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Discussion Report EU Ecolabel fo by ps94506

VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 36

									Discussion Report:
EU Ecolabel for Personal
Computers – Desktops and
Computer Monitors




Date September 2008
AEA Energy & Environment
Project summary
The purpose of this pilot project is to link the work of the Eco-design of Energy-using Products (EuP)
Directive, with the development of EU Ecolabel criteria. The idea behind this initiative is that with both
policy instruments requiring a similar information base for their operation, the work from the EuP
preparatory studies can be utilised to develop EU Ecolabel criteria. This would mean that resources
would be used effectively, as work will not be duplicated.

This study comprises two phases:

    1. Firstly, a comparison between two policy instruments, the EU Ecolabel and the Eco-design of
       Energy-using Products (EuP) Directive.
    2. Secondly, utilising the data from the EuP preparatory studies to develop EU Ecolabel criteria.

The first phase, now complete, had two purposes:

    •   To identify the similarities and differences between the two policy instruments commenting on
        these in terms of whether differences are significant and if so, whether these can be
        addressed and suggesting how,
    •   Assuming a positive outcome to the first point, recommending six products from the list of
        completed EuP Preparatory Studies to take forward to the criteria development process.

The conclusion of the first phase was that the similarities the two policy instruments share, including
their development of underpinning life cycle evidence bases and stakeholder consultation means that
EuP Preparatory Studies can inform the development of ecolabel criteria. Using a version of the
ecolabel product group Prioritisation Methodology previously devised for the Commission’s ecolabel
scheme, it identified the six EuP products to take forward into the criteria development process. The
six products are:

        1.   Personal Computers – desktop and computer monitors
        2.   Personal Computers – laptops
        3.   Office lighting
        4.   Domestic lighting
        5.   Domestic refrigeration
        6.   Washing machines

Phase two of the project will develop streamlined ecolabel criteria for six product groups, utilising the
evidence base gathered for the Eco-design of Energy-using Products preparatory studies.
Streamlined criteria will focus on the main environmental impacts EuP products have, and will also
cover the environmental impacts not identified in EuP study, but have been highlighted elsewhere as
having a significant environmental impact.

All criteria documents and discussion papers will be circulated to Competent Bodies and stakeholders.
There will be two meetings of the ad-hoc working group (AHWG) for each product group.

The timescales for the development of the criteria sets is as follows:

        •    September 2008 - distribute discussion paper
               th     th                th    th
        •    15 – 16 October and 12 – 13 November 2008 - First AHWGs
        •    April 2009 – distribute second draft of discussion paper and criteria documents
        •    May 2009 - Second AHWGs
        •    March 2010 – Final criteria documents

Further information about the work is available from emma.pell@aeat.co.uk and
phil.dolley@aeat.co.uk




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                                2
Table of contents
1    Introduction                                                      1
     1.1   EuP Directive and preparatory studies                        1
2    Product Definition                                                3
     2.1   Introduction                                                 3
3    Market Overview                                                   6
     3.1   EU Production                                                6
     3.2   EU Trade Data                                                7
     3.3   Apparent EU Consumption                                      8
     3.4   Future Trends                                                8
     3.5   Technology                                                   9
     3.6   Consumer behaviour                                          10
4    Life cycle impacts                                                12
     4.1   Personal desktop computers                                  12
     4.2   Personal Computer Monitors                                  17
5    Proposals for Ecolabel Criteria                                   23
     5.1   Product group definition                                    23
     5.2   Energy savings for computers                                23
     5.3   Shipping mode for computers                                 24
     5.4   Power supply unit for computers                             24
     5.5   Energy savings for computer monitors                        24
     5.6   Power supply unit for computer monitors                     25
6    Possible Criteria                                                 26
     6.1   Lifetime extension                                          26
     6.2   Mercury content of a liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor   26
     6.3   Noise                                                       26
     6.4   Electromagnetic Emissions                                   26
     6.5   Heavy metals and flame retardants                           27
     6.6   Information appearing on the ecolabel                       27




AEA Energy & Environment
AEA Energy & Environment
1           Introduction
This discussion paper for Desktop Computers and Computer Monitors is part of a pilot project to
develop streamlined ecolabel criteria for six products groups, by utilising the evidence base gathered
in the Eco-design of Energy Using Products (EuP) preparatory studies.

The discussion paper consists of six sections:

    •   Section 1:   introduction to the product and a brief summary of the EuP Directive and EuP
                     preparatory studies

    •   Section 2:   a review of product definitions

    •   Section 3:   presents a summary of economic and market analysis from the EuP preparatory
                     study

    •   Section 4:   present a summary of environmental assessment results from the EuP project
                     team

    •   Section 5:   ecolabel criteria proposals informed by the EuP study

    •   Section 6:   ecolabel criteria proposals for additional criteria that are not covered by EuP, and
                     are based on the current ecolabel criteria



1.1         EuP Directive and preparatory studies
The directive 2005/32/EC on the Eco-design of Energy-using Products (EuP) is a framework for
setting eco-design requirements for energy using products. The aim of the Directive is to reduce the
environmental impact of energy using products. Those products that are compliant with eco-design
requirements will be ensured free movement of products in the EU.

The products covered so far have been chosen based on them meeting the following criteria:

        •   The product represents a significant volume of sales and trade (more than 200,000 units a
            year with EC) and,
        •   The product has a significant environmental impact, and
        •   The product has significant potential for improvement without entailing excessive costs

For the products that are chosen a preparatory study will be produced. The purpose of a preparatory
study is to provide information that the Commission need to know in order to decide if a product
should be considered for implementing measured under the EuP. Each preparatory study is
structured so that it contains eight sections.

There are several similarities between the data collected for EuP in the eight sections and the
evidence base that is required to develop EU Ecolabel criteria. The similarities are that both EuP and
EU Ecolabel consider the following aspects:

        •   Product definition
        •   Economic and market analysis
        •   Consumer behaviour
        •   Technical analysis of existing products

Obtaining the above data is a time consuming task, firstly to collect the data and secondly to gain
agreement of the work from stakeholder consultation. Developing the preparatory studies takes
between 11 and 21 months to complete and therefore to get maximum benefit from the work, the
European Commission have commissioned this pilot study to utilise the data collected to develop EU
Ecolabel criteria.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                               1
It should be noted that whilst the EuP preparatory reports contains useful data from which to propose
ecolabel criteria, they do not contain all of the data in the necessary format to develop ecolabel
criteria. For example, there is information on sales by appliance category, as well as information on
the range of energy efficiencies, but what is not included is an overlay of market data on these ranges
of energy efficiencies. It is the combination of this data that would allow an assessment of how much
of a market place could meet a certain ecolabel criterion. This example applies similarly to other
environmental issues.

