3:16   94
     The Social Environment of the
             Philosophes
   Spread of ideas to literate
    elite in European society
           The publication of books
            and treatise
           Salons, elegant drawing
            rooms of the wealthy,
            brought philosophes and
            other guests for witty and
            enlightened conversations
                                                 Aristocratic woman
                                                    18th century

3/19/2011                            John 3:16                        95
            The Social Environment of the
                    Philosophes
   Hostesses of salons,
    women found
    themselves in a position
    to sway political and
    effect the decisions of
    kings



                                           Salon hostess, 18th century

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     The Social Environment of the
             Philosophes
   The reputation of a salon was based on the
    stature of the males attracted
   Some complaints occurred that females exerted
    undue influence on political affairs
           Exaggerated, but Salons declined during the French
            Revolution




3/19/2011                       John 3:16                        97
     The Social Environment of the
             Philosophes
   The salons were
    important in promoting
    conversation and
    Enlightenment thought




3/19/2011                    John 3:16   98
            The Social Environment of the
                    Philosophes
   Coffeehouses, cafes, reading clubs, and public
    lending libraries important in spreading ideas
   Learned societies formed in Europe and
    America
       Select Society of Edinburgh, Scotland, and the
        American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia
       Secret societies developed like the Freemasons
        established in London in 1717


3/19/2011                    John 3:16                   99
      Culture and Society in
       the Enlightenment
             The intellectual adventure fostered by the
               philosophes was accompanied by both
            traditional practices and important changes
                 in 18th century culture and society


3/19/2011                      John 3:16                  100
     Innovations in Art, Music, and
              Literature
   Baroque and
    Neoclassical styles gave
    way to Rococo
           Baroque and Neoclassical
            emphasized majesty,
            power, and movement
   Rococo brought change


                                               Rococo

3/19/2011                          John 3:16            101
     Innovations in Art, Music, and
              Literature
   Rococo, new style of
    decoration and
    architecture, entered
    1730s
           Emphasized grace and
            gentle action
           Followed wandering lines
            of natural objects
            (seashells and flowers)


                                               Rococo

3/19/2011                          John 3:16            102
     Innovations in Art, Music, and
              Literature
   Rococo…
           Charm speaks to pleasure,
            love, and life (secular)
           Could be used with
            Baroque
           Baroque-Rococo
            architecture was popular
            style of 18th century
           Gold, delicate contours,
            graceful curves



3/19/2011                          John 3:16   103
            Innovations in Art, Music, and
                      Literature
   Balthasar Neumann, one of greatest architects of
    the 18th century. Known for two masterpieces
       Pilgrimmage church of the Viezehnheiligen,
        Germany (see text)
       Bishop‟s palace, known as the Residenz of
        Wurzburg
       Light, bright colors; elaborate and rich detail
       Mix of secular and spiritual




3/19/2011                     John 3:16                   104
            Innovations in Art, Music, and
                  Literature (cont)
   Neoclassicism continued to make strong appeal
    in 18th century France
   Simplicity, dignity, and classical style of ancient
    Greece




3/19/2011                 John 3:16                   105
     Innovations in Art, Music, and
              Literature
   Jacques-Louis David, re-created a scene from
    Roman history
           Oath of the Horatii
           Horatius brothers swore an oath before their father,
            proclaiming their willingness to sacrifice their lives
            for their country (see text)




3/19/2011                         John 3:16                      106
            The Development of Music
   The 17th and 18th centuries saw the rise of the
    opera, oratorio, sonata, concerto, and symphony
   Italians were the first to develop above formats
           Germans, Austrians, and English followed
   Most musicians depended on a patron—perhaps
    a prince who would offer a court and financial
    support
           Helped make Italy and Germany music leaders


3/19/2011                       John 3:16                 107
            The Development of Music

   Bach and Handel—1600-1750 timeframe
       Composers, seen as geniuses
       Baroque music style

   Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
       Came from family of musicians
       Became director of church music at the Church of
        Saint Thomas in Leipzig
       Composed his Mass in B Minor



3/19/2011                   John 3:16                      108
                The Development of Music
   Bach
       One of the greatest composers of all time
       Music was a worship of God
               “…well ordered music in the honor of God”
   George Frederick Handel (1685-1759)
       Born in Germany the same year as Bach
       Stormy international life and secular in temperament
       Moved to England attempting most of his life to run
        an opera company

3/19/2011                          John 3:16                109
                 The Development of Music
   Handel
           Wrote for large audiences, writing some huge,
            unusual sounding pieces
              Band for his fireworks music was to be accompanied by
               101 canon
              Wrote 40 operas, and more

