media buying by mnmgroup

VIEWS: 112 PAGES: 63

									(2008-2010)




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                                          CERTIFICATE


This is to certify that Mr.N. Venkata Nagarjuna is a bonafide student of Aurora‟s Business School,
Hyderabad working under my guidance for the Project work. He has done the summer internship
project in HY TV. During the internship period he has done this piece of research work entitled “Role
of Media planning, Media buying and Advertising in Electronic media (HY TV)”. The said work is the
original contribution of the student.




DIRECTOR                                                 SIGNATURE OF THE SUPERVISOR
Date                                                    Date




                                                  2
                                          DECLARATION


I, VENKATA NAGARJUNA bearing Roll No. DM-04-024 hereby declares that this Project work is
genuine piece of work done by me and it is original. This Project has not been copied from any other
source and has not been submitted for fulfillment of any other degree/diploma. I have collected the data
and analyzed the same.




Name and Address of the Student                            Signature of the Student




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                                      ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


I express my sincere thanks to Mr. KRISHNAMOHAN. K, Marketing Head, HY TV, Banjara Hills,
Hyderabad. Who guided me throughout my project with constant co-operation, encouragement and
motivation.


I thank to record my gratitude our college Director for his encouragement and valuable support
towards us.


My project guide Mr. KISHORE. G has provided his valuable inputs as and when required. I thank him
for his help and constant support.


I wish to place on record my gratitude to all the persons I have met during the data collection phase of
my Project. Their inputs are indispensable.


Last but not the least I would thanks my friend for sharing the resources required for successful
completion of this project.




                                                                N.VENKATA NAGARJUNA




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                                                 CONTENTS
        TOPIC                                                                                             Pg .No
1. Company Profile-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------       9
2. Introduction to Media sector-------------------------------------------------------------------- 12
2.1. Cable TV industry overview-------------------------------------------------------------------         13
2.2. Impact on Television Industry-----------------------------------------------------------------        17
3. Organization structure of HY TV-------------------------------------------------------------- 18
4. Advertising----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     19
4.1 Introduction to Advertising---------------------------------------------------------------------       19
4.2 Objectives of Advertising-----------------------------------------------------------------------       19
4.3 Functions of Advertising------------------------------------------------------------------------      20
4.4 Advertising versus Publicity--------------------------------------------------------------------       21
4.5 Marketing of an Advertisement----------------------------------------------------------------          21
4.6 Key participants in Marketing process--------------------------------------------------------          21
5. Consumer Behavior Study-----------------------------------------------------------------------          23
5.1 Factors influencing consumer behavior------------------------------------------------------           24
5.2 Flow chart of Brand Building on TV channel-----------------------------------------------              27
6. The Advertising Business-------------------------------------------------------------------------       29
6.1Agency and Client relationship-----------------------------------------------------------------         29
6.2Role of Ad Agency in Advertising-------------------------------------------------------------           29
6.3Organizations in Advertising--------------------------------------------------------------------        30
6.4People in Advertising-----------------------------------------------------------------------------      30
6.5Kinds of Agency Organizations-----------------------------------------------------------------          31
6.6Advertising Departments-------------------------------------------------------------------------        32
6.7Selection of an Advertising Agency-------------------------------------------------------------         36
6.8Types of Advertising Agencies------------------------------------------------------------------         36
6.9How Ad agencies get clients--------------------------------------------------------------------         40
6.10 Client-Agency relationship--------------------------------------------------------------------        40
6.11Factors affecting Client-Agency relationship-----------------------------------------------            41
6.12Basic principles of Client-Agency relationship---------------------------------------------            41
6.13Departments in Ad agency---------------------------------------------------------------------          42
7. Communication Process---------------------------------------------------------------------------        42
7.1Components of Communication Process------------------------------------------------------- 43
8. Media Planning--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    45

                                                         5
8.1 Introduction about Media Planning--------------------------------------         45
8.2Media terms------------------------------------------------------------------    46
8.3Objectives of Media Planning---------------------------------------------       47
8.4Media planning Strategy---------------------------------------------------      48
8.5Steps for Effective Media planning--------------------------------------        49
8.6Media planning process----------------------------------------------------      52
8.7Media Cost and Media Availability--------------------------------------         53
8.8Media Scheduling-----------------------------------------------------------     54
9. Government policies in Media sector-------------------------------------         55
10. Media Buying---------------------------------------------------------------    58
10.1Advertising rate card in HY TV-----------------------------------------        59
11. Research Methodology----------------------------------------------------        61
11.1Research Methods---------------------------------------------------------       62
11.2Research Design-----------------------------------------------------------     62
11.3Types of Research design------------------------------------------------       62
11.4Sampling Techniques-----------------------------------------------------       63
11.5Need for Sampling--------------------------------------------------------      64
11.6Data collection Method--------------------------------------------------        66
11.7Selection of Method for Data collection------------------------------           68
11.8Questionaire---------------------------------------------------------------     69
11.8.1Questionaire for Ad agency-------------------------------------------         72
11.8.2Questionaire for Clients-----------------------------------------------       74
11.8.3Questionaire for Audience--------------------------------------------         78
11.9Analysis and Interpretation---------------------------------------------       79
12. Suggestions----------------------------------------------------------------    90
13. Conclusion-----------------------------------------------------------------    91
14. Bibliography---------------------------------------------------------------    92




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                                               DIAGRAMS


    1.         Cable TV Industry Structure-------------------------------------------        15
    2.         Market shares-------------------------------------------------------------    15
    3.         Flow chart on Brand building on TV channels--------------------              27
    4.         Channel rating Diagram------------------------------------------------        50
    5.         Flexibility of Media Channel------------------------------------------        52
    6.         Sales of electronic media in last five years------------------------         56




                                                       TABLES


1. Cable industry Financials-----------------------------------------------     16
2. FDI limit in various sectors---------------------------------------------     56
3. Future prospects of Media sector-------------------------------------          57




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OBJECTIVE:
   To study the relationship among media planning, media buying and Advertising a specific product
     in electronic media.
   To study how a company can get competitive advantage of the product through advertising in
     electronic media.
   To understand contemporary media planning issues through discussion of current events/trends
   To gain conceptual knowledge of media forms/types
   To understand how advertising is integrated with other promotional tools to create effective
     marketing communication plans
   To be familiar with resources available for advertising media planning
   To apply your skills and knowledge through developing a complete media plan




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1. ABOUT HY TV, HYDERABAD:
HY TV, launched under the corporate HY MEDIA & ENTERTAINMENT Pvt. Ltd , marks yet another
formidable foray into the powerful and growing regional television market by India‟s premier media
group, POSITIV TELEVISION Media, comprising the flagship TV and Radio enterprises, POSITIV
TELEVISION Pvt. Ltd. and POSITIV Radio Pvt. Ltd. POSITIV TV already boasts of operating several firsts
in the country: India‟s first private teleport and private satellite television and radio channels in
Northeastern India to cover and connect all the eight states of the region. We are an unparalleled brand
name in the Northeast, based in Guwahati with a deep penetration of Northeast India besides being
connected to the nook and corner of India with fiber optic, VSAT links and our own DSNG vans. We
gave new meaning to Regional Language Electronic Media with our two television channels that have
come to command the respect and love of our audience. NETV reigns supreme as the only 24 hour
news network in the world with live bulletins in 17 languages of the region, and, NE Hi Fi has begun to
enthrall families with general entertainment programming in different languages of northeast India, and
from Bollywood to Hollywood. Radio Oolalala‟s private FM network extends from Guwahati to Shillong
to Agartala and Itanagar. In 2007, the group launched NE Bangla that caters to East and Northeast Indian
audiences in Bengali language and is fast emerging as a top 5 in the region. POSITIV TV is the first private
teleport in the Northeast or for that matter any sensitive area of India. POSITIV TV Media‟s presence
has grown from Guwahati with bureaus in over two dozen cities of Northeast India to now a national
presence created through its newly announced television channel, FOCUS TV for the Indian women. &
HAMAR TV, under the corporate Hamar Television Network Pvt. Ltd , yet another foray into the
growing regional television market by India‟s premier media group . Hamar TV will capture an important
regional language market - the Bhojpuri speaking people. Bhojpuri is not just the mother tongue but
enshrines a heritage for many in Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and
Delhi, besides immigrants in countries such as Nepal, Mauritius and many countries spread through the
5 continents of the world that could number more than 18 crores.


