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					                                   95             SEP/2007


Saturation diving
makes a comeback

Regard 3900

Are drugs involved? –
Dräger DrugCheck™
gives you the answer

Online training for filtering
respiratory protection
                                   DRÄGER REVIEW 12|2004
                                95 377 DRÄGERHEFT 09|2007   1


                                                                                     Page 08                          Page 12

                                DRÄGER SAFETY SOLUTIONS
                                Emergency response training
                                Dräger fire and rescue training gallery at Suvarnabhumi Airport Bangkok          04
                                Saturation diving makes a comeback:
                                Dräger supplies deep-sea diving system for diving support vessel "Bibby Topaz"   08

                                GAS DETECTION TECHNOLOGY
                                Yet another innovative product from Dräger Safety                                12
                                Use of detection systems in the area of Homeland Security                        14
                                Service efficiency when using portable gas detectors                             20

                                RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
                                Air purifying respiratory protection
                                Requirements in painting applications                                            24

                                Identifying alcohol, prescription medication and drug abuse at the workplace     32
                                Are drugs involved? – Dräger DrugCheck™ gives you the answer
                                A simple, accurate and quick test for on site application                        40

                                Global certification for Dräger Safety                                           45

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                                                      Page 24                                          Page 32                                    Page 50

Training fire brigades all over Germany                                                                       46
Online training for filtering respiratory protection:                                                                           50
Dräger Seminar in St Gall – Fire Brigades and Cultural Heritage                                               52

IMPRESSUM                                                                                                     55

                                         Health hazards caused by airborne contaminants are one of the
                                         greatest health risks faced by commercial industrial plants, and this
                                         is not only the case during painting and varnishing work. Suitable
                                         respiratory protective products should always be selected and used
                                         carefully and systematically. For long-term spray painting jobs,
                                         power-assisted devices or lightweight compressed air line breathing
                                         apparatus are the obvious first choice because of the lower
                                         respiratory strain they impose on the wearer. More minor jobs may
                                         permit the use of half or full face masks. To ensure that the

                                         respiratory protective equipment that the employer makes available
                                         is actually put into use, the quality of the products and the wearing
                                         acceptance of the user are of paramount importance.

                                                                                                                   95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007   3

Emergency response training
Dräger fire and rescue training gallery
at Suvarnabhumi Airport Bangkok

                                                                                                Training is monitored from the control room

                                Thanks to the systems expertise of its                          cepts to ensure the safety of passengers,
                                Training and Workshop Systems focus                             airport facilities and air traffic. Concepts
                                group, not to mention the professionalism                       which Wing Commander Lukchai
                                of the international project managers at                        Chaleoyprach, Vice President of the
                                Dräger Safety Solutions in Lübeck, the                          Rescue and Fire Fighting Department
                                Safety division of Drägerwerk AG was able                       at Bangkok's new Suvarnabhumi Airport,
                                to deliver a fire and rescue training gallery                   which was officially opened on 28 Sep-
                                to Bangkok's Suvarnabhumi Airport right                         tember 2006, must also come to grips with.
                                on schedule – a sound endorsement once                          Initially, the airport will be able to handle
                                again of Dräger's international orientation.                    76 take-offs and landings per hour, and
                                                                                                45 million passengers per year. Five of its
                                                                                                51 gates are already equipped to accommo-
                                                                                                date the new Airbus A 380. The three
                                                                                                stations of the Rescue and Fire Fighting
                                                                                                Department are manned around the clock
                                                                                                for the purpose of rescue missions, fire
                                                                                                prevention and fire fighting – in preparation
                                                                                                for the disaster which will hopefully never


                                Wing Commander Lukchai Chaleoyprach,                            Dräger training galleries simulate reality
                                Vice President of the Rescue and Fire Fighting                  80 percent of all aircraft accidents occur
                                                                                                during take-off or landing. Emergency
                                Without aircraft, international business,                       response training for such situations must
                                global enterprise and worldwide trade                           therefore be realistic, safe and replicable.
                                would be just as unthinkable as a global                        For this purpose, Dräger supplies turnkey
                                tourist industry which nowadays knows no                        aircraft fire simulation and training facilities
                                bounds. Airports in almost every country                        from a single source. Martin Reichel, pro-
                                around the world have become the trans-                         duct portfolio manager at the strategic
                                port hubs of modern life and air traffic.                       Dräger Safety Solutions division, sums up
                                Soon, large aircraft carrying more than                         the company's experience in this field as
                                800 passengers or air freight of up to 150                      follows: "For decades now, Dräger has been
                                metric tons will be taking to the skies. This                   actively supporting its customers by passing
                                fact, and the terrorist activities of recent                    on its theoretical and practical knowledge.
                                years, are challenges which require con-                        Dräger is responsible for designing,

4    95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007

               Personnel are briefed before training starts   The Passive Aircraft Trainer (PAT) can be seen in the background   Martin Reichel: "As much reality as possible"

               developing and supplying customized sys-                      puter from the control building or by radio         gas detection sensors from the Dräger
               tem solutions, e.g. workshop, training,                       control over an area of 750 square metres",         Polytron sensor family. Dräger develops
               breathing gas management and rescue                           explains Martin Reichel, who, as technical          and implements tailor-made solutions for its
               systems. These include training galleries                     manager, has overseen similar projects at           customers.
               which nowadays even feature realistic fire                    airports in the UK, France, Spain and else-
               fighting scenarios." Dräger's bid for the                     where. "132 temperature sensors monitor             "Before my men are deployed, they have to
               Suvarnabhumi Airport project, a compre-                       66 individually controlled sections. This           complete this training", stresses Wing Com-
               hensive training concept consisting of two                    allows us to control the spread of the fuel         mander Lukchai Chaleoyprach. "Only then
               full-size fuselage sections, proved convinc-                  spill fire and simulate different extinguishing     are they ready for action." Besides realistic
               ing and the company was awarded the con-                      agents." For the sake of the environment,           training conditions, he attaches great impor-
               tract to design, plan, construct and deliver                  the system is run on propane gas. The gas           tance to the safety standard of equipment:
               this complete training system, including                      supply and fire characteristics are control-        "We practise evacuation procedures here,
               safety equipment and gas logistics. Dräger                    led by a number of valves and monitored by          too, by sending our fire fighters into the
               acted as consortium manager and coordi-
               nated the other internationally renowned
                                                                                                                                                            Preparing to tackle a fire
               firms involved in the project, thus ensuring
               the client had a competent contact who,
               thanks to its local subsidiary Draeger Safety
               (Thailand) Ltd. in Bangkok, could be reach-
               ed at all times. The result was a 2.6-hectare
               training facility – in the direct vicinity of the
               airport – which is without equal anywhere in
               the world.

               The Passive Aircraft Trainer (PAT), a
               Boeing B 747 with realistic interior, can be
               filled completely with smoke. It can be used
               to enact various scenarios and practise
               evacuation procedures. The next step is
               to install fire zones for fire extinguishing
               exercises in the fuselage, whose construc-
               tion required 250 tons of steel. The Fuel
               Spill Fire Trainer (FST), a Boeing B 737,

               simulates what is known as a fuel spill fire.
               "The fire is regulated manually or by com-

                                                                                                                                                     95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007               5

6    95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
               smoke-filled Boeing 747. Our safety con-
               cept allows us to maintain constant contact
               with our men while they are inside." Equip-
               ped with Dräger breathing apparatus and
               thermal imaging cameras, the rescue crews
               comb the entire aircraft in an attempt to
               locate people, which in this case are 75 kg

               dummies. Visibility is virtually zero, and the
               emergency teams are under a high level
                                                                Emergency response training
               of psychological and physical stress. Team
                                                                must be as realistic as possible
               spirit and communication skills are called
               for. Patom Thamtranon, Director of Fire
               Prevention and Technique at Suvarnabhumi
               Airport's Rescue and Fire Fighting Depart-
               ment, is extremely impressed by the possi-
               bilities offered by the new test environment:
               "We have already received enquiries from
               colleagues at other Thai airport fire depart-
               ments, who also want to have their people
               trained here." Dräger is confident that more
               and more airports will be interested in this
               type of training in the future. So if disaster
               does happen to strike, everyone will know
               exactly what they have to do.