Any differing data needs between what the EuP preparatory studies provide and what is required for
the EU Ecolabel, will be noted in the conclusions from the pilot study. These conclusions can then be
used to guide the specification for what should be included in a EuP report.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                             2
2            Product Definition
2.1          Introduction
This first section reviews the different definitions that are currently used to define computers and
computer monitors.

Lot 3 of the European Commission preparatory studies is for Personal Computers (desktops and
laptops) and Computer Monitors. The product definition used for this EuP lot is based mainly on the
Energy Star definition. However, the scope of the Energy Star is slightly different from the scope of
the EuP preparatory study, as the Energy Star covers a much wider range of computers and monitors
(detailed below), whereas the EuP preparatory study is limited to personal computers and monitors.


2.1.1        EuP Personal Computers Definition

The personal computers definition used in the EuP preparatory studies is detailed below in Box 1.

 Box 1:
 EuP Personal Computers definition
 A device which performs logical operations and processes data. Personal computers are composed
 of, at a minimum: (1) a central processing unit (CPU) to perform operations; and (2) user input devices
 such as a keyboard, mouse, digitizer or game controller. For the purposes of this study, personal
 computers include both stationary and portable units, including desktop computers, integrated
 computers, notebook computers and tablet PCs. For further definitions of these computer categories,
 the Energy Star definitions are applicable.

 Note that workstations, desktop-derived, mid-range and large servers, game consoles, thin clients/
 blade PCs, handhelds and PDAs are not included in this product definition of personal computers, and
 will therefore not be covered by this study.

Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) - Section 1.4

Energy Star provides further definitions of computer types (i.e. integrated computers, desktop
computers etc) and these are shown in Box 2.

 Box 2:
 Energy Star Computer definitions:
 Desktop Computer
 A computer where the main unit is intended to be located in a permanent location, often on a desk or
 on the floor. Desktops are not designed for portability and utilize an external monitor, keyboard and
 mouse. Desktops are designed for a broad range of home and office applications including, email,
 web browsing, word processing, standard graphics applications, gaming, etc.
 Desktop-derived server
 A desktop-derived server is a computer that typically uses desktop components in a tower form factor,
 but is designed explicitly to be a host for other computers or applications. For the purposes of this
 specification, a computer must be marketed as a server.
 Game consoles
 Stand alone computers whose primary use is to play video games. For the purposes of this
 specification, game consoles must use a hardware architecture based on typical computer
 components (e.g. processors, system memory, video architecture, optical and/or hard drives etc.) The
 primary input from game consoles are special hand held controllers rather than the mouse and
 keyboard used by conventional computer types. Game consoles are also equipped with audiovisual
 outputs for use with televisions as the primary display, rather than an external monitor or integrated
 display. These devices do not typically use a conventional operating system, but often perform a
 variety of multimedia functions such as DVD/CD playback, digital picture viewing, and digital music
 playback.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                               3
 Integrated Computer
 A desktop system in which the computer and display function as a single unit, which receives its AC
 power through a single cable. Integrated computers come in one of two possible forms: (1) a system
 where the display and computer are physically combined into a single unit; or (2) a system packaged
 as a single system where the display is separate but is connected to the main chassis by a DC power
 cord and both the computer and display are powered from a single power supply. As a subset of
 desktop computers, integrated computers are typically designed to provide similar functionality as
 desktop systems.
 Notebook and Tablet computers
 A computer designed specifically for portability and to be operated for extended periods of time
 without a direct connection to an AC power source. Notebooks and tablets must utilize an integrated
 monitor and be capable of operation from an integrated battery or other portable power source. In
 addition, most notebooks and tablets use an external power supply and have an integrated keyboard
 and pointing device, though tablets use touch sensitive screens. Notebook and tablet computers are
 typically designed to provide similar functionality to desktops except within a portable device. For the
 purposes of this specification, docking stations are considered accessories and therefore, the
 performance levels associated with notebooks do not include them.
 Workstations
 For the purposes of this specification, to qualify as a workstation, a computer must:
 a. Be marketed as a workstation
 b. Have a mean time between failures (MTBF) of at least 15,000 hours based on Bellcore TR-NWT-
 000332, issue 6, 12/97; and
 c. Support error-correcting code (ECC) and/or buffered memory
 d. In addition, a workstation must meet three of the following six optional characteristics:
          i. Have supplemental power support for high end graphics (i.e. PCI-E 6 pin 12 V supplemental
          power feed)
          ii. System is wired for 4x or 8x PCI-E on motherboard in addition to graphics slot(s) and/or
          PCI-X support EuP preparatory study, TREN/D1/40-2005, Lot 3 18 (325)
          iii. Does not support Uniform Memory Access (UMA) graphics:
          iv. Include 5 or more PCI, PCIe, PCI-X slots;
          v. Capable of multi-processor support for two or more processors (must support physically
          separate processor packages/sockets, i.e, not met with support for a single multi core
          processor) and/or
          vi. Be qualified by at least 2 Independent Software Vendor (ISV) product certifications; these
          certifications can be in process, but must be completed within 3 months of qualification for
          Energy Star.

 Product groups not covered by Energy Star include mid-range and large servers, thin clients/blade
 PCs, handhelds and palm-top organisers.


Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – section 1.3.1

2.1.2        EuP Computer Monitor Definition
The computer monitor definition used in the EuP preparatory study is also based on the Energy Star
requirements for computer monitors eligibility criteria (version 4.1). The exact definition used in the
EuP preparatory study is below in Box 3, the text in italic in Box 3 is the part of the definition that is
from Energy Star.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                                     4
 Box 3:
 EuP Computer Monitors definition
 A commercially-available, electronic product with a display screen and its associated electronics
 encased in a single housing that is capable of displaying output information from a computer via one
 or more inputs, such as VGA, DVI, and/or IEEE 1394. The monitor usually relies upon a cathode-ray
 tube (CRT), liquid crystal display (LCD) or other display device. This definition is intended primarily to
 cover standard monitors designed for use with computers. The computer monitors included in this
 definition must have a viewable diagonal screen size greater than 12 inches and must be capable of
 being powered by a separate AC wall outlet or a battery unit that is sold with an AC adapter.
 Computer monitors with a tuner/receiver may be covered by this study as long as they are marketed
 and sold to consumers as computer monitors (i.e., focusing on computer monitor as the primary
 function) or as dual function computer monitors and televisions. However, products with a
 tuner/receiver and computer capability that are marketed and sold as televisions are not included in
 the scope of this study.

Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – section 1.4


2.1.3       EU Ecolabel Definition
Commission Decision 2005/341/EC for personal computers has a definition for personal computers
and computer monitors. This definition is below in Box 4.