Positive Television has offices and television studios in Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Hyderabad, Patna,
Ranchi, Varanasi and more. POSITIV TV has affiliate offices and studios in London and Los Angeles.


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NETV, NE Hi Fi and NE Bangla are also a broadcast affiliate of Turner International. Today, POSITIV TV
Media boasts of satellite, cable and internet carriage in more than 1 crore (10 million) homes in India
alone besides tens of thousands of expatriates and others watching NETV, NE Hi Fi and NE Bangla real-
time as a broadband Internet based live stream worldwide.


NETV is today the largest and leading single platform for advertisers in the Northeast. There is no other
media, print or television, in this region which can boast of an overwhelming statistic connecting all of
northeast India television audience, i.e. 6.8 million homes. HY-TV- Hyderabad will fill a niche media void
in the Greater Hyderabad metro area and target a lucrative 1 million potential population. The channel
will deploy a successful dual-core strategy, as in the world‟s developed markets, with programming for
and marketing to a 21st century highly cosmopolitan audience with a fast-paced lifestyle.


Hyderabad is amongst the fastest growing metros, with not just a burgeoning 1,000,000 population, but
also the most modern airport and a growing number of the biggest-name MNC‟s in the world. Due to
their culture and history, Hyderabadis are an exception in South India as they are extremely conversant
with and use both English and Hindi languages. Constantly updated news and current affairs on and
about Greater Hyderabad, interspersed with national and international affairs, in English and Hindi will
give the Channel the edge over the otherwise Telugu only regional channels. And, with a strong
network of correspondents in Hyderabad, Live DSNG vans, bureaus across the State and national
connectivity, Indian and international networks will be hard pressed to compete with the Channel for
the local audience. The channel‟s infotainment shows will be world-class and modern, including very
topical talk shows, exclusive interview-based features on lifestyle & entertainment, game shows, contests
and interactive programs that drive audience interaction and therefore derive constant ratings. On a
larger level, HY-TV- HYDERABAD will find a national and international audience that wants to inform
and entertain themselves on and about Hyderabad. All these elements will help HY TV, HYDERABAD
leverage ratings and revenues. Thus, HY TV, HYDERABAD incorporates all elements that satisfy the
insatiable, discerning appetite of the target audience to make it the top choice of the local audience.
Simultaneously, it will appeal to the regional, national and international advertiser.


2. INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE TV MEDIA:
The Indian Cable TV industry, which began operations just a decade ago, is going through another phase
of development. The absence of regulations governing the industry had resulted in its disorganized
growth and the government has been making efforts to professionalize the industry. The entry of multi-
system operators (MSOs), in the mid-1990s, was expected to bring greater discipline. However, since

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the last mile was controlled by a large number of individuals called the local cable operators (LCOs) and
independent cable operators (ICOs), the industry remained fragmented and disorganized and MSO‟s
remained squeezed in terms of profitability due to their lack of last mile ownership.


The government was successful in passing the Conditional Access System (CAS) Bill in the last session of
Parliament, which is expected to bring greater discipline to the market place. The CAS Bill primarily
deals with the issue of lack of addressability – the bane of the industry. Lack of addressability meant that
broadcasters did not know the exact reach of their channels, while the LCOs earned a disproportionate
share of the cable revenues by under declaring the households reached, to MSOs, ICOs and
broadcasters. This is expected to change with the implementation of CAS in the four major metros
from 14 July 2003. Fitch believes that, in medium to long term, the MSOs and broadcasters would be the
biggest beneficiaries of the implementation of CAS, though in the near term they would be impacted due
to low penetration of CAS and the consequent drop in advertising and subscription revenues. CAS,
essentially comprising a set-top box (STB) and subscriber management software, helps track viewer ship
accurately and makes the whole viewer-cable-operator-MSO/ICO-broadcaster chain completely
transparent. With the initial penetration of CAS, gross rating points (GRP‟s) for most leading pay
channels like Star, Zee and Sony is estimated to fall, which may translate into a drop in advertising
revenues. In the next two years, Fitch estimates a substantial decline in the revenues of broadcasters
due to slow penetration of CAS. However, if the broadcasters manage to price their channels
competitively, such that the payout for consumers is maintained at current levels, they will be able to
ramp up the penetration levels in the next 2-3 years, resulting in considerable gains. Thus, while there is
short-term uncertainty about CAS, in the long run, Fitch expects that the broadcasters and MSOs would
derive considerable gains from the implementation of CAS if the payout for consumers were maintained
at current levels. Initial estimates suggest that CAS would be able to penetrate up to 30% of the metro
households in the first year and up to 50% of the metro households in the second year of
implementation. At 50% penetration, MSOs and broadcasters would earn additional revenues of Rs2-
2.5bn each. However, since customer additions will occur over the full year, the benefit of these
additional revenues would be spread over the period of next two years. Over a period of time, increase
in penetration and negotiations with LCOs for higher share of revenues would lead to a further increase
in revenues.




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2.1 CABLE TV INDUSTRY OVERVIEW:
The cable industry in India was came into being in the late 1970s with the boom in the videocassette
recorders market. Some enterprising individuals started offering a cable TV service to tap viewers who
were interested in greater variety which Doordarshan, the national TV channel, did not offer. This cable
TV service initially included Hindi and English movies and pirated Western comedies, music and game
shows. However, at this stage, cable TV was largely restricted to the major metros and towns and to
the upper crust of society. The Gulf War, in 1990, gave further impetus to this industry. Some cable
operators, who had been running their Hindi and English movie channels, added dish antennae and
started relaying news programmes of CNN into homes. This spurred the demand for cable TV, making
it a lucrative business and attracting more individuals to the industry. The launch of Zee TV further
fuelled the spread of cable TV. From 1992 until date, the industry has grown exponentially – from
412,000 subscribers to close to 39 mn in 2002, as per the National Readership Survey, representing a
CAGR (compounded annual growth rate) of 50% per annum. This represents close to 17% penetration
of cable TV in Indian households and 45% penetration in TV households.


With the growth in the number of subscribers, the industry also underwent a major change. Most of the
international channels became pay-channels with digital and coded signals, which required higher
investments in integrated receiver decoders (IRDs). At the same time, the quality of signals relayed by
the local operators was poor. In order to address these issues and to meet the customer demand for
larger number of channels, multi-system operators (MSOs) entered the industry. These MSOs had the
backing of media houses and the funds to invest in higher quality cable infrastructure. However, since
they did not have access to subscribers, they had to tie up with existing LCOs to reach the customers.
MSOs like In Cablenet (managed by the Hinduja Group), Siticable (earlier a joint venture between the
Promoter of Zee TV, Subhash Chandra, and Star TV, now fully owned by Zee TV), Hathway Cable
(owned by the Rajan Raheja Group, with a strategic stake by Star TV), Asianet Satellite Communications
Limited (owned by the Rajan Raheja Group), Ortel Communications, RPG Netcom (a company
promoted by the RPG Group) and Sumangali Cable Network (SCN owned by Sun TV) control close to
30% of the industry in terms of number of subscribers. Most of the smaller towns are covered by ICOs,
who function like MSOs. The only difference between an MSO and an ICO is that the ICOs reach is
smaller and they do not invest in sophisticated technology like MSOs.




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The existing market shares of MSOs and ICOs are given in Chart 2.




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2.2 Impact on Television Industry:
The four metros account for 15%-20% of the total television sales. A major part of the television sales
from the metros comes from replacement demand and demand for a second set. With CAS making it
necessary for every television set to pay for the pay channels, the purchase rate of second television sets
is expected to decline. Thus, there would a marginal impact of CAS on television sales in the metros.
This is based on the assumption that the average cost to consumer per cable connection would remain
at reasonable levels. However, in the other places, television sales would be largely determined by other
factors like income levels, major sporting event and other high viewer interest events.




