HANDLUNGSOPTIONEN AUF DEM PRÜFSTAND 29 other organisms in symbiosis. This approach is rooted Handlungsoptionen in a more science-based concept of nature in which the coexistence of organisms is optimised and stabilized auf dem Prüfstand through co-evolution. Einführungsvorträge und Parallelforen zu drei Aktionsfeldern, in denen die Forsch- ung zum Schutz von biologischer Vielfalt beiträgt Forum 1: Hebel der Internatio- nalen Politik Der Einfluss der Biodiversitätsfor- schung auf Steuermechanismen der Politik Prof. Dr. Tetsukazu Yahara, Kyushu University, Fukuoka Current biodiversity loss in Japan is in many cases Einstimmung: connected to changes in land management schemes. For International biodiversity science and its example, use of domestic forest products has decreased contribution to sustainable development dramatically due to changes in life styles and a shift – a Japanese perspective towards the use of imported fossil fuels instead of wood or charcoal. Forest area has not changed much due to this, Prof. Dr. Tetsukazu Yahara, Kyushu University, Fukuoka but the volume of standing timber has been increasing Prof. Yahara gave an overview of global environmental steadily. This is contributing to the decline of species that threats and major international research programmes on benefitted from traditional forest management. Grassland biodiversity, such as DIVERSITAS and GEO (Group on areas are also much less used, and they have largely dis- Earth Observations), in particular the Biodiversity Obser- appeared from many regions because there is less demand vation Network (GEO-BON). The Biodiversity Science- for pastures or hay. A number of grassland species are Policy Interface at the international level comprises therefore endangered. Another phenomenon that appears four main areas, which are each represented by certain to be related to land use change – possibly together with programmes: research (DIVERSITAS), assessment climate change leading to milder winters – is the nation- (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment; Intergovernmental wide increase of the Sika Deer population. Intensive Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services), ob- browsing by deer up to high elevations is putting popula- servations (GEO-BON) and policy (Convention on Bio- tions of rare plants at risk. logical Diversity). In Japan, global warming, the wasting Most food and raw materials used in Japan are nowadays of resources and biodiversity loss have been identified as imported from abroad, causing forest loss and decline the main environmental challenges that society is facing. of biodiversity elsewhere. Current biodiversity research Accordingly, three main goals have been defined in order initiatives like the Global Center of Excellence “Asian to achieve sustainability. The aim is to build a society Conservation Ecology”, jointly managed by Kyushu Uni- characterized by low carbon emissions, effective recyc- versity and the University of Tokyo, combine field studies ling and symbiosis, i.e. living in harmony with nature. and local capacity building in the project areas. There are two different approaches to the concept of a An example for the conservation, restoration and ma- symbiotic society: (a) Living as a part of nature. This nagement of satoyama landscapes is the project carried is in line with traditional perceptions of nature in Japan out on the new campus of Kyushu University. The goal in which humans receive gifts from nature (this idea is to have no net loss of species or forest area due to corresponds roughly to the modern concept of ecosystem the development of the new campus in an area that was services), but they can also be punished by nature if they originally covered by the typical elements of traditional behave in a destructive manner. (b) Living together with Japanese rural landscapes. 30 HANDLUNGSOPTIONEN AUF DEM PRÜFSTAND Introductory presentations, part 1 1b. From science to policy making: 1a. Biodiversity research today – between NGOs as transmission belts need scientific impact factor and political perception backing Minnattallah Boutros, Coordinator BIOTA West Africa, Kathrin Blaufuss, Forum Umwelt und Entwicklung, Ko- Universität Würzburg ordinationsstelle CBD / Deutscher Naturschutzring Taking into accout her observations of problems at the science-policy interface for ten years, for Ms. Boutros it has become clear that biodiversity researchers today require an extremely wide range of knowledge and skills in order to meet all expectations they are confronted with. According to these expectations a biodiversity researcher should be an innovative researcher with numerous high impact publications, a gifted teacher, a brilliant networ- ker, a transdisciplinary team worker with leadership characteristics, an intercultural facilitator, a manager of a (close to bankrupt) medium sized company, and a successful policy adivsor. Kathrin Blaufuss, Forum Umwelt und Entwicklung It becomes clear that it is practically impossible to meet The focus of Ms. Blaufuss’s presentation was on the all these demands. Suggestions for solutions to this needs of NGOs involved in political work. In order to problem are: successfully influence political processes, in particular • separation of different levels: research, coordination negotiations related to the Convention on Biological Di- and organization, policy advice; versity (CBD), NGOs urgently need scientific evidence that clarifies the links between ecological and socio- • sufficient funding for all levels, economic processes; this evidence has to be provided by • adequate recognition of achievements on the diffe- the scientific community. The aim of the political work rent levels, of NGOs is to develop positions that are fed into political processes and are subsequently translated into policies. • capacity building on the different levels. Hence, there is a need for a sound scientific basis so that Paradigm shifts on all levels and the invention of new effective policies can be derived. However, even the best tools are necessary. In this regard, it is an open question scientific evidence does not help if it is not being read. if the planned Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiver- Communication