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GALILEO search-and-rescue team

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					  EUROPEAN COMMISSION




                                           GALILEO
                    MISSION REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

                                           Issue 5 – Draft
                   For Review and Discussion by the MRD CCB




           Written by                                        Date   Signature

               GISS



          Approved by




Galileo MRD; issue 5; draft 25 July 2002                              Page 1 of 85
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                                            CHANGE RECORDS


ISSUE           DATE                REVISION   CHANGE OF RECORD

Draft1                              V2.4       First issue

3                                   V3.0       Update according to the HLD issue 2, April 3th 2001

3                                   V3.1       Update following HLD-MRD-SRD reviews 28 June 2001

4                                   V4.0       Official release for PCRD and phase B2 studies

5               25 July 2002        Draft      Draft release for CCB of 25 July 2002




Galileo MRD; issue 5; draft 25 July 2002                                                        Page 2 of 85
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                                                             Table Of Contents
1      INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................ 12
    1.1        APPLICABILITY OF GALILEO MISSION REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT ................................................... 12
    1.2        DOCUMENT APPROVAL AND CONFIGURATION CONTROL .................................................................. 12
    1.3        GUIDE TO THE GALILEO MISSION REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT ......................................................... 12
    1.4        SECURITY ....................................................................................................................................... 13
    1.5        MANAGEMENT AND INSTITUTIONAL ................................................................................................ 13
    1.6        ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS ......................................................................................................... 13
    1.7        APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS ............................................................................................................... 14
    1.8        REFERENCE DOCUMENTS ................................................................................................................ 14
    1.9        JUSTIFICATION FILE ........................................................................................................................ 14
2      CROSS-SECTORIAL REQUIREMENTS.......................................................................................... 15
    2.1     GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................................................... 15
       2.1.1 Galileo Mission ......................................................................................................................... 15
       2.1.2 Galileo Civil Operated and Controlled System ........................................................................... 15
       2.1.3 International Participation......................................................................................................... 15
       2.1.4 Operational Service Date........................................................................................................... 15
    2.2     INDEPENDENCE AND AUTONOMY .................................................................................................... 15
       2.2.1 Galileo European Controlled System.......................................................................................... 15
       2.2.2 Galileo Independent System ....................................................................................................... 15
       2.2.3 Galileo Terrestrial Reference Frame Independence.................................................................... 15
       2.2.4 Galileo Time Reference Scale Independence............................................................................... 15
    2.3     SPECTRUM USE-REGULATIONS........................................................................................................ 16
       2.3.1 Galileo Navigation Signal Frequencies ...................................................................................... 16
       2.3.2 ITU Regulation Compliance....................................................................................................... 16
       2.3.3 Galileo Filings Protection.......................................................................................................... 16
       2.3.4 Signal Design and Frequency Plan ............................................................................................ 16
       2.3.5 Signal Compatibility .................................................................................................................. 16
       2.3.6 Signal Compatibility Verification ............................................................................................... 16
    2.4     INTEROPERABILITY ......................................................................................................................... 16
       2.4.1 Interoperability with GPS Navigation Signals ............................................................................ 16
           2.4.1.1         Galileo/GPS Time Offset ..................................................................................................................16
       2.4.2       Interoperability with GLONASS Navigation Signals ................................................................... 17
       2.4.3       Interoperability with Non-GNSS Signals..................................................................................... 17
           2.4.3.1         Time Synchronisation .......................................................................................................................17
       2.4.4       Terrestrial Reference Frame ...................................................................................................... 17
           2.4.4.1         Terrestrial Reference Frame Definition..............................................................................................17
           2.4.4.2         Terrestrial Reference Frame Compatibility ........................................................................................17
           2.4.4.3         Terrestrial Reference Frame Limitation .............................................................................................17
       2.4.5 Time Reference Frame............................................................................................................... 17
    2.5     SECURITY ....................................................................................................................................... 17
       2.5.1 Security Procedures versus Hostile Use ..................................................................................... 17
       2.5.2 Protection Level......................................................................................................................... 17
       2.5.3 Compromise of Third Nations .................................................................................................... 17
       2.5.4 Security measures and Certification ........................................................................................... 18
       2.5.5 Misuse of the Service ................................................................................................................. 18
       2.5.6 System-Specific Security Requirements....................................................................................... 18
       2.5.7 Protection of Sensitive and Classified Information...................................................................... 18

Galileo MRD; issue 5; draft 25 July 2002                                                                                                            Page 3 of 85
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       2.5.8 Accreditation of GALILEO Elements.......................................................................................... 18
       2.5.9 IT Security Evaluation Schemes ................................................................................................. 18
       2.5.10   Implementation of IT Security Scheme.................................................................................... 18
       2.5.11   Cryptographic Components ................................................................................................... 18
       2.5.12   Tension, Crisis or War Time .................................................................................................. 18
       2.5.13   Interference Detection ........................................................................................................... 19
    2.6     SERVICE PROVISION SCHEME .......................................................................................................... 19
       2.6.1 User Level Mission Requirements .............................................................................................. 19
       2.6.2 Service Centres.......................................................................................................................... 19
           2.6.2.1        Information on Performances ............................................................................................................19
           2.6.2.2        Real Time Update.............................................................................................................................19
           2.6.2.3        Atmospheric Models.........................................................................................................................19
           2.6.2.4        Interfaces..........................................................................................................................................19
           2.6.2.5        Access Key Management ..................................................................................................................19
           2.6.2.6        Certification Information...................................................................................................................19
           2.6.2.7        Data Archiving .................................................................................................................................19
           2.6.2.8        Interface with Non-European Components.........................................................................................20
           2.6.2.9        Interface with Search and Rescue Services.........................................................................................20
           2.6.2.10       Interface with Local Elements. ..........................................................................................................20
       2.6.3 Service Providers....................................................................................................................... 20
    2.7     STANDARDIZATION AND CERTIFICATION ......................................................................................... 20
       2.7.1 SIS Standardisation ................................................................................................................... 20
       2.7.2 Standard Modification Notice .................................................................................................... 20
       2.7.3 Common Standards for Local Components................................................................................. 20
       2.7.4 Traceability ............................................................................................................................... 20
       2.7.5 Justification............................................................................................................................... 20
       2.7.6 System Design Openness............................................................................................................ 20
       2.7.7 Certification Procedures............................................................................................................ 21
       2.7.8 Galileo Trans-modal Certification ............................................................................................. 21
    2.8     SERVICE AND SYSTEM EVOLUTION REQUIREMENTS ......................................................................... 21
       2.8.1 System Flexibility....................................................................................................................... 21
           2.8.1.1        New User Requirements ...................................................................................................................21
           2.8.1.2        Performance Evolution......................................................................................................................21
           2.8.1.3        Legal and Certification......................................................................................................................21
           2.8.1.4        Related International Negotiations.....................................................................................................21
       2.8.2       Standards Flexibility Provision .................................................................................................. 21
       2.8.3       Backward Compatibility............................................................................................................. 21
       2.8.4       Continuity of Services under Evolution....................................................................................... 22
       2.8.5       C-Band for Technological Experiments ...................................................................................... 22
       2.8.6       Support to SAR International Service Level ................................................................................ 22
3      GALILEO SERVICES REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................ 23
    3.1     GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................................................... 24
       3.1.1 Galileo Satellite-only Services Provision.................................................................................... 24
       3.1.2 Operational Impacts of Control of Access .................................................................................. 24
       3.1.3 Default Operational Conditions ................................................................................................. 24
       3.1.4 Default Service Volume.............................................................................................................. 24
       3.1.5 Default user Masking Angle ....................................................................................................... 24
       3.1.6 Generic Reference Receivers...................................................................................................... 24
       3.1.7 SIS Accuracy Estimation ............................................................................................................ 25
       3.1.8 CS Data Capacity for Service Providers - Updated..................................................................... 25
       3.1.9 Temporarily Single Frequency Mode.......................................................................................... 25
    3.2     GALILEO SATELLITE-ONLY SERVICES ............................................................................................... 25
       3.2.1 Open Service ............................................................................................................................. 25


Galileo MRD; issue 5; draft 25 July 2002                                                                                                                  Page 4 of 85
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         3.2.1.1     Open Service - Positioning and Velocity............................................................................................25
            3.2.1.1.1 Mono-Frequency Open Service.....................................................................................................25
            3.2.1.1.2 Dual-Frequency Open Service ......................................................................................................26
            3.2.1.1.3 Triple Frequencies Open Service ..................................................................................................27
         3.2.1.2     Open Service - Timing......................................................................................................................27
            3.2.1.2.1 Timing Open Service - User Environmental Constraints ................................................................27
            3.2.1.2.2 Timing Open Service - Frequencies ..............................................................................................27
            3.2.1.2.3 Timing Open Service - Timing Offset ...........................................................................................28
            3.2.1.2.4 Timing Open Service - Timing Accuracy ......................................................................................28
            3.2.1.2.5 Timing Open Service - Availability...............................................................................................28
         3.2.1.3     Other Requirements ..........................................................................................................................28
            3.2.1.3.1 TTF Cold Start.............................................................................................................................28
            3.2.1.3.2 TTF Warm Start...........................................................................................................................28
            3.2.1.3.3 TTF in Reacquisition Mode ..........................................................................................................28
            3.2.1.3.4 Robustness to User Short Loss of Visibility...................................................................................28
         3.2.1.4     Space Open Service Level.................................................................................................................28
            3.2.1.4.1 LEO Environment........................................................................................................................28
            3.2.1.4.2 Space Open Service – LEO Performance ......................................................................................28
            3.2.1.4.3 MEO/GEO Environment ..............................................................................................................28
            3.2.1.4.4 Space Open Service – MEO/GEO Performance.............................................................................29
      3.2.2      Commercial Service................................................................................................................... 29
         3.2.2.1     Definition .........................................................................................................................................29
            3.2.2.1.1 Commercial Service – Technical Added Value Features ................................................................29
            3.2.2.1.2 Commercial Service – Non-Technical Added Value Features ........................................................29
            3.2.2.1.3 Commercial Service vs. Open Service Environment ......................................................................29
            3.2.2.1.4 Commercial Service vs. Open Service Performance.......................................................................29
            3.2.2.1.5 Timing Commercial Service - Timing Accuracy............................................................................29
            3.2.2.1.6 Implementation ............................................................................................................................29
         3.2.2.2     Signal characteristics ........................................................................................................................30
            3.2.2.2.1 Data Rate.....................................................................................................................................30
            3.2.2.2.2 Frequencies..................................................................................................................................30
            3.2.2.2.3 E6 Frequency Ranging Code Encryption-Updated.........................................................................30
            3.2.2.2.4 Control of access..........................................................................................................................30
         3.2.2.3     Performance Requirement.................................................................................................................30
         3.2.2.4     Other Requirements ..........................................................................................................................30
            3.2.2.4.1 Time to Fix ..................................................................................................................................30
            3.2.2.4.2 TTF in Reacquisition Mode ..........................................................................................................30
      3.2.3      Safety of Life Service.................................................................................................................. 30
         3.2.3.1     General Requirements for SoL ..........................................................................................................31
            3.2.3.1.1 SoL - Definition ...........................................................................................................................31
            3.2.3.1.2 SoL – Service Guarantee ..............................................................................................................31
            3.2.3.1.3 Authentication..............................................................................................................................31
            3.2.3.1.4 SoL Data Encryption....................................................................................................................31
            3.2.3.1.5 Prediction of Availability..............................................................................................................31
         3.2.3.2     Environmental Conditions.................................................................................................................31
            3.2.3.2.1 Multipath Conditions....................................................................................................................31
            3.2.3.2.2 Interferences on the L1 Band ........................................................................................................31
            3.2.3.2.3 Interference - DME ......................................................................................................................31
         3.2.3.3     Type of Receiver ..............................................................................................................................31
            3.2.3.3.1 User Dynamic ..............................................................................................................................32
         3.2.3.4     SoL – Service Performances..............................................................................................................32
            3.2.3.4.1 Acquisition Requirements.............................................................................................................32
            3.2.3.4.2 SoL - Allocation of Integrity Performances. ..................................................................................32
            3.2.3.4.3 SoL - Additional Barriers .............................................................................................................32
            3.2.3.4.4 SoL - Performance Conditions......................................................................................................32
            3.2.3.4.5 SoL - Timing Accuracy ................................................................................................................33
            3.2.3.4.6 SoL- Velocity Accuracy ...............................................................................................................33
            3.2.3.4.7 SoL Multi Frequency Service in the Critical Level ........................................................................33
            3.2.3.4.8 Sol Multi Frequency Service in the Non-Critical Level..................................................................34

Galileo MRD; issue 5; draft 25 July 2002                                                                                                              Page 5 of 85
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              3.2.3.4.9      Mono Frequency Service in the Non Critical Level .......................................................................35
      3.2.4      Public Regulated Service ........................................................................................................... 35
         3.2.4.1     Type of Receiver ..............................................................................................................................35
            3.2.4.1.1 PRS User Dynamic.......................................................................................................................35
            3.2.4.1.2 PRS Environment.........................................................................................................................36
            3.2.4.1.3 Crypto Module.............................................................................................................................36
         3.2.4.2     PRS: Signal and Frequency Issues.....................................................................................................36
            3.2.4.2.1 BOC (n,m) Signal Generator ........................................................................................................36
            3.2.4.2.2 BOC (n,m) States.........................................................................................................................36
            3.2.4.2.3 PRS Frequency Separation ...........................................................................................................37
         3.2.4.3     Control and Accessibility ..................................................................................................................37
            3.2.4.3.1 PRS Access Control .....................................................................................................................37
            3.2.4.3.2 Public Regulated Service Accessibility..........................................................................................37
            3.2.4.3.3 Public Regulated Service Encryption Constraints ..........................................................................37
            3.2.4.3.4 Authentication..............................................................................................................................37
            3.2.4.3.5 PRS – Time Tag...........................................................................................................................37
            3.2.4.3.6 PRS – Non Accessibility...............................................................................................................37
            3.2.4.3.7 PRS – Access Denial....................................................................................................................37
            3.2.4.3.8 Geographical Access Denial .........................................................................................................37
            3.2.4.3.9 PRS – Minimum Number of User Groups .....................................................................................38
            3.2.4.3.10 PRS – Number of Receivers........................................................................................................38
            3.2.4.3.11 PRS – Restoring Navigation Capability outside Prescribed Geographical Area .............................38
            3.2.4.3.12 PRS – The Maximum Allowed Time to Deny the Access.............................................................38
            3.2.4.3.13 PRS – Turn-Off / Turn-On of Receivers and/or Groups................................................................38
         3.2.4.4     PRS– Independence ..........................................................................................................................38
            3.2.4.4.1 Independent Signal Acquisition ....................................................................................................38
            3.2.4.4.2 PRS – Independent Performance...................................................................................................38
            3.2.4.4.3 PRS Mission Management............................................................................................................38
         3.2.4.5     PRS Protection .................................................................................................................................38
            3.2.4.5.1 PRS Classified Data Distribution ..................................................................................................39
            3.2.4.5.2 PRS Mission Up-link Authentication ............................................................................................39
            3.2.4.5.3 PRS Management Commands Protection ......................................................................................39
            3.2.4.5.4 Agreements for the Manufacturing of Security Modules ................................................................39
            3.2.4.5.5 PRS Reference Receiver Protection Radius...................................................................................39
            3.2.4.5.6 Ground Segment Receiver Protection Radius ................................................................................40
         3.2.4.6     PRS Performances ............................................................................................................................40
            3.2.4.6.1 Positioning Performance Requirements.........................................................................................40
      3.2.5      Support to the Search and Rescue Service .................................................................................. 42
         3.2.5.1     General Objectives............................................................................................................................42
            3.2.5.1.1 Galileo SAR Mission....................................................................................................................42
            3.2.5.1.2 SAR Mission Interface .................................................................................................................42
            3.2.5.1.3 SAR International Level Service...................................................................................................42
            3.2.5.1.4 SAR Message Formats .................................................................................................................42
            3.2.5.1.5 SAR Service Fedback...................................................................................................................42
            3.2.5.1.6 SAR Constraints ..........................................................................................................................42
            3.2.5.1.7 SAR Feedback .............................................................................................................................42
         3.2.5.2     Environmental Conditions.................................................................................................................42
         3.2.5.3     Type of Receiver ..............................................................................................................................43
         3.2.5.4     SAR Ground Segment.......................................................................................................................43
            3.2.5.4.1 SAR Operational Ground Segment Interface .................................................................................43
            3.2.5.4.2 European SAR Operational Ground Stations .................................................................................43
         3.2.5.5     Performances....................................................................................................................................43
            3.2.5.5.1 Detection Probability....................................................................................................................43
            3.2.5.5.2 SAR Location Accuracy for GNSS Receiver Fitted Beacons..........................................................43
            3.2.5.5.3 SAR Location Accuracy for non-GNSS Receiver Fitted Beacons...................................................43
            3.2.5.5.4 Feedback Link - Acknowledgement Message...............................................................................43
            3.2.5.5.5 SAR Coverage .............................................................................................................................43
            3.2.5.5.6 SAR Latency Time to Detect and Locate a Distress Emission ........................................................44
            3.2.5.5.7 SAR Latency Time to Transfer a Feedback Message .....................................................................44