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3.ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF HY TV:



                             CHAIRMAN



 O/P HEAD        I/P HEAD             ADMIN.HEAD                BEAURO HEAD

 EDITORS        PRODUCTION            H.R DEPT.                 REPORTERS

 GRAPHICS                         FRONT OFFICE


CAMERA DEPT.                      ACCOUNTS DEPT.




                                  MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION DEPARTMENT




                                                  ADVERTISEMENTS



                                                        SALES




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4. ADVERTISING
As we know that advertising plays an important role in Marketing especially in electronic media. All the
TV channels will generate revenues through Advertisements. So getting an advertisement is a big deal in
any of the TV channels. As per our project HY TV is an INFOTAINMENT channel which has been
launched recently. At present they don‟t have subscription to TAM. Most of the Ad. Agencies go for
TAM rating in selection of Communication Media. So let us see how an advertising agency works, how
an advertisement works and how to attract the Ad. Agencies.


4.1 INTRODUCTION:
Advertising is an effective method of reaching people with product information. “Advertising is
controlled, identifiable information and persuasion by means of Mass communication media”. It is
considered controlled information because it has use the Time, Space and content of the message
effectively and economically. It is controlled because it is directed at a particular group.


4.2 OBJECTIVES:
The basic objective of the advertising is to increase the sales volume and profits.
    1) To facilitate launching a new product or service or a new brand into the Market.
    2) To create the awareness about the product or service.
    3) To build up a goodwill.
    4) To enter into new market segment for Market development.


4.3 FUNCTIONS OF ADVERTISING:
Advertising serves every sector of the business Society -Consumer, producer and middlemen (Agency
and sales men).The various functions of the Advertising may be grouped into two classes - (1) Primary
functions, and (2) Secondary functions.
    (1) PRIMARY FUNCTIONS:
             a) To increase sales
             b) Persuasion of dealers
             c) Help to dealers.
             d) To increase in per capita use
             e) Creates awareness of new product
             f) To eliminate seasonal fluctuations
             g) More business for all
             h) Raising of standard of living
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    (2) SECONDARY FUNCTIONS:
            a. To encourage salesmen
            b. To furnish Information
            c. To impress executives
            d. To impress factory workers
            e.   Feeling of security


4.4 ADVERTISING VERSUS PUBLICITY:
Advertising and publicity are both marketing communications and both may appear in same media; but
where advertising is paid for by its sponsor, publicity is not.


4.5 MARKETING OF AN ADVERTISEMENT:
After making the advertisement Marketing of the advertisement comes into picture. Advertisement will
be designed depending on four P‟s.
                                  1. Product
                                  2. Place
                                  3. Promotion
                                  4. Price


4.6 KEY PARTICIPANTS IN THE MARKETING PROCESS:
Peoples needs and wants change daily, and marketers should know about the customers‟ expectations
and needs. This makes the marketing process very dynamic. The various participants in marketing
process are as follows,


    (1) CUSTOMERS:
        Customers are the people or organizations who consume the products and services. They fall
        into three general categories:
             1. Current customers
             2. Prospective customers
             3. Centers of influence




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  (2) MARKETS:
     It is a group of current and prospective customers who share a common interest, need, or
     desire, who can use the specific product or service, and who are willing to pay for it. These
     markets are broadly classified into four types
                                   a. Consumer markets
                                   b. Business markets
                                   c. Government markets
                                   d. Global markets


  (3) MARKETERS:
     The third participation in the marketing process, marketers, includes every person or
     organization that has products, services, or ideas to sell manufactures market consumer and
     business products. Farmer‟s market wheat; doctors market medical services; banks market
     financial products; and political organizations market philosophies and candidates. To be
     successful, marketers must know their markets intimately – before they start advertising.




5. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR:

      Marketing       Other                     Consumer                              Consumers
       Stimuli           Stimuli             Characteristics                           Decisions


      Product         Economic               Cultural          Problem recognition Product choice


      Price           Technological          Social            Information search   Brand choice


      Place           Political              Personal          Decision Evaluation Dealer choice


      Promotion       Cultural               Psychological                          Purchasing timing
                                                               Post purchase Behavior


                                                                                    Purchasing amount.




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5.1 Model of Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior:




    Cultural factors


                       Social factors

                                          Personal factors
                       Reference groups
    Cultural
                                          Age & Life cycle
                                                               Psychological
                                          Occupation           factors
                       Family
                                          Economic             Motivation
    Sub-cultural
                                          Circumstances        Perception
                                                               Learning
                                          Life style           Beliefs and     Buyer
                       Roles & Status     personality & Self   Attitudes
                                          concept
    Social class




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Cultural factors


Culture: Culture is the most fundamental determinant of a person‟s wants and behavior like set of
values, perceptions, preference and behaviors through his or her family member.


Sub culture: Sub culture includes nationalities, religious, racial groups and geographical regions.


Social class: Social classes are relatively homogenous and enduring decisions in a society which are
hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values, interests and behavior. Social classes
include upper class, middle class and lower class.


Social factors
Reference groups: A persons reference group consists of all the groups that have a direct (face to
face) or indirect influence on the person‟s attitude or behavior.This groups to which the person belongs
and interacts.


Personal factors
A consumer decisions are also influenced by personal characteristics notably the buyers age & life cycle
stage, occupation, economic, circumstance, life style & personality and self concept.


Psychological factors
Motivation: A person has many needs at any given time. Some needs are biogenic. They arise from
psychological states of tension such as hunger, tryst and discomfort.


Perception: Perception is defined as “the process by which an individual select, organizes intercepts
information, input to create a meaningful picture of the world.


Learning: When people act, they learn. Learning describes changes in an individual‟s behavior rising
from experience, process of applying results of fast experience to evaluate a new situation or modify
feature.


Beliefs and attitudes: Doing and learning people acquire beliefs and attitudes. These in term influence
consumer behavior belief are a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. An attitude
describes persons enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotional feelings.

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5.2 FLOW CHART:
BRAND BUILDING ON TV CHANNEL/HOW IT WORKS:

                                  ADVERTISER

                      Is the client /manufacturer who owns the product or
                      brand



                     Main Aspects:

                     Product ,Quality,Range,Praising

                     Distribution,Sales and Marketing Strategies.




            Creativity of the Advertisement:

            Either done by own production house or by an Media agency




          Media agency is a bridge between Advertiser, TV channel and media agency
          company




      In media agency key account Manager Deals with client or Advertiser discuss about
      his ad film, campaign period and Budget.


    Media Planner:

    He takes care of media channels list, programs, films, period of campaign, target
    audience.


    Media Buyer:

    He deals with rate factor, channels, TRP based programs and finalize the deal then
    reports to key account manager.


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5. THE ADVERTISING BUSINESS


6.1 AGENCIES AND CLIENT RELATIONSHIP:
A modern advertising agency offers specialized knowledge, skills and experience which are required to
product an effective advertising campaign. It has writers, Artists, Media experts, Researchers, Television
producers, account executives, etc.These specialists‟ work together to understand fully the advertiser‟s
requirements of an advertisement campaign, and develop suitable advertising plans and strategies. By
creating advertisements and delivering them through appropriate media, the agencies implement
advertising plans and strategies.


6.2 THE ROLE OF THE ADVERTISING AGENCY:
An Advertiser firm may organize the advertising campaign through its own advertising department or
may entrust the whole part of the advertising work to a body of experts known as advertising agency.
Thus advertising agency is an independent institution setup to render specialized services in advertising
in particular and in marketing in general. In legal sense they are not agents, but are independent firms
having their own organizations.


Thus an advertising agency is “An organization whose business consists in the acquisition as a principal,
of the right to use space or time in advertising media and administration on behalf of the advertisers of
advertising appropriations made by them”. It is organized to render advice creative services for its
clients. it does not sell any tangible product ,sells creative talents and its past experience. Thus it is an
organization specially created for rendering services in advertising.




