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					                                                             HANDLUNGSOPTIONEN AUF DEM PRÜFSTAND                          29




                                                                other organisms in symbiosis. This approach is rooted
   Handlungsoptionen                                            in a more science-based concept of nature in which the
                                                                coexistence of organisms is optimised and stabilized
   auf dem Prüfstand                                            through co-evolution.



Einführungsvorträge und Parallelforen zu
drei Aktionsfeldern, in denen die Forsch-
ung zum Schutz von biologischer Vielfalt
beiträgt
Forum 1: Hebel der Internatio-
nalen Politik
Der Einfluss der Biodiversitätsfor-
schung auf Steuermechanismen
der Politik                                                     Prof. Dr. Tetsukazu Yahara, Kyushu University, Fukuoka


                                                                Current biodiversity loss in Japan is in many cases
Einstimmung:                                                    connected to changes in land management schemes. For
International biodiversity science and its                      example, use of domestic forest products has decreased
contribution to sustainable development                         dramatically due to changes in life styles and a shift
– a Japanese perspective                                        towards the use of imported fossil fuels instead of wood
                                                                or charcoal. Forest area has not changed much due to this,
Prof. Dr. Tetsukazu Yahara, Kyushu University, Fukuoka          but the volume of standing timber has been increasing
Prof. Yahara gave an overview of global environmental           steadily. This is contributing to the decline of species that
threats and major international research programmes on          benefitted from traditional forest management. Grassland
biodiversity, such as DIVERSITAS and GEO (Group on              areas are also much less used, and they have largely dis-
Earth Observations), in particular the Biodiversity Obser-      appeared from many regions because there is less demand
vation Network (GEO-BON). The Biodiversity Science-             for pastures or hay. A number of grassland species are
Policy Interface at the international level comprises           therefore endangered. Another phenomenon that appears
four main areas, which are each represented by certain          to be related to land use change – possibly together with
programmes: research (DIVERSITAS), assessment                   climate change leading to milder winters – is the nation-
(Millennium Ecosystem Assessment; Intergovernmental             wide increase of the Sika Deer population. Intensive
Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services), ob-           browsing by deer up to high elevations is putting popula-
servations (GEO-BON) and policy (Convention on Bio-             tions of rare plants at risk.
logical Diversity). In Japan, global warming, the wasting       Most food and raw materials used in Japan are nowadays
of resources and biodiversity loss have been identified as      imported from abroad, causing forest loss and decline
the main environmental challenges that society is facing.       of biodiversity elsewhere. Current biodiversity research
Accordingly, three main goals have been defined in order        initiatives like the Global Center of Excellence “Asian
to achieve sustainability. The aim is to build a society        Conservation Ecology”, jointly managed by Kyushu Uni-
characterized by low carbon emissions, effective recyc-         versity and the University of Tokyo, combine field studies
ling and symbiosis, i.e. living in harmony with nature.         and local capacity building in the project areas.
There are two different approaches to the concept of a          An example for the conservation, restoration and ma-
symbiotic society: (a) Living as a part of nature. This         nagement of satoyama landscapes is the project carried
is in line with traditional perceptions of nature in Japan      out on the new campus of Kyushu University. The goal
in which humans receive gifts from nature (this idea            is to have no net loss of species or forest area due to
corresponds roughly to the modern concept of ecosystem          the development of the new campus in an area that was
services), but they can also be punished by nature if they      originally covered by the typical elements of traditional
behave in a destructive manner. (b) Living together with        Japanese rural landscapes.
     30           HANDLUNGSOPTIONEN AUF DEM PRÜFSTAND




Introductory presentations, part 1                                          1b. From science to policy making:
1a. Biodiversity research today – between                                   NGOs as transmission belts need scientific
impact factor and political perception                                      backing
Minnattallah Boutros, Coordinator BIOTA West Africa,                        Kathrin Blaufuss, Forum Umwelt und Entwicklung, Ko-
Universität Würzburg                                                        ordinationsstelle CBD / Deutscher Naturschutzring
Taking into accout her observations of problems at the
science-policy interface for ten years, for Ms. Boutros
it has become clear that biodiversity researchers today
require an extremely wide range of knowledge and skills
in order to meet all expectations they are confronted with.
According to these expectations a biodiversity researcher
should be an innovative researcher with numerous high
impact publications, a gifted teacher, a brilliant networ-
ker, a transdisciplinary team worker with leadership
characteristics, an intercultural facilitator, a manager
of a (close to bankrupt) medium sized company, and a
successful policy adivsor.                                                  Kathrin Blaufuss, Forum Umwelt und Entwicklung