 Box 4:
 EU Ecolabel Personal Computers definition
 The Product group ‘personal computers’ shall comprise computers designed for use in a fixed
 location, such as on a desk, and consisting of a system unit and display, whether or not combined in a
 single case, as well as a keyboard.

 The product group shall also cover system units, keyboards and displays designed for use with
 personal computers.

 The product group shall not cover servers

Source: Commission Decision of 11th April 2005 (2005/341/EC)

The EuP and EU Ecolabel definitions are similar in scope; the difference between them is that the EuP
definition is more prescriptive about what is and what is not in the scope.

Considering that the purpose of the current study is to develop EU Ecolabel criteria from the evidence
base developed for EuP Lot 3, it is sensible to adopt the EuP product group definition.

Personal Computer: A device that performs logical operations and processes data. Personal
computers are composed of, at a minimum: (1) a central processing unit (CPU) to perform
operations; and (2) user input devices such as a keyboard, mouse, digitizer or game controller.

Note that workstations, desktop-derived, mid-range and large servers, game consoles, thin
clients/ blade PCs, handhelds and PDAs are not included in this product definition, and will
therefore not be covered by this study. Note that portable computers are included in separate
ecolabel criteria from the EuP evidence base.

Computer monitor: A commercially-available, electronic product with a display screen and its
associated electronics encased in a single housing that is capable of displaying output
information from a computer via one or more inputs. This definition is intended primarily to
cover standard monitors designed for use with computers. The computer monitors included in
this definition must have a viewable diagonal screen size greater than 12 inches and must be
capable of being powered by a separate AC wall outlet or a battery unit that is sold with an AC
adapter. Computer monitors with a tuner/receiver are included as long as they are marketed
and sold as computer monitors (i.e., focusing on the computer monitor role as the primary
function).

AEA Energy & Environment                                                                                5
3             Market Overview
The purpose of the EuP market analysis is to gauge whether a product type is significant in terms of
sales. The EuP Directive itself identifies that sales of a particular product group need to be more than
200,000 units per year in the EU to be chosen as a product sector.

The ecolabel has a slightly different need for market data whereby such information is used to gauge
whether a product is applicable equally across the EU or is confined to a handful of member states.

The EuP Task 2 report (Economic and Market Analysis) captures data from PRODCOM and EU trade
statistics. The following sections summarise EU production (the amount of product manufactured in
the EU), EU trade data (imports and exports of product in the EU) and apparent consumption
(production plus any imports, minus exports) from the report.

3.1           EU Production
Data on production of desktops in the EU-25 in 2005 is shown below for countries where information
was available. Not all countries have reported data.

Table 1: EU-25 Production of Desktop PCs, 2005

2005                         Desktop PCs
                        Volume         Value
                    (1000 units)      (M EURO)
Germany                    736               388
France                     251               168
Poland                     242               78
Romania                    98                48
Portugal                   82                51
Estonia                    68                27
Spain                      59                32
Belgium                    55                45
Italy                      45                54
Croatia                    42                15
Lithuania                  34                16
Finland                    23                26
Bulgaria                   22                 3
Slovenia                   18                10
Latvia                      4                 2
Denmark                     2                 4
EU25 Totals         2732
Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – Table 24

Table 1 shows that the domestic production is greatest in Germany, France and Poland.

EU-25 production data for monitors is also limited with only values for a few countries being available.
The reasons for gaps within the data are explained in section 2.1.2.1 in EuP Lot 3, but examples of
possible reasons for data gaps are that the data maybe confidential or the data may be missing as a
result of the reporting country not surveying the heading.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                               6
Table 2: EU-25 Production of Computer monitors, 2005
                 Colour video monitors         Flat panel video monitor       Black and white or other
   2005            cathode-ray tube                                            monochrome monitors

                 Volume           Value          Volume           Value         Volume             Value
               (1000 units)    (M EURO)        (1000 units)   (M EURO)        (1000 units)    (M EURO)
Germany                                     67                                                5
Italy         1210           110            2                 2               222             38
Denmark                      0                                                4               1
Spain         8              4
EU25          1341           154            361               190             437
Totals
Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – table 25

Table 2 shows the production of computer monitors for four countries in the EU-25. Unfortunately,
data is not available for the majority of the EU and therefore it is not possible to identify the countries
with the largest share of the market.

3.2          EU Trade Data
Table 3 below (taken from EuP Task 2, page 57 – Trade Statistics) shows the EU trade data for the
EU25 in terms of imports and exports in 2003, 2004 and 2005.

Table 3: EU-25 Total trade (import-export)




Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – table 26

From Table 3 it can be seen that the EU-25 is a net importer in terms of volume of desktop PCs and
the number of imports have grown between the years 2003 to 2005. The value of imports has
decreased, a consequence of a decrease in unit price.

For computer monitors the EU-25 imports more of each type of monitor than is exported. The figures
also show for monitors that the flat panel monitor is quickly becoming popular with a significant
increase in sales between 2004 and 2005.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                                      7
3.3         Apparent EU Consumption
Calculating apparent EU consumption has presented the authors with some difficulties in the EuP
preparatory study because of the limited country production data provided to PRODCOM. Data was
therefore collected from surveys, as well as using the original PRODCOM data. Approximate
apparent consumption of the 2 main kinds of computer; desktop and laptop and the 2 main
technologies for monitors; CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) and LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), is shown
below.

Table 4: Approximation of apparent consumption in EU-25, calculated mainly from figures from the
            industry survey, 2000-2008




Source – Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – table 33

Apparent consumption is the production plus any imports, minus exports. Table 4 shows that the
apparent consumption for the EU-25 has increased most quickly for flat panel monitors and laptops,
with desktop apparent consumption rising steadily, whilst concomitantly and obviously linked the
apparent consumption for cathode ray monitors is decreasing. Overall consumption of all monitors
has been increasing from 22 million in 2001, to 26 million in 2004 to 36 million in 2007.

3.4         Future Trends
The survey undertaken for the EuP preparatory study did not give any estimation of sales volume after
2008. However, with the information available within the survey to 2008 best estimates up to 2010
have been calculated for installed computers and monitors by extrapolating the trends. (The term
‘installed’ relates to the number of computers and monitors that are in the home/office, taking account
of the lifetime of the product)

Table 5: Rough approximation of installed computers and monitors, 2009-2010




Source – Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – table 38

The extrapolated results in Table 5 show continued increase for desktops, laptops and flat panel
monitors. The only downward trend is for CRT-monitors.



AEA Energy & Environment                                                                             8
The downward trend for CRT monitors is shown further in Figure 1 below where the estimated
installed base of units in operation in the EU-25 is shown. The figures have been extrapolated to
provide estimations up to 2020.

