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									Environmental Research Station
Schneefernerhaus

Centre for altitude and climate
research in Bavaria
Overview of the current                  Umwelt
                                         Forschungsstation
key scientific and research activities   Schneefernerhaus
Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus

Concept
Germany's highest-altitude research station – located near the top of the mountain Zugspitze –
provides a unique base not only for the continuous monitoring of physical and chemical characteri-
stics of the atmosphere, but also for the analysis of various processes which influence the weather
and climate. It is on the basis of such observations that the current state and the future development
of the worldwide climate may be understood.


On the initiative of the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Public Health, a consortium
agreement was signed on 16 July 2007 by the Freistaat Bayern (Free State of Bavaria),
the Deutsche Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center – DLR), the Karlsruhe
Institute of Technology (KIT), the Helmholtz Zentrum München (German Research Center for
Environmental Health – HMGU) as well as the Federal Republic of Germany represented by the fede-
ral agencies of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (German Meteorological Service – DWD) and the
Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environment Agency – UBA). This consortium agreement was acceded
to by the Technische Universität München (TUM) and the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
(LMU) on 12 October 2007, by the Universität Augsburg (UAU) on 10 September 2008 and by the
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) on 23 September 2009.
The consortium agreement has the scientific goal of establishing a Virtual Institute within the
Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS) and of developing this Virtual Institute to a
centre of competence for altitude and climate research in the framework of an international network.
The main emphasis of the Virtual Institute is to promote the development, demonstration and
implementation of innovative technologies for climate and atmospheric observations, validation of
satellite data, high-altitude medicine and early detection of natural hazards.
A Consortium Board, which deals with policy issues of the consortium, and a Science Team, which
guarantees the scientific quality of the Virtual Institute, have been established, positions in both of
these committees being filled by internationally renowned scientists.




Key scientific activities and corresponding contact persons

Regional climate and atmosphere                            Environmental and high-altitude medicine
Prof. Dr. Schmid, KIT/TUM                                  Prof. Dr. Huber, LMU

Satellite-based observations and early detection           Global Atmosphere Watch
PD Dr. Bittner, DLR                                        Dr. Ries, UBA / Dr. Fricke, DWD

Cosmic radiation and radioactivity                         Biosphere / Geosphere
Prof. Dr. Jacob, HMGU                                      Prof. Dr. Menzel, TUM

Hydrology / University coordinator                         Cloud dynamics
Prof. Dr. Jacobeit, UAU                                    Prof. Dr. Bodenschatz, MPG


Overview of the current key scientific and research activities
In this document, scientists from various disciplines present their work currently being carried out in the
UFS at 2650 m altitude, the present activities concentrating, inter alia, on the fields of global climate
monitoring, regional climate processes, satellite-based observations, early detection of natural hazards,
environmental medicine and high-altitude medicine.
                                                    2



German Aerospace Center
German Remote Sensing Data Center


International Network for Early Detection of Climate Signals in the Mesopause Region
(ca. 87 km height)


The upper mesosphere can be regarded as a region allowing for the early detection of
climate variability. This is because the air density in this region of the atmosphere is about one
millionth lower than that on the ground and because infrared cooling to space is very efficient.
Strong climate signal strength is expected here which should allow for its early detection in
terms of statistical significance. Thus, trends predicted by climate models should be verified
more rapidly. Furthermore, it is possible within shorter time periods verifying the efficiency of
climate preventive measures.


By monitoring the so-called “airglow” in ca. 87 kilometres height (mesopause region) the infra-
red spectrometer GRIPS 3 (Ground-based Infrared P-branch Spectrometer) routinely measures
the temperature in the mesopause region with high temporal resolution. GRIPS 3 is part of
the international Network for the Detection of Mesopause Change (NDMC; http://wdc.dlr.de -->
ndmc) (currently 46 ground-based measurement sites) which is coordinated by DLR in coopera-
tion with the Argentinean organization CONICET; coordination centre is the Environmental
Research Station Schneefernerhaus. NDMC is affiliated with the Global Atmosphere Watch
(GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Network for the
Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC).


The project is supported by the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Public Health
(BayStMUG).