           Best known for his religious music
                Messiah called “one of those rare works that appealed
                 immediately to everyone, and yet…a masterpiece of the
                 highest order”


3/19/2011                            John 3:16                           110
                The Development of Music

   Orchestra music not until second half of 18th
    century
       New instruments like the piano appeared
       Classical Era, new musical period, (1750-1830)

       Representing this new the orchestra music era are
        Haydn and Mozart
               Their renown caused the musical center of Europe to
                shift from Italy and Germany to the Austrian Empire



3/19/2011                           John 3:16                         111
                The Development of Music

   Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
       Spent most of adult life as musical director for
        wealthy Hungarian princes, the Esterhazy brothers
       Composed 104 symphonies, plus numerous string
        quartets, concerti, songs, oratorios, and Masses
       Trip to England introduced him to writing for public
        concerts rather than princes
               Wrote two oratorios, The Creation and The Seasons,
                both dedicated to the common people


3/19/2011                          John 3:16                         112
               The Development of Music
   Wolfgang Amadeus
    Mozart (1756-1791)
           Child prodigy, started in
            Salzburg
           Gave first concert at age
            6, wrote first opera at 12




                                                     Mozart, age 6

3/19/2011                                John 3:16                   113
            The Development of Music
   Mozart…
           Moved to Vienna, unable
            to find a permanent
            patron which made his
            life miserable
           Wrote music prolifically
            and passionately, but died
            a debt-ridden pauper at
            35


                                                 Mozart
3/19/2011                            John 3:16            114
                 The Development of Music
   Mozart
           Carried tradition of Italian
            comic opera to new
            heights. Three of world‟s
            greatest operas
                The Marriage of Figaro
                The Magic Flute
                Don Giovanni
           Blended grace, precision,
            and emotion, arguably, no
            one has excelled                          Mozart

3/19/2011                                 John 3:16            115
    The Development of the Novel
   The novel grew out of the medieval romances
    and 16th century stories
   English credited with establishing the novel as
    main vehicle for fiction writing
   Proved attractive to women readers and writers
   Samuel Richardson, printer, started writing at 50
       First novel, Pamela: or, Virtue Rewarded
       Appealed to sensibilities


3/19/2011                  John 3:16                116
    The Development of the Novel
   Henry Fielding (1707-1754)
   Wrote novels abut people without scruples who
    survived with their wits
           The History of Tom Jones, A Foundling, was his
        best
       Emphasized action rather than inner feeling

       However, he did attack the hypocrisy of his age




3/19/2011                     John 3:16                   117
                The Writing of History
   Philosophes created
    revolution in history
    writing
           Secular orientation
           Eliminated role of God in
            history
           Could focus on events



                                                Voltaire

3/19/2011                           John 3:16              118
            The Writing of History
   History writing…
       for causal relationships in natural world
       Broadened the scope from just politics to economic,
        social, intellectual, and cultural developments
       The Age of Louis XIV by Voltaire was written not just
        to depict his life, but to depict the “…spirit of men
        in the most enlightened age the world has ever seen”
       Voltaire initiated the modern ideal of social history




3/19/2011                    John 3:16                     119
            The Writing of History
   Voltaire, as much as anyone, initiated the
    “modern ideal of social history”
   Weakness of philosophes stemmed from their
    preoccupations as philosophes
       Sought to instruct as well as entertain
       Goal was to help civilize their age

       History could play a role by revealing its lessons
        according to their vision


3/19/2011                     John 3:16                      120
            The Writing of History
   Philosophes writing history (cont)
       Emphasized reason and science
       Disliked Christianity, making them less sympathetic
        to the Middle Ages




3/19/2011                    John 3:16                    121
                  The Writing of History
   Philosophes writing
    history…
           Decline and Fall of the
            Roman Empire, by
            Edward Gibbon
                Portrayed the growth of
                 Christianity as a major
                 reason for Rome‟s eventual
                 collapse
                Also thought the decline
                 had many causes
                                                     Edward Gibbon


3/19/2011                                John 3:16                   122
  The High Culture of the Eighteenth
              Century
   High Culture, by 18th century
       Literally and artistic world of educated and wealthy
       Latin as language
       Theologians, scientists, philosophes, poets, etc.
       Supported by wealthy and literate lay group, mostly
        landed aristocracy and rich upper classed in cities
   Popular Culture
           Written and unwritten lore of the masses, most
            passed down orally

3/19/2011                       John 3:16                      123
  The High Culture of the Eighteenth
              Century
   Expansion of reading public and publishing
   Authors making money, less dependent on
    patrons
   Development of magazines, Great Britain
    leading the way
       Twenty five published in 1700, 158 in 1780
       Best known, Spectator, by Joseph Addison and
        Richard Steele, started in 1711