Galileo MRD; issue 5; draft 25 July 2002                                                                                                          Page 6 of 85
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              3.2.5.5.8 SAR Data Rate for the Forward Link ............................................................................................44
              3.2.5.5.9 SAR Data Rate for the Feedback Link ..........................................................................................44
              3.2.5.5.10 SAR Availability ........................................................................................................................44
              3.2.5.5.11 SAR Capacity.............................................................................................................................44
              3.2.5.5.12 SAR Feedback Service Transmission Probability.........................................................................44
              3.2.5.5.13 SAR Quality Of Service..............................................................................................................44
   3.3     LOCALLY ASSISTED SERVICES ......................................................................................................... 45
      3.3.1 General Requirements for Galileo Local Services....................................................................... 45
          3.3.1.1         Local Service Definition ...................................................................................................................45
          3.3.1.2         Local Service Enhancements.............................................................................................................45
          3.3.1.3         Local Combined Services..................................................................................................................45
          3.3.1.4         Local Service Interference.................................................................................................................45
      3.3.2       Environmental Conditions.......................................................................................................... 45
          3.3.2.1     Local Component – User Masking Angle..........................................................................................45
          3.3.2.2     Local Component Coverage ..............................................................................................................45
             3.3.2.2.1 Local Service Coverage................................................................................................................45
             3.3.2.2.2 Network Coverage .......................................................................................................................46
      3.3.3       Specification of User Terminal................................................................................................... 46
          3.3.3.1         Local Service TTF Cold Start............................................................................................................46
          3.3.3.2         Local Service TTF Warm Start..........................................................................................................46
          3.3.3.3         Local Service TTF in Reacquisition Mode.........................................................................................46
          3.3.3.4         Position Solution Rate.......................................................................................................................46
      3.3.4       Local Open Service.................................................................................................................... 46
      3.3.5       Local Commercial Service Definition......................................................................................... 46
          3.3.5.1     Local Commercial Service Performance ............................................................................................46
             3.3.5.1.1 Local Commercial Coverage.........................................................................................................46
             3.3.5.1.2 Local Commercial User Dynamics................................................................................................46
             3.3.5.1.3 Local Commercial Horizontal Accuracy........................................................................................47
             3.3.5.1.4 Local Commercial Vertical Accuracy............................................................................................47
             3.3.5.1.5 Local Commercial Velocity Accuracy...........................................................................................47
             3.3.5.1.6 Local Commercial Integrity Risk ..................................................................................................47
             3.3.5.1.7 Local Commercial TTA................................................................................................................47
             3.3.5.1.8 Local Commercial Horizontal Alarm Limit...................................................................................47
             3.3.5.1.9 Local Commercial Vertical Alarm Limit.......................................................................................47
             3.3.5.1.10 Local Commercial Availability ...................................................................................................47
             3.3.5.1.11 Probability Nominal Condition....................................................................................................47
             3.3.5.1.12 Mean Availability.......................................................................................................................47
      3.3.6       TCAR Service Definition ............................................................................................................ 47
          3.3.6.1     Local TCAR Service Performance.....................................................................................................48
             3.3.6.1.1 Local TCAR Coverage .................................................................................................................48
             3.3.6.1.2 Local TCAR User Dynamics ........................................................................................................48
             3.3.6.1.3 Local TCAR Horizontal Accuracy ................................................................................................48
             3.3.6.1.4 Local TCAR Vertical Accuracy ....................................................................................................48
             3.3.6.1.5 Local TCAR Velocity Accuracy ...................................................................................................48
             3.3.6.1.6 Local TCAR Integrity Risk...........................................................................................................48
             3.3.6.1.7 Local TCAR TTA ........................................................................................................................48
             3.3.6.1.8 Local TCAR Horizontal Alarm Limit............................................................................................48
             3.3.6.1.9 Local TCAR Vertical Alarm Limit ...............................................................................................48
             3.3.6.1.10 Local TCAR Availability ............................................................................................................48
             3.3.6.1.11 Probability Nominal Condition....................................................................................................49
             3.3.6.1.12 Mean Availability.......................................................................................................................49
      3.3.7       Local SOL Service Definition..................................................................................................... 49
          3.3.7.1     Local SOL Service Performance........................................................................................................49
             3.3.7.1.1 Local SOL Coverage ....................................................................................................................49
             3.3.7.1.2 Local SOL User Dynamics ...........................................................................................................49
             3.3.7.1.3 Local SOL Horizontal Accuracy ...................................................................................................49
             3.3.7.1.4 Local SOL Vertical Accuracy .......................................................................................................49
             3.3.7.1.5 Local SOL Velocity Accuracy ......................................................................................................49


Galileo MRD; issue 5; draft 25 July 2002                                                                                                            Page 7 of 85
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               3.3.7.1.6       Local SOL Continuity Risk ..........................................................................................................49
               3.3.7.1.7       Local SOL Integrity Risk..............................................................................................................50
               3.3.7.1.8       Local SOL TTA ...........................................................................................................................50
               3.3.7.1.9       Local SOL Horizontal Alarm Limit ..............................................................................................50
               3.3.7.1.10       Local SOL Vertical Alarm Limit.................................................................................................50
               3.3.7.1.11       Local SOL Availability...............................................................................................................50
               3.3.7.1.12       Probability..................................................................................................................................50
               3.3.7.1.13       Mean Availability.......................................................................................................................50
       3.3.8       Local PRS Service Definition ..................................................................................................... 50
           3.3.8.1     Local PRS Service Performance........................................................................................................50
              3.3.8.1.1 Local PRS Coverage ....................................................................................................................50
              3.3.8.1.2 Local PRS User Dynamics............................................................................................................50
              3.3.8.1.3 Local PRS Horizontal Accuracy....................................................................................................51
              3.3.8.1.4 Local PRS Vertical Accuracy........................................................................................................51
              3.3.8.1.5 Local PRS Velocity Accuracy.......................................................................................................51
              3.3.8.1.6 Local PRS Continuity Risk...........................................................................................................51
              3.3.8.1.7 Local PRS Integrity Risk..............................................................................................................51
              3.3.8.1.8 Local PRS TTA ...........................................................................................................................51
              3.3.8.1.9 Local PRS Horizontal Alarm Limit...............................................................................................51
              3.3.8.1.10 Local PRS Vertical Alarm Limit .................................................................................................51
              3.3.8.1.11 Local PRS Availability ...............................................................................................................51
              3.3.8.1.12 Probability..................................................................................................................................51
              3.3.8.1.13 Mean Availability.......................................................................................................................51
    3.4     COMBINED SERVICES ...................................................................................................................... 52
       3.4.1 Galileo Combined with other GNSS Systems .............................................................................. 52
       3.4.2 Galileo Combined with non-GNSS Systems ................................................................................ 52
    3.5     SUPPORT TO INTERNATIONAL TIME REFERENCE. ............................................................................... 52
       3.5.1 Reference Time Scale Definition................................................................................................. 52
       3.5.2 Relationship between GST and TAI ............................................................................................ 52
           3.5.2.1         GST – TAI Offset Limits ..................................................................................................................52
           3.5.2.2         GST – TAI Offset Uncertainty...........................................................................................................52
           3.5.2.3         Broadcast of GST – TAI Offset .........................................................................................................52
4      IMPLEMENTATION REQUIREMENTS.......................................................................................... 53
    4.1     GALILEO COMPONENTS................................................................................................................... 53
       4.1.1 Galileo Global Components....................................................................................................... 53
           4.1.1.1         Galileo Control Centres.....................................................................................................................53
           4.1.1.2         Ground Elements Location................................................................................................................53
           4.1.1.3         Ground Segment Local Components .................................................................................................53
           4.1.1.4         Satellite Disposal ..............................................................................................................................53
           4.1.1.5         Space Segment Autonomy.................................................................................................................53
           4.1.1.6         Space and Ground Segment Autonomy..............................................................................................53
           4.1.1.7         Mission Up-link Automation.............................................................................................................53
       4.1.2       Galileo Local Elements.............................................................................................................. 54
           4.1.2.1     Galileo Local Element Development .................................................................................................54
           4.1.2.2     Associated User Terminal Development ............................................................................................54
           4.1.2.3     Local Element Demonstrator Functionality ........................................................................................54
              4.1.2.3.1 Galileo Local Element Precision Navigation Functionality.............................................................54
              4.1.2.3.2 Galileo Local Element High Precision Navigation Functionality ....................................................54
              4.1.2.3.3 Galileo Local Element Assisted Navigation Functionality..............................................................54
              4.1.2.3.4 Galileo Local Element Augmented Availability Navigation Functionality ......................................54
           4.1.2.4     Role of Existing Infrastructure in the Galileo Local Element Development .........................................54
           4.1.2.5     Galileo Local Element Performance ..................................................................................................54
           4.1.2.6     Galileo Local Element Standards.......................................................................................................55
           4.1.2.7     Combination of Galileo Local Services with Other Systems ...............................................................55
           4.1.2.8     Definition of Interfaces to Galileo Local Elements.............................................................................55
           4.1.2.9     Use of Galileo Local Elements for Interference Detection ..................................................................55
           4.1.2.10    Galileo Local Element Recording Functionality .................................................................................55

Galileo MRD; issue 5; draft 25 July 2002                                                                                                                 Page 8 of 85
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           4.1.2.11        Galileo SOL Local Element Resistance to Interference.......................................................................55
           4.1.2.12        Galileo Local Element Implementation and Operation........................................................................55
       4.1.3       EGNOS Integration ................................................................................................................... 55
           4.1.3.1         Technical Independence between EGNOS and Galileo.......................................................................55
           4.1.3.2         Uninterrupted Services......................................................................................................................55
           4.1.3.3         EGNOS and Galileo Facilities Co-location ........................................................................................56
       4.1.4       User Terminal Requirements...................................................................................................... 56
           4.1.4.1         Galileo Receiver Design....................................................................................................................56
           4.1.4.2         Navigation – Communication User Equipment ..................................................................................56
    4.2     EXTERNAL GALILEO-RELATED SYSTEM COMPONENTS ...................................................................... 56
       4.2.1 Regional Integrity Components .................................................................................................. 56
           4.2.1.1         Broadcast Capability for External Integrity Data................................................................................56
           4.2.1.2         Interface with Regional Components. ................................................................................................56
           4.2.1.3         Seamless Navigation.........................................................................................................................56
           4.2.1.4         Minimum Performances Granted by Galileo ......................................................................................56
           4.2.1.5         Guarantee .........................................................................................................................................56
       4.2.2       Search and Rescue Systems........................................................................................................ 57
       4.2.3       Non-Galileo Timing Systems ...................................................................................................... 57
           4.2.3.1     Role of the Time Service Provider.....................................................................................................57
              4.2.3.1.1 Provision of steering corrections to GST .......................................................................................57
              4.2.3.1.2 GST – TAI Offset ........................................................................................................................57
           4.2.3.2     Protection of GST.............................................................................................................................57
           4.2.3.3     Time Service Provider Guarantee of Performance..............................................................................57
           4.2.3.4     Interface to the BIPM........................................................................................................................57
    4.3     LIFETIME AND REPLENISHMENT REQUIREMENTS.............................................................................. 57
       4.3.1 Lifetime ..................................................................................................................................... 57
       4.3.2 Satellite Replenishment .............................................................................................................. 57
       4.3.3 Continuity of Operations............................................................................................................ 57
    4.4     DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................................................... 58
       4.4.1 Galileo Development Logic........................................................................................................ 58
       4.4.2 Gradual Validation of Functions................................................................................................ 58
    4.5     RAMS REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................. 58
5      VERIFICATION REQUIREMENTS.................................................................................................. 59
    5.1        VERIFICATION METHODS ................................................................................................................ 59
    5.2        VERIFICATION PLAN ....................................................................................................................... 59
    5.3        VERIFICATION CONTROL DOCUMENT .............................................................................................. 59
    5.4        VERIFICATION MATRIX ................................................................................................................... 59
6      OPERATIONS REQUIREMENTS ..................................................................................................... 60
    6.1        OVERALL SCOPE ............................................................................................................................. 60
    6.2        OPERATIONS SPACE AND GROUND SEGMENT ................................................................................... 60
    6.3        EXTERNAL INTERFACES .................................................................................................................. 60
    6.4        GRADUAL BUILT-UP OF OPERATIONS .............................................................................................. 60
    6.5        UPWARD COMPATIBILITY ............................................................................................................... 60
    6.6        OPERATIONS SUPPORT .................................................................................................................... 60
    6.7        FAILURE TOLERANCE...................................................................................................................... 60
    6.8        VALIDATION OF OPERATIONS .......................................................................................................... 60
    6.9        OFF NOMINAL SITUATIONS ............................................................................................................. 60
    6.10       LAUNCH FAILURE DURING DEPLOYMENT......................................................................................... 61
    6.11       OPERATIONS SAFETY AND SECURITY............................................................................................... 61
    6.12       MALFUNCTION OF SPACE SEGMENT ................................................................................................ 61
    6.13       MALFUNCTION OF GROUND SEGMENT ............................................................................................. 61
    6.14       MAINTENANCE OF SPACE SEGMENT ................................................................................................ 61
    6.15       MAINTENANCE OF GROUND SEGMENT............................................................................................. 61

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7      ANNEX 1: DETAILED SECURITY REQUIREMENTS ................................................................... 62
    7.1     INSIDER ATTACKS........................................................................................................................... 62
    7.2     TEMPEST ........................................................................................................................................ 62
    7.3     SITE ACCESS .................................................................................................................................. 62
       7.3.1 Physical Access Control............................................................................................................. 62
       7.3.2 Site Access Authentication ......................................................................................................... 62
       7.3.3 Site Security............................................................................................................................... 62
       7.3.4 Galileo Manned Sites Access...................................................................................................... 62
       7.3.5 Galileo Unmanned Sites Access ................................................................................................. 62
       7.3.6 Export of Material ..................................................................................................................... 62
       7.3.7 Site Traffic Recording ................................................................................................................ 63
       7.3.8 Visitor Data Recording .............................................................................................................. 63
       7.3.9 Accounting Information Archiving ............................................................................................. 63
       7.3.10    Security Organisation............................................................................................................ 63
       7.3.11    Security Procedures and Measures ........................................................................................ 63
    7.4     GALILEO SYSTEM INFORMATION HANDLING .................................................................................... 63
       7.4.1 Data and Software Backup......................................................................................................... 63
       7.4.2 Tamper...................................................................................................................................... 63
       7.4.3 Cabling ..................................................................................................................................... 63
       7.4.4 Networks ................................................................................................................................... 63
    7.5     IT SECURITY................................................................................................................................... 64
       7.5.1 Operator Identification and Authentication ................................................................................ 64
       7.5.2 System Administration Access Procedures.................................................................................. 64
       7.5.3 System Administration Access Requests...................................................................................... 64
       7.5.4 Special System and Security Data Access ................................................................................... 64
       7.5.5 System and Security Data Access Rejection and Recording......................................................... 64
       7.5.6 Telecommand Access ................................................................................................................. 64
       7.5.7 System Lock............................................................................................................................... 64
       7.5.8 System Unlock ........................................................................................................................... 64
       7.5.9 Unsuccessful Access Attempt Recording..................................................................................... 64
       7.5.10    Software Evaluation .............................................................................................................. 65
       7.5.11    Cryptography ........................................................................................................................ 65
           7.5.11.1        Cryptovariables Zeroing....................................................................................................................65
           7.5.11.2        Cryptovariables Remote Zeroing .......................................................................................................65
           7.5.11.3        Encryption Constraints......................................................................................................................65
    7.6     COMMUNICATION SECURITY ........................................................................................................... 65
       7.6.1 Internet Connection ................................................................................................................... 65
       7.6.2 External System Data Archiving................................................................................................. 65
       7.6.3 GSB Approval............................................................................................................................ 65
       7.6.4 Galileo Accreditation................................................................................................................. 66
       7.6.5 Telecommand Authentication ..................................................................................................... 66
       7.6.6 Ground / Spacecraft Link Jamming ............................................................................................ 66
       7.6.7 Replay Attack Protection............................................................................................................ 66
       7.6.8 TC / TM Eavesdropping Protection ............................................................................................ 66
       7.6.9 Communication Link Redundancy .............................................................................................. 66
       7.6.10   RF Links................................................................................................................................ 66
       7.6.11   Classified Data Communication Protection............................................................................ 66
       7.6.12   Interference Detection ........................................................................................................... 67
    7.7     HARDWARE SECURITY .................................................................................................................... 67
       7.7.1 Hardware Evaluation ................................................................................................................ 67
       7.7.2 Storage Devices......................................................................................................................... 67
       7.7.3 Spacecraft Input Channel Hardening ......................................................................................... 67
    7.8     ORGANISATIONAL, OPERATIONS AND STAFF RELATED SECURITY..................................................... 67

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       7.8.1      Operating Architecture Evaluation............................................................................................. 67
       7.8.2      Registering of Authorised Operators .......................................................................................... 67
       7.8.3      Operator Clearances ................................................................................................................. 67
       7.8.4      Visitor Authorisation.................................................................................................................. 67
       7.8.5      Security Officer.......................................................................................................................... 67
       7.8.6      Galileo Security Organisation.................................................................................................... 68
       7.8.7      Security Procedures................................................................................................................... 68
       7.8.8      Procedures for Harmful Software Protection.............................................................................. 68
       7.8.9      Configuration Control ............................................................................................................... 68
       7.8.10        Hardware and Software Modifications................................................................................... 68
       7.8.11        Identification and Authentication Parameter Protection ......................................................... 68
       7.8.12        Security Event Archiving........................................................................................................ 68
       7.8.13        Security Event Record Contents ............................................................................................. 69
       7.8.14        Security Recordings Enabling ................................................................................................ 69
       7.8.15        Security Recordings Archiving ............................................................................................... 69
       7.8.16        Audit ..................................................................................................................................... 69
       7.8.17        Audit Tools............................................................................................................................ 69
       7.8.18        Antivirus Software ................................................................................................................. 69
       7.8.19        Antivirus Software Version .................................................................................................... 70
       7.8.20        Virus Checks ......................................................................................................................... 70
       7.8.21        Software Integrity Checks ...................................................................................................... 70
       7.8.22        Backup Procedures................................................................................................................ 70
       7.8.23        Classified Data Installation ................................................................................................... 70
       7.8.24        Cryptovariables Reset Procedures ......................................................................................... 70
       7.8.25        IT Security Evaluation ........................................................................................................... 70
8      ANNEX 2: MANAGEMENT AND INSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS ...................................... 71

9      ANNEX 3A: GALILEO SIGNAL DESIGN AND FREQUENCY PLAN........................................... 72

10          ANNEX 3B: GALILEO SERVICES MAPPING TO SIGNALS .................................................... 75
     10.1      OPEN SERVICES ......................................................................................................................... 76
     10.2      COMMERCIAL SERVICES ......................................................................................................... 77
     10.3      SAFETY OF LIFE SERVICES ...................................................................................................... 78
     10.4      PUBLIC REGULATED SERVICES.............................................................................................. 79
11          ANNEX 3C: GALILEO SIGNALS COMPATIBILITY WITH OTHER RNSS ............................ 80
     11.1      INTER-RNSS INTERFERENCE COMPUTATIONS .................................................................................. 80
     11.2      WORST-CASE LINK BUDGET DEGRADATION INDUCED BY GALILEO ON OTHER RNSS.......................... 80
     11.3      RECOMMENDED ACCEPTABLE LEVEL OF INTER-SYSTEM INTERFERENCE WITH OTHER RNSS............... 80
     11.4      MAXIMUM LEVEL OF INTER-SYSTEM INTERFERENCE WITH OTHER RNSS........................................... 81
     11.5      SIGNAL POWER LEVELS ................................................................................................................... 81
     11.6      CODE DESIGN IN THE BANDS WHERE SHARING WITH GPS SIGNAL IS FORESEEN .................................. 81
     11.7      RELATIVE INTER AND INTRA-SYSTEM CROSS-CORRELATION MARGIN WITH GPS CODES .................... 82
     11.8      CROSS-CORRELATION WITH GPS CODES .......................................................................................... 82
12          ANNEX 4: ACRONYMS ................................................................................................................. 83

13          ANNEX 5: DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................. 85




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1 INTRODUCTION
The Galileo Mission Requirements Document (MRD) defines the high-level mission requirements
applicable to the Galileo Satellite Navigation System. The MRD has been reviewed with respect to the
Galileo High Level Definition Document (HLD), which is an applicable document to the MRD [AD1].
The requirements, as defined in this document, are justified in the Justification File to the MRD [JD1].
This document provides details on the choice and on the definition of the various requirements of the
MRD and shall be consulted for further detailing. A new update of the JMRD, which reflects the
requirements of this new MRD Issue, will be produced right after completion of the MRD Issue 5
requirements review.
In order to facilitate the structuring of this issue of the MRD, all those requirements, which are
applicable to several areas of the document, have been included in a dedicated new Chapter 2: “Cross-
Sectorial Requirements”.