Contact:

PD Dr. Michael Bittner
German Aerospace Center (DLR-DFD)
phone: +49 8153 28-1379
mail: michael.bittner@dlr.de

Dr. Kathrin Höppner
German Aerospace Center (DLR-DFD)
phone: +49 8153 28-1163
mail: kathrin.hoeppner@dlr.de




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Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus


„Establishment of a national point of contact for coordination of ground-truthing activities for
satellite based measurements in the atmosphere“


Atmospheric data from satellite measurements are now considered an essential source of
information for science, governments and industry, covering applications from climate change
to initialisation of weather forecast models. This is true also for the European initiative Global
Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) which plans to establish a certain number
of geo information systems within the next few years. This situation strongly imposes the need
of assessing the quality of satellite data and derived products and for reliably quantifying
measurement uncertainties.


In the present project a comprehensive review on available satellite sensors, validation concepts
and activities will be initiated covering all levels of the supply chain from raw data up to the so
called data- and information products. In particular all aspects concerning data/product quality
will be assessed. At the same time improvements of validation methods are developed. The
results will also guide industry towards the development of novel instrumentation.


The initial goal of this project, which is carried out in close cooperation with the German Aero-
space Center (DLR) and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), is to develop and implement
a strategy for the establishment of a national point of contact for the coordination of ground trut-
hing activities for satellite based measurements in the atmosphere. This point of contact for all
operative public agencies is planned to be located in the Center for High-altitude and Climate
Research “Schneefernerhaus”.


This project is supported with funds from the German Federal Ministry for Economy and
Technology by the Raumfahrt-Agentur of the German Aerospace Center under contract number
50 EE 07020.



Contact:
Dr. Sabine P. Haase-Straub
Betriebsgesellschaft Umweltforschungsstation
Schneefernerhaus GmbH
phone: +49 8153 28-1770
mail: sabine.haase-straub@dlr.de




                                                                                             Environmental
                                                                                             Research Station
                                                                                             Schneefernerhaus
                                                   4



Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt
Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre


In situ measurements of climate-sensitive trace species in the troposphere


The main objective of this work is an improved characterization of climate-sensitive aerosols,
aerosol precursor gases and gaseous oxidation products in the atmosphere. Also, their formation
and sink processes are studied.
Measurement techniques used on the Schneefernerhaus include: chemical ionization mass
spectrometry, chemilimuninescence, fluorescence, laser spectrometry, as well as optical
and condensation particle counters. The measurements performed so far focused on ozone
precursor compounds and their oxidation products. Future measurements will investigate
aerosol precursor gases. Therefore a chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer will be
installed in the Schneefernerhaus.



Contact:
Dr. Hans Schlager
German Aerospace Center (DLR-IPA)
phone: +49 8153 28-2510
mail: hans.schlager@dlr.de




Kayser-Threde GmbH


”GRIPS-Advanced: From science to series production – system for climate observation and early
warning in case of natural disasters”


Based on the scientific instrument GRIPS 4 from DLR-DFD the technological base lines for an
autonomously operating system for continuous climate monitoring and early warning in case of
natural disasters have been elaborated. This work was performed within the frame of a study for
the Bavarian State Ministry of Economic Affairs, Infrastructure, Transport and Technology.
Compact system layout, automated operation, self monitoring (housekeeping) as well as remote
diagnostic capabilities are key features so that this instrument can also be operated at remote
locations without the need of local personnel.


Contact:
Dr. Volker Klein
Kayser-Threde GmbH
phone: +49 89 72495-147
mail: volker.klein@kayser-threde.com


                                                                                          Environmental
                                                                                          Research Station
                                                                                          Schneefernerhaus
                                                     5



Karlsruhe Institude of Technology (KIT),
Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK – IFU)


High-Power Lidar Sounding of Atmospheric Water Vapour and Temperature


Water vapour is the most important green-house gas, a consequence of its high concentration
and its physical properties. Humidity changes have the largest impact on the climate and
radiative forcing in the altitude range above 5 km, from where the infrared radiation can be
emitted to space. The man-made warming increases the evaporation from the sea surface
which covers 70 % of the planet. The result would be an amplification of the green-house effect.
On the other hand, the increasing water-vapour content leads to changes in precipitation and
cloud formation that may counteract the global warming. Measuring water vapour at middle
and higher altitudes is a difficult task.