               Burkard Dillig
               Drägerwerk AG

               Dräger, the consortium manager
               The Thai airport authority awarded the contract for the fire and rescue training gallery at
               Suvarnabhumi Airport to an international consortium consisting of four companies.
               The consortium comprised Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA and Dräger Safety (Thailand)
               Ltd., as well as two Thai firms which handled planning and construction work. As consor-
               tium manager, Dräger was responsible not only for the system technology, but also for
               project and contract management on behalf of the consortium.
               The Dräger fire and rescue training facility is just one element in the construction of
               Bangkok's new international airport. Details of construction and project management are
               laid down in extensive contractual documents.

               Thanks to the systems expertise of its Training and Workshop Systems focus group, not to
               mention the professionalism of the international project managers in Lübeck, Dräger Safety
               Solutions was able to ensure that the project was completed right on schedule – a sound
               endorsement once again of Dräger's global orientation.
               Any language or cultural differences were ironed out with the help of Dräger's local staff in

               Dräger was thus able to hand over one of the world's largest airport fire and rescue training
               galleries to a satisfied customer.

                                                                                      380 DRÄGERHEFT 08|2007   7

Saturation diving makes a comeback:
Dräger supplies deep-sea diving system
for diving support vessel "Bibby Topaz"

                                                                             The hyperbaric lifeboat features
Most diving and exploration companies                                        an integrated pressure chamber
abandoned saturation diving 20 years ago.                                    which allows the dive crew to
They believed that underwater robots could                                   be evacuated under controlled
                                                                             pressure conditions in the event
be deployed at great depths to carry out                                     of an emergency (library photo).
the work necessary to locate and extract
raw materials buried in the earth's crust.
For Dräger, with its broad experience and
expertise in the field of manned deep-sea
diving technology, this appeared to mark
the end of a major era. Suddenly, however,

                                                               extensive safety facilities and breathing gas
                                                               logistics, for a Norwegian diving support
                                                               vessel used in the offshore industry. The
                                                               saturation diving system, featuring four
                                                               pressure chambers with room for up to
                                                               18 divers, will be installed in the hull of the
                                                               new 107 metre long vessel "Bibby Topaz".
                                                               From here, the divers will be lowered to
                                                               their workplaces at the bottom of the sea
                                                               in twin diving bells – which also form part

                                                               of the order – to carry out assembly, main-
                                                               tenance and servicing work on underwater
Just like a lift, the diving bell lowers the divers to their   structures such as pipelines and exploration
workplace (library photo).                                     points.
                                                               The ship, which can also accommodate a
saturation diving is celebrating a comeback,                   crew of 106, is being built in Norway.
and the experts at Dräger, who can draw on
the company's many years of experience in                      Saturation diving
this area, are in demand once again.                           Because the divers can be working at
                                                               depths of up to 300 metres, they have to
Through its Norwegian subsidiary Draeger                       remain in a chamber system on board
Safety Norge A/S, Dräger has been con-                         ship which is kept at the same pressure as
tracted to take on the project management,                     prevails at the respective diving depth until

planning, construction and delivery of a                       the job is done; this can often take several
complete deep-sea diving system, including                     weeks. Before diving to the required depth,

8               95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007   9

they use one of the chambers (Chamber 1)                 just like a lift – and back to the deep-sea                ing gas under such conditions, this is called
to adapt their bodies to this pressure over              diving system in the hull of the ship. After               saturation diving.
the space of two days, and then proceed to               working for 21 days, the divers are given
one of the next two chambers (Chamber 2                  five to six days in Chamber 1 to readjust to               Dual utilization of the system
or 3) which are equipped with a living and               normal pressure – a procedure known as                     Because the deep-sea diving system fea-
sleeping area. This is where the divers will             decompression. At the end of this process                  tures two chambers for living and sleeping
spend their rest breaks and leisure time                 they are able to leave the system.                         (Chambers 2 and 3), two teams of up to six
over the next 21 days. A diving bell takes               Because the body tissue of the divers                      divers each can be deployed at the same
the divers to the workplace underwater –                 becomes completely saturated with breath-                  time, while up to six divers can pass in and

                                           Hyperbaric Lifeboat

                                                         Chamber 1
                                                         – Lock in and out up
                                                           to six persons
                                                         – Living area and
                                                           sanitary facilities

Chamber 2
– Living area for six divers

                                                                                 Chamber 4/5
                                                                                 – Transfer to Diving Bell
                                                                                 – Sanitary facilities for Chamber 2/3

10     95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
                                     A view of main chamber A 1
                                     of the GUSI underwater
                                     simulation system. This
                                     marine research facility
                                     was capable of simulating
                                     depths of up to 600 metres.
                                     It was conceived, planned,
                                     designed and built by Dräger
                                     in the 1980s, the finished
                                     product being handed over
                                     to the GKSS Research
                                     Centre in Geesthacht.

                                     Dräger developed its first
                                     deep-sea diving simulator
                                     back in 1913. This gave the
                                     company extensive funda-
                                     mental knowledge and
                                     expertise in the area of
                                     deep-sea diving, skills which
                                     are still just as valid today.

     Escape Trunk to
     Hyperbaric Lifeboat
                                                                      out of Chamber 1 to adjust to the required     pertise in the area of deep-sea diving, skills
                                                                      pressure in preparation for their work or      which are still just as valid today. Milestones
                                                                      before returning to the ship.                  include the GUSI and Titan deep-sea diving
                                                                      Chamber 4/5 is used to transfer the divers     simulation systems in the 1980s, designed
                                                                      to the diving bells, and also houses the       for scientific research in marine and space
      Chamber 3                                                       sanitary facilities.                           technology, and deep-sea diving systems
      – Living area for six divers
                                                                                                                     for the "Safe Karinia" and "Safe Regalia"
                                                                      Supplied with the deep-sea diving system,      support platforms.
                                                                      among other things, is a control system
                                                                      for the entire facility, a gas store and the   This is one of the largest single orders
                                                                      saturation diving control and rescue sys-      which the company's Safety division has
                                                                      tems. These also include a hyperbaric          ever received, and proves that Dräger is
                                                                      lifeboat which is connected to the pressure    increasingly being perceived as a customer
                                                                      chamber system and is provided in case the     group-focused company capable of putting
                                                                      dive crew should require evacuation.           together solutions which are tailored to the
                                                                                                                     customer's requirements in project business
                                                                      90 years of experience in                      too. Other customized system solutions
                                                                      offshore technology                            include workshop, training and breathing
                                                                      Dräger has more than 90 years of experi-       gas management systems, diving, rescue
                                                                      ence in the project management, construc-      and high-temperature training systems, and
                                                                      tion and manufacture of saturation diving      tunnel rescue trains.
                                                                      systems for use in the exploration of raw
                                                                      materials in the offshore industry. The com-   Burkard Dillig
                                                                      pany developed its first deep-sea diving       Drägerwerk AG
                                                                      simulator back in 1913. This gave Dräger
                                                                      extensive fundamental knowledge and ex-

Diving Bell 1/2                                                                                                                       95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007    11

Yet another innovative product
from Dräger Safety

                                Dräger Safety has now launched yet             number of inputs varies between one and
                                another innovative product. Following exten-   16 input channels. Each group of four
                                sive technical research and market studies,    inputs offers collective relay outputs for
                                the Regard 3900 control unit offers an         alarm 1, alarm 2 and fault condition. The
                                outstanding price-benefits ratio as part of    collective relay outputs can be supported
                                a gas warning system. The novel modular        and increased by using relay output
                                design of the new Regard 3900 allows the       modules. Every additional relay module
                                system to be upgraded or changed at any        offers further relay outputs, e.g. individual
                                time to take account of future application     alarm, system inhibit or voting alarm. The
                                requirements.                                  relay output modules offer additional
                                                                               diagnosis outputs for the use of optical
                                                                               devices (Polytron 2IR and Polytron Pulsar)
                                                                               if these give a preliminary warning of a dirty
                                                                               lens. To further expand the system's flexi-
                                                                               bility, each alarm level is fully configurable
                                                                               and can be set to be rising, falling, latching
                                                                               or non-latching. The relay modules offer ad-
                                                                               ditional flexibility thanks to user-selectable,
                                                                               fault-free relay configuration and alarm

                                                                               Configuring the Regard 3900 is a quick
       Dräger Config 3900                                                      and simple process if a laptop and the con-
       configuration software
                                                                               figuration software is used. The software
       (screen shot)
                                                                               allows the following configurations to be
                                                                               performed for each channel: gas name,
                                The Regard 3900 is an independent gas          measurement range, measurement units,
                                warning system which was specifically          alarm levels, and all calibration programmes
                                designed for the detection of combustible      such as zero and span calibration. Configu-
                                and toxic gases, and for detecting low or      ration for installations can also be perform-
                                high concentrations of oxygen. Its design      ed offline and then uploaded when the
                                permits maximum flexibility coupled with       system is started up. The Regard 3900
                                a high level of user friendliness.             system configuration can also be down-
                                The modular design of the Regard 3900          loaded onto a computer so that it can be
                                is based on a universal user interface. The    checked.

