MotherBoard and Buses by pamitasasmara

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									Mother Board and Buses
             What is a Mother Board?
 The motherboard is the largest piece
  of internal hardware. All of the other
  internal components are attached to
  or integrated into the motherboard,
  such as the modem card, video card, and
  network card are mounted, the Central
  Processing Unit (CPU) and memory are
  also directly attached to the
  motherboard. In order to understand
  the flow of information from one
  component to another within the
  computer, it is first necessary to
  identify the motherboard and
  understand how all of the
  components attached to it operate
  and interrelate.
• Motherboards have come a long way in the- last
  twenty years. The first motherboards held very few
  actual components. The first IBM PC motherboard
  had only a processor and card slots. Users plugged
  components like floppy drive controllers and
  memory into the slots. Today, motherboards typically
  boast a wide variety of built-in features, and they
  directly affect a computer's capabilities and potential
  for upgrades.
• A typical desktop computer has its CPU, main memory, and other essential
  components on the motherboard. Other components such as external
  storage, controllers for video display and sound, and peripheral devices
  may be attached to the motherboard as plug-in cards or via cables,
  although in modern computers it is increasingly common to integrate
  some of these peripherals into the motherboard itself.
• An important component of a motherboard is the microprocessor's
  supporting chipset, which provides the supporting interfaces between the
  CPU and the various buses and external components. This chipset
  determines, to an extent, the features and capabilities of the
• Motherboards are also used in many other electronics devices such as
  mobile phones, stop-watches, clocks, and other small electronic devices.
                 How Does it Work?
 The motherboard is like a big city with many streets and highways
  that connect all of the buildings together. Instead of streets and
  highways, the motherboard uses tiny electrical paths to connect
  each component of the computer together.

  These paths are
  called "buses."
• A bus is simply a circuit
  that connects one part of
  the motherboard to
  another. The more data a
  bus can handle at one
  time, the faster it allows
  information to travel. The
  speed of the bus,
  measured in megahertz
  (MHz), refers to how
  much data can move
  across the bus
• The more buses that connect to a component, the faster it
  can operate. Buses work just like highways. Wider highways
  and highways with more lanes are able to carry more traffic
  than smaller highways and highways with less lanes. The
  width of the bus determines the number of bits that can be
  sent simultaneously. In other words, the wider the bus, the
  faster the computer. A one-byte bus is composed of eight
  lines. This means that eight bits can travel down the line at
  one time. A thirty-two bit bus can send four bytes at a time.
• Many cities have a freeway. A freeway is designed so that large
  amounts of traffic can move quickly from one place to another.
  The motherboard also has a "freeway." It is called the "front side
  bus," (or FSB). It is the most important bus on the motherboard,
  because it connects the processor to the main memory and the
  Northbridge chipset. The faster the FSB is, the faster the
  computer can operate, since the processor is constantly using
  the main memory to store and retrieve information. Sometimes
  the FSB is also called the "system bus.“
• FSB speeds can range from 66 MHz to over 800 MHz. Since the
  CPU reaches the memory controller though the Northbridge,
  FSB speed can dramatically affect a computer's performance.
    Here are some of the other busses found on a motherboard:

•   The back side bus connects the CPU with the level 2 (L2) cache, also known as
    secondary or external cache. The processor determines the speed of the back side
•   The memory bus connects the Northbridge to the memory.
•   The IDE or ATA bus connects the Southbridge to the disk drives.
•   The AGP bus connects the video card to the memory and the CPU. The speed of
    the AGP bus is usually 66 MHz.
•   The PCI bus connects PCI slots to the Southbridge. On most systems, the speed of
    the PCI bus is 33 MHz. Also compatible with PCI is PCI Express, which is much
    faster than PCI but is still compatible with current software and operating systems.
    PCI Express is likely to replace both PCI and AGP busses.
•   The faster a computer's bus speed, the faster it will operate -- to a point. A fast bus
    speed cannot make up for a slow processor or chipset.
• The Chipset, (2 chips on this
  motherboard) is like a traffic
  police, manages and directs
  the flow of data between each
  of the components. The BIOS is
  where the computer's settings
  are stored and changed. In this
  picture, you can see most of
  the connecting slots, ports, and

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