It becomes clear that it is practically impossible to meet                  The focus of Ms. Blaufuss’s presentation was on the
all these demands. Suggestions for solutions to this                        needs of NGOs involved in political work. In order to
problem are:                                                                successfully influence political processes, in particular
 •        separation of different levels: research, coordination            negotiations related to the Convention on Biological Di-
          and organization, policy advice;                                  versity (CBD), NGOs urgently need scientific evidence
                                                                            that clarifies the links between ecological and socio-
 •        sufficient funding for all levels,                                economic processes; this evidence has to be provided by
 •        adequate recognition of achievements on the diffe-                the scientific community. The aim of the political work
          rent levels,                                                      of NGOs is to develop positions that are fed into political
                                                                            processes and are subsequently translated into policies.
 •        capacity building on the different levels.                        Hence, there is a need for a sound scientific basis so that
Paradigm shifts on all levels and the invention of new                      effective policies can be derived. However, even the best
tools are necessary. In this regard, it is an open question                 scientific evidence does not help if it is not being read.
if the planned Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiver-                      Communication is the key, and this is the core task for
sity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) can be (part of) the                    NGOs. In this sense, NGOs act as ‘transmission belts’
solution to the mentioned problems.                                         that ensure that scientific evidence is considered adequa-
                                                                            tely and becomes part of sound policies.
                                                                            It is obvious that NGOs have to rely on scientific evi-
                                                                            dence so that they can make a strong case when they
                                                                            present their demands to governments. For NGOs to
                                                                            have significant impact on policy-making, they need
                                                                            scientific information that is:
                                                                             •   Policy relevant: The link to human well-being as the
                                                                                 ultimate goal of policies needs to be clarified.
                                                                             •   Credible: It needs to be shown that there is good
                                                                                 evidence for the conclusions that are drawn.
                                                                             •   Legitimate: It has to be shown that the research was
                                                                                 conducted in accordance with the general rules of
Minnattallah Boutros, Coordinator BIOTA West Africa, Universität Würzburg        good scientific work and was not biased to support
                                                                                 only the views of one particular group of stakehol-
                                                                                 ders.
                                                                HANDLUNGSOPTIONEN AUF DEM PRÜFSTAND                                          31