Figure 1: Estimated installed base for desktops, laptops, cathode ray and flat panel monitors




Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – figure 43

The EuP Lot 3 study authors predict that CRT monitors will no longer be used in the EU-25 after 2011,
and with sales being insignificant from 2006 no further analysis is made in subsequent sections of this
discussion paper.

3.5          Technology
3.5.1        Desktop computers
The data presented in EuP Lot 3 preparatory study suggests that the trend is for increasing sales of
laptops in comparison to desktops, which the EuP authors predict to stagnate.

The EuP study explored the much-vaunted concept of product convergence whereby computers and
TV equipment evolve to become the same product. Exploring this possibility with suppliers via a
survey drew mixed reactions. Some respondents expressed the view that the market will supply
specialised equipment for each application, while others believe the computer will gradually take over
from the TV. In a recent UK conference (Intellect Consumer Electronics Conference 2008:
Tomorrow's Technology, 3 July 2008, London), the general view was that product convergence would
not occur with the principle reason being that consumers do not want converged products and have
not bought the products when placed on the market. Examples of where product convergence hasn’t
really happened include mobile phones with TV functionality and internet connected TV were
identified.

The current economic lifetimes of the first life of a home desktop and computer monitor is shown
below in Table 6. The data in table 6 is the opinions of suppliers and therefore the economic lifetime
is assumed to be the average time that each of the listed products will be used for by their first owner.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                                9
Table 6: Average economic lifetimes - opinions of the suppliers, for the first life




Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – table 34

3.5.2        Computer monitors
Before summer 2006 it was typical for computer backlights to be mercury-filled fluorescent lamps,
however a few manufacturers have found that full size monitors with LED (light emitting diodes)
backlights are commercially viable particularly in high end products, such as those used in CAD
(Computer Aided Design) suites. However very few manufacturers produce LED screens. Samsung
estimate that in 2006 just 3% of all LCD monitors sold were equipped with LEDs. On this point, the
EuP study remarks that LED technology is unlikely to achieve significant market share for some years
ahead because of its relatively high cost. The work also notes that at the present time, LED screens
consume more energy than their CCFL counterparts a point also noted in the recent work to revise the
TV ecolabel (AEA’s report to the Commission, 2008).

The sale of CRT-monitors is rapidly declining in volume, as shown in the market analysis section 3.4
as consumers take up LCD screens, which are now a cost-effective option.

3.6          Consumer behaviour
Consumer usage patterns of computers and monitors are important to understand in terms of how
long they are in use, left in active, sleep mode and turned off. Although these terms can have different
meanings to different people they are generally accepted as having the following definitions

    •   Off includes soft off (computer turned off by software or power button but still connected to
        mains) and hard off, i.e. zero energy consumption.
    •   Sleep includes several low energy consumption states, none of them permitting interactive
        usage.
    •   Active/Idle includes all power states between idle and high (maximum power usage), (i.e. in
        idle the machine is on, some programmes are running and it is therefore ready to be used.)

The consultants who developed the EuP preparatory study found that consumer usage patterns is an
area where there is a lack of robust, up to date information. This was especially the case with older
studies because usage patterns change very rapidly as the performance and function of computers
change and users adopt new behaviours and do so in increasing numbers such as on-line banking
and shopping.

Information was gathered for the EuP study from a number of sources and put into common units,
such as active, sleep and off modes. The resulting mean values from all sources are presented below
in Table 7.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                            10
Table 7: Computer usage pattern, mean values from all sources




Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – table 53

For Table 7 the term ‘active’ can be used interchangeable with the word ‘idle’, because there is no
differentiation between times spent in idle and active modes. However, for the rest of this discussion
paper the term ‘idle’ will be used for the reason that when gaining data from manufacturers the EuP
authors could only ask for power consumption values for idle, sleep and off modes as these are the
modes supported by test standards. The Energy Star definitions for these modes are provided later in
section 4.1.3.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                           11
4            Life cycle impacts
This section presents a summary of the methodology and key findings of the EuP study lot 3 in terms
of the environmental impact of desktop computers and computer monitors. From these findings we
have proposed several ecolabel criteria in this section, alternatively you can view a summary of the
criteria in section five.

It should be noted that section four and five only look at data from EuP studies to propose criteria and
other criteria not covered within the EuP Lot 3 study are taken into account in section six.

Data for the EuP preparatory study was gathered from computer and monitor manufacturers. The
data collection procedure included;
         • a stakeholder meeting on 30th May 2006 and 20th April 2007,
         • a questionnaire to stakeholders during summer 2006, referred to in this discussion paper
             as the IVF (Industrial Research and Development Corporation) Survey. This is a survey
             that was sent out by IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation to
             stakeholders. Due to secrecy agreements the names of the companies who completed
             the survey are not included.
         • requests for LCA data.

In order for the data collected to be all from a similar computer and monitor specification, survey
questions focussed on a standard product specification. These specifications or base cases are
detailed in section 4.1 below. The product base cases, one for the office and one for the domestic
environment, were chosen as they represented the largest share of the market in 2005. The data
provided from manufacturers is presented as an average, as to not disclose confidential information.

The participant list for the stakeholder meetings included Fujitsu Siemens, NEC, Sony, AMD, Intel,
Mitsubishi, HP, Apple, Toshiba and Dell indicating that most of the major manufacturers took part in
the EuP preparatory studies.



4.1          Personal desktop computers
The data gathered for desktop PCs was based on the following specification:
       • 3GHz processor (or equivalent)
       • built in graphics card
       • 512 MB RAM (Random Access Memory)
       • 80 GB HDD (Hard Disk Drive)

The usage pattern of this PC type in an office environment and a home environment differ and
therefore the EuP study adopted two different scenarios.

The above base case product specification was used in the EuP study to represent an environmental
impact assessment for an average computer in 2005. Whilst there are two different usage patterns
the difference between the two scenarios are not so great that one would draw different conclusions
regarding the life cycle impacts, by looking at one rather than the other.

Section 4.1.1 below reviews data extracted from the EuP preparatory study to determine the key
environmental impacts from a personal desktop computer through its lifecycle.


4.1.1        Environmental Impacts
From the environmental impact data collected the EuP authors concluded that the most energy is
consumed in the use phase (EuP Lot 3 section 5.2.1). The in-use phase consumes about six times
more energy than in any other phase, production being the next most important for energy
consumption, and therefore minimising energy use during this phase is an obvious improvement area.
This can be seen in Figure 2 below.


AEA Energy & Environment                                                                             12
Figure 2: Life cycle primary energy per product




Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – figure 16

Figure 2 shows that the energy consumed while the desktop is in use is larger than in production,
distribution and end-of-life. The energy consumed while the desktop is in use is greater for an office
desktop then a home desktop due to the more intensive usage pattern for an office desktop computer,
as can be seen in Table 7. The energy in the production phase can be mainly attributed to integrated
circuits, surface mounted devices, big capacitors and coils, copper wiring, PWB (printed wiring board)
manufacturing, sheet metal manufacturing and galvanised steel.