12   95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
The sturdy wall-mounted housing of the         The overall design of the Regard 3900
Regard 3900 means that the control unit        meets the standards of the ATEX Directive
can be used in virtually any climate and any   94/9/EC (primary explosion protection
branch of industry. The solid IP65 housing     applications).
permits the unit to be installed even in
environments where constant humidity or        Doug Longstaff
water is present.                              Dräger PLMS Ltd.

 Dräger Regard 3900:
 modular gas warning system
 for up to 16 channels

                                                                                           95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007    13

Use of detection systems in the area
of Homeland Security

Part 1: Homeland Security at the inter-           an attack on three Tokyo subway lines:                  finition contained in the American National
national level, hazardous substances              during the morning rush hour, plastic bags              Strategy for Homeland Security from July
and chemical warfare agents, detection            wrapped in newspaper and containing sarin               2002, its main tasks are to prevent terrorist
using Dräger Tubes                                nerve gas were placed in three commuter                 attacks within the United States, reduce
                                                  underground trains. Just before disembark-              America's vulnerability to terrorism, and
Homeland Security at the                          ing from the trains, the terrorists used um-            minimize the damage and recover from
international level                               brellas to puncture holes in the bags and               attacks that do occur [1]. Providing exten-
The events of 11 September 2001 made it           release the liquid sarin. The escaping sarin            sive information to the country's citizens is
abundantly clear that terrorists are willing to   vapours spread through 15 subway stations,              also defined as a key task of Homeland
employ every conceivable means to achieve         killing a total of 12 people and injuring               Security. The website
their goals. Even long before 11 September        thousands of others.                                    gives a detailed description of the steps
2001, security experts in the USA were well                                                               Americans should be taking to prepare
aware that poison gas attacks by terrorists       Homeland Security has meanwhile become                  themselves for possible terrorist attacks.
constituted one potential threat. On 20           a well-established term in the USA, Europe              A thorough and easily comprehensible
March 1995, terrorists used nerve gas in          and other continents. According to the de-              explanation is given of how to recognize
                                                                                                          chemical warfare agents and their effects

                                                                                                          In the European Security Strategy, the key
                                                                                                          threats to European security are defined as
                                                                                                          being the following: terrorism, proliferation
                                                                                                          of weapons of mass destruction, regional
                                                                                                          conflicts, state failure, and organized crime.
                                                                                                          One of the strategic objectives of the EU is
                                                                                                          to take preventive action to address these
                                                                                                          threats [1].
                                                                                                          Institutions have also been created on the
                                                                                                          national level within the EU to take care
                                                                                                          of the needs of European Security. In Ger-
                                                                                                          many, for example, the Federal Office of
                                                                                                          Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance
                                                                                                          (BBK) was set up on 1 May 2004 within
                                                                                                          the remit of the Federal Ministry of the
                                                                                                          Interior. The BBK is the central civil protec-

                                                                                                          tion office in Germany, bundling and pro-
                                                                                                          viding all relevant tasks and information at

14   95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
one point. The website of the BBK makes
the following claim: "Protecting people from
threats of any kind and giving them the
highest possible level of security is a cen-
tral task for the state and its authorities.
Germany, its federal states, districts and
municipalities are prepared for this task in
a variety of ways. Threats nowadays can
range from natural events with disastrous
effects to attacks by terrorist organizations
entailing huge numbers of casualties and
other affected people.“ [3]                                                                          CDS and accuro hand pump

One important task in the area of Home-
land Security is to address the NBC threat.
NBC stands for nuclear/biological/chemical,
and is sometimes referred to as CBRN,
meaning chemical/biological/radiological/       Harmful chemical substances and che-           involving chemical substances, e.g. during
nuclear. The latter abbreviation makes a        mical measurements                             transportation by road, rail or water. Chemi-
distinction between a radiological and a        As can be seen from the aforementioned         cal substance detectors can also be a use-
nuclear threat. A radiological threat refers    examples, the use by terrorists of chemical    ful way to check potentially harmful military
to the emission and distribution of radio-      substances is one conceivable scenario.        or civilian waste. Besides identifying the
active substances, also known as a "dirty       This scenario appears even more likely         warfare agents themselves, the aim here
bomb"; a nuclear threat involves the use of     when one considers that it is not only         would be to detect any by-products which
nuclear weapon explosions. B describes          chemical warfare agents themselves, but        occur as the warfare agents degrade.
biological warfare agents, while C refers to    also substances in common civilian use         Various methods of measuring and detect-
chemical agents. Nowadays, the terms            such as chlorine and ammonia, that could       ing chemical hazards are explained below.
NBC and CBRN – formerly used mainly             be employed. It is also possible that explo-
in the military domain – have entered into      sives and harmful chemical substances          Classifying chemical substances
common parlance. Assessing the NBC              could be used in combination. In the event     Chemical warfare agents are manmade
or CBRN threat is intended to provide           of a poison gas attack, lives can be saved     substances which are classed into different
information at short notice about the like-     if the substances used in the attack can       categories according to their effects:
lihood of a threat in order to allow the        be quickly identified, as this allows the      lung or choking agents, blood or asphyxiant
necessary counteraction to be taken to pro-     appropriate countermeasures to be initiated    agents, blister or vesicant agents, nerve
tect the civilian population and emergency      in good time. As mentioned above, one          agents and incapacitating agents. There are
personnel.                                      possible scenario would be an accident         also nose and throat agents, lachrymatory

                                                                                                               95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007        15

agents (e.g. tear gas), incendiary agents         Substances which can damage the blood                 leading to pupil dilation, respiratory distress,
(e.g. Napalm), smoke agents (e.g. smoke           prevent cells from breathing, i.e. from utiliz-       paralysis and death. Examples of nerve
bombs) and defoliant agents. As mentioned         ing oxygen, e.g. by breaking down the                 agents are sarin, soman and tabun, while
above, conventional chemical substances           blood. The cyanogen compounds (hydrogen               examples of pesticides include dichlorvos,
such as chlorine and ammonia could also           cyanide, cyanogen chloride) bind very tight-          parathion and trichlorfon.
be employed in terrorist attacks. Conse-          ly to the red blood cells, causing the victim
quently, for the purposes of the following        to suffocate. Examples of blood agents are            Nose and throat agents
classification, terms like "lung agents" are      hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride and               E.g. chlorine arsenic agents (Clark)
not used, with preference being given in-         nickel tetra carbonyl.
stead to descriptions such as "substances                                                               Lachrymatory agents
which can damage the lungs", because in           Substances which can damage the skin                  E.g. chloroacetophenone (CN, CNC),
this example lung agents represent only a         attack the victim's skin. If large areas are          bromobenzyl cyanide (BBC), pepper spray
sub-group of these substances.                    affected, death can follow. Substances of             (OC)
                                                  this type were specially developed as blister
Substances which can damage the lungs             agents in the First World War. Examples               Harmful chemical substances can be distri-
will cause damage to the lungs if inhaled.        of blister agents are nitrogen mustard,               buted as liquids which then slowly trans-
Upon inhalation, the mucous membranes in          mustard gas and lewisite.                             form into vapour. As many of the aforemen-
the alveoli swell up, making oxygen uptake                                                              tioned substances can enter the body not
more difficult. Chlorine destroys the alveoli     Substances which can damage the nerves                only through the airways but also through
on account of its strong oxidizing effect.        have a neuroparalytic effect and are some-            the skin, both respiratory protection and
Phosgene causes pulmonary oedema,                 times known as organophosphate agents                 skin protection (e.g. in the form of a full-bo-
where the lungs become filled with water.         because they belong to the group of phos-             dy protective suit) are required for these
Examples of such substances are phos-             phoric acid esters. One area in which these           substances.
gene, diphosgene, triphosgene, chlorine,          substances is used is for pest control. The
chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane),             substances can enter the body either by               Using Dräger Tubes to detect harmful
chlorotrifluoride, ammonia, and arsenic           inhalation or through the skin and affect             chemical substances
hydride.                                          enzyme acetylcholine esterase, preventing             Many different harmful chemical substances
                                                  the breakdown of neurotransmitters and                can be detected using the well-known