Thus, IMK-IFU, supported by the Bavarian State Ministry of Economics, has developed a unique
high-power differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) system that is operated at the Schneefernerhaus
research station. The routine measurements, carried out up to the tropopause region even during
daytime, impressively demonstrate the potential of this technique. The system performance
considerably benefits from the high-altitude location of the laboratory outside the moist boun-
dary layer. The DIAL ideally complements the other remote-sensing (lidar, FTIR, GPS) and in-situ
instrumentation operated at IMK-IFU and on the Zugspitze. No operational sounding technique
has yet been established for the lower stratosphere where water vapour, in spite of its low
concentration, also plays an important role for both the chemistry and the radiative budget.
Therefore, an extension of the water vapour soundings with a 300-W Raman lidar system is
envisaged that is expected to yield nighttime measurements up to 30 km. This system also
provides profiles of the atmospheric temperature to more than 80 km. Furthermore, spectrally
highly resolved measurements of the thermal infrared atmospheric radiance, combined with
the humidity and temperature profiles, as well as the other trace constituents measured in the
Garmisch-Partenkirchen area, will provide a fully experimental approach to climate research.



Contact:

Dr. Thomas Trickl
phone: +49 8821 183-209
mail: thomas.trickl@imk.fzk.de

Dr. Hannes Vogelmann
phone: +49 8821 183-258
mail: hannes.vogelmann@imk.fzk.de

Further information: http://imk-ifu.fzk.de/248.php




                                                                                           Environmental
                                                                                           Research Station
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                                                    6



Karlsruhe Institude of Technology (KIT),
Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK – IFU)


High resolution regional climate scenarios for the assessment of long term water availability


Global warming leads to increased levels of moisture and energy in the atmosphere and
hence causes an intensification of the hydrological cycle. The quantification of changes in the
spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation and its impact on future water availability
has significant importance on society and economics. The coarse resolution of global climate
scenarios is inappropriate for the identification of regional and catchment-scale climate
characteristics.
Therefore, at IMK-IFU, refined regional climate data is derived from global scenarios by using
dynamical downscaling methods. In combination with hydrological simulations the resulting
regional scenarios are used to investigate the impacts of global change on terrestrial water
balances. While our main concern for alpine regions are flooding risks, in semi-arid regions of
West-Africa and in the Near East we focus on the possible changes in water availability and
scarcity. Based on the regional simulations, adaption strategies are developed in co-operation
with local authorities that will lead to a sustainable water resources management.




Contact:

Dr. Harald Kunstmann
phone: +49 8821 183-208
mail: harald.kunstmann@imk.fzk.de

Dr. Hans-Richard Knoche
phone: +49 8821 183 292
mail: hans-richard.knoche@imk.fzk.de




                                                                                            Environmental
                                                                                            Research Station
                                                                                            Schneefernerhaus
                                                    7



LMU Munich, Meteorological Institute


Changes in solar UV radiation


Solar UV radiation has influence on human health, on air chemistry and on weathering.
At Zugspitze solar UV radiation, on the one hand, has the highest values in Germany, and on
the other hand, the region is visited by very many people. Thus routine observations of UV
radiation are made at UFS and the data are online given to the public, both as UVI values and
as part of UV maps. These measurements last over years, together with measurements at
Zugspitze top and in rural and urban environment in the Bavarian lowlands. The variability of
the UV radiation in combination with other meteorological parameters that are measured at
UFS is used to investigate their influence, with respect to the consideration of effects of climatic
change on the UV-radiation in the future. Moreover, the extensive weathering tests which are
performed at UFS benefit from the UV information.


Contact:
Dr. Peter Koepke
phone: +49 89 2180-4367
mail: peter.koepke@lmu.de




LMU Munich, Meteorological Institute


Supercooled liquid water clouds and their climate forcing


The scientific objectives of this project are the characterization of mixed phase clouds (ice crystals,
water droplets, supercooled droplets) and estimates of their influence on the radiation budget.
For this purpose, critical cloud parameters such as liquid water content, temperature and phase,
are measured and the existence of supercooled droplets is identified by a unique combination
of two microwave radiometers, a ceilometer and a depolarization lidar. In particular, the depolariza-
tion information and the joint evaluation of radiation from different spectral regimes are expected
to constitute a significant progress in cloud remote sensing. Note, that the active (lidar, ceilometer)
techniques give additional knowledge by providing range resolved information. As the ceilometer
and microwave radiometers measure unattended and automatically , long term data can be
provided, useful in particular for the detection of trends at an alpine station. Furthermore, the data
are available for the validation of model simulations. Climate forcing can be estimated by means
of radiative transfer calculations.