4.1.2        Energy Use
With energy in use being the phase where most energy is consumed over a desktop computer’s
lifetime, this is the area where the EU Ecolabel should look to push for environmental improvements.
Section 4.1.3 sets out further data from EuP Lot 3 and proposes EU Ecolabel criteria.


4.1.3        Energy Savings
Data collected for a number of base case models (specification detailed above in section 4.1) on
energy in-use, shows that the majority of energy consumption occurs in the idle stage. As shown in
Figure 3 below.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                           13
Figure 3: Power figures for laptops and desktops




Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – figure 14

The definition for the operational modes (idle, sleep, off) used in the EuP study have been taken from
Energy Star:

        •   Idle – For purposes of testing and qualifying computers under this specification, this is the
            state in which the operating system and other software have completed loading, the
            machine is not asleep, and activity is limited to those basic applications that the system
            starts by default.
        •   Sleep – A low power state that the computer is capable of entering automatically after a
            period of inactivity or by manual selection. A computer with sleep capability can quickly
            ‘wake’ in response to network connection or user interface devices.
        •   Off (standby) – The power consumption level in the lowest power mode which cannot be
            switched off (influenced) by the user and that may persist for an indefinite time when the
            appliance is connected to the main electricity supply and used in accordance with the
            manufacturer’s instructions.

Figure 3 is looking at data collected against the base case specification, which has been compared in
Table 8 below with data from the IVF survey, as well as Energy Star data. The survey and the product
case data sets, is data representing the best-selling computers in 2005 according to the major
manufacturers. Whereas, the Energy Star data comprises 100 different models on the market in
2006.

The IVF survey results indicate lower power consumption values for home desktops, which is likely to
be the result of what is called the ‘white box market’ not being included in the IVF survey results. The
white box market includes products assembled from standard components by small local companies,
sometimes with their own brand name. Computers assembled in this way are less likely to take
consideration of energy efficiency statistics then the larger branded computers. The survey was
undertaken by the large manufacturers and therefore the energy credentials of the white box market is
less likely to be included in the survey results, compared with the Energy Star values.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                              14
Table 8: Desktop computer power
Data Sources           IVF summer survey
                                                      Product case       Energy Star       EU Ecolabel
Operational          Office            Home
                                                        data sets         2006 data           2005
modes               desktop          desktop
Idle, Average
(min-max)        73.8 (70.5-78)    61 (50-79.7)            78.2         81.7 (221-23)               -
(Watt)
Sleep,
Average (min-     3.3 (1.2-4.2)     3.7 (2.61-5)            2.2         3.1 (1.4-10.1)              4
max) (Watt)
Off, Average
                   1.4 (1-2.3)      1.4 (0.7-3)             2.7         2.0 (0.4-10.1)              2
(Watt)
Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – table 73

The energy consumption criteria in the existing EU Ecolabel Commission Decision (2005/341/EC) for
personal computers, is detailed in Box 5 below.

  BOX 5:

  EU Ecolabel Personal Computer – Energy Criteria
  Criterion 1a)
  The computer system unit shall have an easily accessible on-off switch

  Criterion 1b)
  The computer system unit shall meet the Energy Star configuration requirements that enable energy
  efficiency modes.

  Criterion 1c)
  The computer shall support the ACPI S3 sleep state (suspend to RAM) to allow minimum energy
  consumption of not more than 4 watts.

  Criterion 1d)
  The off-mode power consumption shall be no more than 2 watts. In this context, the off-mode is the
  state initiated through the command to shut down the computer.


The EU Ecolabel energy requirements were developed prior to 2004, which was before the time that
the Energy Star brought in energy efficiency values for sleep and off modes.

The advantage of using Energy Star criteria compared with setting criteria based on the data collected
for the product base case and the survey, is that Energy Star looks at a number of different computer
operational modes to calculate idle criteria. Computers with different purposes are set different energy
targets, these are separated into category A, B and C (see box 6 for a definition of these categories).

The distinction between different operational modes was not made when the survey data was
collected from manufacturers. Therefore, even though the data from manufacturers in Table 8
suggests that more stringent criteria could be set, this does not take into account the different
operational modes that exist.

BOX 6:
Energy Star Operational Modes
Desktop Categories for Idle Criteria: For the purposes of determining Idle state levels, desktops
(including integrated computers, desktop-derived servers and game consoles) must qualify under
Categories A, B, or C as defined below:

Category A: All desktop computers that do not meet the definition of either Category B or
Category C below will be considered under Category A for ENERGY STAR qualification.

Category B: To qualify under Category B desktops must have:
•      Multi-core processor(s) or greater than 1 discrete processor; and
•      Minimum of 1 gigabyte of system memory.


AEA Energy & Environment                                                                                15
    Category C: To qualify under Category C desktops must have:
    •      Multi-core processor(s) or greater than 1 discrete processor; and
    •      A GPU with greater than 128 megabytes of dedicated, non-shared memory.

    In addition to the requirements above, models qualifying under Category C must be configured
    with a minimum of 2 of the following 3 characteristics:
    • Minimum of 2 gigabytes of system memory;
    • TV tuner and/or video capture capability with high definition support; and/or
    • Minimum of 2 hard disk drives.


The EuP authors have considered the collated data for personal computers and monitors to develop a
number of scenarios for improving the environmental performance and energy consumption from
computers and monitors. These scenarios are all described in section 8.1.2 in EuP Lot 3 study. All of
the scenarios are very similar, as they are based on the voluntary requirements set out within Energy
Star. The difference between the scenarios is whether the requirement is kept voluntary or is made
mandatory.

The Energy Star voluntary requirements are regularly updated, the latest Tier 1 requirements are
shown below in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Key product criteria for Energy Star qualified computers




Source: http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=computers.pr_crit_computers

We have proposed two options for an energy criterion, both of which are based on the data from
Energy Star. The difference between the two options is that the energy consumption values in option
two will change as the criteria for Energy Star are reviewed, whereas in option one the values will be
frozen in time to the Energy Star criteria reference that the EU Ecolabel criteria refer to.

Option 1

The computer meets the energy efficiency requirements for off mode, sleep mode, and idle
state that are set out in the July 2007 Energy Star criteria1.

Option 2

The computer meets the energy efficiency requirements for off mode, sleep mode and idle
state that are set out in the latest product criteria for Energy Star qualified computers.