3/19/2011                  John 3:16                   124
  The High Culture of the Eighteenth
              Century
   The Female Spectator featured articles by
    female writers
   Newspapers began to appear
       First newspaper printed on London in 1702
       By 1780, 37 other towns had newspapers

       Cheap and provided free in coffeehouses

   Books circulated more widely
           Public libraries and private circulating libraries

3/19/2011                          John 3:16                     125
            Education and Universities
   Large number of privately endowed secondary
    schools by 18th century
       Tended to be elitist, meeting needs of upper class
       Perpetuated class hierarchy instead of social mobility




3/19/2011                     John 3:16                     126
            Education and Universities
   Privately endowed secondary schools…
           Philosophes reinforced idea to keep people in their
            original social class
                “Education should teach princes to reign, the ruling
                 classes to distinguish themselves by their merit and virtue,
                 the rich to use their riches well, the poor to live by honest
                 industry”…Baron d‟Holbach




3/19/2011                              John 3:16                            127
            Education and Universities
   Privately owned secondary schools…
       Still largely concentrated on Greek and Latin classics
       Not much mathematics, science, or modern
        languages




3/19/2011                     John 3:16                     128
            Education and Universities
   Complaints by
    philosophe-reformers led
    to attempt at more
    practical curriculums—
    most common
    complaints
           Too much emphasis on
            classics and Aristotelian
            philosophy
           No training in sciences
            and modern languages


3/19/2011                               John 3:16   129
            Education and Universities
   In Germany, the Realschule opened 1747 and
    offered modern languages, geography, and
    bookkeeping to prepare boys for business
   New schools also opened for women, but
    emphasized religions and domestic skills
   Few scientific discoveries of 18th century
    occurred in universities



3/19/2011              John 3:16                 130
            Crime and Punishment
   Most European countries had hierarchy of
    courts
   Judicial torture was important means of
    obtaining evidence for trial
   Punishments were cruel and spectacular
   Nobles executed by simple beheading
   Lower class criminals tortured—broken at the
    wheel, drawn and quartered, etc.

3/19/2011               John 3:16                  131
            Crime and Punishment
   Public executions seen as necessary for
    deterrence
   Death penalty was commonly used—more than
    200 crimes earned the death penalty




3/19/2011             John 3:16             132
            Crime and Punishment
   There was forced labor in mines, forts, and
    navies
   Sent criminals as indentured servants to colonies




3/19/2011                John 3:16                 133
            Crime and Punishment
   Italian philosophe, Cesare Beccaria, wrote, On
    Crimes and Punishments
       Punishments should only serve as deterrent, not
        brutality
       Against capital punishment

   By end of 18th century, prisons replaced much of
    capital punishment actions



3/19/2011                    John 3:16                    134
            The World of Medicine
   University medical education conducted in Latin
    and based on Galen medicine even to 17th and
    18th centuries. Based hierarchy of positions
   Graduate with doctorate in medicine needed for
    license to hold regular patient consultations




3/19/2011               John 3:16                135
            The World on Medicine
   Below physicians were surgeons whose main
    jobs were to bleed patients and perform surgery
       Surgery often done without painkillers and under
        filthy conditions
       Bleeding believed to combat variety of illnesses




3/19/2011                    John 3:16                     136
            The World of Medicine
   In 1740s, surgeons began to separate themselves
    from the barbers and organize into guilds
   Surgeons underwent more training in anatomy
       Began to be licensed
       Began to see patients




3/19/2011                       John 3:16        137
            The World of Medicine
   Apothecaries, midwives, and faith healers served
    the common people
   Hospitals were filthy and often people would
    leave with diseases they didn‟t have when they
    went in




3/19/2011                John 3:16                138
                  Popular Culture

   Social activities and other pursuits common to
    lives of most people
   Festivals—a variety of celebrations
       Christmas and Easter
       Carnivals

       People ate, drank, and celebrated to excess




3/19/2011                    John 3:16                139
                        Carnival
   Celebrated the weeks leading up to Lent
   Time of great indulgence
       Lots of food
       Offensive songs

       Verbal and physical aggression through insults and
        pelting with eggs, apples, flour, etc.
       Criticism of superiors OK




3/19/2011                    John 3:16                       140
                   Taverns and Alcohol
   People also gathered in taverns and cabarets
   Social gatherings in neighborhoods
   Cheap alcoholic beverages led to physical and monetary
    problems for average people
           The rich drank different beverages such as port or brandy
            causing fewer physical problems
   The differences in drinking habits and the abandoning
    of festivals by the rich was symbolic of abandoning the
    popular world view as well




3/19/2011                           John 3:16                           141
                 Taverns and Alcohol
   Abandoning the world view
           Upper classes now viewed such things as witchcraft,
            faith healing, fortune telling, and prophesy as the
            beliefs, “such are of the weakest judgment and
            reason, as women, children, and ignorant and
            superstitious persons.”