1.1       APPLICABILITY OF GALILEO MISSION REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT
The Mission Requirements specified in this document are applicable to the Galileo SRD and to the
Galileo Service and Signal ICD’s.
The requirements of this document shall supersede the lower level requirements in case of conflict.

1.2       DOCUMENT APPROVAL AND CONFIGURATION CONTROL
The Galileo Mission Requirements Document is approved jointly by the European Commission and
by the European Space Agency.
Changes to this document are traced and are controlled through the Galileo CCB set up for this
purpose by the European Commission and by the European Space Agency.

1.3       GUIDE TO THE GALILEO MISSION REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT
The requirements in this document follow the notion for the definition of requirements in aerospace
related requirement documents, which is supported by the ECSS system, by designating the required
context through the word: “shall”.
Remarks and explanatory text are added to the requirements were deemed necessary for the
understanding of the requirements itself. These remarks and explanatory text are by themselves no
requirements and they shall not be verified. The remarks and explanatory text are highlighted in
italics.
Each requirement is included in a specific section and is identified with a unique section number and
its title (e.g. 2.4.4 Terrestrial Reference Frame). Depending on the grouping of the requirements there
are different levels in the sectioning of the document, for example:
      −    Requirement of level 3: 2.4.4 Terrestrial Reference Frame
      −    Requirement of level 5: 3.2.1.1.1 Mono-Frequency Open Service
However, the importance of a requirement is independent of its level.



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If a requirement from the previous MRD Issue 4 has been kept, or has only been modified to a small
extent, the old MRD identifier (e.g. MRD-444) is maintained for traceability purposes with the JMRD,
related to Issue 4 of the MRD.
All requirements of this MRD shall be verified using adequate and approved verification means, to be
identified in the Galileo Verification Control Document (VCD). The cross-correlation between to the
higher level (HLD) and the lower level (SRD) requirements will be reflected in related Verification
Matrices. The Galileo verification approach will be defined in the Verification Control Document.

1.4     SECURITY
The security requirements form a very important part of the set of requirements, which have to be
considered during the development, deployment, and operation phases of the Galileo programme. Due
to their importance, and due to their cross-sectorial character, they are to be found in Chapter 2.5 of
this document. Further, detailed security relevant requirements are introduced in a specific Annex 1 of
the MRD. However, as the security relevant issues are still under discussion, the set of requirements
introduced into this Annex shall be considered for information only. They will be reviewed at a later
stage, once the discussions on the security relevant matters confirmed the related requirements.

1.5     MANAGEMENT AND INSTITUTIONAL
The MRD is a high-level technical requirements document. However, there are many requirements, in
particular with respect to the service guarantees and availability, which have implications with respect
to management, institutional and legal matters. It is foreseen to generate specific requirements and
guidelines on these matters, which will be released at a later stage. They will be introduced into Annex
2 of the MRD.

1.6     ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS
Acronyms are summarized in Annex 4.
Definitions will be explained in Annex 5, TBD.




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1.7     APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS
AD1         Galileo Mission High Level Definition (HLD) – Issue 2.0; 3rd April 2001
AD2         ECSS Standards
AD3         SSRS-Version 2.0 28th June 2001 - Applicable Sections: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7
AD4         Galileo Threats and Vulnerabilities - Version 1.0 – 16 June 2001
AD5         Galileo Project Security Instructions - Version 4.0 – 29 May 2002



1.8     REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
RD1         European Commission Communication on “Galileo: Involving Europe in a New Generation
            of Satellite Navigation Services”, COM (1999) 54 Final, 10 Feb. 1999.
RD2         European Commission Communication to the European Parliament and the Council on
            Galileo – COM(2000) 750 final, 22 Nov. 2000.
RD3         European Commission Communication COM (2000) 597; Final 27.9.2000
RD4         Specification for COSPAS-SARSAT 406 MHz distress beacons – C/S T.001 – Issue 3,
            Revision 3 – October 1999
RD5         EGNOS Mission Requirements Document
RD6         An integrated strategic vision for the provision of European GNSS Services. ESA/PB-
            NAV(2001)29, rev.1
RD7         Eurocontrol Safety Regulatory Requirements: GM1-ESARR2 Edition: 1.0 Edition Date: 12-
            11-1999, ESARR4 Edition : 1.0, ESARR7 Edition : 1.0
RD8         Galileo Critical Items List GAST-RA-ABD-003 Ed1
RD9         European Council Resolution 19.7.99- (1999/C 221/01) dated 19th July 1999
RD10        European Council Resolution - Luxembourg - dated 5th April 2001
RD11        Description of Galileo Signal Plan GISS/JG/cc/1572 – 18/06/2002
RD12        PRS Report GISS/LR/cc/1753 – 01/07/2002



1.9     JUSTIFICATION FILE
JD1         Justification Mission Requirement Document - JMRD




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2 CROSS-SECTORIAL REQUIREMENTS

2.1     GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

2.1.1 Galileo Mission
The Galileo system shall provide radio-electrical signals worldwide allowing users equipped with a
dedicated receiver to compute their continuous and accurate real-time 3-D position, velocity and time
information.
Remark: The related Galileo terrestrial reference frame is defined in section 2.4.4, the related time
reference frame is defined in section 2.4.5, the default environmental conditions are defined in section
3.1.4.

2.1.2 Galileo Civil Operated and Controlled System
MR- 206. The Galileo system shall be a civil operated and controlled system.

2.1.3 International Participation
The Galileo system shall be open to international participation.

2.1.4 Operational Service Date
MR-352. The Galileo system shall be fully operational by 2008.

2.2     INDEPENDENCE AND AUTONOMY

2.2.1 Galileo European Controlled System
MR- 207. The Galileo system shall be controlled by an European entity, mandated by European
Member States.

2.2.2 Galileo Independent System
MR-209. The Galileo services provided by the global component shall not be dependent on the
performance of any single third party.

2.2.3 Galileo Terrestrial Reference Frame Independence
The Galileo Terrestrial Reference Frame (GTRF) shall be established independently from other
reference frames.

2.2.4 Galileo Time Reference Scale Independence



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The Galileo System Time (GST) shall be established within Galileo global component as a timing
scale independent from other timing scales.

2.3       SPECTRUM USE-REGULATIONS

2.3.1 Galileo Navigation Signal Frequencies
MR-361bis. Galileo navigation signals shall use the following frequency bands, which include bands
assigned to GPS and GLONASS: L-bands with the RNSS status in 1164-1300 and 1559-1610 MHz,
with possible out-of-band emission into non-RNSS adjacent bands, respecting relevant ITU regulation,
[RD TBD].

2.3.2 ITU Regulation Compliance
MR-361. All elements of the Galileo system shall comply with the relevant regulations and
recommendations of the ITU [RD TBD].

2.3.3 Galileo Filings Protection
Galileo satellite deployment shall ensure a successful declaration of its enter into use before June 2006
for L1 frequency and before December 2004 for E5a, E5b and E6 frequencies, and taking into account
a possible extension of 2 years.

2.3.4 Signal Design and Frequency Plan
The Galileo signal design and frequency plan shall be designed as in annex 3 A.

2.3.5 Signal Compatibility
Galileo signals shall be compatible with existing RNSS, from a radio-frequency point of view.

2.3.6 Signal Compatibility Verification
The Galileo signal compatibility shall be verified through requirements defined in annex 3 C.

2.4       INTEROPERABILITY

2.4.1 Interoperability with GPS Navigation Signals
MR-2211. The Galileo system shall facilitate the use of Galileo services with GPS SPS service at user
receiver level.

2.4.1.1      Galileo/GPS Time Offset

The offset between Galileo System Time and GPS System Time shall be known with accuracy of 5 ns
(2 σ ) (TBD), and to be broadcast to the users via the Signal In Space of each service.


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2.4.2 Interoperability with GLONASS Navigation Signals
The Galileo system shall facilitate the use of Galileo signals with GLONASS SPS signals at user
receiver level.

2.4.3 Interoperability with Non-GNSS Signals
The Galileo system shall facilitate the use of Galileo signals with the signals provided by other non-
GNSS systems for position computation and for the provision of combined navigation and
communication services.

2.4.3.1      Time Synchronisation

Galileo signal design shall facilitate time synchronization with external networks.

2.4.4 Terrestrial Reference Frame

2.4.4.1      Terrestrial Reference Frame Definition

The GTRF shall be an independent realisation of the ITRS

2.4.4.2      Terrestrial Reference Frame Compatibility

MR-381. The Galileo Terrestrial Reference Frame (GTRF) shall be compatible with ITRS.

2.4.4.3      Terrestrial Reference Frame Limitation

The maximum difference between the GTRF and the ITRS (ITRF-96 latest realisation - RD TBD)
shall be limited to within 3 cm.

2.4.5 Time Reference Frame
MR-391. Galileo System Time (GST) shall be a continuous co-ordinate time scale in a geocentric
reference frame, steered towards TAI.

2.5       SECURITY

2.5.1      Security Procedures versus Hostile Use
MR 1640. The EU and Member States shall implement procedures to minimise or control the potential
for hostile use of the system against the interests of the European Union, and Member States.

2.5.2 Protection Level
MR 1641. The Galileo system shall be protected at least at civil aviation standard level (TBD).

2.5.3 Compromise of Third Nations

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MR 1646. The Galileo security measures shall not compromise the potential co-operation with third
nations, nor preclude potential user groups.

2.5.4 Security measures and Certification
MR 1647. The Galileo security measures shall not compromise certification processes.

2.5.5 Misuse of the Service
MR 1648. The Galileo System shall be protected against the threats and vulnerabilities detailed in
GSB document “Galileo Threats and Vulnerabilities” [AD4].

2.5.6 System-Specific Security Requirements
MR 1652. Security measures to be implemented are included in the “System Specific Security
Requirements Statement” [AD3].

2.5.7 Protection of Sensitive and Classified Information
MR 1653. The protection of sensitive and classified information related to the Galileo programme and
system shall be in accordance with the Galileo Programme Security Instructions (AD5).

2.5.8 Accreditation of GALILEO Elements
MR 1654. All GALILEO elements (systems and networks) and connections from external systems to
GALILEO elements shall be accredited, and when applicable re-accredited, by the GALILEO Security
Board (GSB).

2.5.9 IT Security Evaluation Schemes
MR 1655. The IT security evaluation schemes shall be based on the ITSEC/CC evaluation/
certification process in accordance with the GSB instructions.

2.5.10 Implementation of IT Security Scheme
Implementation of the IT security evaluation shall be harmonized with that of safety certification
requirements. Evidences from system development and operations shall be devised to comply with
both categories of requirements.

2.5.11 Cryptographic Components
MR 1656. The design of any cryptographic components or equipment shall be in accordance with
GSB instructions.

2.5.12 Tension, Crisis or War Time



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MR 1658. An interface shall be established between the Galileo Operating Company and the European
Security Authority (TBC: Galileo Security Board).

2.5.13 Interference Detection
MR 1671. The Galileo system shall be able to detect interference or jamming attacks on the Galileo
services.

2.6       SERVICE PROVISION SCHEME

2.6.1 User Level Mission Requirements
The performance requirements shall be fulfilled at user level, unless otherwise specified.

2.6.2 Service Centres
Service Centres shall be implemented with the objective to provide an interface to users and value
added service providers for programmatic and commercial issues.

2.6.2.1      Information on Performances

The Service Centres shall include information on current and future Galileo system performances.

2.6.2.2      Real Time Update

The Service Centres shall include real time updates of correction parameters and related errors for
accurate ephemeris and estimation of the navigation errors.

2.6.2.3      Atmospheric Models

The Service Centres shall include atmospheric models based on monitoring stations measurements.

2.6.2.4      Interfaces

The Service Centres shall include interface with the Galileo commercial service providers.

2.6.2.5      Access Key Management

The Service Centres shall include subscription and access key management.

2.6.2.6      Certification Information

The Service Centres shall include certification and license information.

2.6.2.7      Data Archiving

The Service Centres shall include information and warranty on performances and data archiving.


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2.6.2.8      Interface with Non-European Components

The Service Centres shall include interface with non-European regional components.

2.6.2.9      Interface with Search and Rescue Services

The Service Centres shall include interface with Search and Rescue service providers.

2.6.2.10 Interface with Local Elements.

The Service Centres shall include interface with the Local Elements.

2.6.3 Service Providers
MR-1016. The Galileo Operating Company shall undertake the necessary contractual relationships
with Service Providers and final users through the Service Centres.

2.7       STANDARDIZATION AND CERTIFICATION

2.7.1 SIS Standardisation
MR-1801. SIS description information shall be public domain at least for Open, Commercial and SoL
services as the basis of the SIS standardisation process.

2.7.2 Standard Modification Notice
MR-1802. Galileo SIS standards modifications shall be noticed to users with a minimum 6 years
advance notice.

2.7.3 Common Standards for Local Components
MR-1803. Galileo shall favour common standards for local components SIS.

2.7.4 Traceability
MR-1804. The level of traceability during the system life-cycle shall allow to support the certification
processes in particular with respect to user requirements, system architecture, component/element
design, component/element validation, and overall operations.

2.7.5 Justification
MR-1805. All assumptions of architecture, element design and overall operations definition shall be
justified and justifications maintained during system lifecycle.
Remark: In particular, justification related to redundancy and fault-tolerance.

2.7.6 System Design Openness

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MR-1806. System design and justifications shall be made accessible to European ones and non-
European certification authorities, which are involved in certification processes.

2.7.7 Certification Procedures
MR-1807. The Certification of Galileo applications shall follow International procedures and
Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Requirements 2, 4 and 7, RD (TBD).

2.7.8 Galileo Trans-modal Certification
MR-1808. Certification of applications based on Galileo services shall answer a trans-modal approach,
which includes civil aviation, rail, maritime, and road transportation.

2.8       SERVICE AND SYSTEM EVOLUTION REQUIREMENTS

2.8.1 System Flexibility
The system design shall incorporate the flexibility necessary to encompass future services,
performances and system evolutions.

2.8.1.1      New User Requirements

The Galileo System evolution shall ensure during the lifetime of the system to cover new users
requirements and need for new services.

2.8.1.2      Performance Evolution

The Galileo System evolution shall ensure during the lifetime of the system improving the
performance of the existing services.

2.8.1.3      Legal and Certification

The Galileo System evolution shall ensure during the lifetime of the system to take into account legal
and certification aspects.

2.8.1.4      Related International Negotiations

The Galileo System evolution shall ensure during the lifetime of the system to take into account results
from international negotiations with respect to the system.

2.8.2 Standards Flexibility Provision
MR-2302. The definition of standards shall make provision for the system evolution.

2.8.3 Backward Compatibility



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MR-2306. The evolution of the System, by replacement of new satellites or upgrading of the Ground
Segment, shall assure backward compatibility of the services.

2.8.4 Continuity of Services under Evolution
MR-2307. The evolution of the System shall not interrupt the service provision.

2.8.5 C-Band for Technological Experiments
MR-2308. C band shall be investigated for future applications and considered for technological
experiments for the next generation of Galileo.
Remark: As the consequences, the frequency co-ordination activities will have to be pursued for the C-
band.

2.8.6 Support to SAR International Service Level
MR-2400. The support of the Search and Rescue services by Galileo shall allow the adaptation to
future agreements on these services.




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3 GALILEO SERVICES REQUIREMENTS
Introductory note to Chapter 3 (not for verification purpose):
The definition of the Galileo services is based on a comprehensive review of user needs and market
analysis. There will be some services provided autonomously by Galileo and other services resulting
from the combined use of Galileo and other systems. This leads to classify the Galileo services into
four categories:
1) Galileo satellite-only services
          These services will be provided worldwide and independently from other systems by
          combining the signals broadcast by the Galileo satellite . There is a wide range of possible
          applications with different operational requirements that have been grouped around the
          following five reference services:
                q    Galileo Open Service (OS)
                q    Safety of Life (SoL).
                q    Commercial service (CS).
                q    Public regulated Service (PRS).
                q    Support to the Search and Rescue service (SAR).