Contact:
Dr. Matthias Wiegner
mail: m.wiegner@lmu.de


                                                                                             Environmental
                                                                                             Research Station
                                                                                             Schneefernerhaus
                                                     8



Universität Bonn, Meteorologisches Institut
Universität zu Köln, Institut für Geophysik und Meteorologie
Universität Hamburg, Meteorologisches Institut
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre


TOSCA –„Towards an Optimal estimation based Snow Characterization Algorithm“


Within this DFG-funded project, a unique combination of remote sensing instruments has been
deployed at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus for deriving microphysical
properties of falling snow. Numerous well-established algorithms for deriving the liquid phase
of precipitation – either from satellite or from the ground – have been developed and are being
routinely applied. Algorithms for deriving snowfall, in contrast, are much less sophisticated and
suffer from large uncertainties. This poses a major problem in climate research, because a large
part of the global precipitation falls as snow and liquid precipitation often occurs via the ice
phase. The global distribution of snowfall is thus very important for climate studies, especially
concerning the rapid changes of the hydrological cycle in the Polar Regions. The main problem
in the derivation of snowfall parameters is the high spatial and temporal variability of the snow
crystals, whose interactions with atmospheric radiation is very difficult to describe.
The TOSCA project addresses this point in combining the unique information contained in a
combination of passive radiometers, active radar technology and in-situ measurement methods
within a unified retrieval scheme. The integrated retrieval algorithm to be developed will aim
at deriving the vertical distribution of the specific mass of snow. This includes not only carrying
out and care-fully evaluating the measurements, but also the modelling of the interaction
(i.e. scattering processes) of atmospheric radiation with the snow crystals.



Contact:s:


Dr. Alessandro Battaglia
Meteorologisches Institut der Universität Bonn
phone: +49 228 735779
mail: batta@uni-bonn.de


Dr. Ulrich Löhnert
Institut für Geophysik und Meteorologie,
Universität zu Köln
phone: +49 221 4701779
mail: loehnert@meteo.uni-koeln.de


Dr. Gerhard Peters
Meteorologisches Institut, Universität Hamburg
phone: +49 40 41173255
mail: gerhard@miraculix.dkrz.de


Dr. Martin Hagen
Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre
phone: +49 8153 282531
                                                                                              Environmental
mail: martin.hagen@dlr.de
                                                                                              Research Station
                                                                                              Schneefernerhaus
                                                      9



Federal Environment Agency


Global Atmosphere Watch
Global Station Zugspitze


Federal Environment Agency, Germany (UBA) and German Meteorological Service (DWD) operate
the GAW Global Observatory Zugspitze/Hohenpeissenberg. It is divided into two platforms at
Hohenpeißenberg (DWD) and at Schneefernerhaus (UBA). Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a
UNO/WMO Program, a global network for measuring the state and the detection of physical and
chemical changes in the atmosphere. Schneefernerhaus station has very good conditions for long
term monitoring of the lower free troposphere. The program of the Federal Environment Agency
focuses on climate forcing gases, reactive gases and aerosols. Since the chemical composition of
the atmosphere and it’s aerosol contents are a key to atmospheric processes, the data acquired by
the Federal Environment Agency can be essential for the detection of changes, for modeling and
ground truthing.


Contact:
Dr. Ludwig Ries
phone: +49 8821 924-110
mail: ludwig.ries@uba.de




Federal Environment Agency
Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Public Health
Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus


Global Atmosphere Watch Training and Education Centre (GAWTEC)


Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a network for global measurements according to the
state of science. The scientific infrastructure of GAW requires scientific and technical training of
stations personnel. The Federal Environment Agency Germany operates one of four Quality
Assurance and Science Activity Centers (QA/SACs) worldwide. QA/SACs are responsible for the
realization of data quality objectives at GAW measurement stations. In order to obtain those
data quality objectives, twice a year training courses are organized at the Environmental
Research Station Schneefernerhaus. Trainees from GAW stations around the world, invited by
the WMO improve their knowledge on measurement techniques, quality assurance and data
evaluation. This unique training and education centre is funded by the Federal Environment
Agency and the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Public Health. The organization
is performed by the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus.