1
 As defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Website:
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=computers.pr_crit_computers


AEA Energy & Environment                                                                            16
4.1.4        Shipping mode
The authors of the Lot 3 study describe the enforcement of power management as one of the most
effective measures for energy conservation in computers. Most modern computer hardware has an
advanced, built in functionality for power management, which is often not used. The authors of EuP
Lot 3 explain how many computer owners actively turn off the power management function due to
anticipated problems with legacy software and with network applications.

Studies undertaken by industry have shown that products which have an enabled power management
system are turned off my less than 20% of users, leading to a much higher use of such a system than
if the user have to actively enable it.

The Lot 3 authors recommendations is to introduce legislation which forces the manufacturers to
provide the computers with the power management system enabled at the time of delivery to the
customers. They also recommend that information about how to use the power management system
should also be provided to customers.

The proposed criterion for power management is shown below:

a) The computer shall be shipped with the power management system enabled at the time of
delivery to the customers. Power management settings shall be:
        i) 15 minutes to screen off (display sleep)
        ii) 30 minutes to computer sleep (system level S3, suspended to RAM)

b) The computer manual shall state in the first few pages of the manual the benefit of keeping
the computer on the power management setting.


4.1.5        Power supply unit
Power supplies for desktops and for monitors in today’s market show a relatively large distribution in
efficiency. The EuP Lot 3 authors state that technology is available to get efficiency in the area of 80-
85% and even higher, while some units on the market are considerably less efficient.

The below proposal for power supply unit efficiency is based on the recommendations of Lot 3, which
have in turned been based on the Energy Star test methods and criteria for internal power supplies
and Lot 7 findings for external power supplies. The authors of Lot 3 suggest that even higher
efficiency of power supply units then the 80% they state could be reached, such as +85% or +90%.

For internal power supply (desktops): 90% minimum efficiency at 20%, 50%, 80% and 100% of
rated output and Power Factor ≥0.9 of rated output.



4.2          Personal Computer Monitors
The EuP lot 3 preparatory study presents data on both CRT and LCD monitors. For the EU Ecolabel
only the data on LCD monitors is considered because of the declining numbers of CRT monitors on
the market, as described in section 3.4– Future Trends. The declining numbers mean that the use of
CRT will be minimal by the time new EU Ecolabel criteria are published.

The base case at which all data was gathered on LCA monitors in the EuP study was on a 17” LCD
screen, resolution 1280x1024.

This base case product has been used to represent an environmental impact assessment for an
average LCD monitor in 2005. Whilst there are two different usage patterns (office and home) the
difference between the two scenarios are not so great that one would draw different conclusions
regarding the life cycle impacts, by looking at one rather than the other.

Section 4.2.1 below reviews data extracted from the EuP preparatory study to determine the key
environmental impacts for LCD monitor through its lifecycle.



AEA Energy & Environment                                                                               17
4.2.1        Environmental Impacts
From the environmental impact data collected the EuP authors conclude that the most energy is
consumed in the use phase. The in-use phase consumes about six times more energy than in any
other phase and therefore minimising energy use during this phase is an obvious improvement area.
This can be seen in Figure 5 below.


Figure 5: Life cycle primary energy per product




Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – figure 16

Figure 5 shows that the energy consumed while a LCD monitor is in use is larger then in production,
distribution and end-of-life. The largest quantity of energy used in the in-use phase, is associated with
the backlights where 90% of the power is consumed (EuP Preparatory Study Lot 3 – section 4.3.2).
The energy consumed while the LCD monitor is in use is greater for an office LCD monitor then a
home LCD monitor due to the more intensive usage pattern for an office monitor, as can be seen in
Table 7.

4.2.2        Energy Use

With energy in use being the phase where most energy is consumed over a computer monitor’s
lifetime, this is the area where the EU Ecolabel should look to push for environmental improvements.
Section 3.2.3 sets out further data from EuP Lot 3 and proposes EU Ecolabel criteria.

4.2.3        Energy Savings
On-mode
Using a typical use pattern, energy consumption is highest in active (on) mode. The EuP authors
describe that on-mode power consumption is related to the size of the LCD monitor and not resolution.
This is because of the way a LCD monitor brings the picture to the screen. The idea that the energy
use correlates to the resolution (megapixels) is from when the standard was a plasma screen where
each pixel element is an individual light source that is illuminated as needed. The way an LCD
monitor works is to have backlights running and rather than lighting up pixels, an LCD will block them,
so the light does not get through. Therefore, it is the screen size that impacts on energy used, as the
larger the screen size the more backlights used. Figure 6 shows the correlation between energy



AEA Energy & Environment                                                                              18
                                                                                    2
consumption and screen size. It also shows that LCDs use less energy in-use per cm of screen size
than an equivalently sized CRT screen, i.e. they are more energy efficient per square area.

For a more detailed explanation of on-power consumption, resolution and screen size please refer to
section 4.3.2 of EuP Lot 3 preparatory study.

Figure 6: Computer monitor power consumption by screen area




Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – figure 10

LCD display power consumption values are compared in Table 9 below from product base case data,
IVF survey and data from TCO (TCO certification is a labelling scheme for low emissions standards for
a number of products, one of which is computer monitors). In the IVF survey and for the product base
case data sets, the data represents the best-selling LCD-displays in 2005. The number of individual
displays reviewed in the product base case is less. The TCO data, comprises of around 100 different
17” LCD-display models, which have no correlation to market share.

Table 9: LCD display power consumption from different sources
                                   IVF summer survey     Product case data      TCO 2005 data 17”
                                                         sets                   LCD
Operational       Functional      Ave     Max    Min     Ave     Max    Min     Ave   Max     Min
Modes             Unit
                        2
Active (Watt)     Per m            415     604   330      345      -       -     285     526    191
Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – Table 81

The current energy requirements detailed in the European Commission Decision (2005/341/EC) for
computer monitors are below in Box 7.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                         19
 BOX 7:

 Present EU Ecolabel for Monitors – Energy Criteria

 Criterion a)
 The monitor shall have an easily accessible on-off switch

 Criterion b)
 The monitor shall have a sleep mode power consumption of no more than 2 watts. The default mode-
 change time from operation to the sleep state shall be no more than 30 minutes of inactivity. The
 manufacturer must enable this feature, but the user may disable it.

 Criterion c)
 The monitor shall have an off-mode power consumption of no more than 1 watt. In this context, the
 off-mode is the state initiated through the command to shut down the monitor.

 Criterion d)
 Monitors shall not exceed the Energy Star Version 4 requirements for Tier 2, maximum active power
 consumption. Monitors must comply with the appropriate formula given below:
     i)       if X<1 then Y = 23
     ii)      if X ≥1 then Y = 28X

 (where X is the number of mega-pixels and Y the energy consumption in watts)


The difficulty comes when deciding what measurements should be used for recording energy
consumption. The current EU Ecolabel energy requirement values are based on per screen area and
screen resolution. The EuP evidence base describes that energy consumption is correlated with
screen size. However, Energy Star and TCO requirements ask for energy values to be measured
using resolution.