2) Galileo Locally Assisted Services
The Galileo satellite-only services can be enhanced on a local basis through a combination with local
components. The result will be the provision of local services.
3) Galileo Combined Services
All the above-mentioned services will be combined with services provided by other navigation or
communication systems. This possibility will improve the GNSS services availability at users level and
open the door to a wide range of applications. The result will be the provision of combined services.
A particular element of the Galileo Combined Services is the Galileo/EGNOS service, as EGNOS is a
European system, augmenting the GPS signals in Europe. Thus, allowing the early development of
applications. The related EGNOS MRD [RD5] will be taken into account for the definition of the
combined Galileo/EGNOS services.




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3.1       GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

3.1.1 Galileo Satellite-only Services Provision
The Galileo satellite-only services shall be provided by the Galileo global component only. The use of
other sensors or systems shall not be required for the specified level of performance, in the specified
environmental conditions.
Remark: The use of other sensors may be envisaged in less favourable user environment (higher
multipath or masking angle).

3.1.2 Operational Impacts of Control of Access
MR-323b. Operational impacts of the control of access mechanisms implemented for the different
Galileo services shall not jeopardise the use of Galileo, especially for Safety-Of-Life users.

3.1.3 Default Operational Conditions
MR-353. Unless specified differently for a specific service, the default operational conditions shall be:
      −    No intentional jamming;
      −    No exceptional interference;
      −    Low multipath user environment;
      −    No denial of services;
      −    No shadowing;
      −    Standard ionospheric and tropospheric conditions.
Remark: These standards to be used at system level shall be compliant with the existing international
regulations (TBD).

3.1.4 Default Service Volume
MR-354. The Galileo system shall provide all satellite-only services worldwide (global service).
Default service volume is 180° E; 180° O, and 90°S ; 90°N and up to an altitude of 150 km (TBC).
Remark: the previous requirement for an altitude of 20km seems quite arbitrary. In order to
accommodate services to very high altitude platforms and launchers, extending the volume to 150 km
should be investigated.

3.1.5 Default user Masking Angle
MR-355. Unless specified differently for a specific service, the Galileo system performance applies
for all the users having a masking angle of lower than 10 degrees.

3.1.6 Generic Reference Receivers


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MR-304. The performance of any Galileo service level shall be verified by using defined reference
receiver types, in the reference user environment as defined in the specific service sections of this
document.

3.1.7 SIS Accuracy Estimation
MR-456. An estimation of the system inherent pseudo-range error resulting from clock and ephemeris
errors for each satellite shall be broadcast within the Signals In Space navigation message on each
carrier.

3.1.8 CS Data Capacity for Service Providers - Updated
MR-322/1. A data capacity within the navigation message of at least one signal of the Commercial
Service shall be usable for service providers’ customisation.

3.1.9 Temporarily Single Frequency Mode
For each kind of navigation services (Open, Commercial, Safety-Of-Life, Public Regulated), it shall
be possible to use temporarily only one frequency, with an accuracy performance degradation lower
than a factor 2 in standard deviation, and with the system integrity data still accessible (if relevant for
the service).

3.2       GALILEO SATELLITE-ONLY SERVICES

3.2.1 Open Service
MR-319. The Galileo Open Service shall be free of charge.

3.2.1.1      Open Service - Positioning and Velocity

3.2.1.1.1      Mono-Frequency Open Service

3.2.1.1.1.1 Mono-Frequency Open Service - Ionospheric Correction

The ionospheric correction for the Mono-Frequency Open Service frequency receiver shall be based
on simple ionosphere model.

3.2.1.1.1.2 Mono-Frequency Open Service - Positioning accuracy

The accuracy in positioning available with Mono-Frequency Open Service (with a 95% confidence
level) shall be better than 15 m (horizontal) and 35 m (vertical).

3.2.1.1.1.3 Mono-Frequency Open Service - Velocity Accuracy

The accuracy in velocity determination available with Mono-Frequency Open Service (with a 95%
confidence level) shall be better than 50 cm/s.


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3.2.1.1.1.4 Mono-Frequency Open Service - Availability

The availability of the Mono-Frequency Open Service shall be better than 99.8%.

3.2.1.1.1.5 Mono-Frequency Open Service - User dynamic

The Mono-Frequency Open Service shall be provided for a class of users and applications
characterised by:
            •    Velocity < 500 km/h
            •    Acceleration < 20 m/s2
            •    Jerk < 20 m/s3

3.2.1.1.1.6 Mono-Frequency Open Service - Frequencies

The Mono-Frequency Open Service signal shall be allocated on the L1-band.

3.2.1.1.2       Dual-Frequency Open Service

3.2.1.1.2.1 Dual-Frequency Open Service - Ionospheric Correction

The ionosperic correction for the Dual-Frequency Open Service receiver shall be based on dual-
frequency measurements.

3.2.1.1.2.2 Dual-Frequency Open Service - Positioning Accuracy

The accuracy in positioning available with Dual-Frequency Open Service (with a 95% confidence
level) shall be better than 4 m (horizontal) and 8 m (vertical).

3.2.1.1.2.3 Dual-Frequency Open Service - Velocity Accuracy

The accuracy in velocity determination available with Dual-Frequency Open Service (with a 95%
confidence level) shall be better than TBD.

3.2.1.1.2.4 Dual-Frequency Open Service - Availability

The availability of the Dual-Frequency Open Service shall be better than 99.8%.

3.2.1.1.2.5 Dual-Frequency Open Service - User Dynamic

The Dual-Frequency Open Service shall be provided for a class of users and applications characterised
by:
                                           •   Velocity < 800 kts
                                           •   Acceleration < 20 m/s2
                                           •   Jerk < 20 m/s3



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3.2.1.1.2.6 Dual-Frequency Open Service - Frequencies

The Dual-Frequency Open Service signals shall be allocated on the E5a and L1-band.

3.2.1.1.3       Triple Frequencies Open Service

3.2.1.1.3.1 Triple Frequencies Open Service - Ionospheric Correction

The ionospheric correction for the Triple Frequencies Open Service receiver shall be based upon first
order differencing between three frequency measurements.

3.2.1.1.3.2 Triple Frequencies Open Service – Positioning Accuracy

TBD

3.2.1.1.3.3 Triple Frequencies Open Service – Velocity Accuracy

TBD

3.2.1.1.3.4 Triple Frequencies Open Service - Availability

The availability of the Triple Frequencies Open Service shall be better than 99.8%.

3.2.1.1.3.5 Triple Frequencies Open Service - User Dynamic

The Triple Frequencies Open Service shall be provided for a class of users and applications
characterised by:
            •    Velocity < 800 kts
            •    Acceleration < 20 m/s2
            •    Jerk < 20 m/s3

3.2.1.1.3.6 Triple Frequencies Open Service - Frequencies

The Triple Frequencies Open Service signals shall be allocated on the E5a, E5b and L1-band.

3.2.1.2      Open Service - Timing

3.2.1.2.1       Timing Open Service - User Environmental Constraints

MR-492. The Timing Open Service level shall be provided for static users, located within the default
volume service, having a Masking Angle better than 10 degrees and knowing their position in the
Galileo geodetic reference frame.

3.2.1.2.2       Timing Open Service - Frequencies

The Timing Open Service signals shall be allocated on the E5a, E5b and L1-band.


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3.2.1.2.3      Timing Open Service - Timing Offset

The timing offset of the Timing Open Service shall be better than 50 nsec with respect to the
UTC/TAI.

3.2.1.2.4      Timing Open Service - Timing Accuracy

The timing accuracy of the Timing Open Service shall be better than 28 nsec with respect to the
UTC/TAI.

3.2.1.2.5      Timing Open Service - Availability

The availability of the Timing Open Service shall be better than 99.8%.

3.2.1.3      Other Requirements

3.2.1.3.1      TTF Cold Start

MR-451. The Time To Fix performance in cold start of the Open Service level shall be better than 100
(TBC) seconds.

3.2.1.3.2      TTF Warm Start

MR-452. The Time To Fix performance in warm start of the Open Service level shall be better than
30 seconds.

3.2.1.3.3      TTF in Reacquisition Mode

MR-453. The Time To Fix performance in reacquisition mode of the Open Service level shall be
better than 1 second.

3.2.1.3.4      Robustness to User Short Loss of Visibility

MR-454.The Open Service signals shall be optimised in order to increase robustness to user short
losses of visibility (outage lower than a few seconds).

3.2.1.4      Space Open Service Level

3.2.1.4.1      LEO Environment

MR-495. Galileo shall support space applications (e.g. positioning, timing, attitude determination,
orbit determination etc.) on an altitude range of: 300 – 6000 (TBC) km.

3.2.1.4.2      Space Open Service – LEO Performance

TBD

3.2.1.4.3      MEO/GEO Environment

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MR-495 bis. Galileo shall support space applications (e.g. attitude determination, orbit determination)
on an altitude range of: 25000 – 40000 km.

3.2.1.4.4      Space Open Service – MEO/GEO Performance

TBD

3.2.2 Commercial Service

3.2.2.1      Definition

3.2.2.1.1      Commercial Service – Technical Added Value Features

The Commercial Service shall provide technical added value features with respect to the Open
Services including as a minimum:
     −      A fourth frequency
     −      Higher indoor positioning capabilities
     −      Higher data rate transmission
     −      Added value data

3.2.2.1.2      Commercial Service – Non-Technical Added Value Features

The Commercial Service shall provide non-technical added value features with respect to the Open
Services including as a minimum:
     −      Service guarantees
     −      Access to historical performance information to support traceability, auditibility
     −      To support legal liability

3.2.2.1.3      Commercial Service vs. Open Service Environment

MR-500. The service volume, user-masking angle of the Commercial Service level shall cover at least
the performance level of the Open Service level.

3.2.2.1.4      Commercial Service vs. Open Service Performance

The Commercial Service level shall provide at least the same performance levels of the Open Services.

3.2.2.1.5      Timing Commercial Service - Timing Accuracy

The timing accuracy of the Timing Commercial Service shall be better than 13 nsec (TBD) with
respect to the UTC/TAI.

3.2.2.1.6      Implementation


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MR-502 The Commercial Service level shall be provided through the use of RAIM and the use of a
continuous monitoring of the satellites of the constellation by a ground segment, providing so called
“integrity” information in near real-time to the users via the Signal In Space (GIC) on the current
quality of the emitted signals.

3.2.2.2      Signal characteristics

3.2.2.2.1      Data Rate

The Commercial Service will disseminate the data for added value services at a data rate not less than
500 b/s.

3.2.2.2.2      Frequencies

The Commercial Service signals shall be the Open Service signals, plus two encrypted signals
(ranging codes and data) on the E6-band.

3.2.2.2.3      E6 Frequency Ranging Code Encryption-Updated

MR-322c. A capability to encrypt the ranging code of all the signals of the fourth frequency used for
TCAR shall be provided to allow the commercial exploitation of TCAR service.

3.2.2.2.4      Control of access

MR- 313. Control of access capabilities shall be provided by the Galileo system for its commercial
purpose, enabling to prevent access to a whole signal or to part of the navigation message according to
the characteristics of the commercial interest to be protected.

3.2.2.3      Performance Requirement

TBD

3.2.2.4      Other Requirements

3.2.2.4.1      Time to Fix

MR-510. In cold start, warm start and reacquisition modes, the Time To Fix of the Commercial
service level shall be the same than for the Open service level when no integrity alarm has been raised
by the system in the last 30 seconds.

3.2.2.4.2      TTF in Reacquisition Mode

MR-511. In case of alarm raised by the system and interruption at user level, the Commercial service
level shall be re-acquired in less than 30 seconds.

3.2.3 Safety of Life Service



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3.2.3.1      General Requirements for SoL

3.2.3.1.1      SoL - Definition

The SoL service shall provide integrity information at global level in addition to the performances of
the Open Services.

3.2.3.1.2      SoL – Service Guarantee

The Galileo Operating Company shall provide service guarantee for the SoL service.

3.2.3.1.3      Authentication

The system shall have the capability to authenticate each signal (e.g. by a digital signature) used in the
SoL service to ensure the users that the received signal is the actual Galileo signal. The system will
have the capability to activate or deactivate this feature that shall be transparent and non-
discriminatory to users and shall not introduce any degradation in performances.

3.2.3.1.4      SoL Data Encryption

The system shall have the capability to encrypt the integrity data.

3.2.3.1.5      Prediction of Availability

Galileo will inform to the SoL users about future availability of the service and will send warnings on
satellites unavailability (e.g. due to manoeuvres) by the SIS and via the Service Centres.
Remark: Prediction time TBD and False alarm probability TBD.

3.2.3.2      Environmental Conditions

3.2.3.2.1      Multipath Conditions

Multipath requirements defined in 3.1.4 shall be detailed for SoL applications at system level to cover
both ground and mobile carrier (airframe, ship structure…) multipath.

3.2.3.2.2      Interferences on the L1 Band

Galileo Safety-of-Life Service Performances shall be achieved with any level of external interference
compatible with the ICAO masks for interference in the L1 band.

3.2.3.2.3      Interference - DME

Galileo Aeronautical Safety-of-Life Service Performances shall be achieved with full deployment of
the ICAO DME system as well as operations of JTIDs/MIDs , in the “E5a” and “E5b” frequency
bands,

3.2.3.3      Type of Receiver


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3.2.3.3.1      User Dynamic

MR-604. The SoL service level shall be provided for class of users and applications characterised by
low, medium and high dynamic environments, up to :
     − Velocity: 800 kt (1481,6 Km/h)
     − Horizontal acceleration: 2g
     − Vertical acceleration: 1.5g
     − Roll angle = 25 degrees.
     − Total jerk: 0.74g/s

3.2.3.4      SoL – Service Performances

3.2.3.4.1      Acquisition Requirements.

3.2.3.4.1.1 SoL - TTF in Cold Start

The Time To Fix performance in cold start of the SoL service level shall be better than 200 secs
under the operational conditions defined in sections : 3.2.3.2. environmental conditions and 3.2.3.3.
user receiver.

3.2.3.4.1.2 SoL - TTF in Warm Start

The Time To Fix performance in warm start of the SoL service level shall be better than 60 secs under
the operational conditions defined in sections : 3.2.3.2. environmental conditions and 3.2.3.3. user
receiver.

3.2.3.4.1.3 SoL - TTF in Reacquisition Mode

MR-619. The Time To Fix performance in reacquisition mode of the SoL service level shall be better
than 3 s when no integrity alarm has been raised by the system in the last 30 seconds.

3.2.3.4.2      SoL - Allocation of Integrity Performances.

The SoL integrity provision shall be based on the Ground Integrity Channel concept: a continuous
monitoring of the satellites of the constellation by a ground segment, providing so called “integrity”
information in near real-time to the users via the Signal In Space. All the performances related to
integrity shall be directly applicable to the SIS and therefore to the GIC function.

3.2.3.4.3      SoL - Additional Barriers

The potential use of additional barriers for detection of local feared events at receiver level (e.g.
RAIM) shall not be considered for the Galileo system when allocating performances budgets to
different elements.

3.2.3.4.4      SoL - Performance Conditions

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The performances of the SoL service shall be met under the operational conditions defined in sections
3.2.3.2. environmental conditions and 3.2.3.3. user receiver.
Remark: No specific requirement on the number of MEO satellites broadcasting integrity is included
in this MRD. The compliance of the continuity risk requirements under the specified operational
conditions will derive the system implementation issues(e.g. the number of MEO satellites
broadcasting integrity).

3.2.3.4.5      SoL - Timing Accuracy

MR-609. The SoL service level shall be within 50 ns (95%) with respect to UTC/TAI, and with an
accuracy of 28 ns.

3.2.3.4.6      SoL- Velocity Accuracy

MR-608. The SoL service level shall provide a Velocity Accuracy ≤ 20 cm/s (NSE - 95%).

3.2.3.4.7      SoL Multi Frequency Service in the Critical Level

The Multi Frequency SoL Service shall be based in the use of one of the following frequencies:
     −      E5b and L1.
     −      E5a, E5b and L1
Remark: The critical level covers time critical operations (i.e. duration 150 sec); for example, in the
aviation domain approach operations with vertical guidance

3.2.3.4.7.1 Accuracy

The SoL multi frequency service in the critical level shall provide a Horizontal Accuracy ≤ 4 m (NSE
- 95%) and a Vertical Accuracy ≤ 8 m (NSE - 95%).

3.2.3.4.7.2 Integrity Risk

The SoL multi frequency service in the critical level shall provide an Integrity Risk ≤ 3.5.10-7 per
period of 150s.

3.2.3.4.7.3 TTA

The SoL multi frequency service in the critical level shall provide a TTA of 6s.

3.2.3.4.7.4 Horizontal Alarm Limit

The SoL multi frequency service in the critical level shall provide a Horizontal Alarm Limit down to
12 m.

3.2.3.4.7.5 Vertical Alarm Limit

The SoL multi frequency service in the critical level shall provide a Vertical Alarm Limit down to 20
m.

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3.2.3.4.7.6 Continuity Risk

For the SoL multi frequency service in the critical level, the contribution of the Signal In Space to the
overall navigation Continuity Risk shall be less than 8.10-6 in any 15 s periods.

3.2.3.4.7.7 Availability

The SoL multi frequency service in the critical level shall be provided with a Mean Availability over
the operational life of at least 99.5 % for integrity and 99.8 % for accuracy for any location within the
default service volume.

3.2.3.4.8      Sol Multi Frequency Service in the Non-Critical Level

The Multi Frequency SoL Service shall be based in the use of one of the following frequencies:
     −      E5b and L1.
     −      E5a, E5b and L1
Remark: The non-critical level covers extended operations (i.e. duration 1 hour) that are less time
critical, such as open sea navigation in the maritime domain.

3.2.3.4.8.1 Accuracy

The SoL multi frequency service in the non-critical level shall provide a Horizontal Accuracy ≤ 220 m
(NSE - 95%).

3.2.3.4.8.2 Integrity Risk

The Safety of Life multi frequency service in the non-critical level shall provide an Integrity Risk,
lower than 10-7 per hour.