Table 1: Pulmonary agents

                             FORMULA                    OTHER NAMES                        PROPERTIES                                  IDLH VALUE
Phosgene                     COCl2                      Carbonyl                           Toxic, colourless gas;                      2 ppm
                                                        chloride                           odour resembles hay;
                                                        CG                                 irritant, non-combustible
Chloropicrin                 Cl3CNO2                    Green cross                        Toxic, colourless liquid;
                                                                                           irritant and suffocating;
                                                                                           boiling point: 113°C
Arsenic hydride              ASH3                       Hydrogen                           Toxic, colourless gas with an
                                                        arsenide                           odour similar to garlic;
                                                        Arsine                             highly inflammable
Chlorine                     Cl2                                                           Toxic, yellowish green,                     10 ppm
                                                                                           highly odorous gas;
                                                                                           corrosive, non-combustible
Ammonia                      NH3                                                           Toxic, colourless,                          300 ppm
                                                                                           highly odorous gas;
                                                                                           forms an explosive mixture with air

16   95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
Table 2: Blood and blister agents

                         FORMEL                 OTHER NAMES                        EFFECT                PROPERTIES                          IDLH
Hydrogen cyanide         HCN                    AC                                 Blood agent           Toxic, colourless liquid            50 ppm
                                                                                                         with bitter, almond-like taste;
                                                                                                         boiling point: 26°C
Cyanogen chloride        ClCN                   CK                                 Blood agent           Toxic, colourless liquid gas;
                                                                                                         heavier than air
Mustard gas              S(CH2CH2Cl)2           Lost,                              Blister agent         Toxic, brown, oily liquid
                                                yellow cross liquid,                                     with sharp garlic-like odour;
                                                Senfgas,                                                 damages skin and lungs;
                                                H, HD                                                    carcinogenic
Nitrogen mustard         HN(CH2CH2Cl)2          Yellow cross liquid,               Blister agent         Toxic, brown, oily liquid,
                                                lost,                                                    almost odourless;
                                                HN                                                       damages skin and lungs;
Lewisite                 C2H2AsCl3              2-chloroethenyldichloroarsine      Blister agent         Changes from liquid to gas
                                                                                                         phase when exposed to air;
                                                                                                         melting point: -18°C;
                                                                                                         boiling point: 190°C;
                                                                                                         damages skin, eyes, lungs

Table 3: Nerve agents / nose and throat agents / lachrymatory agents

                           FORMULA                 OTHER NAMES OR                         EFFECT                        PROPERTIES
Phosphoric acid            (collective term)       Sarin (GB)                             Nerve agents                  Toxic, colourless,
esters                                             Tabun (GA)                                                           viscous liquids or
                                                   Soman (GD)                                                           waxy mass;
                                                   DFP                                                                  damage nerves
                                                   VX                                                                   and irritate skin
Diphenyl arsine            (collective term)       Clark I (DA, DX)                       Nose and throat               Dark brown liquids
compounds                                          Clark II (DK)                          agents                        which change into
                                                   Adamsite (DM)                                                        thick semi-solid mass
                                                                                                                        pure form: white crystalline;
                                                                                                                        damage skin

Lachrymatory agents        (collective term)       Chloroacetophenone (CN)                Lachrymatory agents           Cause eyes to water
                                                   Chloroacetophenone, dissolved (CNC)                                  heavily and reduce
                                                   Chlorobenzylidene malodinitrile (CS)                                 ability to see;
                                                   Bromobenzyl cyanide (BBC)                                            irritate airways and cause
                                                   Pepper spray (OC)                                                    coughing and nausea

                                                                                                                     95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007        17

Dräger Tubes. Because speed is of the             for inorganic fumes, for example, feature          The measurement procedure can be ex-
essence when it comes to analysing a              markings for particular concentration              plained using the example of the CDS I.
potentially hazardous situation, the use of       ranges. For homeland security purposes,            Once the tubes have been opened, they
simultaneous test sets is recommended. Of         CDS I and CDS V are useful as they enable          are connected to a pump (e.g. the accuro
particular interest in the area of homeland       the rapid detection of nerve, blood and            hand pump) with the aid of an adapter, and
security are the following simultaneous test      pulmonary agents. The DEL (Design                  50 strokes of the pump are delivered (the
sets: Simultaneous Test Set I for the detec-      Evaluation Laboratory des Aberdeen                 measurement takes approximately three
tion of inorganic fumes, Simultaneous Test        Proving Ground) compared the individual            minutes). Three of the five tubes can be
Set II for additional inorganic fumes, Simul-     tubes which comprise the CDS with various          assessed immediately: phosgene, hydro-
taneous Test Set III for organic vapours and      laboratory analysis procedures, based on           cyanic acid, and organic based nitrogen
CDS I and V (CDS = Civil Defence Set).            certain warfare agents, and came to the            compounds. For example, if the phosgene
A simultaneous test set contains five direct-     following conclusion: In all the tests con-        tube shows an approx. 20 mm long discolo-
reading Dräger Tubes for the simultaneous         ducted, the Dräger Tubes satisfied the             ration from yellow to light green, this indi-
detection of a range of different harmful         requirements and delivered reproducible            cates a phosgene concentration of 0.2 ppm.
chemical substances. The individual tubes         results. No distorting cross-sensitivities         The tubes for thioethers and organic based
contained in the sets are not scaled in           occurred. Tables 4 to 8 list the substances        arsenic compounds and arsine are ampoule
the same way as the conventional Dräger           which can be detected using simultaneous           tubes which require a further step to be
Tubes, but instead, in the case of the sets       test sets and CDS.                                 carried out prior to analysis, which in the

Table 4: Simultaneous Test Set I, substances which can be detected

SUBSTANCE                               DETECTION LIMIT
Acid gases                              5 ppm
Hydrocyanic acid                        10 ppm
Carbon monoxide                         30 ppm
Base gases                              50 ppm
Nitrous gases                           5 ppm (NO2)                              Table 7: CDS I, substances which can be detected

                                                                                 SUBSTANCE                               DETECTION LIMIT
Table 5: Simultaneous Test Set II, substances which can be detected              Hydrocyanic acid                        1 ppm
                                                                                 Phosgene                                0.2 ppm
                                                                                 Dichloroarsine, e.g. Lewisite           3 mg/m3
SUBSTANCE                               DETECTION LIMIT
                                                                                                                         0.1 ppm
Sulphur dioxide                         10 ppm
                                                                                 Organic base nitrogen compounds,
Chlorine                                2.5 ppm
                                                                                 e.g. nitrogen mustard                   1 mg/m3
Hydrogen sulphide                       10 ppm
                                                                                 Thioether, e.g. mustard gas             1 mg/m3
Hydrogen phosphide                      0.3 ppm
Phosgene                                0.5 ppm

                                                                                 Table 8: CDS V, substances which can be detected
Table 6: Simultaneous Test Set III, substances which can be detected
                                                                                 SUBSTANCE                               DETECTION LIMIT
SUBSTANCE                           DETECTION LIMIT                              Phosphoric acid ester,
Ketones                             100 ppm (acetone)                            e.g. nerve agents                       0.025 ppm
Aromatic compounds                  10 ppm (toluene)                             Phosgene                                0.2 ppm
Alcohols                            25 ppm (methanol)                            Cyanogen chloride                       0.25 ppm
Aliphatic compounds                 5 ppm (n-hexane)                             Chlorine                                0.2 ppm
Chlorinated hydrocarbons            10 ppm (perchloroethylene)                   Thioether, e.g. mustard gas             1 mg/m3