6.3 THE ORGANIZATIONS IN ADVERTISING:
The advertising business is composed of four different groups. The two main ones are the advertisers and
the agencies. The Advertisers (or clients) or the companies – like Vodafone, Honda etc. that advertise
themselves and their products.


Advertisers range in size from huge multinational firms to small independent stores and in type from
service organizations to industrial concerns to political action committees. Assisting them in the second
group –The advertising agencies that plan, create, and prepare their clients ad campaigns and
promotional materials.


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The third group the Media, sells time (in electronic media) and space (in print media) to carry the
advertiser‟s message to the target audience.


The last group, the suppliers includes the photographs, illustrators, printers, digital service bureaus,
colourfilm separators, video production houses, and other who assist both advertisers and agencies in
preparing advertising materials. Suppliers also include consultants, research firms, and other professional
services that work with both advertisers and agencies.


6.4 PEOPLE IN ADVERTISING:
When most people think of advertising, they imagine the copywriters and art directors who work for ad
agencies. But the majority of people in advertising are actually employed by the advertisers. Most
companies have an advertising department, if it‟s just one person.


The importance of the company‟s advertising department depends on the size of the company, the type
of the industry it operates in, the size of its advertising program, the role advertising plays in the
company‟s marketing mix, and most of all, the involvement of top management.


Many people are involved in company‟s advertising function:
    a) Company owners and top corporate executives make key advertising decisions.
    b) Sales and marketing personnel often assist in the creative process, help choose the ad Agency.
    c) Artists and writers produce ads, broachers and other materials.
    d) Product engineers and designers give input to the creative process and provide information
         about competitive products.
    e) Administrators evaluate the cost of the ad Companies and help plan budgets.
    f)   Clerical staff coordinates various advertising activities.


6.5 KINDS OF AGENCY ORGANISATION:
                             1. Group system
                             2. Departmental system
                             3. Decentralized organization
                             4. Smaller Agency Organization




                                                       24
6.6 ADVERTISING DEPARTMENTS:
Organization by Sub-function:
Advertising department functions on the basis of sub-functions to discharge all the functions of
advertising effectively and smoothly.




 CREATIVE                               MEDIA                             ADVERTISING RESEARCH
                                   ADVERTISING MANAGER




LAYOUT                             COPY ART


Organization by media:
The advertising manager is given the ultimate responsibility for managing advertising in all the media.


                                ADVERTISING MANAGER


PRINT MEDIA                       BROADCASTING MEDIA                             OTHER MEDIA




     MAGAZINES                              TELEVISION                                     OUTDOOR
                                           TEADVERTISI
                                           NG MANAGER
     NEWS PAPERS                               RADIO                                        TRANSIT
                                           RADIOADVERTI
                                           SING
     DIRECT MAIL                           MANAGER
     DIRECTMAILA
     DVERTISING
     MANAGER
                                                    25
Organization by Product:


                           ADVERTISING MANAGER


PRODUCT             PRODUCT             PRODUCT            PRODUCT
   A                       B                    C                    D
BRAND BRAND                BRAND       BRAND           BRAND          BRAND




Organization by Market segmentation:



                           ADVERTISING MANAGER




FINAL USER        INDUSTRIAL MARKET          INSTITUTIONAL MARKETS        AGRICULTURAL




          STUDENTS
         STUSTUDENTSA
         DVERTISING
         MANAGER
         EMPLOYED
         EMPLOYEDEMPL
         OYEADVERTI
Organization by Geographical Area:
         SING
         MANAGER
                           ADVERTISING MANAGER




   NATIONAL                                                     INTERNATIONAL




 NORTH REGION         SOUTH             WEST                EASTERN
                                        26
6.7 SELECTION OF AN ADVERTISING AGENCY:
The following points should be considered for selection of an advertising agency.
       1) First and foremost, the agency must known; previously unknown agencies are not preferred.
       2) Secondly, the agency must have creativity.
       3) Thirdly, the agency must have a sound track record, a good deal of experience.
       4) Fourthly, the account executives must have ability to understand client‟s problems.
       5) Fifthly, the work they have produced for other clients does matter.
       6) Sixthly, the personal equation of the client with the agency also matters.
       7) Seventhly, their ability and presentation may make you opt for them.
       8) Lastly, there are some unique considerations some prefer a small, some a medium, some a large
           agency.


6.8 TYPES OF ADVERTISING AGENCIES:
Ad agencies come in all sizes and include everything from one or two-person shops (which rely mostly
on freelance talent to perform most functions), small to medium sized agencies, large independents such
as SMART and TAXI, and multi-national, multi-agency conglomerates such as Omnicom Group, WPP
Group, Publicis, Interpublic Group of Companies and Havas.


Full-service agencies:
Most full-service agencies work on a combination of fee-based and commission based compensation. The
fee is paid by the entity for which the marketing is being done. The commission is a payment from the
media to the agency and is usually equal to 15% of the cost of the advertisement. The broadcast media,
radio and television, traditionally pay a commission.


Full-service, or media-neutral advertising agencies produce work for many types of media, creating
integrated marketing communications, or through-the-line (TTL) advertising. The "line", in this case, is
the traditional marker between the media that pay a commission to the agency and the media that do
not.


Full-service agencies are also known as traditional advertising agencies for the client, wherein the client
satisfies almost all their advertising or promotional needs with the same organization. This type of
agency provides advertising services such as strategic planning, creative development, production, media
planning, media buying, and other related services such as sales promotional, direct selling, design, and
branding, etc.

                                                       27
Interactive agencies:
Interactive agencies may differentiate themselves by offering a mix of web design/development, search
engine marketing, internet advertising/marketing, or e-business/e-commerce consulting. Interactive
agencies rose to prominence before the traditional advertising agencies fully embraced the Internet.
Offering a wide range of services, some of the interactive agencies grew very rapidly, although some
have downsized just as rapidly due to changing market conditions. Today, the most successful interactive
agencies are defined as companies that provide specialized advertising and marketing services for the
digital space. The digital space is defined as any multimedia-enabled electronic channel that an
advertiser's message can be seen or heard from. The 'digital space' translates to the Internet, kiosks,
CD-ROMs, DVDs, and lifestyle devices (iPod, PSP, and mobile). Interactive agencies function similarly to
advertising agencies, although they focus solely on interactive advertising services. They deliver services
such as strategy, creative, design, video, development, programming (Flash and otherwise), deployment,
management, and fulfillment reporting. Often, interactive agencies provide: digital lead generation, digital
brand development, interactive marketing and communications strategy, rich media campaigns,
interactive video brand experiences, Web 2.0 website design and development, e-learning Tools, email
marketing, SEO/SEM services, PPC campaign management, content management services, web
application development, and overall data mining & ROI assessment.


The recent boost in the interactive agencies can also be attributed to the rising popularity of web-based
social networking and community sites. The creation of sites such as MySpace, Face book and YouTube
have sparked market interest, as some interactive agencies have started offering personal and corporate
community site development as one of their service offerings. It still may be too early to tell how
agencies will use this type of marketing to monetize client ROI, but all signs point to online networking
as the future of brand marketing.


Due to the social networking explosion, new types of companies are doing reputation management. This
type of agency is especially important if a company needs online damage control. If a customer becomes
disgruntled, it is very easy to damage a company‟s reputation over social networking sites. Because of
how rapidly the information spreads, it becomes absolutely necessary to address any rumors, gossip or
other negative online press immediately.


Examples of interactive agencies include, R/GA, AKQA, Big Spaceship, Agency net, Firstborn Interactive,
Odopod, eROI, and EVB, among others.


                                                    28
Tradigital agencies:
Tradigital agencies are advertising agencies who are experts in both traditional and digital advertising   [1][2].


They offer the best of both worlds and are very useful in today‟s digital age where all campaigns now
require both online and above-the-line advertising.


These agencies often buy out digital agencies. Now more than ever traditional agencies are looking for a
door into the digital world. They are often the only way to extend your brand across all the numerous
mediums of today‟s markets.