3.2.3.4.8.3 TTA

The SoL multi frequency service in the non-critical level shall provide a TTA of 10s.

3.2.3.4.8.4 Horizontal Alarm Limit

The SoL multi frequency service in the non-critical level shall provide a Horizontal Alarm Limit down
to 556 m.

3.2.3.4.8.5 Continuity Risk

For the SoL multi frequency service in the non-critical level, the contribution of the Signal In Space to
the overall navigation Continuity Risk shall be less than [10-4 – 10-8] per hour.

3.2.3.4.8.6 Availability




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The SoL multi frequency service in the non-critical level shall be provided with Mean Availability
over the operational life of at least [99.5 % for integrity and 99.8 % for accuracy] TBC for any
location within the default service volume.

3.2.3.4.9      Mono Frequency Service in the Non Critical Level

The Mono Frequency SoL Service shall be based on the use of one of the following frequencies:
     −      E5b or L1

3.2.3.4.9.1 Accuracy

The SoL mono frequency service in the non-critical level shall provide a Horizontal Accuracy ≤ 220 m
(NSE - 95%).

3.2.3.4.9.2 Integrity Risk

The Safety of Life mono frequency service in the non-critical level shall provide an Integrity Risk ≤
10-7 per hour. (TBC).

3.2.3.4.9.3 TTA

The SoL mono frequency service in the non-critical level shall provide a TTA of 10 s. (TBC).

3.2.3.4.9.4 Horizontal Alarm Limit

The SoL mono frequency service in the non-critical level shall provide a Horizontal Alarm Limit
down to 556 m. (TBC).

3.2.3.4.9.5 Continuity Risk

For the SoL mono frequency service in the non-critical level, the contribution of the Signal In Space to
the overall navigation Continuity Risk shall be less than [10-4 – 10-8 ] per hour.

3.2.3.4.9.6 Availability

The SoL mono frequency service in the non-critical level shall be provided with a Mean Availability
over the operational life of at least [99.5 % for integrity and 99.8 % for accuracy] TBC for any
location within the default service volume.

3.2.4 Public Regulated Service

3.2.4.1      Type of Receiver

3.2.4.1.1      PRS User Dynamic

MR-726. PRS-The PRS service shall provide the performances for the following classes of users and
applications:

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     −      Road;
     −      Maritime;
     −      Air;
     −      Secured data;
     −      Security applications.

3.2.4.1.2      PRS Environment

The environment to be considered for the PRS shall be:
     −      Velocity < 3000 km/h;
     −      Acceleration < 150 m/s2;
     −      Jerk < 100 m/s3.

3.2.4.1.3      Crypto Module

3.2.4.1.3.1 Secret Parameters

The PRS security module shall be enabled with the implementation of renewable PRS secret
parameters.

3.2.4.1.3.2 Secret Parameters Duration

The specific PRS secret parameters (TBD) shall be valid for a TBD period of time.

3.2.4.1.3.3 OTAR

The PRS signal shall implement OTAR function by user group (if feasible individually) to limit
external intervention for renewal of secret parameters.

3.2.4.1.3.4 PRS Secure Modules

The decryption algorithms and the keys for the decryption for PRS utilised in the ground and user
segment shall be contained in secure modules.
Remark: The secure module can be integrated in the receiver or removable.

3.2.4.2      PRS: Signal and Frequency Issues

3.2.4.2.1      BOC (n,m) Signal Generator

The PRS L1 BOC(n,m) shall be generated by a flexible generator with the capability to switch from
any state of the BOC(n,m) e.g. BOC(10,5) to any other , e.g. BOC(14,2), while the satellite is in orbit.

3.2.4.2.2      BOC (n,m) States


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The (n,m) states of the BOC (n,m) shall include at least both (10,5) and (14,2).

3.2.4.2.3      PRS Frequency Separation

MR-317. The PRS shall have frequency separation with respect to any other Galileo navigation
service and any other GNSS navigation service susceptible to be jammed for security reason during
time of crisis.

3.2.4.3      Control and Accessibility

3.2.4.3.1      PRS Access Control

PRS authorisation and denial shall be placed under the control of a Governmental authority through a
civil/military interface.

3.2.4.3.2      Public Regulated Service Accessibility

MR-317a. Public Regulated Service shall be accessible to authorised users and only to them.

3.2.4.3.3      Public Regulated Service Encryption Constraints

MR-315. The SIS of the Public Regulated Service shall be encrypted by means of governmental
approved encryption algorithms.

3.2.4.3.4      Authentication

MR-703. The signal shall include properties that enable users to unambiguously determine that the
signal is being transmitted by a Galileo satellite.

3.2.4.3.5      PRS – Time Tag

MR-703a. The PRS signal shall include encrypted time tag that provide a reliable evidence for true
correlation of signal recordings to GST.

3.2.4.3.6      PRS – Non Accessibility

MR-704. Users who have not granted access to the secure features of the Public Regulated Service
signal shall not be able to determine any information from the signal, that provides position and or
time data or that enhances the users position or time solution obtained from any other GNSS or other
radio navigation service

3.2.4.3.7      PRS – Access Denial

MR-705. The Galileo system shall provide the means of denying access to the PRS users by groups (if
feasible individually). A denied PRS user shall not be able to derive any navigation information from
its PRS receiver.

3.2.4.3.8      Geographical Access Denial


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The Galileo system shall provide the means of geographical access denial to the PRS users on up to
TBD restricted geographic areas defined by TBC (Coordinates: Longitude, Latitude, Altitude).

3.2.4.3.9      PRS – Minimum Number of User Groups

MR-706. The minimum number of Public Regulated Service users groups shall be 100 000 (TBD).

3.2.4.3.10 PRS – Number of Receivers

MR-707. Management constraints of a high number (TBD) of Public Regulated Service receivers shall
be taken into account.

3.2.4.3.11 PRS – Restoring Navigation Capability outside Prescribed Geographical Area

MR-709. When a PRS receiver exits a restricted geographic area, the PRS receiver shall provide
navigation information to the user in less than (TBD - confidential value) seconds with a probability
better than TBD % (confidential value).

3.2.4.3.12 PRS – The Maximum Allowed Time to Deny the Access

MR-709a. The maximum allowed time for access denial after a PRS user has entered a restricted
geographic area shall be lower than TBD (confidential value) seconds with a probability better than
TBD % (confidential value)

3.2.4.3.13 PRS – Turn-Off / Turn-On of Receivers and/or Groups

MR-710. The Galileo system shall provide means to restore a denied PRS receiver by groups or
individually (if feasible) in less than TBD (classified value) time period with a probability better than
TBD % (classified value).

3.2.4.4      PRS– Independence

3.2.4.4.1      Independent Signal Acquisition

MR-714. A Public Regulated Service receiver shall be able to acquire the signal directly without
access to any other Galileo or GNSS signals.

3.2.4.4.2      PRS – Independent Performance

MR-714 bis. A Public Regulated Service shall meet its performance requirements using only its
dedicated signals.

3.2.4.4.3      PRS Mission Management

The PRS mission management shall be separated from all other Galileo services management.

3.2.4.5      PRS Protection



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3.2.4.5.1      PRS Classified Data Distribution

The classified data required for the operation of the PRS, such as keys, shall be distributed such that
the continuous operation of the service will be assured at any time.
Remark: Justification/Comment: SSRS AV5

3.2.4.5.2      PRS Mission Up-link Authentication

For PRS the Galileo system shall guarantee that the mission up-link data received by the spacecraft
will be evaluated concerning their integrity and their authenticity. The spacecraft shall reject mission
up-link data, which does not authenticate.

3.2.4.5.3      PRS Management Commands Protection

The communication of PRS management commands shall be protected against eavesdropping and data
integrity violation

3.2.4.5.4      Agreements for the Manufacturing of Security Modules

MR-711. A PRS receiver shall utilise a specific security module to provide PRS navigation
information to the user. The authorisation for the development and manufacturing of the security
module shall depend on an agreement between the EU, the manufacturing state and the procuring
state.

3.2.4.5.5      PRS Reference Receiver Protection Radius

The PRS test receiver shall have a protection radius against jamming and spoofing as follows. Under
the conditions below the requested availability and continuity of service shall be maintained.

3.2.4.5.5.1 Wide-Band Jammer

The PRS receiver protection radius shall be higher than (TBD – classified value R1) Km in the
following condition: 3 wide band in band jamming with a maximum power (TBD – classified value
P1)

3.2.4.5.5.2      Narrow-Band Responsive Jammer

The PRS receiver protection radius shall be higher than (TBD – classified value R2) Km in the
following condition: 3 narrow-band in band jamming with a maximum power (TBD – confidential
value P2).

3.2.4.5.5.3 Pulsed Jammer

The PRS receiver protection radius shall be higher than (TBD – confidential value R3) Km in the
following condition: 3 pulsed in band jamming with a maximum power (TBD – classified value P3).
Remark: General constraints on security identified in the security doctrine section 3.3.1. In addition, a
dedicated section shall be added in the document “Galileo – threats and vulnerabilities“.


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3.2.4.5.6      Ground Segment Receiver Protection Radius

Ground receiver shall have a protection radius against jamming and spoofing as follows. Under the
conditions below the requested availability and continuity of service shall be maintained.

3.2.4.5.6.1 Wide band Jammer

The protection radius shall be higher than (TBD – confidential value R4) Km in the following
condition: 3 wide band in band jamming with a maximum power (TBD- confidential value P7).

3.2.4.5.6.2 Narrow Band Responsive Jammer

The Ground Segment receiver protection radius shall be higher than (TBD – confidential value R5)
Km in the following condition: 3 narrow band in band jamming with a maximum power (TBD -
confidential value P8).

3.2.4.5.6.3 Pulsed Jammer

The Ground Segment receiver protection radius shall be higher than (TBD – confidential value R6)
Km in the following condition: 3 pulsed in band jamming with a maximum power (TBD - confidential
value P9).
Remark: SSRS ND1-2. Covers Threat T19, 23, 29. General constraints on security identified in the
security doctrine section 3.3.1. In addition, A dedicated section shall be added in the document
“Galileo – threats and vulnerabilities.

3.2.4.6      PRS Performances

3.2.4.6.1      Positioning Performance Requirements

3.2.4.6.1.1 Horizontal Accuracy

MR-727. The PRS service level shall provide a horizontal Accuracy < 6.5 m (NSE - 95%).

3.2.4.6.1.2 Vertical Accuracy

MR-728. The PRS service level shall provide a vertical Accuracy < 12 m (NSE - 95%).

3.2.4.6.1.3 Velocity Performance Requirements

MR-730. The PRS service level shall provide a Velocity Accuracy < 20 cm/s (NSE 95%).

3.2.4.6.1.4 Timing Performance Requirements

MR-731. The PRS service level shall provide a Timing Accuracy < 50 ns (TBC) (95%) versus
UTC/TAI.


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3.2.4.6.1.5 Continuity Requirements

MR-733. The PRS service level shall provide a Continuity Risk ≤ 10-5 per 15s (TBC).

3.2.4.6.1.6 Integrity Risk

MR-735. The PRS service level shall provide a Integrity Risk ≤ 3.5 10-7 per 150s (TBC).

3.2.4.6.1.7 TTA

MR-736. The PRS service level shall provide a TTA of 6 s (TBC).

3.2.4.6.1.8 Horizontal Alarm Limit

MR-737. The PRS service level shall provide a Horizontal Alarm Limit down to 12 m (TBC).

3.2.4.6.1.9 Vertical Alarm Limit

MR-738. The PRS service level shall provide a Vertical Alarm Limit down to 20 m (TBC).

3.2.4.6.1.10 Availability Requirements

MR-739. The PRS service level shall be available 100% of the time in nominal conditions of the
system.

3.2.4.6.1.11 Probability

Probability that the system be in nominal conditions shall be at least 90% (TBC) at any time during the
operational life.

3.2.4.6.1.12 Mean Availability

The PRS service level shall be provided with Mean Availability over the operational life of at least
99.5 % for any location within the default service volume.

3.2.4.6.1.13 Time To Fix Performance in Cold Start

MR-740. The Time To Fix performance in cold start of the PRS service shall be better than 100 sec
(TBC).

3.2.4.6.1.14 Time To Fix Performance in Warm Start

MR-741. The Time To Fix performance in warm start of the PRS service level shall be better than 30
s.

3.2.4.6.1.15 Time To Fix Performance in Reacquisition Mode

MR-742. The Time To Fix performance in reacquisition mode of the PRS service level shall be better
than 3 s when no integrity alarm has been raised by the system in the last 30 seconds.

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3.2.5 Support to the Search and Rescue Service

3.2.5.1      General Objectives

3.2.5.1.1      Galileo SAR Mission

MR-336. The Galileo system shall support a public Search and Rescue (SAR) service performing the
detection and location of current and future SAR 406 MHz beacons, fitted or non-fitted with GNSS
receivers.

3.2.5.1.2      SAR Mission Interface

MR-335a . The SAR mission shall require an operational interface at ground segment level with the
Cospas/Sarsat system.

3.2.5.1.3      SAR International Level Service

MR-335b. The SAR service shall follow current agreements on SAR implemented on international
level.

3.2.5.1.4      SAR Message Formats

MR-802. Galileo shall receive and transmit distress signals in current and future COSPAS-SARSAT
format on the 406 MHz frequency. Galileo shall receive distress messages conforming to format
specified and agreed in conjunction with COSPAS-SARSAT.

3.2.5.1.5      SAR Service Fedback

MR-336. The Search and Rescue service shall transmit SAR feedback messages via the Galileo open
Navigation signals.
Remark: The feedback message shall be supported by the open signal in L1, for compatibility purposes

3.2.5.1.6      SAR Constraints

MR-337. The Search and Rescue (SAR) service shall be supported on a non-deniable access basis,
free of charge and non-encrypted.

3.2.5.1.7      SAR Feedback

MR-337a. The SAR feedback link service shall be compatible with low-cost Galileo navigation
receivers integrated in future advanced beacons.

3.2.5.2      Environmental Conditions

The environmental conditions at user’s level shall be consistent with the environmental conditions
defined for Search and Rescue operations, as reminded in the latest version of the Cospas-Sarsat
document C/S T001.


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3.2.5.3      Type of Receiver

The Galileo receiver to be embedded in the Search and Rescue beacon shall be capable of receiving
the Galileo navigation signal within which the SAR feedback message has been inserted.

3.2.5.4      SAR Ground Segment

3.2.5.4.1      SAR Operational Ground Segment Interface

MR-801. The Galileo System shall interface to SAR COSPAS-SARSAT operational ground segment.

3.2.5.4.2      European SAR Operational Ground Stations

MR-801a .The Galileo Ground Segment shall comprise the dedicated SAR operational ground stations
for Europe, which shall allow to receive distress messages from all SAR payloads and to process
messages for distress location.

3.2.5.5      Performances

3.2.5.5.1      Detection Probability

Distress signals in the 406 MHz frequency band shall be detected with a probability better than 0.99,
and transmitted to the SAR operational ground station in less than 5 minutes.
Remark: The detection probability is the most significant parameter to qualify this mission. The
International Maritime Organisation has supported the value of 99.8 %. However, a value of 99 % is
consistent with both the current SAR operations and with what can be realistically achieved at the
system level.

3.2.5.5.2      SAR Location Accuracy for GNSS Receiver Fitted Beacons

MR-803. The SAR service shall allow to locate distress emission with a 95% accuracy < 100m (TBC)
in the case of a GNSS-derived position can be extracted from the distress message.

3.2.5.5.3      SAR Location Accuracy for non-GNSS Receiver Fitted Beacons

MR-804. To cope with compatibility purpose, the SAR service shall allow to locate distress emission
with a 95% accuracy < 5km in the case when no position data field can be directly extracted from the
distress messages.

3.2.5.5.4      Feedback Link - Acknowledgement Message

MR-805. The SAR service shall provide a limited feedback link from the SAR Operational Ground
Segment to distress-active beacons so as to carry acknowledgement (ACK) messages. This service
shall be accessible to advanced SAR beacons fitted with Galileo receiver.

3.2.5.5.5      SAR Coverage



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MR-807. The Search and Rescue (SAR) forward and feedback services shall be provided within
default service volume.

3.2.5.5.6      SAR Latency Time to Detect and Locate a Distress Emission

MR-811. The SAR service shall provide a System Latency Time in order to detect and locate a distress
emission in less than 10 minutes.

3.2.5.5.7      SAR Latency Time to Transfer a Feedback Message

MR-812. The SAR service shall provide a System Latency Time to transfer a feedback message from
the operational SAR Ground segment to the user segment in less than 15 min after transmission to the
Galileo operational ground segment.

3.2.5.5.8      SAR Data Rate for the Forward Link

MR-821. The SAR service shall support a 406 MHz forward up-link beacon message transmission of
400 bits/s, for every beacon in distress. Beacon message characteristics are defined in RD4.

3.2.5.5.9      SAR Data Rate for the Feedback Link

MR-822. The SAR service shall provide in the Galileo Navigation frame an average of 10 bits/s, for
the transmission via the feedback link of 6 acknowledgement messages per minute, each of 100 bits.

3.2.5.5.10 SAR Availability

MR-831. The SAR service shall be provided with an availability of at least 99 %.

3.2.5.5.11 SAR Capacity

MR-832. The SAR service shall support the processing of a maximum number of 150 simultaneous
active beacons per MEO satellite coverage.

3.2.5.5.12 SAR Feedback Service Transmission Probability

MR-833. As far as the feedback service is concerned, the SAR service shall provide a 99% probability
of successful transmission to targeted beacon within specified delay.

3.2.5.5.13 SAR Quality Of Service

MR-841. The reception of the emergency messages shall not exceed a bit error rate (BER) of 10-5.




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3.3       LOCALLY ASSISTED SERVICES

3.3.1 General Requirements for Galileo Local Services

3.3.1.1      Local Service Definition

MR-356.The GALILEO Open, Commercial, Safety of Life and Public Regulated Services shall
facilitate enhancement by Galileo Local Elements to provide local services, which are available within
limited areas.

3.3.1.2      Local Service Enhancements

The Galileo Local Services shall offer enhanced performance with respect to the Global
Galileo services in the domains of accuracy, availability, integrity and communication, or any
combination of the afore mentioned.