Contact:
Dr. Till Rehm                       Dr. Ludwig Ries
phone: +49 8821 924-144             phone: +49 8821 924-110
mail: t.rehm@schneefernerhaus.de    mail: ludwig.ries@uba.de
                                                                                             Environmental
                                                                                             Research Station
                                                                                             Schneefernerhaus
                                                   10



Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute for Radiation Protection


The UFS Schneefernerhaus is the only research station at mountain altitudes worldwide that
includes a Bonner spheres spectrometer, to monitor secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation.


The spectrometer was installed in 2005 by the Institute of Radiation Protection of the HMGU,
and complemented by a second spectrometer that was installed in 2007 at the Koldewey Station
on Spitzbergen. Together, these spectrometers allow continuous measurements of both the
intensity of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation and their energy distribution, at low
atmospheric shielding (UFS) and low geomagnetic shielding (Koldewey Station).


The measurement results are used to validate energy spectra of cosmic ray particles calculated
by means of Monte Carlo methods, at any location and height in the atmosphere and at any
time within the normal ll-years cycle of sun activity. With the spectrometer, changes in cosmic
radiation during large solar mass ejections (solar storms) will also be quantified. Exact knowledge
of the energy distribution of the particles from secondary cosmic radiation in the atmosphere
is required to investigate their influence on ion production in the atmosphere which might
contribute to global cloud formation. The field of secondary cosmic radiation is also used to
calculate doses to pilots and cabin crew.


Contact:
PD Dr. Werner Rühm
phone: +49 89 3187-3359
mail: werner.ruehm@helmholtz-muenchen.de




German Meteorological Service (DWD)


The World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme


DWD runs the Global Station Zugspitze/Hohenpeissenberg in the frame of GAW in cooperation
with the German Federal Environment Service (UBA) for monitoring trends of trace substances
in the atmosphere relevant to climate. DWD collects meteorological data and measures atmo-
spheric radioactivity at Schneefernerhaus and Zugspitze summit. The station is a partner within
the GAW DACH cooperation with the Sonnblick (Austria) and Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) obser-
vatories for the generation of datasets with relevance to changes in climate and air chemistry in
the Alpine region. In the frame of GAWTEC, DWD is also involved in training courses for scien-
tists and technicians from other GAW stations.


Contact:
Dr. Wolfgang Fricke
phone: +49 8805 954-100
mail: wolfgang.fricke@dwd.de
                                                                                            Environmental
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                                                                                            Schneefernerhaus
                                                   11



Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Ecological Chemistry
Bavarian Environment Agency


The Alps act as a sink for organic pollutants (POPs) due to the barrier effect and the pheno-
menon of cold condensation. Their is an altitudinal increase of concentration of POPs
(f.i. pesticides) in Alpine ecosystems mainly because precipitation increases and degradation
from soils decreases with altitude. Nevertheless air concentrations in remote regions are
very low and the measurements pose heavy challenges for instrumentation and analytical
procedures.


In the framework of the EU Interreg III (Alpine Space) MONARPOP project, high and low
volume samplers have been installed at Schneefernerhaus in order to monitor different POP
species in dependence of their source regions. Atmospheric concentrations of various sub-
stances are so low that active air samplers have to operate several days to collect detectable
amounts. Due to the fact that in the Alps information about the possible source region can-
not given by using the current wind direction a forecast of possible trajectories has to be per-
formed every day. By relaying the incoming airflow among an array of four filters the air is
sampled accordingly to four source regions. Similar measurements are performed at
Weißfluhjoch (Switzerland) and Sonnblick (Austria).


After three years of MONARPOP project (2005-2008), in which HMGU collaborated with
several partners like the UBA Vienna, both monitoring and scientific programmes will
continue in cooperation with the Bavarian Environment Agency.