 •   Clear: It needs to be formulated in a way that is                  influence of political pressure groups.
     accessible for decision-makers; ideally, the main
                                                                   •    an reports and policy briefs should become an integ-
     messages should be packaged as compact ‘sound-
     bites’ that can be used directly by the media. Fur-                ral part of reporting duties in research grants.
     thermore, scientific results should be visualized so          •    Regional scientific assessments of ecosystems and
     that relevant information can be grasped easily.                   their role for human societies should be carried out.
At present we are not yet at a stage where policy-rele-            •    Contributions to assessments should be recognized
vant scientific information and unbiased syntheses of                   as valuable by bodies that are responsible for evalu-
results and conclusions are widely available. Scientific                ations of scientific work.
information in relation to biodiversity is still largely col-
lated ad hoc during policy-making processes, and there             •    Support of capacity building for the analysis and
is no efficient, independent mechanism to synthesize it                 evaluation of biodiversity and ecosystem services
continuously, especially on the global level.                           should be given – in Germany and overseas.
Establishing the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodi-             Introductory presentations, part 2
versity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) as it is being
discussed at the UN level would provide NGOs and                  2a. Satoyama research at the University of
other stakeholders with a single, credible, recognized            Natural Resources and Applied Life Scien-
and independent international source of scientific exper-         ces (BOKU), Vienna
tise in the field of biodiversity and would allow NGOs to
draw on widely accepted information. NGOs therefore               Pia Kieninger, Institut für Integrative Naturschutzfor-
support the establishment of IPBES and call for its rapid         schung, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien
implementation through a decision to be taken at the
                                                                  Isabelle Prochaska, Institut für Ostasienwissenschaften,
UN General Assembly this year. However, in order for
                                                                  Universität Wien
IPBES to function effectively, it needs to fulfill strong
criteria concerning its structure, scope and governance.
Stakeholders such as NGOs with a certain scientific
expertise should be able to participate in the work on all
organizational levels of the intergovernmental platform.
Results of the discussion
Question 1: How would a “World Biodiver-
sity Council“ (IPBES) have to function for
scientists to feed in their relevant findings
into the international policy process?
 •   The institution needs to include specialists from
     various fields (natural sciences, social sciences etc.).
                                                                  Pia Kieninger, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, und Isabelle Prochaska,
 •   IPBES should develop procedures to integrate diffe-          Universität Wien
     rent forms of knowledge.
                                                                  In 2007 the “Satoyama Platform – Network for Nature
 •   The evaluation criteria for scientific work need to be
                                                                  Conservation and Biodiversity Research” was founded
     extended so that contributions to reports for IPBES
                                                                  at the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life
     are accepted as scientific achievements.
                                                                  Sciences (BOKU), Vienna. The Japanese term Satoy-
 •   To provide further incentives for scientists to contri-      ama stands for traditional rural landscapes especially
     bute to IPBES, its publications should attain a status       in central and southern Japan. It usually encompasses
     similar to peer-reviewed journals.                           functionally linked areas of managed forests (often as
                                                                  coppice) and rice paddies including systems for irrigation
 •   Authorship of reports or papers for IPBES should
                                                                  and drainage. Why did we choose the word Satoyama?
     be clearly indicated for this purpose.
                                                                  We felt that terms like “biodiversity“ or “biocultural
 •   Governance structures of IPBES have to ensure                diversity“ are rather technical and focus on scientific
     broad participation and independence from the                aspects only.
     32           HANDLUNGSOPTIONEN AUF DEM PRÜFSTAND




The term Satoyama as it is used in Japan, on the other            2b. The Satoyama Initiative – Realizing
hand, comprises also emotional aspects. It is linked to           societies in harmony with nature
perceptions of (managed) landscapes providing not only
food and raw materials but also a spiritual home (con-            Naoki Amako, Ministry of the Environment, Japan
nection to ancestors) and a “sense of place”. Many Aus-           Mr. Amako presented the “Satoyama Initiative“ that is
trians share similar views (traditional roots in the rural        promoted by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment
Alpine landscape), but there is no single term to describe        together with the United Nations University and the
them. Therefore we think that Satoyama is a suitable ex-
pression to describe traditional rural landscapes like they
exist in many areas worldwide. Furthermore, it has the
advantage of being short and easy to remember. Satoy-
ama can be promoted as a concept in which management
of ecosystems is essential for biodiversity.
The goals of the platform are:
 •        To enhance cooperation between departments within
          the university,
 •        to stimulate interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary
          research,
                                                                  Naoki Amako, Ministry of the Environment, Japan
 •        to enhance teaching in nature conservation,             Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
 •        and to bridge the gap between the university and        A Satoyama landscape is a socio-ecological production
          society.                                                landscape, where local residents carry out agricultural
                                                                  activities and integrated ecosystem management by pro-
The following measures are applied to reach the above             ducing food and fuel, providing habitats for wildlife and
mentioned goals:                                                  composting wastes. The reason for focusing on Satoyama
 •        Organisation of a series of seminars,                   is that approximately one-third of the land of the world
                                                                  is affected by cultivation and grazing, while additional
 •        Organisation of (international) conferences and         vast areas are used as fallow land, woodland, and pasture.
          workshops,                                              Over half of all animal and plant species live outside
 •        Cooperation with other relevant networks and insti-     protected areas, such as in agricultural landscapes.
          tutions,                                                Therefore, biodiversity conservation within designated
                                                                  wilderness protection areas alone is not sufficient.
 •        Publications in daily newspapers and magazines,
                                                                  The Satoyama Initiative has the vision of a society in
 •        Initiation/coordination of interdisciplinary research   harmony with nature. Its approach is threefold: inte-
          projects,                                               gration of traditional knowledge and modern science,
 •        Contribution to the revision of the curricula of        consolidation of wisdom on ecosystem services, and the
          undergraduate and graduate degrees,                     creation of new commons (areas in which resources are
                                                                  used jointly by various stakeholders). Five perspectives
 •        Contribution to the development of new curricula        are essential within the conceptual structure:
          for postgraduate education programs.
                                                                   •    Resource use within the carrying capacity and resili-
Currently 25 scientists from six different departments                  ence of the environment
are members of the “Satoyama Platform”, and it is still
growing. Topics of research and practical activies are,            •    Natural resource management by various partici-
among others:                                                           pants and cooperating entities