Search engine agencies:
Lately, search engine marketing (SEM) and search engine optimization (SEO) firms have been classified
by some as 'agencies' because they create media and implement media purchases of text based (or image
based, in some instances of search marketing) ads. This relatively young industry has been slow to adopt
the term 'agency', however with the creation of ads (either text or image) and media purchases; they do
technically qualify as 'advertising agencies'. Recent studies suggest that both SEO and SEM are set to
outpace more traditional channels of media spending over the next 3-5 years.


Social media agencies:
Social media agencies specialize in promotion of brands in the various social media platforms like blogs,
social networking sites, Q&A sites, discussion forums, micro blogs etc. The two key services of social
media agencies are:
       social media marketing
       online reputation management


Other agencies:
While non advertising agencies, enterprise technology agencies often work in tandem with advertising
agencies to provide a specialized subset of services offered by some interactive agencies: Web 2.0
website design and development, Content Management Services, web application development, and
other intuitive technology solutions for the web, mobile devices and emerging digital platforms.


6.9 HOW AGENCIES GET CLIENTS:
To succeed, ad agencies need clients. New clients come from personal contact with top management,
referrals from satisfied clients, publicity on recent successful campaigns, trade advertising, direct mail, or
by agency‟s general reputations.

                                                      29
    A. Referrals.
    B. Presentations.
    C. Networking and community relations.
    D. Soliciting and advertising for new business.

6.10 THE CLIENT - AGENCY RELATIONSHIP:
Just as people and product have lifecycles, so do relationships. In the advertising business, the lifecycle of
the agency-client relationship has four distinct stages.
            A. Pre relationship stage.
            B. The development stage.
            C. The maintenance stage.
            D. Termination stage.

6.11 FACTORS AFFECTING THE CLIENT-AGENCY RELATIONSHIP:
The following are the factors affecting the client-agency relationship.
    A. Chemistry.
    B. Communication.
    C. Conduct.
    D. Changes.

6.12 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLIENT-AGENCY RELATIONSHIP:
These principles are:
   i.   The agency alone is responsible for payment to the media.
  ii.   The agency doesn‟t allow any cut from the commission received from the media to go to the
        client.
 iii.   The media do not discriminate amongst the agencies dealt with, and fallow a uniform policy for
        all agencies.
 iv.    The media do not alter the advertising material without the prior consent of the agency.

6.13 VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS IN AD-AGENCY:
   i.   Account planning.
  ii.   Account management.
 iii.   Creative services.
 iv.    Media services.
  v.    Traffic.

                                                      30
7. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS:
Communication is the social process by which two or more persons exchange views. The
communication between two persons that is and the receiver, will be termed individual communication,
where there more than two persons that is more than one sender or more than one receiver are
involved, it is known as mass communication.


Generally all electronic media channels comes under mass communication. As HY-tv is an electronic
media channel of infotainment, it is a mass communication.


The objective of media planning and advertising is to get the attention of more number of people. So
most of the ad-agencies and clients goes for electronic media.


The increase in viewership rate and development of technology opend the gates for ad-agencies to enter
into electronic media, simply we can say that emerging technology has changed the face off print and
other media to electronic media.


7.1 COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS:
SOURCE:
Generally the encoder, sponsor, advertiser or sales representative is known as source. The source is
the sender of message.


MESSAGE:
It refers to the content of the communication. It may include words, pictures, symbols, order etc.,


PERCEPTION:
It is an important factor in communication process. The message can be perceived by the receiver
according to his nature and culture, its attention, interest, desire and action. The attitude and the desire
of the sender also influence the perception level.


CHANNEL:
The message carried through some channel-a news paper, magazine, or television from the sender to
the receiver. The channels are known as media. Television influencing the sense of sight and sound is
considered one of the most effective channels of the communication.


                                                     31
RECEIVER:
The receiver is the target audience. Therefore advertisers should evaluate the graphics of the audience.
Values, attitudes, product, experience and responses are considered to design communication process.


FEEDBACK:
Feedback is an essential factor in making communication more effective. It indicates how the
communication process is working. The receivers may provide feedback on their needs, knowledge,
cultural systems, attitudes and communication skills.



                                        8. MEDIA PLANNING


8.1 INTRODUCTION:
The term media is a plural for medium. In advertising terms, medium is a channel of communication such
as news channels, entertainment channels, news papers, magazines etc. A medium is a vehicle for
carrying the sales message of an advertiser to the prospects. It is indeed a vehicle by which advertisers
convey their messages to a large group of prospects and thereby aid in closing the gap between the
producer at one end and the consumer at the other end.

Media planning is a very important task in the advertising process, which deals about four W‟s.
                                       1. Where
                                       2. What
                                       3. Who
                                       4. When
Media planning involves selecting appropriate media for carrying the advertisers‟ message to target
markets, deciding what to buy and how much to spend in each medium and scheduling when the
advertising is to run. Eighty percent of the budget paid to media. This, in it suggests how important
media decisions are. Considering the extent and diversity of the Indian market, which is matched by a
vast and diverse network of advertising media, the complexity of the media planning becomes apparent.

8.2 MEDIA TERMS:
Media Planning is a very important component of the Marketing Strategy of an organization. Media
Planning is defined as "Process of designing a scheduling plan that shows how advertising time and space
in selected media and vehicles contribute to the achievement of marketing objectives in an advertising
campaign".

                                                    32
Media planning, in general terms, is a tool that allows the advertiser to select the most appropriate
media to communicate the message in sufficient frequency towards the maximum number of potential
customers at the lowest cost.


* Medium: A medium is a carrier and deliverer of Advertisements. It is a broad general category of
carries such as Newspapers, Television, Radio, Internet, Outdoor, Direct Mail, etc.
* Vehicle: It is a specific carrier within a Media category. So a HY TV would be the vehicle in the
category of TV. Many a time a specific programs or sections within a medium may be termed as a
vehicle. For example, “DAKSHINAYAN" on HY TV would be the vehicle in the Television category.
* Frequency: How frequently are the recipients being exposed to message. In other words it is the
average number of times an advertisement reaches each recipient in a given period
* Continuity: The amount of advertising budget being allocated over the period. There are basic types
of ways in which the advertising budget is allocated: Continuous Scheduling, Pulsing and Flightning.
* Weight: The amount of total advertising is needed to accomplish advertising objectives.
* Viewership: It refers to the number of people watching a given program. A viewer is a person who is
watching the program.
* Gross Rating points: The total audience delivery or weight of a specific media schedule is counted
by working on the total number of viewers. However in media the information is gauged in gross rating
points (GRP).for example if 75% of the people of our target market watched a commercial on television
four times in a week, to determine the gross rating points, the following formula will be used:
                                Reach*frequency=GRP
                                     75*4=300GRP
8.3 Objectives of media planning:
                    Grab        : ATTENCTION
                    Excite      : INTEREST
                    Create      : DESIRE
                    Prompt      : ACTION


8.4 MEDIA PLANNING STRATEGY:
The purpose of media planning is to conceive, analyze, and select channels of communication that will
direct advertising message to the right people, in the right place at the right time. It involves many
decisions:
   i.   Where should we advertise? (In what countries, states, or parts of town)
  ii.   Which media vehicles should we use?

                                                    33
 iii.   When during the year should we concentrate our advertising?
 iv.    How often should we run the advertising?
  v.    What opportunities are there for integrating other communications?
 vi.
Media objectives translate the advertising strategy into goals that media can accomplish. They explain
who the target audience is and why. Where messages will be delivered and when and how much
advertising weight needs to be delivered.


In the initial stage of the product life cycle, the objective is to maximize awareness of it by consumers.
At the maturity stage, continuity of the purchase becomes the main objective. During the declining stage
of product use, the media remind the consumers that the product shall retain their appealing attributes.
The media objectives are Reach, frequency and continuity respectively for the early, maturity and
declining stages of the product lifecycle. The media objective is analyzed in the light of constraints and
components.