The programmes are supported by the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and
Public Health.




Contact:

Dr. Manfred Kirchner
phone: +49 89 3187-4116
mail: kirchner@helmholtz-muenchen.de

Michael Außendorf
Bavarian Environment Agency
phone: +49 821 9071-5539
mail: michael.aussendorf@lfu.bayern.de




                                                                                            Environmental
                                                                                            Research Station
                                                                                            Schneefernerhaus
                                                  12



Masaryk University, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology,
Czech Republic


Sampling the free troposphere for the study of organic pollutants’ atmospheric fate and
long-range transport


The cycling of many organic pollutants poses a hazard for organisms or human health.
Most of these pollutants are long-lived and undergo long-range or even global atmospheric
transport. As a consequence of long residences time in the environment and semi volatility
they may undergo several cycles of re-volatilisation from ground surfaces, atmospheric
transport and subsequent deposition (multi-hopping). Both the substances’ distributions and
the processes which govern fate and transport are incompletely known. Such knowledge is,
however, required for risk assessment and national and international chemicals legislation.
The station Schneefernerhaus, Zugspitze, is very suitable to study trace substances in the lower
free troposphere over central Europe. During two sampling campaigns in summer and winter
2007/08 new insights regarding atmospheric levels, transport pathways and distribution among
the phases of the atmospheric aerosol of organochlorine pesticides (OCP), polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were gained. The levels of PCB,
and the OCPs hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were
among the lowest ever reported from outside the Arctic.



Contact:
Prof. Dr. Gerhard Lammel
Masaryk University, RECETOX
mail: lammel@recetox.muni.cz




                                                                                          Environmental
                                                                                          Research Station
                                                                                          Schneefernerhaus
                                                   13



Bavarian Environment Agency


Permafrost investigations at Zugspitze summit


In the Bavarian Alps three areas are assumed to be concerned by permafrost. Among them, only the
Zugspitze is easily accessible. It is also the only permafrost area in Bavaria that concerns buildings and
infrastructure. Already in 2006 several instrumentations were achieved and the permafrost distribution
was simulated in a 3-D model. In 2007 two boreholes were drilled into the summit crest, one of them
crossing the ridge entirely. They were instrumented by 28 high accuracy thermal sensors. Furthermore,
for research purposes in one of the boreholes a fibre wire as a thermal sensor and several extensome-
ters was installed. The instruments are connected to the office in Munich by remote transmission. The
data will give new insights in the reaction of permafrost to climatic changes and to the heat transport
within rock. They will serve as a model for other high peaks in the northern Alps. The information
gathered is planned to be transmitted to other research institutes within the EU Alpine Space project
PermaNET and so will build the basis for an alpine wide permafrost network.


Contact:
Dr. Andreas von Poschinger
phone: 089 9214-2638
mail: andreas.poschinger@lfu.bayern.de




LMU München, Department für Geo- und Umweltwissenschaften
Bavarian Environment Agency


Bavarian Seismic Network – the Mt. Zugspitze: a “test case” for studying topographic effects


The Bavarian Seismic Network (a joined initiative of the StMUG, LfU and LMU) is responsible
for monitoring the seismic activity in Bavaria. The main reason for running this network is
to inform the public in case of an earthquake as well as strengthen the research capabilities. In
addition, the Bavarian Seismic Network is embedded into European and German initiatives
for modernizing the seismological infrastructure in Europe. The seismic station ZUGS, which is
installed in a gallery of the Schneefernerhaus is an excellent example for the synergy of
surveillance and science. The seismic station improves the capabilities for monitoring seismi-
cally active areas in the Inn valley/Ester mountain region. Furthermore, it servers as “naturally”
laboratory for studying seismic wave propagation in areas with strong 3D topography which
in turn can lead to enhanced damage patterns ...