3.3.1.3      Local Combined Services

The Galileo Local Services shall be easily incorporated with existing local positioning and
communication services (e.g. DGPS and UMTS) to deliver enhanced combined service
performances.

3.3.1.4      Local Service Interference

Any Galileo local service shall not degrade in any way the performance of the Galileo Global
Services, or other local services offered by existing local elements.

3.3.2 Environmental Conditions

3.3.2.1      Local Component – User Masking Angle

MR-725. It shall be assumed in all cases that an elevation mask angle of 10 degrees is
implemented in the Galileo Local Component and associated user terminals.

3.3.2.2      Local Component Coverage

3.3.2.2.1      Local Service Coverage

The service operator on a case-by-case basis shall define the precise local service coverage delivered
by the various local elements that make up the Galileo Local Component. Indicative values only are
included in this document. However, in all cases where such specifications exist (e.g. GBAS
SARPS), these shall be met.


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3.3.2.2.2      Network Coverage

It shall be possible to network several individual local elements together to further enhance
range and/or accuracy of the local services beyond those specified.

3.3.3 Specification of User Terminal

3.3.3.1      Local Service TTF Cold Start

MR-768 The Galileo Local Commercial, TCAR, SOL and PRS services shall facilitate a Time To Fix
performance better than 100 s in a user terminal operating in Cold Start mode.

3.3.3.2      Local Service TTF Warm Start

MR-769. The Galileo Local Commercial, TCAR, SOL and PRS services shall facilitate a Time To
Fix performance better than 30 s in a user terminal operating in Warm Start mode.

3.3.3.3      Local Service TTF in Reacquisition Mode

MR-770. The Galileo Local Commercial SOL, TCAR and PRS services shall facilitate a Time To Fix
performance better than 1 s in a user terminal operating in Reacquisition mode.

3.3.3.4      Position Solution Rate

The Galileo Local Commercial, TCAR, SOL and PRS services shall facilitate a position solution rate
of < 1Hz in the user terminal.

3.3.4 Local Open Service
It shall be possible for service providers to use as a basis the Galileo Open Service on single or
multiple frequencies (L1, E5a and E5b) to provide unregulated Local Services at any level of
performance.

3.3.5 Local Commercial Service Definition
MR-521. The Local Commercial service level shall be provided at user terminal level, by the
combination of the signals from the Global Galileo Commercial service modulated on L1, E5a and
E5b, and those generated by an appropriate Galileo Local Element.

3.3.5.1      Local Commercial Service Performance

3.3.5.1.1 Local Commercial Coverage

MR-523. The Local Commercial service level should be available out to a radius of at least 100 km of
the local element.

3.3.5.1.2      Local Commercial User Dynamics

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MR-525. The Local Commercial service level shall be provided for classes of users and applications
characterised by a low dynamic environment, up to: velocity < 250 km/h, acceleration < 10 m/s2, jerk
< 1 m/s3.

3.3.5.1.3      Local Commercial Horizontal Accuracy

MR-526. The Local Commercial service level shall provide Horizontal Accuracy < 0.25 (NSE 95%).

3.3.5.1.4      Local Commercial Vertical Accuracy

MR-527. The Local Commercial service level shall provide Vertical Accuracy < 0.5 m (NSE 95%).

3.3.5.1.5      Local Commercial Velocity Accuracy

The Local Commercial service level shall provide Velocity Accuracy < 20 cm/s within the local area.

3.3.5.1.6      Local Commercial Integrity Risk

MR-529. The Local Commercial service level shall provide an Integrity Risk ≤ 2.10-7 per hour.

3.3.5.1.7      Local Commercial TTA

MR-530. The Local Commercial service level shall provide a TTA of 1 s.

3.3.5.1.8      Local Commercial Horizontal Alarm Limit

MR-531. The Local Commercial service level shall provide a Horizontal Alarm Limit down to 3 m.

3.3.5.1.9      Local Commercial Vertical Alarm Limit

MR-532. The Local Commercial service level shall provide a Vertical Alarm Limit down to 3 m.

3.3.5.1.10 Local Commercial Availability

MR-533. The Local Commercial service level shall be available 100% of the time in nominal
conditions of the system.

3.3.5.1.11 Probability Nominal Condition

Probability that the system be in nominal conditions shall be at least 90% (TBC) at any time during the
operational life.

3.3.5.1.12 Mean Availability

The Local Commercial service level shall be provided with a Mean Availability over the operational
life of at least 99.5 % for any location within the local service volume.

3.3.6 TCAR Service Definition


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MR-551. The Local TCAR service level shall be provided at user terminal level, by the
combination of the carrier phases of the L1, E6 and E5a/E5b signals, and associated
information generated by an appropriate Galileo Local Element.

3.3.6.1      Local TCAR Service Performance

3.3.6.1.1 Local TCAR Coverage

MR-553. The local TCAR service level should be available out to a radius of at least 10km of the local
element.

3.3.6.1.2      Local TCAR User Dynamics

MR-555. The Local TCAR service level shall be provided for classes of users and applications
characterised by static, and low dynamic environments, up to: velocity < 250 km/h, acceleration < 10
m/s2 (TBC), jerk < 1 m/s3 (TBC).

3.3.6.1.3      Local TCAR Horizontal Accuracy

MR-557. The Local TCAR service level shall provide a horizontal Accuracy better than 0.01 m (NSE
95%).

3.3.6.1.4      Local TCAR Vertical Accuracy

MR-556. The Local TCAR service shall provide a vertical Accuracy better than 0.02 m (NSE 95%).

3.3.6.1.5      Local TCAR Velocity Accuracy

The Local TCAR service level shall provide Velocity Accuracy < 20 cm/s within the local area.

3.3.6.1.6      Local TCAR Integrity Risk

The Local TCAR service level shall provide an Integrity Risk ≤ 1.10-4 per hour.

3.3.6.1.7      Local TCAR TTA

The Local TCAR service level shall provide a TTA of 10 s.

3.3.6.1.8      Local TCAR Horizontal Alarm Limit

The Local TCAR service level shall provide a Horizontal Alarm Limit down to 1 m.

3.3.6.1.9      Local TCAR Vertical Alarm Limit

The Local TCAR service level shall provide a Vertical Alarm Limit down to 1 m.

3.3.6.1.10 Local TCAR Availability



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MR-558. Local TCAR service level shall be available 100% of the time in nominal conditions of the
system.

3.3.6.1.11 Probability Nominal Condition

Probability that the system be in nominal conditions shall be at least 90% (TBC) at any time during the
operational life.

3.3.6.1.12 Mean Availability

The Local TCAR Commercial service level shall be provided with a Mean Availability over the
operational life of at least 99.5 % for any location within the local service volume.

3.3.7 Local SOL Service Definition
MR-641. The Local SOL service level shall be provided at user terminal level, by the combination of
the signals from the Global Galileo SOL service modulated on L1, E5a and E5b and those generated
by an appropriate Galileo Local Element.

3.3.7.1      Local SOL Service Performance

3.3.7.1.1      Local SOL Coverage

MR-642. The Local SOL service level should be available out to at least a 50 km radius of the local
element.

3.3.7.1.2      Local SOL User Dynamics

MR-644. The Local SOL service level shall provide the performances for classes of users and
applications characterised by low and medium dynamic environments, up to: velocity < 500 km/h,
acceleration < 20 m/s2, jerk < 20 m/s3.

3.3.7.1.3      Local SOL Horizontal Accuracy

MR-645. The Local SOL service level shall provide a horizontal accuracy < 1 m within the local area.

3.3.7.1.4      Local SOL Vertical Accuracy

MR-646. The Local SOL service level shall provide vertical accuracy < 0.8 m within the local area.

3.3.7.1.5      Local SOL Velocity Accuracy

MR-647. The Local SOL service level shall provide velocity accuracy < 20 cm/s within the local area.

3.3.7.1.6      Local SOL Continuity Risk

MR-649. The Local SOL service level shall provide a continuity risk ≤ 6.10-6 for any user entering a
critical operational phase of 30s (TBC).


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3.3.7.1.7      Local SOL Integrity Risk

MR-650. The Local SOL service level shall provide a integrity risk ≤ 1.5 10-9 per 150 s (TBC).

3.3.7.1.8      Local SOL TTA

MR-651. The Local SOL service level shall provide a TTA of 1 s.

3.3.7.1.9      Local SOL Horizontal Alarm Limit

MR-652. The Local SOL service level shall provide a horizontal alarm limit down to 3 m.

3.3.7.1.10 Local SOL Vertical Alarm Limit

MR-653. The Local SOL service level shall provide a vertical alarm limit down to 2.4 m.

3.3.7.1.11 Local SOL Availability

MR-654. The Local SOL service level shall be available 100% of the time in nominal conditions of
the system.

3.3.7.1.12 Probability

Probability that the system be in nominal conditions shall be at least 90% (TBC) at any time during the
operational life.

3.3.7.1.13 Mean Availability

The Local SOL service level shall be provided with a Mean Availability over the operational life of at
least 99.9 % for any location within the local service volume.

3.3.8 Local PRS Service Definition

MR-751 The Local PRS service level shall be provided at user terminal level, by the
combination of the signals from the Global Galileo PRS service modulated on L1 and E6, and
those generated by an appropriate Galileo Local Element.

3.3.8.1      Local PRS Service Performance

3.3.8.1.1      Local PRS Coverage

MR-754 The Local PRS service level should be available out to at least a 100 km radius of the local
element.

3.3.8.1.2      Local PRS User Dynamics




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MR-756 The Local PRS service level shall provide the performances for classes of users and
applications characterised by low and medium dynamic environments, up to: velocity < 500 km/h,
acceleration < 20 m/s2, jerk < 20 m/s3.

3.3.8.1.3      Local PRS Horizontal Accuracy

MR-757 The Local PRS service level shall provide horizontal accuracy < 1 m (NSE 95%).

3.3.8.1.4      Local PRS Vertical Accuracy

MR-758 The Local PRS service level shall provide vertical accuracy < 1 m (NSE 95%).

3.3.8.1.5      Local PRS Velocity Accuracy

MR-759 The Local PRS service level shall provide velocity accuracy < 20 cm/s (NSE 95%).

3.3.8.1.6      Local PRS Continuity Risk

MR-761 The Local PRS service level shall provide a continuity risk ≤ 6.10-6 for any user entering a
critical operational phase of 30s (TBC).

3.3.8.1.7      Local PRS Integrity Risk

MR-763 The Local PRS service level shall provide an integrity risk ≤ 2.10-9 per 150 s (TBC).

3.3.8.1.8      Local PRS TTA

MR-764 The Local PRS service level shall provide a TTA of 1 s (TBC).

3.3.8.1.9      Local PRS Horizontal Alarm Limit

MR-765 The Local PRS service level shall provide a horizontal alarm limit down to 3 m (TBC).

3.3.8.1.10 Local PRS Vertical Alarm Limit

MR-766 The Local PRS service level shall provide a vertical alarm limit down to 3 m (TBC).

3.3.8.1.11 Local PRS Availability

MR-767 The Local PRS service level shall be available 100% of the time in nominal conditions of the
system.

3.3.8.1.12 Probability

Probability that the system be in nominal conditions shall be at least 90% (TBC) at any time during the
operational life.

3.3.8.1.13 Mean Availability


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The Local PRS service level shall be provided with a mean availability over the operational life of at
least 99.9 % for any location within the local service volume.

3.4       COMBINED SERVICES

3.4.1 Galileo Combined with other GNSS Systems
TBD

3.4.2 Galileo Combined with non-GNSS Systems
TBD

3.5       SUPPORT TO INTERNATIONAL TIME REFERENCE.

3.5.1 Reference Time Scale Definition
MR-391. Galileo System Time (GST) shall be a continuous co-ordinate time scale in a geocentric
reference frame, steered towards TAI.

3.5.2 Relationship between GST and TAI

3.5.2.1      GST – TAI Offset Limits

MR-393/1 The offset between TAI and GST shall be kept within 50 ns for 95 % of the time, over any
1 year period.

3.5.2.2      GST – TAI Offset Uncertainty

MR-393/2 The offset between TAI and GST shall be known with an uncertainty less than 13 ns for 95
% of the time, over any 24 hour period.

3.5.2.3      Broadcast of GST – TAI Offset

MR-394 The difference between GST and TAI and between GST and UTC (or difference between
UTC and TAI) shall be broadcast to users via the Signals in Space of each service.




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4 IMPLEMENTATION REQUIREMENTS

4.1       GALILEO COMPONENTS

4.1.1 Galileo Global Components
The Galileo system shall provide global satellite navigation services.

4.1.1.1      Galileo Control Centres

MR-1011 The Galileo Control Centres shall be located in EU/ESA member states territories.

4.1.1.2      Ground Elements Location

The Galileo Ground Segment shall be located in ESA/EU territories or in Countries, which are linked
to the program through bilateral or hosting agreements.

4.1.1.3      Ground Segment Local Components

MR-1012. The ground segment local components shall satisfy the requirements for generation of local
data for multiple transport modes, while the dissemination to users may remain transport mode
specific.

4.1.1.4      Satellite Disposal

MR-1002. The satellites of the Galileo Space Segment shall be parked in a disposal orbit at the end of
their lifetime, or they shall be destroyed by re-entry in the Earth’ atmosphere.

4.1.1.5      Space Segment Autonomy

The space segment shall be designed such that no interventions will be required from ground to ensure
satellite survival for a period of at least 1 day.
Remark: This requirement is limited to the in-orbit phase once the satellite has been delivered into its
final orbit and is declared operational. Further, this requirement is not valid for decommissioning
phases, after the satellite has been declared in-operational and will be placed in the parking orbit.

4.1.1.6      Space and Ground Segment Autonomy

MR-1524. The space and ground segment shall be designed such that the operations personnel knows
any autonomous reaction on board of a satellite to an anomaly or external event on ground within 2.5
hours.

4.1.1.7      Mission Up-link Automation

MR-1525. The generation of mission services information and its uplink to the satellites in the
constellation shall be automated.


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4.1.2 Galileo Local Elements
The Galileo system shall incorporate a Local Component, consisting of all Galileo Local Elements that
provide Galileo Local services as defined in Section 3.3 of this document.

4.1.2.1      Galileo Local Element Development

As part of the development phase of Galileo, Local Element demonstrators shall be developed in order
to demonstrate the specified levels of performance detailed in Section 3.3 of this document.

4.1.2.2      Associated User Terminal Development

User terminals capable of interfacing with the local element demonstrators shall be developed.

4.1.2.3      Local Element Demonstrator Functionality

4.1.2.3.1      Galileo Local Element Precision Navigation Functionality

A Galileo Local Element shall be developed to demonstrate the provision of differential code phase
corrections for all service and frequency combinations out to a range of at least 100 km from the Local
Element.

4.1.2.3.2      Galileo Local Element High Precision Navigation Functionality

A Galileo Local Element shall be developed to demonstrate the provision of differential carrier phase
corrections for all service and frequency combinations out to a range of at least 10 km from the Local
Element. Particular emphasis shall be placed on TCAR functionality.

4.1.2.3.3      Galileo Local Element Assisted Navigation Functionality

A Galileo Local Element shall be developed to demonstration of the use of both single and bi-
directional communication to assist in the determination of position in difficult environments for all
service and frequency combinations out to a range of at least 10 km from the Local Element.

4.1.2.3.4      Galileo Local Element Augmented Availability Navigation Functionality

A Galileo Local Element shall be developed to demonstrate the provision of supplementary
‘pseudolite’ transmissions to improve availability of the system for all service and frequency
combinations out to a range of at least 50 km from the Local Element.

4.1.2.4      Role of Existing Infrastructure in the Galileo Local Element Development

In the case of Galileo Local Elements and associated user terminals, existing systems and
infrastructure shall be fully considered, and where possible used as a basis for development.

4.1.2.5      Galileo Local Element Performance

The performance of Galileo Local Elements shall meet those specified in Section 3.3 of this document.


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4.1.2.6      Galileo Local Element Standards

Galileo Local Elements shall, where necessary, adhere to all appropriate existing standards (e.g.
RTCM signal formats, ICAO GBAS SARPS etc)

4.1.2.7      Combination of Galileo Local Services with Other Systems

Galileo Local Elements shall facilitate the combination Galileo Local services with other GNSS
services (e.g. D-GNSS) and terrestrial based positioning and communication services (e.g. Loran-C
and UMTS) on a local basis.

4.1.2.8      Definition of Interfaces to Galileo Local Elements

In order to maximise the ease of implementation and use of Galileo Local Elements, Interface Control
Documents (ICD’s) shall be defined between the core Galileo system and external systems.

4.1.2.9      Use of Galileo Local Elements for Interference Detection

It should be possible to use Galileo Local Elements to aid in the process of detection and isolation of
sources of interference to the Galileo SIS.

4.1.2.10 Galileo Local Element Recording Functionality

Galileo Local Elements delivering any guaranteed or Safety Of Life service shall implement a data
recording function.

4.1.2.11 Galileo SOL Local Element Resistance to Interference

Galileo Local Elements delivering any Safety Of Life service shall implement techniques that improve
their resistance to interference of the SIS.

4.1.2.12 Galileo Local Element Implementation and Operation

It shall be possible for both the GOC and external service providers to implement and operate Galileo
Local Elements.

4.1.3 EGNOS Integration

4.1.3.1      Technical Independence between EGNOS and Galileo

The EGNOS system shall be kept functionally independent from the Galileo global component to
avoid common mode of failures.

4.1.3.2      Uninterrupted Services

The integration of EGNOS and Galileo shall maintain the seamless continuation of the EGNOS and
Galileo satellite only services.



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4.1.3.3      EGNOS and Galileo Facilities Co-location

MR-1208. The EGNOS and Galileo ground elements shall be co-located whenever possible.

4.1.4 User Terminal Requirements

4.1.4.1      Galileo Receiver Design

MR- 1302. The Galileo receiver design shall follow a design to cost approach in order to ensure its
competitiveness on the market.