is the key, and this is the core task for sity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) can be (part of) the NGOs. In this sense, NGOs act as ‘transmission belts’ solution to the mentioned problems. that ensure that scientific evidence is considered adequa- tely and becomes part of sound policies. It is obvious that NGOs have to rely on scientific evi- dence so that they can make a strong case when they present their demands to governments. For NGOs to have significant impact on policy-making, they need scientific information that is: • Policy relevant: The link to human well-being as the ultimate goal of policies needs to be clarified. • Credible: It needs to be shown that there is good evidence for the conclusions that are drawn. • Legitimate: It has to be shown that the research was conducted in accordance with the general rules of Minnattallah Boutros, Coordinator BIOTA West Africa, Universität Würzburg good scientific work and was not biased to support only the views of one particular group of stakehol- ders. HANDLUNGSOPTIONEN AUF DEM PRÜFSTAND 31 • Clear: It needs to be formulated in a way that is influence of political pressure groups. accessible for decision-makers; ideally, the main • an reports and policy briefs should become an integ- messages should be packaged as compact ‘sound- bites’ that can be used directly by the media. Fur- ral part of reporting duties in research grants. thermore, scientific results should be visualized so • Regional scientific assessments of ecosystems and that relevant information can be grasped easily. their role for human societies should be carried out. At present we are not yet at a stage where policy-rele- • Contributions to assessments should be recognized vant scientific information and unbiased syntheses of as valuable by bodies that are responsible for evalu- results and conclusions are widely available. Scientific ations of scientific work. information in relation to biodiversity is still largely col- lated ad hoc during policy-making processes, and there • Support of capacity building for the analysis and is no efficient, independent mechanism to synthesize it evaluation of biodiversity and ecosystem services continuously, especially on the global level. should be given – in Germany and overseas. Establishing the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodi- Introductory presentations, part 2 versity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) as it is being discussed at the UN level would provide NGOs and 2a. Satoyama research at the University of other stakeholders with a single, credible, recognized Natural Resources and Applied Life Scien- and independent international source of scientific exper- ces (BOKU), Vienna tise in the field of biodiversity and would allow NGOs to draw on widely accepted information. NGOs therefore Pia Kieninger, Institut für Integrative Naturschutzfor- support the establishment of IPBES and call for its rapid schung, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien implementation through a decision to be taken at the Isabelle Prochaska, Institut für Ostasienwissenschaften, UN General Assembly this year. However, in order for Universität Wien IPBES to function effectively, it needs to fulfill strong criteria concerning its structure, scope and governance. Stakeholders such as NGOs with a certain scientific expertise should be able to participate in the work on all organizational levels of the intergovernmental platform. Results of the discussion Question 1: How would a “World Biodiver- sity Council“ (IPBES) have to function for scientists to feed in their relevant findings into the international policy process? • The institution needs to include specialists from various fields (natural sciences, social sciences etc.). Pia Kieninger, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, und Isabelle Prochaska, • IPBES should develop procedures to integrate diffe- Universität Wien rent forms of knowledge. In 2007 the “Satoyama Platform – Network for Nature • The evaluation criteria for scientific work need to be Conservation and Biodiversity Research” was founded extended so that contributions to reports for IPBES at the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life are accepted as scientific achievements. Sciences (BOKU), Vienna. The Japanese term Satoy- • To provide further incentives for scientists to contri- ama stands for traditional rural landscapes especially bute to IPBES, its publications should attain a status in central and southern Japan. It usually encompasses similar to peer-reviewed journals. functionally linked areas of managed forests (often as coppice) and rice paddies including systems for irrigation • Authorship of reports or papers for IPBES should and drainage. Why did we choose the word Satoyama? be clearly indicated for this purpose. We felt that terms like “biodiversity“ or “biocultural • Governance structures of IPBES have to ensure diversity“ are rather technical and focus on scientific broad participation and independence from the aspects only. 32 HANDLUNGSOPTIONEN AUF DEM PRÜFSTAND The term Satoyama as it is used in Japan, on the other 2b. The Satoyama Initiative – Realizing hand, comprises also emotional aspects. It is linked to societies in harmony with nature perceptions of (managed) landscapes providing not only food and raw materials but also a spiritual home (con- Naoki Amako, Ministry of the Environment, Japan nection to ancestors) and a “sense of place”. Many Aus- Mr. Amako presented the “Satoyama Initiative“ that is trians share similar views (traditional roots in the rural promoted by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment Alpine landscape), but there is no single term to describe together with the United Nations University and the them. Therefore we think that Satoyama is a suitable ex- pression to describe traditional rural landscapes like they exist in many areas worldwide. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being short and easy to remember. Satoy- ama can be promoted as a concept in which management of ecosystems is essential for biodiversity. The goals of the platform are: • To enhance cooperation between departments within the university, • to stimulate interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research, Naoki Amako, Ministry of the Environment, Japan • to enhance teaching in nature conservation, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. • and to bridge the gap between the university and A Satoyama landscape is a socio-ecological production society. landscape, where local residents carry out agricultural activities and integrated ecosystem management by pro- The following measures are applied to reach the above ducing food and fuel, providing habitats for wildlife and mentioned goals: composting wastes. The reason for focusing on Satoyama • Organisation of a series of seminars, is that approximately one-third of the land of the world is affected by cultivation and grazing, while additional • Organisation of (international) conferences and vast areas are used as fallow land, woodland, and pasture. workshops, Over half of all animal and plant species live outside • Cooperation with other relevant networks and insti- protected areas, such as in agricultural landscapes. tutions, Therefore, biodiversity conservation within designated wilderness protection areas alone is not sufficient. • Publications in daily newspapers and magazines, The Satoyama Initiative has the vision of a society in • Initiation/coordination of interdisciplinary research harmony with nature. Its approach is threefold: inte- projects, gration of traditional knowledge and modern science, • Contribution to the revision of the curricula of consolidation of wisdom on ecosystem services, and the undergraduate and graduate degrees, creation of new commons (areas in which resources are used jointly by various stakeholders). Five perspectives • Contribution to the development of new curricula are essential within the conceptual structure: for postgraduate education programs. • Resource use within the carrying capacity and resili- Currently 25 scientists from six different departments ence of the environment are members of the “Satoyama Platform”, and it is still growing. Topics of research and practical activies are, • Natural resource management by various partici- among others: pants and cooperating entities • What aspects of the Satoyama concept could be inte- • Cyclic use of natural resources resting in a European context? • Contributions to local socio-economies • Mainstreaming biodiversity • Recognition of the value and importance of local • How can science be brought into politics? traditions and cultures. HANDLUNGSOPTIONEN AUF DEM PRÜFSTAND 33 The aim is to promote sustainable use of natural resour- Results of the discussion ces by the following activities: Question 2 a) What are potential weak- • Collecting, analyzing and deriving lessons from nesses of the Satoyama concept? case studies and promoting the dissemination of • The concepts of Satoyama and the “Satoyama Initia- information related to technology tive” are not clearly defined. • Promoting research • The Satoyama Initiative could be seen as an attempt • Fostering bilateral and multilateral ODA (Official to return to a pre-industrial society, and it is likely Development Assistance) projects and publicizing that the opinion that there is no way “back to the excellent case studies roots” would reduce support for the initiative. • Promoting personnel and capacity development • Satoyama currently is lacking a clear definition of what types of landscapes qualify as a “socio-eco- • Promoting network activities. logical production landscape”, how they should be An international framework (the International Satoyama managed in order to maintain biodiversity. Partnership) will be established to conduct the activities mentioned above. The core members of this partnership • A single concept probably cannot be applied at the will be governments (national and local), international global scale, and locally different approaches are organizations, research institutions, private sectors, needed. NGOs and civil society. Activities are to be implemented • There is concern that financial resources that are within a framework that includes donor agencies and currently allocated to protected areas might be funding mechanisms. diverted to support activities in socio-cultural pro- The main tasks and challenges of the Satoyama Initiative duction landscapes, with possible negative conse- can be summarized with the following questions: quences for the effectiveness of conservation efforts on the whole. 1. How can we raise awareness that ecosystems which are influenced by human activities are also important Question 2 b) What are the chances of this for biodiversity? concept for becoming a mainstream con- 2. Beyond the short-term oriented Official Development cept internationally? Assistance, how can we secure long-term funding for the Satoyama Initiative, e.g. through Payments for • The term Satoyama has a nice sound value, it is easy Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes? to pronounce and to remember and therefore has potential as a tool for communication. 3. How can we measure the benefits derived from socio- ecological production landscapes, represented by • The term describes a broad concept that encompas- Satoyama, in a scientifically sound manner? What are ses many aspects and is suitable to strengthen the suitable indicators for the quantification of ecosystem awareness of biological diversity. services provided by these landscapes? • The approach which addresses emotional or traditio- 4. How can we improve cooperation of stakeholders nal ways of looking at landscapes or ecosystems can across disciplines and institutions, e.g. between the be applied in many situations globally. agricultural sector and the planning and transport • The Satoyama concept represents an integrative sectors? approach for the management of cultural landscapes including the sustainable use of biodiversity. • Landscapes altered strongly by human influence cover the majority of land areas nowadays; adapting the management of these areas to improve conser- vation of biodiversity is important in addition to the protection in national parks etc. • The Satoyama concept includes stakeholders rather than excluding them from land use; therefore, it can improve acceptance of biodiversity conservation.