Within the EuP policy recommendations the authors acknowledge that Energy Star is a well-known
and widely used system and therefore propose that the first step of implementing measures should be
measured in power per resolution as per Energy Star requirements. The authors of Lot 3 then
recommend that for the second implementation step (around 2011) the requirements for power per
screen area be developed, as the authors believe these will have a wider impact.

The recommendations given with the EuP study for active/on mode energy consumption are based on
the equation
        • Y=10+410*A,
        Y is the active/on power in Watts and
                                2
        A is a “true” value in m for the area of the screen surface.

The EuP authors state that almost all the products from the Energy Star database would be able to
meet this requirement. This can be seen below in Figure 7 for all those points (representing a
monitor) underneath the limit line.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                            20
Figure 7: Active/on mode power for monitors, compared to statistics available from E* (Energy Star
             database) and C’t (Computertechnik)




Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – Figure 46

The majority of monitors within the Energy Star database meet the EuP recommendations for
active/on mode energy consumption measured by screen size (based on Y= 410x + 10). The Energy
Star labelling scheme criteria is based on the performance of approximately 25% of the best available
products on the market when the criteria are set.
                                                                                                2
The average on-power consumption figure for the best available 25% of the market is 290 W/m .

Table 10: Power in on-mode for monitors according to Energy Star statistics
                        Power (W/m2)
                              LCD
               Max            617
          Average             290
                Min           184
Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – Table 71

The two proposed criterion options for on-mode power consumption for computer monitors are:

Option 1 - Energy Savings measured by resolution:

Monitors shall not exceed the Energy Star maximum active power consumption. Monitors
must comply with the appropriate formula given below:
        • If X < 1 megapixel, then Y = 23;
        • if X > 1 megapixel, then Y = 28X
(Y is expressed in watts and rounded up to the nearest whole number and X is the number of
megapixels in decimal form)

Option 2 – Energy Savings measured by screen area:

Active/on mode energy consumption shall not exceed 290 watts per m2 for a computer monitor.

Sleep and Off Modes

AEA Energy & Environment                                                                             21
For sleep and off modes the current EU Ecolabel criteria and the Energy Star criteria, currently
measure energy consumption on a per display basis. The energy consumption values collected from
IVF summer survey, product base case and TCO are shown below in Table 11.

Table 11: LCD display on-power consumption per display
                                    IVF summer survey       Product case data      TCO 2005 data 17”
                                                            sets                   LCD
Operational       Functional      Ave     Max    Min        Ave     Max    Min     Ave   Max     Min
Modes             Unit
Sleep (Watt)      Per display      1.2      2    0.7         0.9       -      -      1.1      4      0.5
Off (Watt)        Per display      1.1      2    0.7         0.8       -      -      1.0     3.0     0.5
Source: Lot 3 Final Report (Task 1-8) – Table 81

The disadvantage however, of the above data is that it is not clear what percentage of the market this
data is representative of. The EuP authors recommend that for sleep and off mode power for
monitors, the Energy Star, tier 2 criteria should be followed i.e. sleep mode ≤ 2 W and off mode ≤ 1 W.
The Energy Star labelling scheme criteria is based on the performance of approximately 25% of the
best available products on the market when the criteria are set.

Below are two options for a proposed off mode and sleep mode energy criterion, both of which are
based on the data from Energy Star. The difference between the two options is that the energy
consumption values in option two will change as the criteria for Energy Star are reviewed, whereas in
option one the values will be frozen to the Energy Star criteria reference that the EU Ecolabel criteria
refer to.

Option 1

The monitor meets the energy efficiency requirements for off mode and sleep mode that are set
out in tier two, 1st January 2005 Energy Star criteria.

Option 2

The computer meets the energy efficiency requirements for off mode and sleep mode that are
set out in the latest product criteria for Energy Star qualified computer monitors.


4.2.4        Power supply unit criterion
The below proposal for power supply unit efficiency is based on the recommendations of Lot 3, which
have in turned been based on the Energy Star test methods and criteria for internal power supplied
and Lot 7 findings for external power supplies. The authors of Lot 3 suggest that even higher
efficiency of power supply units then the 80% they state could be reached, such as +85% or +90%.

For internal power supply (monitors): 90% minimum efficiency at 20%, 50%, 80% and 100% of
rated output and Power Factor ≥0.9 of rated output.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                              22
5                Proposals for Ecolabel Criteria
This section outlines the proposals for ecolabel criteria drawing on the data and information available
in the EuP Lot 3 study report. It only covers those issues covered by the work in support of EuP.

Given though that the ecolabel considers a wider range of issues than EuP, these additional aspects
are discussed in Section six drawing on the criteria development experience for other ecolabelled
product groups.



5.1              Product group definition
Based on the review presented in section 2, we are proposing to use the EuP definition. As although
both the EuP and EU Ecolabel definitions are similar in scope, the EuP definition is more prescriptive
about what is and what is not within the scope. We therefore propose to use the EuP definition for
desktop computers and computer monitors.

Proposed Ecolabel Definition

Personal Computer: A device that performs logical operations and processes data. Personal
computers are composed of, at a minimum: (1) a central processing unit (CPU) to perform operations;
and (2) user input devices such as a keyboard, mouse, digitizer or game controller.

Note that workstations, desktop-derived, mid-range and large servers, game consoles, thin clients/
blade PCs, handhelds and PDAs are not included in this product definition, and will therefore not be
covered by this study. Note that portable computers are included in separate ecolabel criteria from the
EuP evidence base.

Computer monitor: A commercially-available, electronic product with a display screen and its
associated electronics encased in a single housing that is capable of displaying output information
from a computer via one or more inputs. This definition is intended primarily to cover standard
monitors designed for use with computers. The computer monitors included in this definition must
have a viewable diagonal screen size greater than 12 inches and must be capable of being powered
by a separate AC wall outlet or a battery unit that is sold with an AC adapter. Computer monitors with
a tuner/receiver are included as long as they are marketed and sold as computer monitors (i.e.,
focusing on the computer monitor role as the primary function).



5.2              Energy savings for computers
Option 1

The computer meets the energy efficiency requirements for off mode, sleep mode, and idle state that
                                                 2
are set out in the July 2007 Energy Star criteria .

Option 2

The computer meets the energy efficiency requirements for off mode, sleep mode and idle state that
are set out in the latest product criteria for Energy Star qualified computers.

Assessment and verification:
The applicant shall provide the Competent Body with a report certifying that the level of power
consumption measured using the procedure in the current Energy Star programme requirements for
computers.