4.1.4.2      Navigation – Communication User Equipment

MR- 1301. The Galileo system shall be defined so that it will be possible to combine at terminal level
the navigation signal and navigation–related communications signals.

4.2       EXTERNAL GALILEO-RELATED SYSTEM COMPONENTS

4.2.1 Regional Integrity Components

4.2.1.1      Broadcast Capability for External Integrity Data

The Galileo system shall have the capability of broadcast integrity data computed by to up to five
regions simultaneously using the Galileo satellites.

4.2.1.2      Interface with Regional Components.

The Galileo Ground segment shall have an interface with Regional Components for the routing of the
integrity data computed by external regions.

4.2.1.3      Seamless Navigation

MR-620. The Galileo signals shall provide the user with information on which integrity information
block is applicable to a given geographic area.

4.2.1.4      Minimum Performances Granted by Galileo

MR-634. The Galileo system shall provide to the external entities the same broadcasting performances
(linked e.g. to visibility and TTA performances of the service) than the ones provided for the broadcast
of the integrity data elaborated by the Galileo system itself (i.e. : global integrity).

4.2.1.5      Guarantee

MR-6346. The Galileo system shall provide to the external entity the means to check that its
information is totally transmitted and not corrupted, and the means to warn its users in case of
problem.


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4.2.2 Search and Rescue Systems
TBD

4.2.3 Non-Galileo Timing Systems
The Galileo system shall interface with the Time Service Provider (TSP) on matters necessary for the
provision of the Time Metrological functionality of Galileo.

4.2.3.1      Role of the Time Service Provider

4.2.3.1.1      Provision of steering corrections to GST

The TSP shall provide to the core Galileo system, steering corrections to GST in order to keep it
within the limits of TAI defined in Section 3.6 of this document.

4.2.3.1.2      GST – TAI Offset

The TSP shall provide to the core Galileo system, the offset between GST and TAI to a level of
accuracy defined in Section 3.6 of this document.

4.2.3.2      Protection of GST

Under no circumstance shall the external Time Service Provider (TSP) have access to GST, such that
the performance of the Global navigation function can be directly affected in any way.

4.2.3.3      Time Service Provider Guarantee of Performance

The TSP shall guarantee to meet all standards of performance necessary to maintain the specified
levels of time metrology within the definitions detailed in Section 3.6 of this document.

4.2.3.4      Interface to the BIPM

The TSP shall act as the single interface between the BIPM and Galileo.

4.3       LIFETIME AND REPLENISHMENT REQUIREMENTS

4.3.1 Lifetime
MR-1101. The Galileo services shall be provided for a minimum of at least 20 years.

4.3.2 Satellite Replenishment
MR-1111. The Galileo Space- and Ground-Segment replenishment strategy shall not jeopardize the
operational capabilities of the system.

4.3.3 Continuity of Operations

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MR-1112. Any replenishment activity shall not jeopardise the continuity of Galileo operational
services.

4.4     DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENTS

4.4.1 Galileo Development Logic
MR-1401. The development logic shall allow progressive service provision until the full operational
capability is reached with 30 satellites.

4.4.2 Gradual Validation of Functions
The development of the Galileo system shall allow a gradual validation of functions and a verification
of related requirements.

4.5     RAMS REQUIREMENTS
TBD




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5 VERIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

5.1       VERIFICATION METHODS
Each requirement of the MRD shall be verified using one or a combination of the following
verification methods:
      −    Inspection
      −    Test
      −    Analysis
      −    Review of Design

5.2       VERIFICATION PLAN
The verification process and the demonstration on how the requirements will be verified in a coherent
manner shall be described in a Verification Plan.

5.3       VERIFICATION CONTROL DOCUMENT
The selected verification method for the verification of each of the requirement of the MRD shall be
listed in the Verification Control Document, together with the indication of the project level, at which
the verification will be carried out, and the related planning.

5.4       VERIFICATION MATRIX
The interrelation of the verification of the requirements of the MRD with the requirements at higher
level (HLD) and at lower level (SRD) shall be traced through related Verification Matrices.




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6 OPERATIONS REQUIREMENTS

6.1     OVERALL SCOPE
MRD-1501. The operations shall cover all phases of the GALILEO programme.
Remark: The following programme phases involving operations are actually defined: GSTB-V1,
GSTB-V2, In-orbit Validation Phase (IOV), Deployment Phase, Full Operational Capability (FOC),
Operations and Maintenance Phase, Replenishment Phase.

6.2     OPERATIONS SPACE AND GROUND SEGMENT
The operations of the GALILEO system shall include the Space- and the Ground Segment.

6.3     EXTERNAL INTERFACES
The operations of the GALILEO system shall include all external interfaces to the system.

6.4     GRADUAL BUILT-UP OF OPERATIONS
The operations of the GALILEO System shall be gradually built up during the IOV phase and during
the deployment phase, to reach full operational capability for the FOC phase.

6.5     UPWARD COMPATIBILITY
The operations of a next more advanced phase shall incorporate the operations defined and deployed
of the previous program phase to assure upward compatibility.

6.6     OPERATIONS SUPPORT
MR-1502. The definition of GALILEO operations shall provide Operations Support such as
Maintenance and Logistics.

6.7     FAILURE TOLERANCE
MR-1543. The operations concept shall maximise the failure tolerance of the overall system, using the
redundant and spare capacities of the design, of the Space-, and Ground Segment.

6.8     VALIDATION OF OPERATIONS
MR-1401b. The operations of a previous program phase shall be fully validated, before commencing
the next operations phase.

6.9     OFF NOMINAL SITUATIONS
The GALILEO system operations shall take into account off-nominal system situations.


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6.10 LAUNCH FAILURE DURING DEPLOYMENT
The definition of the operations of the GALILEO system shall consider launch failure and propose
adequate measures such that the deployment is not jeopardized and that performances and services are
not reduced below the levels, defined in the MRD during operation phases.

6.11 OPERATIONS SAFETY AND SECURITY
The gradual deployment of the GALILEO system shall at no phase jeopardize the safety & security
requirements, specified for man, the environment, or the system itself.

6.12 MALFUNCTION OF SPACE SEGMENT
The failure or malfunction of one element of the Space Segment shall not jeopardize the Service
performances specified for the system.

6.13 MALFUNCTION OF GROUND SEGMENT
The failure or malfunction of one element of the Ground Segment shall not jeopardize the Service
performances specified for the system.

6.14 MAINTENANCE OF SPACE SEGMENT
The maintenance operations of the Space Segment shall not jeopardize the service performances
specified for the system.
Remark: The notion “maintenance operations of the Space Segment” consider the launch of satellites
into spare positions, once a previous spare has been inserted into a position of a failed/shut-down
satellite.

6.15 MAINTENANCE OF GROUND SEGMENT
The maintenance operations of the Ground Segment shall not jeopardize the service performances
specified for the system.
Remark: The notion “maintenance operations of the Ground Segment” consider the exchange of
elements of the Ground Segment for replacing failed/shut-down elements, or for re-newal of such
elements.




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7      ANNEX 1: DETAILED SECURITY REQUIREMENTS

7.1     INSIDER ATTACKS
The Galileo system shall establish procedures and technical facilities to prevent itself against insider
attacks.

7.2     TEMPEST
Any GALILEO sites storing, processing or transmitting information classified confidential or higher
shall be protected against TEMPEST threats.

7.3     SITE ACCESS
At any site there shall be equipment and technical facilities to secure the site against unauthorised
access.

7.3.1 Physical Access Control
At any site there shall be procedures implemented and technical facilities installed to control physical
access by authorised personal. Any access to the site by any authorised person shall be subject to
authentication with regard to national regulations.

7.3.2 Site Access Authentication
Any access to a site by an authorised person shall be subject to personal authentication with regard to
national regulations.

7.3.3 Site Security
The sites shall be secured by fences or walls. The entire fence/wall shall be continuously monitored by
systems for physical intrusion detection.

7.3.4 Galileo Manned Sites Access
The entry to Galileo manned sites shall only be possible through access control systems directly
controlled by Galileo security staff.

7.3.5 Galileo Unmanned Sites Access
The entry to all Galileo unmanned sites shall only be possible through access control systems remotely
controlled by Galileo security staff.

7.3.6 Export of Material
At any site physical and other security measures and security procedures shall be implemented to
prevent or deter unauthorised export of hard copy output or electronic storage media.

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7.3.7 Site Traffic Recording
At any site each entry and exit of staff and visitors shall be recorded and archived for TBD years.

7.3.8 Visitor Data Recording
At any site a TBD set of data of all visitors and the purpose of their visit shall be archived for TBD
years.

7.3.9 Accounting Information Archiving
At any site accounting information for the site access and for access to system data shall be archived
for TBD years.

7.3.10 Security Organisation
At each site a local site security organisation shall be established.

7.3.11 Security Procedures and Measures
Each site security organisation shall establish security procedures and measures to assure that the
GALILEO security organisation will be informed, whenever an attempted or actual breach of security
has occurred - that impacts the site or the global system.

7.4     GALILEO SYSTEM INFORMATION HANDLING
Procedures for the marking, handling, management (including storage, transmission, audit, etc.) of
GALILEO information as described in the Galileo Programme Security Instructions (AD5) shall be
established.

7.4.1 Data and Software Backup
The Galileo system shall provide means at any site to allow regularly backups of data and software.

7.4.2 Tamper
The cabling within the sites shall be designed such that tampering is not possible and any attempt can
be detected immediately.

7.4.3 Cabling
The cabling of the Galileo sites shall be designed such that cables carrying date classified confidential
or higher unencrypted cannot couple to other cable.

7.4.4 Networks



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Any network, which carries data classified confidential or higher unencrypted shall be separated from
the other networks.

7.5     IT SECURITY

7.5.1 Operator Identification and Authentication
The system shall request any operator for its unique identification and authentication before accept the
access to any function, feature or capability of the system.

7.5.2 System Administration Access Procedures
For system administration and maintenance, special access (TBD) shall be established.

7.5.3 System Administration Access Requests
For system administration and maintenance special access rights (TBD) shall be requested by the
system.

7.5.4 Special System and Security Data Access
The system shall allow only maintenance staff and administration staff the access to certain system
and security data TBD (e.g. system configuration files, message routing tables, accounting and audit
tables etc.).

7.5.5 System and Security Data Access Rejection and Recording
The system shall reject and record any unauthorised attempt to access the system and security data
(e.g. system configuration files, message routing tables, accounting and audit tables, password files,
Files classified confidential or secret etc.).

7.5.6 Telecommand Access
The system shall implement special procedures and technical means to allow only operator with
special right to access any telecommand function or data.

7.5.7 System Lock
Any Galileo system shall only allow three consecutive unsuccessful operators attempts to log in. With
the third unsuccessful attempt the access shall be locked.

7.5.8 System Unlock
The unlock of the system after a lock by three unsuccessful access attempts shall be achieved by two
not locked operators.

7.5.9 Unsuccessful Access Attempt Recording

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With the third unsuccessful access attempt a security event shall be recorded.

7.5.10 Software Evaluation
The Software of the Galileo system shall be designed in such a way that it can be evaluated.

7.5.11 Cryptography

7.5.11.1 Cryptovariables Zeroing

The Galileo system shall implement means that all cryptovariables contained in ground based
equipment within manned sites can be set to zero manually.

7.5.11.2 Cryptovariables Remote Zeroing

The Galileo system shall implement means that all cryptovariables contained in ground based
equipment within unmanned sites can be set to zero remotely.

7.5.11.3 Encryption Constraints

Data, which can also be derived from any other legal open source, shall be not encrypted.

7.6       COMMUNICATION SECURITY

7.6.1 Internet Connection
Computer/Server, which can be connected with the Internet shall be separated from the other Galileo
parts within a site.

7.6.2 External System Data Archiving
The Galileo system shall establish procedures and technical provisions to get, record and
archive for every system or network, which is connected to the Galileo system the following
information:
      − Outline descriptions of the connected system.
      − The functions, connectivity and services that are to operate across the connection point
        between GALILEO and the external system/network.
      − Comparison of and discrepancies in the security postures of the respective systems.
      − Threats, vulnerabilities and risks associated with the connection.
      − Security measures that are to applied arising from the connection.
      −    On-going security management of the connection.

7.6.3 GSB Approval

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The Galileo system shall establish procedures and technical provisions that any connection of external
systems or network will not be implemented before approval by the GSB.

7.6.4 Galileo Accreditation
Each system or network interconnection shall be accredited by the appropriate accreditation authorities
and endorsed by the Galileo accreditation panel in advance.

7.6.5 Telecommand Authentication
The Galileo system shall guarantee that all telecommand data received by the spacecraft will be
evaluated concerning their integrity and their authenticity. Commands, which do not proof these
properties, shall be rejected by the spacecraft.

7.6.6 Ground / Spacecraft Link Jamming

All links between the ground and the spacecraft shall be protected against the following types
of jamming:
     − Wide band jammer producing a maximum flux of (TBD – confidential value F1) at
       the satellite.
     − Narrow band responsive jammer producing a maximum flux of (TBD – confidential
       value F2) at the satellite.
     − Pulsed jammer producing a maximum flux of (TBD – confidential value F3) at the
       satellite.

7.6.7 Replay Attack Protection
All telecommand and telemetry links between the ground segment and the spacecraft shall be
protected against replay attacks.

7.6.8 TC / TM Eavesdropping Protection
Telecommand and telemetry data containing classified data, such as keys, key management commands
shall be protected against eavesdropping.

7.6.9 Communication Link Redundancy
All communication links between sites shall be redundant.

7.6.10 RF Links
All RF links between sites shall be protected against jamming and spoofing.

7.6.11 Classified Data Communication Protection


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The communication of classified data, such as keys, shall be protected against eavesdropping and data
integrity violation.

7.6.12 Interference Detection
The Galileo system shall be able to detect intentional and unintentional interference to the mission up-
link by monitoring the SIS.

7.7     HARDWARE SECURITY

7.7.1 Hardware Evaluation
The hardware of the Galileo system shall be designed such that it can be evaluated.

7.7.2 Storage Devices
PC connected to the GCC network shall have no storage equipment such as Floppy Disk drives, CD-
Burner etc.

7.7.3 Spacecraft Input Channel Hardening
Spacecraft input channels shall be hardened against low energy electromagnetic interference as
specified TBD.

7.8     ORGANISATIONAL, OPERATIONS AND STAFF RELATED SECURITY

7.8.1 Operating Architecture Evaluation
The architecture of the Galileo system shall be designed such that it can be evaluated.

7.8.2 Registering of Authorised Operators
At any site local security operations procedures shall be implemented to register and identify all.

7.8.3 Operator Clearances
All operators shall be cleared to access up to the highest classification of data processed within their
site and have a Need To Know for all GALILEO data they can access.

7.8.4 Visitor Authorisation
At any site local security operations procedures shall be implemented to assure that all non-Galileo
authorised visitors to GALILEO sites will be approved by security staff members and will be
supervised by authorised personnel at all times.

7.8.5 Security Officer

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For any site a security officer shall be established which is responsible for all site and infrastructure
security measures and equipment.

7.8.6 Galileo Security Organisation
There shall be an overall Galileo security organisation established. Any site will inform the local
security organisation whenever an attempted or actual breach of security has occurred - that impacts
on their site.

7.8.7 Security Procedures
The Galileo security organisation shall implement security procedures, which assure that all local
security organisations will be informed whenever an attempted or actual breach of security has
occurred - that impacts any of the sites.

7.8.8 Procedures for Harmful Software Protection
Procedures and technical facilities shall be implemented to prevent the system against impacts by
harmful software, such as viruses, trojans, worms etc.

7.8.9 Configuration Control
Procedures and technical facilities shall be implemented within the system to assure that the
configuration will be recorded and archived for the system lifetime (TBD).

7.8.10 Hardware and Software Modifications
There shall be procedures established to assure that any modification to hardware and software will be
brought into service in a co-ordinated fashion, in compliance with an approved Configuration
Management Plan.

7.8.11 Identification and Authentication Parameter Protection
The system shall implement measures to protect identification and authentication parameter during
communication against unauthorised access and replay attacks.

7.8.12 Security Event Archiving
The Galileo system shall record and archive for TBD years at least the following security events:
     −    System start-up (to include re-starts), shut-downs and faults.
     −    Operators log-on (to include log-on attempts) and log-off.
     −    Diagnostically detected errors.
     −    Changes to security profiles of operators and groups.
     −    Changes to security policy.


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7.8.13 Security Event Record Contents
For each security event the Galileo system shall record at least the following information:
     −    Event type,
     −    Date and Time of the event,
     −    Success or failure of the event,
     −    Identity of the terminal/workstation operator,
     −    For identification and/or authentication events the origin of the request (e.g. the
          terminal/workstation identifier),
     −    For events that introduce an object into an operator’s address space, and for object deletion
          events, the name of the object.

7.8.14 Security Recordings Enabling
The Galileo system shall enable the System Administrator to selectively enable or disable the security
recordings.

7.8.15 Security Recordings Archiving
After successful investigation of the security recordings the data shall be archived (archive duration
shall be 3 years (TBC) and then deleted from direct access.

7.8.16 Audit
The Galileo system shall have integrated audit information reduction tools to assist the system security
officer in investigating actual or potential security problems.

7.8.17 Audit Tools
These audit information reductions tool shall provide support to the following activities:
     −    Accountability of information,
     −    Investigation of actual or potential system security violations,
     −    Selective examination (retrieval and printing) of accounting files by:
     −    One or more operators ids,
     −    By event type,
     −    By date and time ranges,
     −    Comparison of accounting records,
     −    Selection of audit material using flexible criteria, for long term retention.

7.8.18 Antivirus Software

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The Galileo System shall apply antivirus software to any programme or data before it will be
introduced into the system.

7.8.19 Antivirus Software Version
The Galileo system shall establish procedures to ensure that always the newest version of the antivirus
software will be utilized.

7.8.20 Virus Checks
The Galileo system shall carry out virus checks on all exchangeable media before import or export of
data by them.

7.8.21 Software Integrity Checks
Within the Galileo system periodic checks shall be performed to ensure the integrity of any sensitive
operation system or application software. The period shall be TBD.

