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					                                                                           A joint initiative of the
                                                                           ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                           Federal Offices




2nd International ecoinvent Meeting
Lausanne, March 14, 2008

                                                                           Swiss Centre
                                                                           For Life Cycle
                                                                           Inventories
                                                                           A joint initiative of the


metals:
                                                                           ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                           Federal Offices




Gold & Silver

Sybille Büsser1, Mischa Classen2, Matthias Tuchschmid1,
Mireille Faist Emmenegger1, Wolfram Scharnhorst2
1ESU-services   Ltd., Uster, Switzerland
2EMPA,   Dübendorf, Switzerland



2                                                         Sybille Büsser   ESU
Agenda
                                                                Swiss Centre
                                                                For Life Cycle
• Overview global gold and silver production                    Inventories

• Structure of the datasets                                     A joint initiative of the
                                                                ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                Federal Offices


• Gold mining in Peru
• Secondary gold production
• Key figures
• Comparison of different datasets




3                                              Sybille Büsser   ESU



Overview Gold & Silver production
                                                                Swiss Centre
                                                                For Life Cycle
                                                                Inventories
                                                                A joint initiative of the
                                                                ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                Federal Offices




4                                              Sybille Büsser   ESU
  Overview - Gold
                             19%
 Gold, at refinery ZA
                                                                                           Swiss Centre
                             11%                                                           For Life Cycle
 Gold, at refinery AU                                                                      Inventories
                                                 Gold, secondary,
                             12%
 Gold, at refinery US                            at precious metal
                                                                                           A joint initiative of the
                                                                                           ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                                           Federal Offices
                             5%                  refinery SE                31%
 Gold, at refinery TZ
                             18%
 Gold, at refinery CA                                          Gold, at regional storage
                                                                         RER
 Gold, from combined gold-silver     5%
 production, at refinery CL
                                                                             69%
 Gold, from combined gold-silver     10%          Gold, primary, at
 production, at refinery PE                       refinery GLO
 Gold, from combined gold-silver     19%
 production, at refinery PG
 Gold, from combined metal           1%
 production, at refinery SE

  5                                                                       Sybille Büsser   ESU



  Overview - Silver
                                                                                           Swiss Centre
Silver, from combined                                                                      For Life Cycle
                               32%
gold-silver production, at           Silver, secondary, at precious
                                                                                           Inventories

refinery CL                          metal refinery SE                        28%
                                                                                           A joint initiative of the
                                                                                           ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                                           Federal Offices


Silver, from combined          31%
gold-silver production, at                                       Silver, at regional storage
refinery PE                                                                  RER

Silver, from combined         15%                                              15%
                                     Silver, from combined gold-silver
gold-silver production, at
                                     production, at refinery GLO
refinery PG
                                     Silver, from lead production, at          32%
Silver, from combined
                              22%    refinery GLO
metal production, at
refinery SE
                                     Silver, from copper production, at        26%
                                     refinery GLO


  6                                                                       Sybille Büsser   ESU
Modelling and Data Sources
                                                                            Swiss Centre
                                                                            For Life Cycle
    • Economic allocation (metal multi-output processes)                    Inventories
                                                                            A joint initiative of the
    • Primary Gold and Silver:                                              ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                            Federal Offices


       – Mining infrastructure
       – Mining
       – Refining
    • Data for primary metal production and are based on
      environmental reports
    • Data for secondary metal production and silver from copper
      and lead production are based on industry and literature data




7                                                          Sybille Büsser   ESU



Gold mining in Peru
                                                                            Swiss Centre
                                                                            For Life Cycle
                                                                            Inventories
                                                                            A joint initiative of the
                                                                            ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                            Federal Offices




                    9 km


                                                        9 km
8                                                          Sybille Büsser   ESU
Secondary Gold
                                                                         Swiss Centre
                                                                         For Life Cycle
                                                                         Inventories
     • Pyrometallurgical recovery of electronic scrap
                                                                         A joint initiative of the
                                                                         ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                         Federal Offices




9                                                       Sybille Büsser   ESU



Secondary Gold

                                                                         Swiss Centre
                                                                         For Life Cycle
                                                                         Inventories
                                                                         A joint initiative of the
                                                                         ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                         Federal Offices