Contact:
Dr. J. Wassermann
phone: +49 8141 5346762
mail: jowa@geophysik.uni-muenchen.de

                                                                                            Environmental
                                                                                            Research Station
                                                                                            Schneefernerhaus
                                                    14



Fraunhofer Institut für Solare Energiesysteme
TÜV Rheinland


Reliability of Photovoltaic (PV) Modules


Sustainable energy supply through solar technology requires components withstanding
weathering over several decades. Innovative materials should allow further cost reductions in
this technology of the future. The accelerated testing of the technology's serviceability and
stability under artificial weathering conditions must be verified by comparison with realistic
weathering in different climates. To this end we exposed identical photovoltaic modules to the
conditions of the tropics (Indonesia), the desert (Israel) and a large city (Cologne) as well as
to high ultraviolet radiation, snow and wind conditions (Zugspitze mountain). In each case we
recorded the stress and studied changes in efficiency. Funded by the BMU (PFRN: 0329978)
with the participation of Schott Solar, Scheuten Solar, Solon, Solarfabrik, Solarwatt and
Solarworld.



Contact:

Michael Köhl
Fraunhofer Institut für Solare
Energiesysteme
phone: +49 761 4588-5124
mail: michael.koehl@ise.fraunhofer.de

Dr. Werner Herrmann
TÜV Rheinland
phone: +49 221 806-2272
mail: werner.herrmann@de.tuv.com




                                                                                             Environmental
                                                                                             Research Station
                                                                                             Schneefernerhaus
                                                    15



Department of Dermatology and Allergy Biederstein
Division of Environmental Dermatology and Allergology
Institute of Climate Ecology
Technische Universität München


Effects of high mountain climate on allergies and environmental diseases


The climate change is expected to induce an amplification of the problems in the field of allergology,
not only because of a longer time of blooming of plants emitting pollen, but also because of immi-
gration of new elicitors of allergies. In this project influences of high mountain climate on allergic
reactions will be assessed by experiments in culture and by investigations with humans.
First, environmental conditions of the high mountain climate with respect to allergic reactions have
to be characterized by measurement of allergen sources (plants), allergen carriers (pollen, spores) and
aerosols containing allergens. The influence of the high mountain climate on parameters of allergic
reactivity will be assessed in healthy volunteers and selected patients at standardized conditions.
In an interdisciplinary approach of dermatologists, allergologists, climate experts, toxicologists and
biologists possible strategies for prevention and therapy of allergies and environmental diseases
will be analyzed.
The project is supported by the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Public Health.



Contact:
Prof. Dr. med. Dr. phil. Johannes Ring
Prof. Dr. med. Heidrun Behrendt
Prof. Dr. Annette Menzel
phone: +49 89 4140-3170
mail: johannes.ring@lrz.tum.de




LMU München, Institut für Rechtsmedizin


Analysis of Breath Alcohol – Influence of Climate Conditions


The analysis of breath alcohol (BrA) by Dräger Alcotest 7110 Evidential is accredited in court
since a couple of years, thought there is up to now a lack of scientific experience concerning the
influences of random factors on the analysis and the (individual) pharmacokinetics of BrA.
Therefore is it not possible to make an overall forensic statement based on the breath alcohol
concentrations. A study group of the Institute of Legal medicine (LMU Munich) is researching
on the pathophysiology of the BrA-kinetics especially regarding the climate conditions.


Contact:
Prof. Dr. med. Matthias Graw
phone: +49 89 2180 73 011
mail: matthias.graw@med.uni-muenchen.de
                                                                                             Environmental
                                                                                             Research Station
                                                                                             Schneefernerhaus
                                                    16



German Aerospace Center
German Remote Sensing Data Center
LMU Munich
Medizinische Klinik Innenstadt, Pneumologie


Theme “Health weather” – development of specific health indices for pulmonary diseases


Over the years the environment has gradually changed as a result of global climate change.
It is assumed that these changes have also impacted human health.
The idea of the theme "Health weather" is based on the combination of different geophysical
parameters, derived from satellite measurements, with medical data and expertise to define
an integrated health index.
The fact that environmental factors like temperature, air pressure, tropospheric ozone
concentrations, particulate matter and other atmospheric trace gas concentrations impact
human health is indisputable. However, there is still medical research to be done to create
a reliable weighting of various external factors on the health status of patients.
In this interdisciplinary investigation, an air quality model will be used to characterise the
relative impact of various environmental factors on the course of pulmonary diseases.
The results of this investigation will be validated and optimized based on a cohort of patients
with pulmonary disease as part of a health study at the environmental research station
Schneefernerhaus (UFS).
This research is supported by the Bavarian State Ministry of Economic Affairs, Infrastructure,
Transport and Technology.