18   95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007

case of the thioether tube is as follows:     Dräger Tube Arsine 0.05/a;                    – result of measurement is quickly available
the tube is removed from the CDS set and      measurement range: 0.05 to 60 ppm               (approx. 3 minutes in the case of the
broken off at the point marked with two                                                       CDS)
black dots so that the reagent ampoule in-    Dräger Tubes for ammonia; different tubes     – no calibration by the user is necessary
side breaks. The ampoule solution is then     are available covering a total measurement    – no system-based memory effects, i.e. no
poured in the direction of the arrow on       range from 0.25 ppm up to the percent by        poisoning of the measurement system.
the tube. If a discoloration from yellow to   volume range.
orange occurs, thioether compounds are                                                      Oliver Schirk
present (detection limit: 1 mg/m3). Dräger    The direct-reading Dräger Tubes offer the     Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA
Safety offers training sets to train how to   user the following advantages:      
use both CDS, focusing especially on how      – multifunctional use of the pump/tube
to break the ampoule. These training sets       system, i.e. the pump can be used
                                                                                            [1]   Arne Schönbohm, PM 415/2004: Neue Formen
to train are an inexpensive and simple way      together with other tubes for many                der Terrorbekämpfung: Homeland Security
to simulate the entire measurement and          different applications in the area of             und europäische Sicherheit

evaluation process and ensure that no           homeland security (e.g. accidents involv-   [2]   US Department of Homeland Security:
mistakes are made under conditions of           ing hazard goods, workplace measure-              Ready Campaign:
stress.                                         ments)                                      [3]   Homepage of the Federal Office of Civil
Besides the simultaneous test sets and        – easy operation                                    Protection and Disaster Assistance (BBK):
CDS, it is recommended that the following     – low training requirements; training sets

individual tubes be used in the area of         available
homeland security to screen for other         – no warm-up times
harmful chemical substances which may         – low costs as compared to analytical
be present:                                     measurement instruments
                                              – use with hand pump possible, meaning
Dräger Tube Chloropicrin 0.1/a;                 that no additional energy supply source
measurement range: 0.1 to 2 ppm                 is needed

                                                                                                              95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007        19

Service efficiency when using portable gas detectors

Nowadays, portable gas detection instru-        Any reputable manufacturer of portable gas         tion, an annual inspection of all the detec-
ments are an integral part of safety pro-       detection instruments, and of course all the       tion instruments is generally required
grammes in industry, supply and disposal        world's leading occupational safety and            (Table 1).
companies, telecommunications and during        health organizations, are fully aware of their
the transport of hazardous goods (e.g.          responsibility in this context, and insist on      Unfortunately, there is still a fundamental
in the shipping industry). It makes no          all detection instruments being subjected to       lack of understanding in some areas of the
difference how the instruments are used –       a function check before they are deployed          need for maintenance, and especially of
whether for all-clear measurements before       in safety-relevant applications. What is           the need for function checks prior to safety-
personnel enter confined spaces, as a per-      more, when it comes to performing main-            relevant applications. So just why are these
sonal measurement instrument, to detect         tenance of the detection equipment, manu-          tests so important?
leaks or for area monitoring, a reliable        facturers recommend very different adjust-
warning must be given of any potential          ment intervals for the sensors to ensure
hazard, as lives may well be at stake!          safe operation of the instruments. In addi-

Table 1: Definition of terms relating to "maintenance of mobile gas detection equipment"

MAINTENANCE WORK                         WHAT IS TESTED?                       WHO PERFORMS THE TEST? INTERVAL
Level 1:                                 Sensor response                       Operator or equipment                  Prior to safety-
daily function test (bump test)          Alarm functions                       service personnel                      relevant applications
                                         Pump function test (only during
                                         operation with a pump)
Level 2:                                 Adjustment of sensors                 Device manufacturer,                   Intervals of between
Adjustment of sensors                    Alarm functions                       trained equipment                      1 and 12 months,
                                                                               service personnel                      depending on
                                                                                                                      sensor type
Level 3:                                 All function tests and                Device manufacturer                    The occupational
Annual inspection                        adjustments as described              in some cases trained                  safety and health
                                         above, plus a test of the             equipment service personnel            organizations require
                                         explosion-proof elements of a                                                an annual inspection
                                         detection instrument (housing,
                                         electronics, label, battery); alarm
                                         functionality, battery quality,
                                         pump quality, replacement of
                                         consumable parts (e.g.
                                         dust filter, sensor pre-filter ...)

20   95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007

                                                                                                                                    Dräger Bumptest station
               Examples of errors which can only be           cesses! What is more, observing these pro-
               detected if a test with gas is performed:      cedures is also a prerequisite for insurance
               – Gas cannot enter the sensor because of       claims if accident or injury does occur.
                 a blockage or soiling: => result: no         What needs to be taken into account when          they have to be able to operate the equip-
                 display or displayed concentrations too      designing the maintenance solutions?              ment safely and reliably. The function test
                 low                                                                                            must be extremely simple and quick to
               – Torn off pellistors of catalytic Ex          1) The costs of maintaining portable gas          perform. Test stations which do not first
                 sensors following extreme effects of            detection instruments need to be taken         have to be connected to a PC or the mains
                 shock => result: display shows zero even        into account when making the original          power supply are ideal, and the modular
                 when exposed to gas => no warning               purchase. The costs of test gas and the        Dräger Bump Test Station is perfectly
               – Contaminated pellistors in the catalytic        work time of personnel are not insignifi-      suited to this type of testing. This inexpen-
                 Ex sensors as a result of poisoning (e.g.       cant – workstations designed especially        sive station functions without a PC and
                 caused by silicon) => result: insufficient      to support the needs of the described          does not require any mains power supply.
                 sensitivity                                     maintenance procedures can help save           In fact, to some extent the stations even
               – Electrolyte leaked out of electrochemical       money.                                         work automatically, which is the advantage
                 sensors => result: no display or displayed   2) In practice, the different service levels      most valued by many operators! Some
                 concentrations too low                          for maintaining portable gas detectors         instruments can simply be inserted into the
               – All sensors show a standard drift in            are conducted by different employees,          stations, with an OK message flashing on
                 sensitivity over time (corrosion of             and the required standards they need to        the display to indicate that the function test
                 electrodes etc.) => result: no display          achieve in their work can likewise vary        has been successfully passed, in some
                 or displayed concentrations too low             considerably.                                  cases in just 10 seconds. The advantage of
                                                                                                                this extremely fast test is obvious – the very
               Solutions for various maintenance              A function test prior to safety-relevant appli-   low level of gas consumption and the short
               processes                                      cations is often performed on site by users       test duration means total cost control.
               This shows quite clearly that the described    themselves. Because the duties of the             The Dräger Pac 7000 and Dräger X-am
               maintenance procedures are indispensable       equipment operators generally bear no rela-       2000 gas detectors additionally allow the
               to ensuring reliable and safe work pro-        tion to the measurement technology itself,        bump test mode to be configured so that

                                                                                                                                 95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007   21

Table 2: typical adjustment intervals for different types of sensor

SENSOR TYPE                                                TYPICAL ADJUSTMENT INTERVALS                                   COMMENT
Catalytic Ex sensors                                       3 to 6 months
Infrared sensors                                           6 to 12 months
Electrochemical sensors                                    6 to 24 months                                                 Some single-gas detectors with O2, CO or
                                                                                                                          H2S sensors require no adjustment.
PID sensors                                                1 day to 30 days

the instruments are automatically adjusted                 Added to the requirements for the sensors                  2 Concentration window
if they fail the function test. In this case, the          are the regulations imposed by the occu-                   If exposed to a certain test gas concentra-
instrument display then reads "CAL OK"                     pational safety and health organizations.                  tion, the expected value is reached within
instead of the usual "OK".                                 The BG Chemie in Germany, for instance,                    a certain tolerance range.
Normally, the results of the function tests                specifies an adjustment interval of no more                If a concentration window as per option
are stored in the data logger of the instru-               than four months for detection instruments                 2 above is targeted during a function test
ments. Some instruments offer the option                   with catalytic Ex sensors.                                 performed prior to safety-relevant applica-
of connecting a printer for additional docu-                                                                          tions, there is no need for a fixed adjust-
mentation of the function test. The local                  Another question is frequently raised in                   ment interval because any incorrect adjust-
bump test modules can also be interlinked                  this context: "If the instruments do require               ment of the instrument will always be
so that the results stored in the printer can              testing prior to safety-relevant applications,             detected. The ideal choice are stations
be viewed and analysed on a central unit.                  do they then still need to be regularly                    like the Dräger E-Cal Station or, for certain
                                                           adjusted?“. To answer this question, let us                types of instrument (see above), the Dräger
The question of how often a portable detec-                first take a look at two different ways to                 Bump Test Station. If the concentration
tor requires adjustment is something that                  perform the response test.                                 window is not achieved, an adjustment of
worries many users. Because the answer to                                                                             the sensors is performed automatically.
this question influences the actual costs of               1 A1 response test:
ownership and the availability of operational              The A1 alarm threshold of the measuring                    The computer-assisted Dräger E-Cal Sta-
equipment, this is perfectly understandable                instrument is exceeded when exposed to                     tion is the perfect solution for technicians.
(Table 2 ).                                                a test gas concentration above A1                          This modular station can be operated with