3/19/2011                        John 3:16                    142
  Literacy and Primary Education
   Pop culture not entirely oral
           Chapbooks were short brochures sold by peddlers to
            lower classes containing spiritual and secular material
              Lives of saints, adventure stories, etc.
              Promoted literacy

   While the wealthy and middle class artisans grew
    in literacy, women and peasants remained largely
    illiterate


3/19/2011                             John 3:16                  143
       Literacy and Primary Education
   Protestant reformation and bible reading led to
    more interest in literacy
   Some states, Germany, Swiss, Scotland, etc.,
    made an effort toward mass education
   Efforts to teach the lower classes was often
    thwarted by the upper class because they feared
    educating the lower classes would lead to
    rebellion
           Teaching hard work and loyalty to superiors was
            seen as paramount
3/19/2011                       John 3:16                     144
       Literacy and Primary Education

   Hannah More, English writer, set up a network
    of Sunday schools, explains her philosophy
           “They learn on weekdays such coarse work as may
            befit them for servants. I allow of no writing for the
            poor. My object is to train up the lower classes in
            habits of industry and piety.”




3/19/2011                         John 3:16                     145
               Religion and the
                  Churches
             Life was becoming secularized and men of reason
              attacked the churches. Yet much of the art and
                 music was religious. Most Europeans were
            Christian. Accepted by most church critics was that
                  society could not function without faith


3/19/2011                         John 3:16                       146
            The Institutional Church
   Churches of 18th century upheld society‟s
    hierarchical structure
       No dramatic internal changes
       Church, run by priest or pastor, was center of
        religious practice
       Kept records of births, deaths, and marriages
       Provided charity for the poor
       Supervised primary education
       Cared for orphans



3/19/2011                    John 3:16                   147
            Church-State Relations
   Protestant Reformation established state control
    over the churches
   Protestant state churches flourished throughout
    Europe in 18th century
      Scandinavia, north German states, England,
       Scotland, etc.




3/19/2011                John 3:16                 148
            Church-State Relations
   Catholic church still exercised much control by
    1700. Church had enormous wealth
      In Spain, 3000 monastic institutions housing
       100,000 men and women controlled
       enormous land estates
      Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Hapsburg
       empire, Poland, and southern Germany


3/19/2011                John 3:16                    149
                 Church-State Relations
   Catholic church remained on top of the
    hierarchy structure
       Bishops, archbishops, abbots, and abbesses were
        members of the upper classes
       Received revenues from landed estates and faithful
        tithes
       Wide gulf between upper and lower clergy
               Bishop of Strasburg received 100,000 livres a year, parish
                priests paid 500


3/19/2011                             John 3:16                          150
                Church-State Relations
   States sought to control (nationalize) the
    Catholic churches
       Meant controlling the papacy and Society of Jesus
       Jesuits had created special enclaves within states and
        French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies
             Much political influence
             Created many enemies

             Spain and France demanded the Society be dissolved and
              Pope Clement XIV complied


3/19/2011                         John 3:16                        151
            Church-State Relations
   Jesuits had acquired much success and power
   Monarchs distrust Jesuits
       Portugal, Spain, France expelled the Jesuits
       Spain and France asked Pope Clement XIV to
        dissolve the Jesuits—he reluctantly did




3/19/2011                   John 3:16                  152
            Church-State Relations
   The termination of the Jesuits paralleled the
    decline in papal power
   Mid-eighteenth century, papacy played only
    minor role in diplomacy and international affairs
   The papacy could no longer appoint high clerical
    officials



3/19/2011                John 3:16                 153
  Toleration and Religious Minorities
   Philosophes had called for religious toleration
   Many rulers still found toleration difficult to
    accept
       Louis XIV had suppressed the rights of Huguenots
       It was seen as true duty of ruler not to allow subjects
        to be condemned to hell by being heretics
       Persecution continued and the last burning of
        heretics took place 1781



3/19/2011                     John 3:16                      154
  Toleration and Religious Minorities

   Some progress made toward religious toleration
    through Joseph II of Austria
       Toleration Patent of 1781
       Granted Lutherans, Calvinists, and Greek Orthodox
        the right to worship privately
       In all ways, all subjects were now equal