 • What aspects of the Satoyama concept could be inte-             •    Cyclic use of natural resources
    resting in a European context?                                 •    Contributions to local socio-economies
 • Mainstreaming biodiversity                                      •    Recognition of the value and importance of local
 • How can science be brought into politics?                            traditions and cultures.
                                                             HANDLUNGSOPTIONEN AUF DEM PRÜFSTAND                        33




The aim is to promote sustainable use of natural resour-       Results of the discussion
ces by the following activities:                               Question 2 a) What are potential weak-
 •   Collecting, analyzing and deriving lessons from           nesses of the Satoyama concept?
     case studies and promoting the dissemination of
                                                                •   The concepts of Satoyama and the “Satoyama Initia-
     information related to technology
                                                                    tive” are not clearly defined.
 •   Promoting research
                                                                •   The Satoyama Initiative could be seen as an attempt
 •   Fostering bilateral and multilateral ODA (Official             to return to a pre-industrial society, and it is likely
     Development Assistance) projects and publicizing               that the opinion that there is no way “back to the
     excellent case studies                                         roots” would reduce support for the initiative.
 •   Promoting personnel and capacity development               •   Satoyama currently is lacking a clear definition of
                                                                    what types of landscapes qualify as a “socio-eco-
 •   Promoting network activities.
                                                                    logical production landscape”, how they should be
An international framework (the International Satoyama              managed in order to maintain biodiversity.
Partnership) will be established to conduct the activities
mentioned above. The core members of this partnership           •   A single concept probably cannot be applied at the
will be governments (national and local), international             global scale, and locally different approaches are
organizations, research institutions, private sectors,              needed.
NGOs and civil society. Activities are to be implemented        •   There is concern that financial resources that are
within a framework that includes donor agencies and                 currently allocated to protected areas might be
funding mechanisms.                                                 diverted to support activities in socio-cultural pro-
The main tasks and challenges of the Satoyama Initiative            duction landscapes, with possible negative conse-
can be summarized with the following questions:                     quences for the effectiveness of conservation efforts
                                                                    on the whole.
1. How can we raise awareness that ecosystems which
   are influenced by human activities are also important       Question 2 b) What are the chances of this
   for biodiversity?                                           concept for becoming a mainstream con-
2. Beyond the short-term oriented Official Development         cept internationally?
   Assistance, how can we secure long-term funding for
   the Satoyama Initiative, e.g. through Payments for           •   The term Satoyama has a nice sound value, it is easy
   Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes?                                to pronounce and to remember and therefore has
                                                                    potential as a tool for communication.
3. How can we measure the benefits derived from socio-
   ecological production landscapes, represented by             •   The term describes a broad concept that encompas-
   Satoyama, in a scientifically sound manner? What are             ses many aspects and is suitable to strengthen the
   suitable indicators for the quantification of ecosystem          awareness of biological diversity.
   services provided by these landscapes?                       •   The approach which addresses emotional or traditio-
4. How can we improve cooperation of stakeholders                   nal ways of looking at landscapes or ecosystems can
   across disciplines and institutions, e.g. between the            be applied in many situations globally.
   agricultural sector and the planning and transport
                                                                •   The Satoyama concept represents an integrative
   sectors?
                                                                    approach for the management of cultural landscapes
                                                                    including the sustainable use of biodiversity.
                                                                •   Landscapes altered strongly by human influence
                                                                    cover the majority of land areas nowadays; adapting
                                                                    the management of these areas to improve conser-
                                                                    vation of biodiversity is important in addition to the
                                                                    protection in national parks etc.
                                                                •   The Satoyama concept includes stakeholders rather
                                                                    than excluding them from land use; therefore, it can
                                                                    improve acceptance of biodiversity conservation.