Dräger E-Cal station                                                                                   Analysing the data logger

22              95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007

               Inspection and repair by DrägerService

               modules for almost all portable Dräger Sa-     tion instruments, demand an annual inspec-        Many of these tasks can be performed by
               fety detection instruments, and one station    tion of the measurement equipment to              trained technicians. The Dräger Safety
               can contain ten                                ensure its complete functionality. During         Academy runs seminars to teach how to
               different instrument modules. Two, six or      the course of this annual inspection, instru-     maintain and service the individual devices.
               even twelve different test gases can be        ments which are used in explosion hazard          In addition, Dräger Service is available as a
               connected to the master station, and diffe-    areas are checked with respect to all their       professional partner worldwide, either in its
               rent tasks which have been defined in ad-      Ex features. Following an adjustment of the       own right or in the form of service centres.
               vance will be worked through automatically     sensors, the battery or rechargeable battery      Besides straightforward maintenance, there
               by the station at the push of a button. As     function, alarm function and, if applicable,      are options involving complete, customer-
               well as performing function tests and ad-      the pump function are also tested. If appli-      specific service programmes – tailor-made
               justments, it is possible, among other         cable, worn parts such as dust filters, sen-      solutions, so to speak.
               things, to download the stored measured        sor pre-filters for the elimination of cross-
               values, configure the instruments and re-      sensitivities, and rechargeable batteries are     Ulf Ostermann
               ceive plain text support in the event of an    replaced to ensure continued operation and        Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA
               error. At the end, a calibration certificate   functionality.                          
               can be compiled.
               What is more, the Dräger E-Cal Station
               offers the option of equipment and data        Conclusion
               management with all the associated search      If there is inadequate servicing of portable gas detection instruments which play a key
               and analysis functions, while the new          role in many company safety programmes, the equipment which is supposed to protect
               "database module" offers a shared database     personnel can be rendered useless and, in the event of accident or injury, may result in
               which can be used by several different         high claims for damages. When trying to decide how much service is needed for the gas
               stations.                                      detection equipment in use, it is of paramount importance to use efficient accessory
                                                              concepts and/or customer-specific service solutions to support the functionality of the
               Level 3: annual inspection                     measurement instruments. This results in valuable time-savings, reducing logistics and
               Professional associations, and indeed usual-   service costs. Dräger Safety sees itself as a partner in all safety-related matters, offering
               ly the manufacturers of mobile gas detec-      a wide portfolio of products to support all service requirements.

                                                                                                                                 95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007     23

Air purifying respiratory protection
Requirements in painting applications

                                                                                                        Dräger X-plore 9000 compressed air
                                                                                                        line breathing apparatus with hood

Please note: this article deals specifi-             Selecting, making available and using                countries require 19 % and more.
cally with European markets and their                suitable respiratory protective equipment is       – Which respiratory protective products
requirements. These may differ from                  always a complex task for safety officers,           are available on the market?
other countries.                                     specialized distributors, purchasers and
                                                     users. The wide range of products available,       Obligations of the employer
                                                     especially in the area of "air purifying res-      The currently applicable BGR 190 regula-
                                                     piratory protection", and constantly chang-        tion in Germany, or "Rules issued by the
                                                     ing industrial processes make it necessary         professional associations for the use of
                                                     for the following aspects to be clarified in       respiratory protective devices", provides
                                                     advance:                                           comprehensive information about how
                                                     – Can action be taken to prevent airborne          to select the best possible respiratory
                                                        contaminants from being released in the         protection.
                                                        first place?                                    The first job of the employer is to perform
                                                     – Are the prevailing conditions under which        a risk analysis. This involves identifying
                                                        the equipment is to be used known               and assessing the relevant contamination
                                                        (substances, concentrations, work               and hazard levels which employees will be
                                                        duration …)?                                    exposed to.
                                                     – Does the ambient air contain at least            Since January 2006, workplaces where
                                                        17 % by volume oxygen (according to             paint spraying guns are used for the pur-
                                                        German national standards)? Other               poses of spray painting have also been

                                                FILTERING DEVICES

                                                                                            For particles, gases
                  For particles                     For gases and vapours
                                                                                                and vapours

     Filtering device              Filtering    Gas filter           Filtering     Combination filter                   Filtering
       + facepiece                facepiece    + facepiece          facepiece        + facepiece                       facepiece

24      95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
Table 1: The following limitations to wearing times are mandatory

FILTERING DEVICE                          WEARING TIME                        RECOVERY TIME               JOBS                     SHIFTS
                                          (MIN)                               (MIN)                       PER SHIFT                PER WEEK
Full face mask                            105                                 30                          3                        5
Half mask                                 120                                 30                          3                        5
Filtering facepiece without valve         75                                  30                          5                        4 (2-1-2)
Filtering facepiece with valve            120                                 30                          3                        5
Blower-assisted full face mask            150                                 30                          3                        5
Blower-assisted hood/helmet               no limitation
                                          to wearing time

subject to BGR 231 entitled "Protective           Classification of respiratory protective        of additional strain on the wearer, meaning
measures concept for spray painting               devices                                         that medical examinations both prior to
work – paint aerosols".                           A fundamental distinction is made between       and after such equipment use are normally
To prevent damage to workers' health              filtering devices and air-supplying respira-    required. To this end, the respiratory pro-
caused by paint aerosols, employers               tory devices. Whereas filtering devices are     tective equipment is classified into three
are required as a matter of priority to           dependent on the ambient air, breathing         different groups. The criteria for this group
implement technical and organizational            apparatus and air-line respirators function     classification are the weight and breathing
measures.                                         independently of the ambient air and can        resistance of the equipment.
Technical measures in this context refer, for     also protect the equipment wearer from a        Medical examinations are not necessary in
example, to the use of ventilation systems        shortage of oxygen.                             just two cases:
and their continuous monitoring by alarms         When using filtering devices, a particle, gas   1. when respiratory protective devices
in case of malfunction.                           or combination filter is required – which          weighing less than 3 kg and with no
An example of an organizational measure           type of filter is needed depends on the type       breathing resistance are to be used, e.g.
could be ensuring that spray painting work        of contamination.                                  power-assisted filtering devices with
is conducted at different times and in diffe-                                                        hood or helmet
rent places as than other activities. Further     The following criteria should be taken into     or
suggestions for organizational measures           account when selecting the appropriate re-      2. when group 1 respiratory protective
are made in Section 3.1.3 of the BGR 231.         spiratory protective device:                       devices (e.g. particle-filtering facepieces,
If all the relevant measures have been im-        – Does the filtering device provide suffi-         half masks with P1 or P2 filter etc.) are
plemented and exploited to their full extent        cient protection against the hazards             to be used for less than a half an hour
to reduce the exposure of workers at the            which are likely to occur, without at the        per day.
workplace to paint aerosol contamination,           same time posing a greater danger itself?
yet the workplace limit values still cannot       – Is the device suited to the conditions        Because respiratory protective hoods with
be met, the employer must make available            prevailing at the workplace, i.e. climatic    a blower, for example, can be used without
suitable personal protective equipment              conditions, and to being used in conjunc-     any limitation to the wearing time and,
such as respiratory protective devices.             tion with other protective equipment?         providing their weight is less than 3 kg,
BGR 231 is not applicable to workplaces           – Is sufficient consideration given to          do not even require a medical examination,
where painting is done by hand, using a             ergonomic requirements such as head           the question of cost effectiveness is an
brush or roller or individual spray cans. It        size or health-related needs of the wearer    important criteria when selecting the
is likewise not applicable in cases where           (wearing times)?                              appropriate device, besides considerations
special industry regulations or process- and                                                      such as the level of wearing comfort for
substance-specific criteria (such as the          Medical examinations for wearers                the user.
German Technical Regulations TRGS 420)            of respiratory protective equipment
have already been defined for certain types       Generally speaking, using respiratory pro-      Limitations to wearing time and medical
of spray painting tasks.                          tective equipment poses a significant level     examinations, partly for reasons of cost and