2
 As defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Website:
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=computers.pr_crit_computers


AEA Energy & Environment                                                                             23
5.3         Shipping mode for computers

a) The computer shall be shipped with the power management system enabled at the time of delivery
to the customers. Power management settings shall be:
                 i. 15 minutes to screen off (display sleep)
                ii. 30 minutes to computer sleep (system level S3, suspended to RAM)

b) The computer manual shall state in the first few pages of the manual the benefit of keeping the
computer on the power management setting.

Assessment and verification:
The applicant shall provide the Competent Body with a declaration to certify that the computer has
been shipped in the power management settings stated above or better. The applicant will provide the
Competent Body with a copy of the user manual that complies with criterion 2b above.



5.4         Power supply unit for computers
For internal power supply (desktops): 90% minimum efficiency at 20%, 50%, 80% and 100% of rated
output and Power Factor ≥0.9 of rated output.

Assessment and verification:
The applicant should declare compliance with this criterion and provide the Competent Body with test
results as per the methodology described in the Internal Power Supply Efficiency Protocol
www.efficientpowersupplies.org

5.5         Energy savings for computer monitors
Option 1

Energy Savings measured by resolution:

Monitors shall not exceed the Energy Star maximum active power consumption. Monitors must
comply with the appropriate formula given below:
         • If X < 1 megapixel, then Y = 23;
         • if X > 1 megapixel, then Y = 28X
(Y is expressed in watts and rounded up to the nearest whole number and X is the number of
megapixels in decimal form)

Assessment and verification: The applicant shall provide the Competent Body with a report certifying
that the levels of power consumption in on-modes have been measured using the procedure in the
Energy Star Programme Requirements for Computer Monitors.

Option 2

Energy Savings measured by screen area:
                                                                      2
Active/on mode energy consumption shall not exceed 290 watts per m for a computer monitor.

Assessment and verification:
Awaiting confirmation from Commission consultation


5.5.1       Sleep and Off modes for computer monitors
Option 1

The monitor meets the energy efficiency requirements for off mode and sleep mode that are set out in
           st
Tier two, 1 January 2005 Energy Star criteria.

AEA Energy & Environment                                                                             24
Option 2

The computer meets the energy efficiency requirements for off mode and sleep mode that are set out
in the latest product criteria for Energy Star qualified computer monitors.

Assessment and verification:
The applicant shall provide the competent body with a report certifying that the level of power
consumption in sleep and off modes has been measured using the procedure in the current Energy
Star. The report shall state the measured power consumption in these modes.



5.6         Power supply unit for computer monitors
For internal power supply (monitors): 90% minimum efficiency at 20%, 50%, 80% and 100% of rated
output and Power Factor ≥0.9 of rated output.

Assessment and verification:
The applicant should declare compliance with this criterion and provide the Competent Body with test
results as per the Energy Star external power supply test methodology.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                          25
6            Possible Criteria
The following criteria are all the criteria within the current Personal Computers EU Ecolabel (minus
those in section five). At the first meeting we will discuss which of the following (if any) should be
included in the streamlined criteria proposals.

6.1          Lifetime extension
(a) The computer shall be designed so that the memory is readily accessible and can be changed.

(b) The computer shall be designed so that the hard disk, and if available the CD drive and/or DVD
drive, can be changed.

(c) The computer shall be designed so that graphic cards are easily accessible and can be changed.

Assessment and verification: the applicant shall declare the compliance of the product with these
requirements to the competent body.

6.2     Mercury content of a liquid crystal display (LCD)
      monitor
The background lighting of the LCD monitor shall not contain more than 3mg of mercury on average
per lamp.

Assessment and verification: the applicant shall provide a signed declaration that their computer
monitors complies with this requirement. It shall include documentation on the mercury content of
lamps from suppliers.



6.3          Noise
The ‘Declared A-weighted Sound Power Level’ (re 1 pW) of the personal computer system unit,
according to paragraph 3.2.5 of ISO 9296, shall not exceed:

        1. 4.0 B (A) in the idle operating mode (equivalent to 40dB(A))
        2. 4.5 B (A) when accessing a hard-disk drive (equivalent to 45dB(A))

Assessment and verification: the applicant shall provide the Competent Body with a report, prepared
by an independent test laboratory accredited to ISO 17025, certifying that the levels of noise
emissions have been measured in accordance with ISO 7779 and declared in accordance with ISO
9296. The report shall state the measured levels of noise emissions in both the idle operating mode
and when accessing a disk drive, which shall be declared in accordance with paragraph 3.2.5 of ISO
9296.



6.4          Electromagnetic Emissions
The personal computer monitor shall meet the requirement set out in EN50279, Category A.

Assessment and verification: the applicant shall provide the Competent Body with a report showing
that the monitor’s emissions are compliant with the requirement.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                                 26
6.5          Heavy metals and flame retardants
If a criterion on heavy metals and flame-retardants was to be included in the revised ecolabel criteria
for computers, it is likely that the same proposal as for the Television Ecolabel would be put forward.
The draft for which is as follows:

(a)      Cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium 6+ or poly-brominated biphenyl (PBB) or poly-brominated
diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, as listed in Article 4(1) of Directive 2002/95/EC of the
European Parliament and of the Council, shall not be used unless the applications of those
substances are listed in the Annex to that Directive as exempted from the requirements of Article 4(1)
of that Directive or unless their maximum concentration value is equal or lower to the threshold
specified in that same Annex.)]. Regarding the Annex, for PBBs and PBDEs the maximum
concentration value shall be <0.01%.

(b)    Plastic parts shall not contain flame retardant substances or preparations containing
substances that are assigned or may be assigned, at the time of application, any of the following risk
phrases:
• R45 (may cause cancer),
• R46 (may cause heritable genetic damage),
• R50 (very toxic to aquatic organisms),
• R51 (toxic to aquatic organisms),
• R52 (harmful to aquatic organisms),
• R53 (may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment),
• R60 (may impair fertility) or
• R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child),
as defined in Council Directive 67/548/EEC .

Assessment and verification: a certificate signed by the computer producer declaring compliance with
these requirements shall be submitted to the awarding competent body. A declaration of compliance
signed by the plastic and flame retardant suppliers and copies of relevant material safety data sheets
shall also be provided to the awarding competent body.



6.6          Information appearing on the ecolabel

Box 2 of the eco-label shall include the following text:
• High energy efficiency
• Reduced CO2 emissions
• Designed to facilitate repair and recycling
Assessment and Verification: The applicant shall declare the compliance of the product with this
requirement and shall provide a copy of the ecolabel as it appears on the packaging and/or product
and/or accompanying documentation to the awarding competent body.




AEA Energy & Environment                                                                             27
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AEA Energy & Environment                28

								
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