CONSTRAINTS:
The objectives are controlled by the budget available for Advertising. In the beginning, a significant
amount is available; but at the later stage of the product life cycle, only a small proportion is allocated to
advertising. The effect of budgeting on advertising has been acknowledged by every organization. The
positioning of the product also influences the objectives. If the producer is willing to challenge the
leader, he will spend more money on advertising. The range, Frequency and continuity will be effected
by budget and positioning of the product.


COMPONENTS:
Media objectives have different components, viz, specification of the target market, geographical location
of the market, reach and frequency, continuity or timing, creative requirements and potential market
coverage level.


8.5 STEPS TO ACHIEVE EFFECTIVE MEDIA PLANNING:
To achieve the effective media planning we should do the following steps:
    1) We should have good knowledge about the product or service.
    2) We should be very clear with the budget allotted for advertising.
    3) It is very important to select an appropriate ad agency which can fulfill the needs and desires of
        the manufacturer or producer.

                                                     34
4) Some companies will have their own advertising departments but still they will go for ad
    agencies to maximize the productivity.
E.g.: Vodafone.
5) The communication between the producer and the ad agency must be good.
6) The producer‟s views and ideas about the product must be shared with the ad agency.
7) We must know about the target market.
8) We must know about the tastes and preferences of the target audience.
9) According to the budget allotted for advertising select the best media vehicle.
10) Select the prime time slots if you are going for TV advertisement.
11) Give freedom to ad agency in selecting the media vehicle.
12) After completing all the above steps go for negotiations.




                                                35
    •   Media Mix
               –   Combination of different media, and    size of ads
               –   Which Media?
               –   Which Schedules?


Flexibility:




                                                     36
8.6 MEDIA PLANNING PROCESS:
           When (the timing of the release)
           Which (The media selection)
           How (The coordination in media planning)
           How much (The budgetary allocation)


8.7 MEDIA COST AND MEDIA AVAILABILITY:
To get the most out of the advertising budget spent the primary concern for the advertiser is media
selection. The cost of buying space or time is weighed against the number of audience secured by such
advertising. In fact, buying advertising space and time is nothing different from buying commodities.


The media availability is measured under the following heads:
   i.       Distribution measurement (in terms of number of distributors in a geographical area)
  ii.       Audience measurement (Expressed in terms of TAM ratings)
  iii.      Exposure measurement – the advertiser looks for the ability of the media to create advertising
            exposure.
Summarizing media selection factors we may say that they are:
       A.   Media characteristics, such as editorial environment flexibility, frequency and durability.
       B.   Nature of the target market.
       C.   The nature and type of the product.
       D.   The nature of the distribution network.
       E.   Overall cost of the medium.


8.8 MEDIA SCHEDLING:
We can follow a steady schedule or a pulsed campaign. Normally scheduling is done for a 4 week
period. The six types of schedules available are:


1. Steady pulse:
It is the easiest. For example one ad/week for 52 weeks or one ad/month for 12 months.
2. Seasonal pulse:
Products like Vicks balm, ponds cold cream follow this approach.
3. Period pulse:
Scheduling follows a regular pattern for example media scheduling for consumer durables, non durables
etc.

                                                        37
4. Erratic pulse:
The advertisements are placed irregularly. Perhaps we want to change the typical purchase cycles.
5. Startup pulse:
It is concentrated media scheduling. It launches a new product or a new campaign.
6. Promotional pulse:
A one short affair it suits only a particular promotional team.


9. GOVERNMENT POLICIES IN MEDIA SECTOR:
The changing model of media business in India
Beginning with the macro level analysis, the changes in India can be analyzed on the following four
parameters:


   Government policies: They play a vital role in the success of any economy and the Indian
government‟s reforms and growth focused strategy is an attractive feature. FDI limits are an important
aspect in this regard as it regulates the growth of the industry.
   Economic changes: The increasing disposable income and expanding urban class presents a huge
untapped market for the media sector. With increasing personal income of the youth over the last
decade has resulted in higher spending on media and entertainment.
   Social changes: There has been a steady increase in literacy levels which has boosted the demand
for print media. With the socio-economic changes and electricity and technology everywhere, the
people prefer to have their share of news through television. There has been a favorable change in the
consumption pattern and this provides a great potential to broaden the customer base.
   Technical changes: With the changing pace of technology and the users are responsible for making
India an outsourcing destination. The next boom could well be the Media sector. Also, an increasing
convergence among the various media is bringing about a structural change in the industry.




                                                     38
FDI LIMIT IN VARIOUS SECTORS:




                                39
FUTURE PROSPECTS OF MEDIA SECTOR:




10. MEDIA BUYING
This is the last step in the advertising process. First contract will be given to ad agency to design
advertisement. Depending on the target market and product lifecycle the ad agency will decide the
media for advertising. Generally electronic media is preferred over other media because the reach of
electronic media will be high at the same time the budget required also will be high. Depending on the
media vehicle which we have selected there may be a probability for negotiations. In television media
advertiser will select the media vehicle depending on “television audience measurement” ratings. Media
vehicles with high TAM ratings will demand more. Sometimes negotiation about the budget may not be
possible.


According to the inputs I got from the various ad agencies and clients, I found that most of the ad
agencies prefer entertainment channels over infotainment channels. The revenues of entertainment
channels will be high compared to infotainment channels. One more interesting thing there will be some
friendly relationship among some ad agencies and media vehicles, which may lead to personal biasing. If a
media channel have good relationship with ad agencies they can earn more from advertising. Every
media channel will have prime time slots and normal time slots. They are going to charge high in prime
time slots, sometimes Events like IPL, Film fare awards etc may happen, that time the time slots between
the programs will become the primetime slots which increases the TRP ratings. Competition for that
time slots will be very high that time negotiations will not at all possible. Recently we have seen this in
IPL 2009 organized in South Africa.



                                                    40
Let us see the Advertisement rate card in HY TV:


10.1Advertisement rate card in HY TV:




                                                                               Feel the pulse……
OPTION 1:
Strip Ads with Logo              : Rs 3000(20 strips in a day-minimum)
Scrolling Ads without logo       : Rs 2000(20 scroll ads in a day-minimum)
Spot buy – Ad commercial         : Rs 2000(@10 seconds commercial)
OPTION 2:
Sponsorship              : on commitment of monthly outlay Rs.3, 00,000
FCT                      : 1500 seconds bankable across the channel in 30 days.
FREE VALUE ADDITIONS:
Daily prime time news sponsorship at 9PM in 30 days period.
         Associate sponsorship one weekly program of 4 episodes in 30 days period followed by daily
         channel promos and fcls with brand tag of client.
OPTION 3:
Slot buying – duration -30 minutes –rate per slot : Rs15000/s.t


Terms and Conditions:
    1.    Payment to be made to be made in advanced in favor of Hy Media entertainment pvt.Ltd
    2.    Service tax Extra Applicable
    3.    Ad Material in DV cassette to be given in advance for telecasting.


According the information which we got in media sector in Andhra Pradesh Sun network is the market
leader and Maa tv is the market follower. Negotiation is not possible in Gemini tv where as it is possible
in Maa tv so most of the ad agencies prefer Maa tv unless the client demand for specific media vehicle.
These two channels are ruling in entertainment region.




                                                    41
While coming to infotainment channels TV9 is ruling the market. It is the first 24*7 Telugu news channel
in Telugu, when it has launched there were no similar player so it got the competitive advantage through
language. For long time it is been like a monopoly. But now the equation has been changed, so many
players with new technology and strategies are evolved into the markets.


HY TV also followed the same strategy that TV9 has followed earlier; it is the first Hindi news channel in
south operating in south itself (head quartered at Hyderabad)




                                                   42
                                   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


Survey done on Ad agency, Clients and Audience directly on a one to one basis via a questionnaire by
taking a sample size on the basis of demographic segmentation.


SAMPLE SIZE:
Ad agencies              :        10
Clients                  :         10
Audience                 :         200


11.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a
scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. It is the pursuit of truth
with the help of the study, observation, comparison and experiment.


11.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
Research design is actually the blue print of the research project and when implemented must bring out
the information required for solving the identified problems. The research design depends upon the
depth and extent of data required the cost and benefits of research, the urgency of work and the time
available for completing it. The research indicates the method of research (i.e. sampling etc) only.