                                                                                                                   95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007     25

Table 2: Selection of filtering devices with blower

EQUIPMENT TYPE                              DIN EN STANDARD                        VDGW                    COMMENTS, LIMITATIONS
Full face mask                              136                                    4                       Not suitable for respiratory protection because the high
or mouthpiece                               142                                                            filter permeation cancels out the low mask leakage.
with P1 filter                              143                                                            Not for protection against carcinogenic or radioactive
                                                                                                           substances or risk group 2 or 3 airborne biological agents
                                                                                                           or enzymes.
Full face mask                              136                                    15                      Not for protection against radioactive substances or risk
or mouthpiece                               142                                                            group 3 airborne biological agents or enzymes
with P2 filter                              143
Full face mask                              136                                    400
or mouthpiece                               142
with P3 filter                              143
Half/quarter mask                           140                                    4                       Not for protection against carcinogenic or radioactive
with P1 filter,                             143                                                            substances or risk group 2 or 3 airborne biological agents
particle-filtering                          149                                                            or enzymes.
half mask FFP1                              1827
Half/quarter mask                           140                                    10                      Not for protection against radioactive substances or risk
with P2 filter,                             143                                                            group 3 airborne biological agents or enzymes
particle-filtering                          149
half mask FFP2                              1827
Half/quarter mask                           140                                    30
with P3 filter,                             143
particle-filtering                          149
facepiece FFP3                              1827
Full face mask                              136                                    400
or mouthpiece                               141
with gas filter*)                           142
Half/quarter mask                           140                                    30
with gas filter*)                           141
Helmets/hoods with                          12941                                                          The open facepieces (helmet or hood) do not afford
blower and gas filter*)                     (formerly 147)                                                 sufficient protection if the blower fails or becomes
TH1 gas filter class 1**)                                                          5
TH1 gas filter class 2                                                                                     For this reason, devices without an adequate warning
TH1 gas filter class 3                                                                                     facility and class TH1 devices cannot be used for protec-
                                                                                                           tion against carcinogenic, highly toxic and radioactive
TH2 gas filter class 1                                                             20                      gases and vapours.
TH2 gas filter class 2
TH2 gas filter class 3

TH3 gas filter class 1                                                             100
TH3 gas filter class 2
TH3 gas filter class 3
Devices with combined filter                                                                               The respective multiples of the limit value for the gas or
                                                                                                           particle filter part apply – in each case the higher value.
*)Providing this does not already exceed highest permissible use concentrations, related to the gas uptake capacity, for gas filters in filtering devices with a blower,
  e.g. 0.05 % by vol. in gas filter class 1, 0.1 % by vol. in gas filter class 2 and 0.5 % by vol. in gas filter class 3.
**) There is only one gas filter class for AX and SX filters.

VdGW = Multiple of workplace limit value

26    95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
                            Dräger X-plore 7500
                            filtering device
                            with hood

efficiency, are becoming an increasingly
relevant factor when it comes to selecting
respiratory protective equipment.

When can which filtering device be used?
The concentration of the contaminants
known to be present is the most important
aspect when assessing the type of respira-
tory protective device (see table 2 on page
25 and table 3 on page 26).

User training
In order to familiarize employees with how
to use respiratory protective equipment,
employers are required to arrange an initial
training and safety briefing, which generally
takes around two hours. In addition, annual
refresher courses need to be carried out.

Following a period of theoretical instruction,
an exercise must be performed during
which the user wears the equipment under
the same sort of conditions as can be ex-
pected to prevail during their work. This
gives the user a chance to practice donning
the device and checking that it fits correctly
and is leak tight.

Why do painters and varnishers require
respiratory protection?
On 1 January 2007, the first stage of the
"Solvent-based paint and varnish ordinance"
(ChemVOCFarbV) entered into force in
Germany. The objective of this guideline is
to reduce emissions of potentially harmful
and ground-level ozone-forming volatile
organic compounds in paints and varnishes.
As the use of water-soluble paints becomes
more widespread, there is an accompanying
reduction in the level of odour pollution as
compared to solvent-based paints.
However, this means that one classic warn-

ing sign of harmful substances is now

                                                                 95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007   27


28   95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
      Table 3: Types, identifying colours, main areas of application, classes and maximum permissible gas concentrations are shown in the
      following table:
      TYPE            IDENTIFYING COLOUR               MAIN AREA OF APPLICATION                    CLASS        TEST GAS CONCENTRATION
      A               Brown                            Organic gases and vapours with a            1            1000 ml/m3 (0.1 % by vol.)
                                                       boiling point > 65°C                        2            5000 ml/m3 (0.5 % by vol.)
                                                                                                   3            10000 ml/m3 (1.0 % by vol.)
      B               Grey                             Inorganic gases and vapours, e.g.           1            1000 ml/m3 (0.1 % by vol.)
                                                       chlorine, hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen       2            5000 ml/m3 (0.5 % by vol.)
                                                       cyanide – not for carbon monoxide           3            10000 ml/m3 (1.0 % by vol.)
                                                       Schwefeldioxid, Hydrogenchlorid
      E               Yellow                           Sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride          1            1000 ml/m3 (0.1 % by vol.)
                                                       and other acid gases                        2            5000 ml/m3 (0.5 % by vol.)
                                                                                                   3            10000 ml/m3 (1.0 % by vol.)
      K               Green                            Ammonia and organic ammonia derivates       1            1000 ml/m3 (0.1 % by vol.)
                                                                                                   2            5000 ml/m3 (0.5 % by vol.)
                                                                                                   3            10000 ml/m3 (1.0 % by vol.)
      AX              Brown                            Low-boiling organic compounds               –            Gr. 1   100 ml/m3 for 40 mins max.
                                                       (boiling point ≤ 65°C) of the low-boiling                Gr. 1   500 ml/m3 for 20 mins max.
                                                       groups 1 and 2 (see section                   Gr. 2   1000 ml/m3 for 60 mins max.
                                                                                                                Gr. 2   5000 ml/m3 for 20 mins max.

Dräger X-plore 6570                                    protection lightly. After all, the potential    able for this type of work that are not sub-
full face mask
                                                       damage to health is not only posed by the       ject to any limitation to wearing time under
                                                       solvents contained in the paint, but also by    BGR 190.
      Even though they may now be present in           the preservatives and additives and airborne    e.g.:
      smaller quantities, the paints continue to       particles.                                      *Lightweight compressed air line brea-
      contain elements of solvents and binding                                                         thing apparatus with hood or helmet –
      agents which irritate the eyes and must not      Modern paint systems meet the general           class LDH2 (in accordance with EN
      be inhaled as they can damage the liver,         requirements for occupational safety and        1835)
      kidneys and central nervous system.              health, but do not afford complete protec-      The Dräger X-plore 9000 compressed air
      If higher concentrations of solvent vapours      tion, and cannot offer absolute safety when     line breathing apparatus meets this require-
      are inhaled, their contents pass through the     it comes to the health of the employee. The     ment, and is equipped with a preset con-
      alveoli into the blood; this happens more        permitted personal workplace limit values       tinuous flow valve fitted to the belt. The
      easily with water-based solvents than with       may be exceeded even in spray booths            system is connected by means of a 10 m
      those not soluble in water. The alcohol          which are operated in accordance with the       long hose to a compressed air ring line.
      components in water-based solvents dis-          relevant technical regulations, are well-       This particularly lightweight device delivers
      solve very well in the blood.                    ventilated and carefully maintained. Anyone     a constant air flow of 160 litres into the
      Even water-based paints bearing the blue         who believes that respiratory protection is     hood or helmet at an input pressure of
      environmental mark can contain as much           unnecessary when using water-based paints       between 3 and 10 bar.
      as 10 percent solvents or softeners. These       should be made aware of this fact.
      are higher alcohols (glycol, ethylene glycol),                                                   *Power-assisted filtering devices with
      aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.             Just because water-based paints are being       hood or helmet – class TH2A2P
      To protect water-based paints from micro-        used, does not mean that there is no            (in accordance with EN 12941)
      bial attack during storage, preservatives        obligation to use respiratory protection.       Within the Dräger product portfolio, the
      are used, with up to 0.5 percent biocides,                                                       X-plore 7500 power-assisted filtering
      isocyanates or formaldehyde being added.         Which is the right respiratory protective       device is the ideal choice. This is a device
      Even if water-based paints may be more           device to use during spray painting             which can be used on a modular basis with
      environmentally-friendly than their solvent-     work?                                           either a hood or a helmet. The user can
      based equivalents, this should not tempt         According to BGR 231, those respiratory         regulate the air flow intensity and match it
      anyone to take the need for respiratory          protective devices can be regarded as suit-     to his individual needs.