10                                                      Sybille Büsser   ESU
               Key figures
                    Gold                                     Unit          Primary                  Secondary
                                                                                                                                    Swiss Centre
                                                                                                                                    For Life Cycle
                    Electricity                              kWh/kg           3‘264 – 32‘603                 19.3                   Inventories
                                                                                                                                    A joint initiative of the
                    Fossil Fuels                             MJ/kg               76 – 262‘729                 2.6                   ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                                                                                    Federal Offices

                    Diesel (building machines)               MJ/kg           3‘386 – 152‘200

                    Concentration                            g/t                        0.2 - 7.5            490


                    Silver                                    Unit          From                From From              Secondary
                                                                            combined s-g        lead       copper

                    Electricity                               kWh/kg               54 – 559         1.5        6.6             0.33

                    Fossil Fuels                              MJ/kg               1 – 6‘345         0.2                        0.04

                    Diesel (building machines)                MJ/kg              58 – 3‘676

                    Concentration                             g/t                0.5 - 41.6                                  5‘600


               11                                                                                              Sybille Büsser       ESU



               Key figures
              700000
                                                                                                                                    Swiss Centre
                                                                                                                                    For Life Cycle
                                          Chile                                                                                     Inventories
              600000
                                                        Papua Neuguinea                                                             A joint initiative of the
                                                                                                                                    ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                                                                                    Federal Offices
              500000
CED [MJ-Eq]




              400000


              300000
                                  United States

                               Australia                                           Tanzania
              200000
                           Sweden                                                                                   South Africa


              100000
                                                                                                                      Peru


                     0
                         0.0        1.0           2.0          3.0         4.0           5.0         6.0        7.0           8.0
                                                                     Head grade [g/t]

               12                                                                                              Sybille Büsser       ESU
            Ecoindicator 99 – Gold production
           6000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               mineral extraction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               fossil fuels                      Swiss Centre
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ozone layer depletion             For Life Cycle
           5000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                respiratory effects               Inventories
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ionising radiation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 A joint initiative of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               climate change                    ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               carcinogenics                     Federal Offices
           4000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               acidification & eutrophication
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               land occupation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ecotoxicity
[Points]




           3000




           2000




           1000




             0
                                                                                                                                                                                            Gold, primary, at
                                                                      USA



                                                                            South Africa




                                                                                                                           Peru




                                                                                                                                                               Sweden
                  Australia



                              Canada



                                              Tanzania




                                                                                              Chile




                                                                                                                                            Papua New Guinea




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               precious metal refinery


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Gold, at regional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Gold, secondary, at




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             storage
                                                                                                                                                                                                refinery




            13                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Sybille Büsser            ESU



            Ecoindicator 99 – Silver production
           120
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 mineral extraction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 fossil fuels                   Swiss Centre
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ozone layer depletion          For Life Cycle
           100                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   respiratory effects            Inventories
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ionising radiation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 climate change                 A joint initiative of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 carcinogenics                  Federal Offices
            80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 acidification & eutrophication
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 land occupation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ecotoxicity
[Points]




            60




            40




            20




             0
                                                                                                      gold-silver production,




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Silver, at regional
                                                                                                                                  production, at refinery




                                                                                                                                                                  production, at refinery




                                                                                                                                                                                                                precious metal refinery
                    Chile




                                       Peru




                                                         Papua New Guinea




                                                                                     Sweden



                                                                                                      Silver, from combined




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Silver, secondary, at
                                                                                                                                   Silver, from copper




                                                                                                                                                                     Silver, from lead




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              storage
                                                                                                            at refinery




            14                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Sybille Büsser            ESU
Conclusion
                                                                           Swiss Centre
                                                                           For Life Cycle
• Datasets are meant to be used as background datasets                     Inventories

• Best practices for gold mining → underestimation                         A joint initiative of the
                                                                           ETH domain and Swiss
                                                                           Federal Offices


• Good data quality with respect to energy, cyanide and
     explosive consumption
• Data for water/air emissions are based on older environmental
     reports
• Differences between countries → based on technologies, head
     grade and assumptions made for emissions




15                                                        Sybille Büsser   ESU

				
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