3/19/2011                   John 3:16                   155
            Toleration and the Jews
   Jews were the most despised religious minority
    of Europe
   Largest number called Ashkenazic Jews
   Except for Poland, they were restricted in their
    movements, forbidden to own land or hold
    many jobs, forced to pay special taxes, and
    subject to outbursts of popular wrath



3/19/2011                John 3:16                 156
            Toleration of the Jews
   Pogroms were actions
    that saw looting of
    Jewish communities and
    the massacre Jews




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            Toleration of the Jews
   Sephardic Jews were another major group
       Lived in Amsterdam, Venice, London, Frankfurt,
        etc., relatively free to practice banking and
        commercial activities, which they had done since the
        Middle Ages
       Provided valuable services to courts




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            Toleration of the Jews
   Treatment of Jews…
     They were still set apart and socially resented
     Many philosophes denounced persecution of
      Jews
     Many Europeans favored assimilation of Jews
      but only if they converted to Christianity—
      not acceptable to most Jews



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            Toleration of the Jews
   Austrian emperor Joseph II tried new policy
       Too limited
       Freed the Jews from nuisance taxes

       Allowed more freedom of movement and jobs

       Restricted from owning land

       Could not worship in public

       Encouraged them to learn German

       Encouraged greater assimilation into German society



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   Popular Religion in the
    Eighteenth Century
                Despite the rise of skepticism and the
               intellectuals‟ belief in deism and natural
            religion, religious devotion remained strong
                           in the 18th century


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                   Catholic Piety
   European Catholic religiosity difficult to assess
       Parish was important center for community
       Hard to establish regular attendance figures

       Ninety-plus percent attended Mass on Easter Sunday




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                    Catholic Piety
   Catholic piety…
       Much externalized form of worship, e.g., prayers to
        saints, pilgrimages, and devotion to relics and images
       Parishioners “more superstitious than devout”

       Feared witches and prayed to Virgin Mary to save
        them from personal disasters caused by the devil




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     Protestant Revivalism: Pietism
   Protestant state-run churches established good
    patterns and served by well-educated clergy
   Bureaucratic and bereft of religious enthusiasm
           In Germany and England, where there was more
            “rational” Christianity, ordinary Protestants wanted a
            deeper religious experience leading to new religious
            movements
                Pietism was one response to rationalism



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            Protestant Revivalism: Pietism

   Pietism
       Begun in 17th century by German clerics
       Spread by teachings of Count Nikolaus von
        Zinzwndorf and his Moravian Brethren (sect)
       “Personal experience of God”—true religious
        experience
       Zinzedorf: “He who wishes to comprehend God
        with his mind becomes an atheist”


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Protestant Revivalism: Pietism (cont)

   Protestant churches offered little excitement in
    England as well
   Anglican church offered little excitement
   Dissenting Protestants—Puritans, Quakers,
    Baptists, were relatively subdued
   Deeper spiritual experience gone unmet until
    John Wesley


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            Wesley and Methodism
   John Wesley, ordained Anglican minister (1703-
    1791)
       Experienced deep spiritual, mystical experience
       “…an assurance was given me, that He had taken
        away my sins…saved me from the law of sin and
        death”
       “The gift of God‟s grace” assured him of salvation

       Criticized by Anglican church as emotional
        mysticism

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            Wesley and Methodism
   To Wesley, all could be
    saved by experiencing
    God and opening the
    doors to His grace




                                          John Wesley
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                Wesley and Methodism
   Wesley…
           Spoke to masses in open
            fields
           Concentrated on lower
            classes neglected by elitist
            Anglicans
           Charismatic preaching
            fostered highly-charged
            conversion experiences
                                                   John Wesley


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            Wesley and Methodism
   Wesley…
     Converts organized into Methodist societies
      for good works
     Became separate religious sect after Wesley‟s
      death despite his preference to keep
      Methodism within Anglican church
     Proved need for spiritualism not expunged by
      search for reason

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                      Conclusion
   The 18th century was about change and, to some
    degree, tradition
       Influenced by Scientific Revolution and particularly
        ideas of Locke and Newton
       Philosophes hoped they could create new society
        through natural laws, like laws of science
       Believed education could produce better human
        beings and better society


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                   Conclusion
   Attacking traditional religion and creating the
    “new science of man” in economics, politics,
    justice, and education, the philosophes laid the
    foundation for a modern worldview based on
    rationalism and secularism
   Despite secular thought, most people still lived
    in God, religious worship, and farming.


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                   Conclusion
   The most brilliant architecture and music of the
    age were religious
   Yet, secular changes were underway and would
    lead to both political and social upheavals before
    century‟s end




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