11.3 Research design is mainly of three types:-
                     i. Exploratory Research
                     ii. Descriptive Research
                    iii. Experimental Research


Exploratory Research:
Exploratory study can be used to establish priorities. The major emphasis is on the discovery of ideas
and insights. It helps in formulating hypothesis for further research


Descriptive Research
The Descriptive study is typically concerned with the determining Frequency with which something
occurred or how two variables vary together. It is guided by an initial hypothesis.


                                                     43
Experimental Research:
Experimentation is defined as a process where event occur in a setting at the discretion of the
experimenter and controls are used to identify source of variation in the subjects


11.4 SAMPLE SIZE AND CLUSTER SAMPLING
Sampling may be defined as the selection of an aggregate or totality on the basis of which a judgment or
inference about the aggregate or totality is made. In other words it is the process of obtaining
information about an entire population by examining only a part of it. In most of the research work and
surveys, the usual approach happens to be to make generalization or to draw inference based on
samples about the parameters of population from which the samples are taken. The researcher quite
often selects only a few items from the universe for his study purposes. All this is done on the
assumption that the sample data will enable to estimate the population parameters. The items so
selected constitute what is a technically called a sample, their selection process or technique is called
sample design and survey conducted on the basis of sample is described as sample survey. Sample should
be truly representative of population characteristics without any bias so that it may result in valid and
reliable conclusions.


11.5 Need for Sampling:
Sampling is used in practical for a variety of reasons such as:
      1. Sampling can save time and money. A sample study is usually less expensive than a census
          study and produce result at relatively faster speed.
      2. Sample may enable more accurate measurements for a sample study is generally conducted by
          trained and experienced investigators.
      3. Sample remains the only way when population contains infinitely many members.
      4. Sample remains the only choice when a test involved the destruction on the item under study.
      5. Sample usually enables to estimate the sampling error and thus assists in obtaining information
          concerning some characteristics on the population.


Random sampling from Infinite Universe
Above paragraph deals with random Sampling, keeping in view the finite populations. But what about
random sampling in context of infinite population? It is relatively difficult to explain the concept of
random sample from an infinite population. However, a few examples will show the basis characteristics
of such a sample.


                                                      44
Cluster sampling
Cluster sampling involves grouping the population and then selecting the groups or the clusters rather
than individual element6s for inclusion the sample. If the totally area of interest happens to be a big one,
a continent way in the sample can be taken is to divide the area into a number of smaller non
overlapping areas and then to randomly select a number of these smaller areas, (usually called clusters)
with the ultimate sample consisting Of all (or a sampling of ) Units in these small areas of clusters.


Cluster sampling, no doubt reduces cost by concentrating surveys in select clusters. But certainly it is
less precise than random sampling. There is also not as much information „n‟ number of observations
within cluster as there happens to be inn randomly drawn observations. Cluster sampling is used only
because of the economic advantage it drawn possesses; estimates based on cluster samples are usually
more reliable per unit cost.


11.6 Data collection Method
Data collection is an elaborate process in which the researcher makes a planned search for relevant
data. Data can be classified as primary and secondary data.


Primary Data
Primary data is a data gathered for the first time by the researcher.
Collection of primary data task is demanding and requires a lot of technical expertise. Primary data can
be collected in marketing by three basic methods-
            o   Survey Method
            o   Observation Method
            o   Experimental Method


Survey is the most commonly used method of primary data collection in the marketing research.
Various kinds of survey techniques are.
                a. Personal interview
                b. Telephone Survey
                c. Mail Survey
The instrument used in personnel interview is questionnaire.




                                                     45
Secondary data
Secondary data means data that are already refer to the data which have already collected and analyses
by someone else. When the researcher utilizes secondary data that he had to look into various sources
from where he can obtain them. In this case he is certainly not confronted with the problems that are
usually associated with collection of original data.
           Various books, magazines and news papers.
           Reporters and publication of various businesses.
           Reports prepared by research scholar and in different fields.
           Records and statistics data.


The following characteristics must be possessed:
            1. Reliability of data
            2. Suitability of data
            3. Adequacy of data


11.7 Selection of appropriate method for data collection
The following factors must be considered:
    1. Nature scope and object of enquiry.
    2. Availability of funds.
    3. Time factor.
    4. Precision required.


INTERVIEW METHOD
In the interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral/verbal stimuli and reply in terms
of oral/verbal responses. This method can be used through the interviews and if possible, through
telephone interviews.


Personal interview
Personal interview method requires a person know as the interviewer asking questions generally in a
face to face contact to the other person or persons. (At the time the interviewee may also ask certain
questions and interviewer responds to these, but usually the interviewer initiates the interview and
collects the information) This sort of interview may be in the form of direct personal investigation or it
may be indirect oral investigation.


                                                       46
In case of direct personal investigation the interviewer has collect the information personally from the
sources concerned. He has to be the spot and has to meet people from whom data have to be
collected. This method is particularly suitable for intensive investigations.


The method of collecting information through personal interviews is usually carried out in a structured
way. As such we call the structured interviews. Such interviews involve the predetermined questions of
highly standardized or recording. Thus, the interview in a structured interview follows a rigid procedure
laid down, asking in a form of order prescribed


11.8 TYPE OF QUESTIONNAIRE


Collection of Data through Questionnaires


This method of data collected is quite popular, particularly in case of big enquiries is being adopted by
private individuals research workers, private and public organizations and even by government in this
method a questionnaire is sent to the concerned with the research answer the questions and return the
questionnaire, a questionnaire consists of number of questions printed or typed in a define order an
form of a forms .The questionnaire are mailed to respondents who are expected or read and
understand the questions and write down the reply in the space meant for the purpose in the
questionnaire itself. The respondents have to answer the questions on their own.


The method of collecting data by mailing the questionnaires to respondents is most extensively
employed in various economic and business surveys. The merits claimed on behalf of this method are as
follows:


     1. There is low cost even when the universe is large and widely spread geographically.
     2. It is free from the bias of the interviewer, answers are in respondents own words.
     3. Respondents have a adequate time to give well thought out answers.
     4. Respondents, who are not easily approachable, can also be reached conveniently.
     5. Large sample can be made use of and thus the result can be made more dependable and
           reliable.




                                                      47
vi. Selection process


1. Type of Objective              : Descriptive
2. Type of data collected         : Primary
3. Research Approach              : Survey Method
4. Contact Method                  : Individual
5. Sample Size                     : 200 Audiences
6. Sample Area                     : Around Hyderabad
                                       And Secunderabad.
7. Research Instrument             : Questionnaire
8. Type of Questionnaire           : Structured and Undisguised


11.8.1 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR AD AGENCY:
A.         How will you get more clients?
     1. Reputation
     2. Reference
     3. Personal contacts
     4. Past Record
B. How will you design an advertisement?
      1.   By Product
      2.   By Brand name
      3.   Client‟s demands
      4.   Target audience
C. How will you select media vehicle?
      1.   By Product
      2.   By Brand name
      3.   Client‟s demand
      4.   Target audience
      5.   Depending on Budget
D. Which type of media vehicle would you prefer most of the times?
      1.   Electronic media
      2.   Print media
      3.   Radio
      4.   Other media

                                                  48
E. Which type of electronic media vehicles you prefer?
   1.   Entertainment
   2.   Infotainment
F. How will you select particular media vehicle in electronic media?
   1.   TAM rating
   2.   Personal relationship
   3.   Clients demand
   4.   Negotiations
G. Do you have media planner and media buyer separately?
   1.   Yes
   2.   No


11.8.2 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CLINTS:
A. How will you select the Ad agency?
  1. Reputation
  2. Reference
  3. Personal contacts
  4. Past Record
B. How you would like to design an advertisement?
   1.   By Product
   2.   By Brand name
   3.   Ad agency suggestions
   4.   Target audience
C. How will you select media vehicle?
   1.   By Product
   2.   By Brand name
   3.   Target audience
   4.   Depending on Budget
D. Which type of media vehicle would you prefer most of the times?
   1.   Electronic media
   2.   Print media
   3.   Radio
   4.   Other media