Contact:
Dipl. Geogr. Beate Hildenbrand
Prof. Dr. R. M. Huber
PD Dr. med. R. Fischer
phone: +49 8153 28-3318
mail: Beate.Hildenbrand@dlr.de




                                                                                             Environmental
                                                                                             Research Station
                                                                                             Schneefernerhaus
                                                   17



University of Luebeck
Institute of Biomedical Optics


Investigation of the wavelength dependence of laser induced optical breakdown in water


Nonlinear laser induced effects have been successfully used in many fields of industry and
medicine during the last years. For example, short and ultra short laser pulses are used for
precise micromachining of transparent media, for nano cell surgery, and for laser eye surgery
to correct refractive errors (LASIK). Laser-induced optical breakdown is the fundamental
working mechanism in all these applications. Focusing of laser light with a pulse duration of
only one part in a billion leads to a high irradiance that abruptly produces a plasma in the
focus. In water, this plasma expands explosively and generates a cavitation bubble. The maxi-
mum bubble size is a measure for the precision with which the laser induced effect can be
produced. Hence, knowledge of the parameter dependence of the optical breakdown thres-
hold and the maximum bubble size is important for many applications and provides a better
understanding of the underlying physics. A pump-probe technique enables us to measure
the radius of single-shot, laser-induced cavitation bubbles with an accuracy of 10 nm. The
investigation of the wavelength dependence of optical breakdown requires an extremely pure
and precise laser irradiation. Therefore, the experiments were done in cooperation with the
Karlsruhe Institude of Technology (KIT – Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung in
Garmisch-Partenkirchen) in the Schneefernerhaus on the top of the Zugspitze. Here a unique
laser system is available that delivers optimum irradiance parameters. This system is normal-
ly used for spectroscopic measurements of the atmosphere.


Contact:
Prof Dr. Alfred Vogel
Dipl.-Phys. Norbert Linz
phone: +49 451 500 6504
mail: vogel@bmo.uni-luebeck.de




                                                                                           Environmental
                                                                                           Research Station
                                                                                           Schneefernerhaus
                                                   18



Hund am Berg – Mountain Dog Scool


Avalanche and SAR dog training, dog training in alpine area


Avalanche dog training for everybody: playful search work for family dogs – ideal for companion
dogs of persons who love snow shoe and ski touring.
Avalanche dog training for SAR dogs: alternation in area and disaster search work, improvement
of dogs nose work.
Dog training in alpine area: secure movement of dogs in difficult alpine terrain, rappelling training
of dog handler and dog with help of especially developed safety techniques.
All training sessions are carried out under consideration of the newest scientific knowledge about
working and sports dog physiology.


Honoree of the Bavarian Government animal welfare prize 2006.



Contact:
R. Frasch
phone: +49 171 5256895
mail: hundamberg@t-online.de
http://www.hundamberg.de




                                                                                           Environmental
                                                                                           Research Station
                                                                                           Schneefernerhaus
                                             19




Contact Persons



Priv. Doz. Dr. Michael Bittner
Scientific Coordinator

c/o German Aerospace Center
German Remote Sensing Data Center
Oberpfaffenhofen
Postfach 1116
D-82230 Weßling
phone.: +49 8153 28 1379
fax: +49 8153 28 1363
mail: michael.bittner@dlr.de


Prof. Dr. Siegfried Specht
Chairman of the Consortium Board

c/o Bavarian State Ministry of the
Environment and Public Health
Rosenkavalierplatz 2
D-81925 München
phone.: +49 89 9214-3501/-3502
fax: +49 89 9214-3531
mail: siegfried.specht@stmug.bayern.de


Dr. Simone von Loewenstern
CEO Environmental Research Station
Schneefernerhaus

c/o Bavarian State Ministry of the
Environment and Public Health
Rosenkavalierplatz 2
D-81925 München
phone.: +49 89 9214-3298
fax: +49 89 9214-3148
mail: simone.v.loewenstern@stmug.bayern.de




                                                  Environmental
www.schneefernerhaus.de
                                                  Research Station
                                                  Schneefernerhaus

								
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