7.8.22 Backup Procedures
The Galileo system shall establish procedures to assure that regularly backups of data and software at
any site will be achieved.

7.8.23 Classified Data Installation
The reception and installation of new classified data into the user terminal/receiver shall be done
automatically without manual intervention by the user.

7.8.24 Cryptovariables Reset Procedures
The Galileo system shall establish procedures for the reset to zero of the cryptovariables.

7.8.25 IT Security Evaluation
The IT security evaluation shall be conducted according to the ITSEC or Common Criteria Schemes
(TBD).




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8 ANNEX 2: MANAGEMENT AND INSTITUTIONAL
  REQUIREMENTS
TBD




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9 ANNEX 3A: GALILEO SIGNAL DESIGN AND FREQUENCY PLAN



                                                            Signal-In-Space Description


                                                                              Lower L-Band                                                          Upper L-Band


                                              E5A         E5B                                             E6                      L6 E2                    L1      E1
                        IN PHASE




                                                                                                                                          1559MHz




                                                                                                                                                                        1591MHz
                                   1164MHz




                                                                                        1260MHz




                                                                                                                   1300MHz
                                                                    1215MHz




                                                    1           3                                 5
                                                                                                                                                                   8
                    E
                R




                                                                                                               FREQUENCY
                U




                                                                                                                                 11
                                                                                                        78
         AD IN
             AT




                                                           07
                                               76




                                                                                                               (MHZ)
                                                                                                      12




                                                                                                                                      K
                                                         12
                                             11
           R




                                                                                                                                    N
                                                                                                                              W R
                                                                                                                             O SA
                                                                                                                                 LI
                                               2                4
                                                                                                                               N
      U




                                                                                                      6   7                                                 9 10
     Q




                                                                                                                                                      75
                                                                                                                             D




                                                        Figure 1 Galileo Signal in Space Description                                                15




Galileo will provide 10 signals in the frequency ranges 1164-1215 MHz (E5A and E5B), 1215-1300
MHz (E6) and 1559-1592 MHz (E2-L1-E1), in the Radio-Navigation Satellite Service (RNSS)
allocated frequency bands. Details are described below.


Four signals will be transmitted in the band 1164-1215 MHz:


     •        One pair of signals centred on 1176.450 MHz, in the 1164 - 1188 MHz frequency range
              (E5A)1:
                           o            1 signal carrying a low data rate navigation message (25 bps), represented by the
                                        signal •
                           o            1 signal without any data (so-called pilot signal) for increased tracking robustness at
                                        receiver level, represented by the signal ‚


     •         One pair of signals centred on 1207.140 MHz, in the 1188 – 1215 MHz frequency range
              (E5B)


1
  This band, also called L5, will also support GPS modernised signals which, together with Galileo signals will
allow cheap bi-mode GPS/Galileo receivers able to track up to 60 satellites

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                o    1 signal carrying a navigation message of 125 bps, also supporting integrity and SAR
                     data, represented by the signal ƒ
                o    1 signal without any data (so-called pilot signal) for increased tracking robustness at
                     receiver level, represented by the signal „
     •    The signals in E5A and E5B would be generated coherently, therefore giving the possibility to
          process them together for (1) increased accuracy, (2) redundancy (to mitigate interference
          from DMEs).
The multiplexing scheme of E5a and E5b signals is under study.
Three signals will be transmitted in the band 1260-1300 MHz (E6), centred on 1278.750 MHz.
     •    1 split-spectrum2 signal secured through governmental-approved encryption, designed for
          governmental applications requiring a continuity of service even in times of crisis, represented
          by the signal …
     •    One pair of signals protected through commercial encryption providing high ambiguity
          resolution capabilities for differential applications, among which:
                o    1 signal carrying a navigation message of 500 bps supporting value-added data for
                     commercial purpose, represented by the signal †
                o    1 signal without any data (so-called pilot signal) for increased tracking robustness at
                     receiver level, represented by the signal ‡ by the same waveform than previous signal
The multiplexing scheme of E6 signals is under study
Three signals will be transmitted in the band 1559-1591 MHz (E2-L1-E1), centred on 1575.42 MHz.
     •    1 flexible split-spectrum signal secured through governmental-approved encryption, designed
          for governmental applications requiring a continuity of service even in times of crisis,
          represented by two different waveforms (signal ˆ)
     •    One pair of signals3, among which:
                o    1 signal carrying a navigation message of 100 bps, also supporting integrity and SAR
                     messages, represented by the signal ‰
                o    1 signal without any data (so-called pilot signal) for increased tracking robustness at
                     receiver level, by the signal Š, by the same waveform than previous signal
The multiplexing scheme of E2-L1-E1 signals is under study.
Table 1 summarizes all signals characteristics. Data rates are still under consolidation in the frame of
the Galileo design studies carried out by ESA.




2
  Split spectrum signals are used for either for selective service denial or interference minimisation between to
RNSS systems sharing the same central frequency carrier
3
  This band is already supporting GPS SPS signals, which, together with Galileo signals will allow cheap bi-
mode GPS/Galileo receivers able to track up to 60 satellites.

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Signals id.              Signals              central frequency   modulation chip rate    code encryption          data rate 4      data encryption
      1            data signal in E5A            1176 MHz         BPSK(10)    10 Mcps           no               50 sps/25 bps            no

      2            pilot signal in E5A           1176 MHz         BPSK(10)    10 Mcps           no                  no data            no data
      3            data signal in E5B            1207 MHz         BPSK(10)    10 Mcps           no              250 sps/125 bps          no5
      4            pilot signal in E5B           1207 MHz         BPSK(10)    10 Mcps           no                  no data            no data
                                                                                         Yes – governmental
      5        spilt-spectrum signal in E6       1278 MHz         BOC(10,5)   5 Mcps         approved           250 sps/125 bps          yes
                                                                                                            6
      6       commercial data signal in E6       1278 MHz          BPSK(5)    5 Mcps     Yes - commercial       1000 sps/500 bps         yes
                                                                                                            7
      7       commercial pilot signal in E6      1278 MHz          BPSK(5)    5 Mcps     Yes – commercial           no data            no data
                                                                                         Yes – governmental
      8        spilt-spectrum signal in L1       1575 MHz         BOC(n,m) 8 m Mcps          approved           250 sps/125 bps          yes
      9             data signal in L1            1575 MHz         BOC(2,2)    2 Mcps            no              200 sps/100 bps          no 9
    10              pilot signal in L1           1575 MHz         BOC(2,2)    2 Mcps            no                  no data            no data




                                             Table 1:             Galileo signal characteristics


  Minimum received power on the ground (by a 0 dBi antenna) would be –158 dBW for each signal
  except –155 dBW for signals 5 and 8.




  4
    using a 1/2 rate Viterbi convolutional coding scheme
  5
    A capability of encryption for integrity is envisaged and may be activated pending results on potential market
  interest for integrity
  6
    This encryption may be maintained or removed pending on market analysis results
  7
    This encryption may be maintained or removed pending on market analysis results
  8
    n and m operational values are the subject of on-going technical trade-offs
  9
    A capability of encryption for integrity is envisaged and may be activated pending results on potential market
  interest for integrity

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10 ANNEX 3B: GALILEO SERVICES MAPPING TO SIGNALS

The following Table 2 summarises the navigation signals characteristics and their service allocation:


                                           Navigation Services                  Signals characteristics

Signal         Frequen-                                                Ranging Code
                                  OS          CS      SoL        PRS                          Data Type10
 s id.           cies                                                     Type
                                                                                            Navigation data
                  E5a
1,2,3,4
                                                                                             Integrity data
,9 and            E5b              X           X        X               Open Access
  10                                                                                         SAR data11,
                   L1
                                                                                           Commercial data12
                                                                        Commercial
     6, 7          E6                          X                                            Commercial data
                                                                        encryption
                   E6                                                  Governmental
     5,8                                                         X                              PRS data
                   L1                                                   encryption



                Table 2:             Navigation signals characteristics and their service allocation


The services mapping to signals is detailed in the following sections.




10
   Pending final service data allocation
11
   This SAR data correspond to the information sent from SAR operators to the distress emitting beacons: alert
acknowledgement, coordination of rescue teams.
12
   Possibility to include commercial data is under assessment

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10.1 OPEN SERVICES


Open services may consider any of the signals {1,2,3,4,9,10} combination, for instance:


         Services 13 è                     Open Service           Open Service           Open Service
                                     Single Frequency                 Dual           Improved Accuracy14
                                                                    Frequency
        Signal number ê
              1 (E5a)                                                   X                     X
              2 (E5a)                                                   X                     X
              3 (E5b)                                                                         X
              4 (E5b)                                                                         X
               5 (E6)
               6 (E6)
               7 (E7)
               8 (L1)
               9 (L1)                           X                       X                     X
              10 (L1)                           X                       X                     X


                            Table 3:                      Mapping Open Service into signals




13
   Non bolded crosses correspond to signals selection which would depend on actual applications
14
   Either absolute positioning or differential positioning based on Carrier Ambiguity Resolution Techniques such
as TCAR or Wide Lane. Not currently considered in the services performance section

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10.2 COMMERCIAL SERVICES


Commercial services may consider any of the signals {1,2,3,4,6,7,9,10} combination, for instance:




           Services       è                    CS                                CS
                                           Value added          Multi carrier differential applications
         Signal number ê
               1 (E5a)                                                            X
               2 (E5a)                                                            X
               3 (E5b)                                                            X
               4 (E5b)                                                            X
                5 (E6)
                6 (E6)                         X                                  X
                7 (E6)                         X                                  X
                8 (L1)
                9 (L1)                         X                                  X
               10 (L1)                         X                                  X


                        Table 4:                    Mapping Commercial Service into signals




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10.3 SAFETY OF LIFE SERVICES



SoL services may consider any of the signals {1,2,3,4,9,10} combination, for instance:




                                            Services     è     SoL
                                           Signal number ê
                                               1 (E5a)                   X
                                               2 (E5a)                   X
                                               3 (E5b)                   X
                                               4 (E5b)                   X
                                               5 (E6)
                                               6 (E6)
                                               7 (E6)
                                               8 (L1)
                                               9 (L1)                    X
                                               10 (L1)                   X


                       Table 5:                        Mapping Safety of Life service into signals




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10.4 PUBLIC REGULATED SERVICES


PRS services would nominally use only the signals 5 and 8:




                                            Services     è           PRS
                                           Signal number ê
                                               1 (E5a)
                                               2 (E5a)
                                               3 (E5b)
                                               4 (E5b)
                                               5 (E6)                 X
                                               6 (E6)
                                               7 (E6)
                                               8 (L1)                 X
                                               9 (L1)
                                               10 (L1)


                     Table 6:                      Mapping Public Regulated Service into signals




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11 ANNEX 3C: GALILEO SIGNALS COMPATIBILITY WITH OTHER
   RNSS

Introduction: The requirements detailed in this annex denote the progress of the understanding of the
requirements in this field. They might be slightly modified pending discussions with GPS
representatives likely to take place before the end of 2002, however there is a strong confidence that
these requirements will be retained as they are now.



11.1 INTER-RNSS INTERFERENCE COMPUTATIONS
Interference computations should use realistic constellation simulations with antenna and power
budget modelling. Users antenna should be WAAS MOPS compliant for air-based users. Space-based
users should use the specified ISS choke-ring antennas.
Three figures of merit should be used:
     1. The intra-system interference degradation (in dB): Deg_intra = C/No – C/(No+Iintra)
     2. The inter-system interference degradation (in dB): Deg_inter = C/(No+Iintra) –
        C/(No+Iinter+Iintra)
     3. The total interference degradation (in dB): Deg_total = C/No - C/(No+Iintra+Iinter)
The criteria for the non-interference basis shall be that the difference between the worst-case total
interference degradation and the worst-case intra-system interference degradation shall not exceed
0.25 dB, as expressed in 13.2.


Note: The other criterion of interest is the worst-case intersystem interference degradation, as used in
13.2 and 13.3.



11.2 WORST-CASE LINK BUDGET DEGRADATION INDUCED BY GALILEO ON OTHER RNSS
The worst-case link budget degradation created by Galileo on other existing RNSS (GPS including
Space-based augmentation or GLONASS), expressed by the difference between the worst-case total
interference degradation and the worst-case intra-system interference degradation, shall not exceed
0.25 dB for all land, air or space-based users.



11.3 RECOMMENDED ACCEPTABLE LEVEL OF INTER-SYSTEM INTERFERENCE WITH
     OTHER RNSS

The inter-system interference created by Galileo on other existing RNSS (GPS including Space-based
augmentation or GLONASS), should not exceed 0.2 dB for 95% of the time, for all land, air or space-
based users.

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11.4 MAXIMUM LEVEL OF INTER-SYSTEM INTERFERENCE WITH OTHER RNSS
The inter-system interference created by Galileo on other existing RNSS (GPS including Space-based
augmentation or GLONASS), shall never exceed 0.25 dB for 95% of the time, for all land, air or
space-based users.


Justification MRJG-5 to 8:
These requirements are based on the latest status of discussion on compatibility issue between GPS
and Galileo. These rules might be also used for RNSS coordination rules establishment in the frame of
ITU after the WRC 2003.
The 0.25 dB (MRJG-6 and 8) stems from the criteria of a deltaT/T of 6 %, as used in GEO ITU
coordination.
The 0.2 dB (MRJG-7) comes from the fact that all published results have shown level of degradation
below 0.2 dB and this appears to be the acceptable threshold for GPS.
See also GISS/JG/sc/1844 for reference.



11.5 SIGNAL POWER LEVELS
The signal power level shall be controlled at satellite level to within TBC [-0.5 dB, +0.5 dB] for a
fixed satellite antenna slant angle.
The ground power level variation between 10 and 90 degrees of elevation, as received by a 0 dBi
antenna, shall not exceed TBC [+3 dB].


Justification MRJG-9:
These values provide some specifications for which interference computations remains in the
acceptable levels ranges. The TBC are meant for verifying that these values are compatible with
current system assumptions and moreover for which the US are likely to accept the level of
interference. The latter is based on monitoring of US studies (partly covered in GISS/JG/sc/1844).




11.6 CODE DESIGN IN THE BANDS WHERE SHARING WITH GPS SIGNAL IS FORESEEN
In the bands where sharing with GPS is envisaged, the study of ranging codes cross-correlation
properties shall take into account both inter-system (GPS and Galileo) cross-correlation properties and
Galileo intra-system cross-correlation properties.
NOTE: that is to say that one property cannot be optimised without comparing it to the other property



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Justification:
Both properties have to be taken into account in the design of the codes to mutually prevent from false
acquisition from signals coming from both systems in order to safeguard the acquisition characteristics
of both systems either used independently or in a combined mode.



11.7 RELATIVE INTER AND INTRA-SYSTEM CROSS-CORRELATION MARGIN WITH GPS
        CODES

The Galileo codes selection in the bands where sharing with GPS is envisaged shall not lead to inter-
systems cross-correlation margin TBC [3 dB] higher than Galileo intra-system cross-correlation
margin.
NOTE: This requirement might be refined by the codes subgroup of the STF


Justification:
This requirement should be linked to a requirement specifying the intra-system cross-correlation
margin, that is a system issue.
The purpose of this requirement is to specify from a mission point of view that we do not need much
better intra-system cross-correlation than inter-system because at the receiver point of view it is the
cross-correlation peaks from intra and inter-system codes that count, even for Galileo-only receiver.



11.8 CROSS-CORRELATION WITH GPS CODES
The Galileo codes selection in the L1 frequency bands shall lead to inter-systems cross-correlation
peaks at least TBC [3 dB] smaller than the GPS intra-system cross-correlation peaks.
NOTE: This requirement might be refined by the codes subgroup of the STF


Justification:
Although this requirement is linked with the inter-system interference degradation requirement, the
link is far from being obvious from a mathematical point of view. The TBC value is due to the study
of this link.




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12 ANNEX 4: ACRONYMS
AD                       Applicable Document
ARNS                     Aeronautical Radio Navigation System
BER                      Bit Error Rate
Bps                      Bit per second
C&M                      Control and Monitoring
C/A                      Coarse Acquisition
CS                       Commercial Service
EC                       European Commission
ECAC                     European Civil Aviation Conference
EGNOS                    European Geo-stationary Navigation Overlay System
ESA                      European Space Agency
FOC                      Full Operational Capability
GEO                      Geo-stationary Earth Orbit
GIC                      Ground Integrity Channel
GLONASS                  GLObal NAvigation Satellite System
GPS-PPS                  Global Positioning System-Precise Positioning
GPS-SPS                  Global Positioning System
GSM                      Global System for Mobile
GST                      Galileo System Time
ICAO                     International Civil Aviation Organisation
IMO                      International Maritime Organisation
IOC                      Inertial Operational Capability
ITRF                     International Terrestrial Reference Frame
ITRS                     International Terrestrial Reference System
ITU                      International Telecommunication Union
Kbps                     Kilobits per second
LORAN                    Long Range Navigation
LUT                      Local User Terminal
MEO                      Medium Earth Orbit
MOPS                     Minimum Operational Performance Standards


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NA                       Non Applicable
NSE                      Navigation System Error
OS                       Open Service
PPS                      Precise Positioning System
PRS                      Public Regulated Service
RAIM                     Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
RD                       Reference Document
RR                       Radio Regulations (Frequency allocation adopted by ITU)
RTCA                     Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics
RTCM                     Radio Technical Committee for Maritime services
SA                       Selective Availability
SAR                      Search And Rescue
SARPs                    Standard And Recommended Practices
SoL                      SAfety of life Service
SBAS                     Satellite Based Augmentation System
SIS                      Signal In Space (navigation signals emitted by the Galileo satellites)
SPS                      Standard Positioning Service
TBC                      To Be Confirmed
TBD                      To Be Defined
TTA                      Time To Alarm
TTF                      Time To Fix
UMTS                     Universal Mobile Telecommunication Standards
UTC                      Universal Time Co-ordination




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13 ANNEX 5: DEFINITIONS
TBD




Galileo MRD; issue 5; draft 25 July 2002   Page 85 of 85

				
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