                                             49
E. Which type of electronic media vehicles you prefer?
   1.   Entertainment
   2.   Infotainment
F. How will you estimate the standards in electronic media?
   1.   TAM rating
   2.   Personal relationship
   3.   Audience Survey
   4.   Research institutions
G. How will you decide the Frequency?
   1.   By Product
   2.   By Brand name
   3.   Target audience
   4.   Depending on Budget
   5.   Depending on Competitors


11.8.3 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR AUDIENCE:
1. Do you have TV in your home?
   1.   Yes
   2.   No
2. Which kind of channels would you like to watch?
   1.   Infotainment channels
   2.   Entertainment channels
3. Which kind of programs would you prefer to watch?
   1.   News
   2.   Movies
   3.   Serials
   4.   Sports
4. Would you watch TV regularly?
   1.   Yes
   2.   No
5. How much time you will spend in watching TV?
    1. 2 hours/day
    2. 3 hours/day
    3. 4 hours/day
    4. More than 4 hours

                                            50
6. At what time you feel comfortable in watching TV?
     1.   Morning time
     2.   Afternoon time
     3.   Evening time
     4.   Night time
7. Which language channels generally you prefer?
     1.   Telugu
     2.   Hindi
     3.   English
     4.   Others
8. How you feel about the advertisements in TV channels?
     1.   Good
     2.   Bad
     3.   Disgusting
     4.   Nothing
9. Would you switch over the channel when advertisement comes?
     1.   Yes
     2.   No
10. Do you think creative ads can attract the audience?
     1.   Yes
     2.   No
11. How many ads you watch every day?
     1.   Four
     2.   Five
     3.   Six
     4.   More than six
12. How many of them can you remember while buying the product?
1.        Very few
2.        Few
3.        All
4.        No one




                                            51
  11.9 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
  * Out of 200 Audiences only 160 are responded to the questionnaire.
  1. Which news channel do you like to watch?



                                                      TV9                        42
TIME            Respondents in (%)
 Night                 50%                           ETV 2                       35
Morning                25%
                                                      TV5                        27
Mid day                12%
Evening                13%                           NTV                         23

                                                     I News                      18

                                                     Others                      15



           45
           40
           35
           30
           25
           20
           15
           10
            5
            0
                 TV9         ETV2     TV5             NTV     I NEWS    OTHERS




                                                52
2. Which part of the day you watch more time?




                     13%
          12%                                         Night
                                                      Morning
                                                50%   Midday
                                                      Evening
               25%




                                       53
3. What is your preference in watching news channel?


* one point is given for each person opinion

                    Attributes           Total ranking points   Ranking preference
                      Content                       65                     1st
                    Brand name                      45                     2nd
                      Quality                       37                     3rd
                      Others                        13                     4th




              70
                    65
              60

              50
                                             45
              40                                                37
              30

              20
                                                                                 13
              10

               0
                   Content                   Brand              Quality          Others
                                             name




Interpretation:
When asked the respondents about the purchasing preference in ice-creams
1st preference they given for content with 65 points.
2nd preference they given for brand name with 45 points.
3rd preference they given for Quality with 37 points.
4rt preference they given for others with 13 points.




                                                     54
4. How do you feel about the Programs of HY TV?



              Opinion on HY           Respondents in
                     TV                      (%)
             Very good               10%
             Good                    24%
             Average                 66%



Interpretation:
When asked the respondents about the satisfactory levels- 48% of the Customers
Feel Reasonable, 20% of the customers feel highly satisfied, 28% of the customer
Feel Low, 4% of the customer feel Very Highly satisfied.

      Satisfaction level        Respondents in (%)
      Very high                 4%
      High                      20%
      Reasonable                48%
      Low                       28%


 5. What is your opinion on the HY TV?




                                                   55
6. Which Type of Programs you like more?



           Programs         Respondents in (%)
                                                 Opinion on the   Respondents
              Serials              29%             availability      in(%)
              Sports               17%            Very Frequent      12%
          Current affairs          37%              Frequent         20%
             (News)                                   Rare           41%
             Movies                17%            Not Available      27%




                                         56
7. What is your opinion on the availability of HY TV in DTH setup box?




Interpretation:
When asked the Customers about the Availability of HY TV-
20% of the people responded for frequently available,
41% for rarely Available in the market,
12% for Very frequently available,
27% of the people responded for not available.




                                                 57
8. Will you suggest your friends, Relatives, Neighbors to watch HY TV?


                                   Suggest          No of Respondents
                                                              (%)
                                     Yes                     55%
                                      No                     45%




Interpretation:
From the respondents opinion –
55% of the customers are like to suggest this Channel to their friends, relatives, neighbors, But 45% of
the respondents are not like to suggest this channel to their friends, relatives, neighbors.




                                                     58
9. Are you looking for new Creative programs?




                      New Programs         No of Respondents
                                                    (%)
                             Yes                       72

                             No                        28




Interpretation:
      28 % of the respondents are satisfied with the Available Programs,
     72% of the respondents are asking for new Creative programs




                                                  59
10. Can you recall punch line of “HY TV”? (Feel the pulse)
          Recall punch line                 No of Respondents in (%)

                        No                                79%

                        Yes                               21%




Interpretation:
The study shows that 21% of the respondents were able to recall the Punch Line of HY TV, But 79% of
respondents are responded for No for Recall the Punch line of HY TV.




                                                 60
                                     12. SUGGESTIONS


1. It has been observed from the study is that more importance is given to Place the channel at
   cable operators, MSO and ISO. But failed to create awareness among the people about the
   channel, when survey is done most of the people responded that they don‟t know about the
   channel.
2. Next to the Distribution, brand name is plying important role in even though HY TV belongs to
   a big group, it is failed to put its brand name in Audience mind.
3. It has been observed that most number of respondents don‟t aware of the available programs of
   HY TV. So advertisement should be based on the programs.
4. In most of the rural areas HY TV is not available. So improve the distribution channels in the
   rural areas.
5. It is more important to attract MSOs to improve the distribution levels, as a newly launched
   channel first of all increasing distribution is a big task, because operators will demand more
   money to place the channel.
6. Introduce more number of varieties in the Programs and increase the duration of existing
   successful programs to attract the Audience.
7. The competitors are providing special programs on hot topics like IPL, Elections, Top
   educational institutions etc. HY TV is not too good in these types of programs.
8. As the level is main competitors in media industry, there is a need to focus on competitor
   analysis and to take decision to get competitive advantage.




                                               61
                                      13. CONCLUSION


1.   On the basis of analysis, respondents given first preference to Content, so to attract the
     audience good content should be there.
2.   On the basis of analysis, it is found that its competitors are using new strategies to attract
     audience but HY TV is lagging behind in creative programming.
3.   Most of the people are not aware of the HY TV.
4.   Ad agencies look for TAM ratings to give Ads but HY TV have not subscribed to TAM yet.
5.   Nearly 50% of the respondents are showing interest to watch Telugu channels, second
     preference is English, and very few respondents are watching Hindi channels.
6.   Very few number of respondents responded that they are satisfied with existing programs; more
     number of respondents are looking for creative programs.
7.   The Audience wants to improve the distribution channels in the rural areas also.
8.   Nearly 80% of the Audience are unable to recall the punch line (“feel the pulse”) of HY TV.




                                                62
                                            14. BIBLIOGRAPHY


Books referred
1) Principles of marketing   ----------     Philip kotler & Gray Armstrong
2) Consumer behavior         ------------    Leon.G.Schiffman
                                                  Leslie Lazar Kanuk
3) Marketing research        -----------     G.C.Beri
4) Modern advertising management----        J.N.JAIN, P.P.SINGH


Journals „n‟ Magazines
                                     Business World
                                     Business Today
                                     Advertisement „n‟ Marketing
Websites:
                    www.thesmartmanager.com
                    www.network18.com
                    www.indiainfoline.com
                    www.trends-in-newsrooms.org




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