                                                                                                                        95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007     29

                                                                                                                filters are unused, they must under no
                                                                                                                circumstances be used once their shelf life
                                                                                                                has expired.
                                                                                                                There are no generally applicable guide-
                                                                                                                lines regarding the duration of use for gas
                                                                                                                filters on account of the fact that external
                                                                                                                conditions such as the gas concentration,
                                                                                                                temperature, ambient air humidity and in-
                                                                                                                deed the difficulty of the work performed
                                                                                                                vary greatly and can significantly influence
                                                                                                                the length of time the filters can be used.
                                                                                                                At the very latest, the filters have to be
                                                                                                                replaced when the wearer becomes aware
                                                                                                                through smell or taste that gases are per-
                                                                                                                meating through the filter. In particle filters,
                                                                                                                a rise in breathing resistance is a clear
                                                                                                                indication of a clogged filter.
                                                                                                                In any case, gas filters which have been

                                                                                                                used but are not yet used up should always
Dräger X-plore 3500 half mask during paint-spraying
                                                                                                                be kept in a gas-tight container to protect
                                                                                                                the activated charcoal they contain from air
The special feature of power-assisted                 preservatives or additives can easily enter               humidity and from becoming prematurely
devices is that the wearer can operate in-            the organism through the eye fluid. What                  saturated. This type of used filter must not
dependently of fixed hose supply lines and            is more, there is a greater risk of the eyes              be stored for longer than six months.
retains greater freedom of movement than              becoming stuck shut when water-based                      According to the BGR 231, the filters must
is the case with compressed air line breath-          paints are used.                                          be replaced as per the manufacturer's in-
ing apparatus.                                        Consequently, there is a trend which can be               structions, but at the latest after one week.
Respirators in combination with class A2P2            observed among paint workers who require                  Type AX filters which are used for pro-
filters are suitable for use during spray             respiratory protection towards using full                 tection against so-called "low-boiling com-
painting work involving small quantities of           face masks which protect the eyes and the                 pounds“ are an exception and must be
paint (< 0.5 kg/shift) or lasting only a short        respiratory system.                                       disposed of after use, as they are unsuita-
time (< 1hr/shift). An exchangeable particle                                                                    ble for reuse.
filter pad is often used for this purpose.            Duration of use and reuse of filters
This has the advantage that it retains                Gas and particle filters have a limited shelf             Olaf Harmuth
coarse contaminants, particles and paint              life – this must be clearly marked on the                 Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA
splashes and protects the gas filter from             product by the manufacturer. Even if the        
being clogged, thereby extending the over-
all filter lifetime.
The Dräger X-plore 3300 has proven itself             Conclusion
as a user-preferred, comfortable lightweight          Health hazards caused by airborne contaminants are one of the greatest health risks faced
half mask. This mask is available in a handy          by commercial industrial plants, and this is not only the case during painting and varnishing
set, together with the corresponding A2P3             work. Suitable respiratory protective products should always be selected and used carefully
filters, designed especially for paint and            and systematically. For long-term spray painting jobs, power-assisted devices or lightweight
varnish workers.                                      compressed air line breathing apparatus are the obvious first choice because of the lower
While half masks are often used during                respiratory strain they impose on the wearer. More minor jobs may permit the use of half
tasks involving conventional solvent-based            or full face masks. To ensure that the respiratory protective equipment that the employer
paints, it is particularly important to make          makes available is actually put into use, the quality of the products and the wearing accep-
sure that the eyes are protected when                 tance of the user are of paramount importance. It is also necessary to regularly replace
water-based paints are used due to the fact           filters and make sure that no errors are made during their use. When making a purchasing
that the high level of water solubility of            decision, the service, advice and professionalism of the respiratory protective equipment
these paints means that the aforementioned            manufacturer or specialized distributor should be given high priority.

30   95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007

Optimized wear comfort
coupled with maximum protection

The new Dräger HPS 6200 integral fire-         mask or the Panorama Nova-S or F2-S res-       half-shell and integral helmets. The require-
fighter's helmet launched by Dräger con-       pirator masks.                                 ments and testing procedures have been
forms to the new standard prEN 443:2006                                                       significantly extended, partly to reflect the
and is the lightest helmet currently on the    New helmet standard                            latest knowledge about material properties
market which is approved to this standard.     At the present time, European Committee        and production technologies, and partly
The helmet was developed in collaboration      for Standardization working group 3 for        with the aim of re-evaluating the risk ana-
with customers, as an improved version of      firefighters helmets (CEN/TC158/WG3) is        lysis and taking the practical experience of
the already proven HPS 6100 firefighter's      working flat out to draw up the new helmet     fire brigades into account. For one thing,
helmet. Special manufacturing and paint        standard EN 443. Dräger is providing its       this will lead to harmonization with respect
coating techniques ensure that the high-       support to this project: among other things,   to the protection afforded by the other
temperature-resistant duroplastic helmet       the most recent meeting of the working         personal protective equipment used by
shell is capable of withstanding even the      group took place in Lübeck at the invitation   firefighters (such as compressed air breath-
most intense heat, while offering maximum      of Dräger Safety. The goal is to submit the    ing apparatus and fire protective clothing).
protection against penetration and impact,     current draft standard for a formal Euro-      On the other hand, it reflects the signifi-
not to mention robustness and paint ad-        pean vote in the summer of 2007 and for        cantly increased potential risk faced by
hesion, even under the influence of extreme    the standard to enter into force towards the   firefighters nowadays.
levels of heat.                                end of 2007. In contrast to the currently
                                               valid version of the standard, which is EN     Burkard Dillig
Integrated face protection                     443 from 1997, the new standard distin-        Drägerwerk AG
The new visor, which has been extended         guishes between two types of helmet –
down to the chin area (approved in accord-
ance with EN 14458 and classified as face
protection), is made of especially robust
polysulfone material, amber tinted (allowing
wearers to maintain visual contact even with
their visors pulled down) and provided with
an anti-scratch coating on both sides. Tabs
simplify opening and closing of the visor,
even when wearing thick firefighting gloves.     Developed in
A new integrated flame and heat barrier          collaboration
                                                 with customers:
creates a better climate inside the helmet.      Dräger HPS 6200
Modified protective padding in the ear
area achieves improved wearing comfort
and greater acoustic sensitivity.
Mask helmet combination systems allow the
HPS 6200 to be used in combination with
the newly developed FPS 7000 full face

                                                                                                              95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007     31

   Identifying alcohol, prescription medication
   and drug abuse at the workplace

                                                                                    Figure 1: The consequences
                                                                                    of drink driving

                                   If we look at how patterns of social con-        concerned, but also for their families,
                                   sumption have evolved and at the preval-         friends and work colleagues, and indeed
                                   ence of "drugs" such as alcohol or nicotine      for the general public (e.g. on the roads,
                                   (tobacco), we can see that the popularity        Fig. 1).
                                   and consumption of these substances has
                                   been determined by social and economic           Dependence on alcohol, prescription medi-
                                   circumstances. It is clear from the history of   cation or drugs is a serious illness from
                                   how drugs have developed that it was last        which it can take a long time to recover.
                                   century's technology drive and the huge          Given that this is the case, the fact that
                                   increase in production that produced the         Europe is the region with the highest per
                                   phenomenon we see today, namely the              capita consumption of alcohol in the world
                                   socially and geographically widespread           – at twice the global average – is extremely
                                   consumption of alcohol, tobacco and indeed       worrying [1].
                                   illegal drugs. In most societies, certain sub-
                                   stances are tolerated and still consumed         It is not only alcohol and illegal drugs which
                                   as drugs, and intoxication and ecstasy are       are consumed in alarming quantities, how-
                                   permitted within the framework of certain        ever. The consumption of prescription me-
                                   norms.                                           dication, too, constitutes a serious problem:
                                                                                    roughly 40 percent of the more than
                                   Addiction and substance abuse are deter-         1.6 billion packs of medicine sold each year
                                   mined largely by a person's working condi-       are obtained without a prescription, on a
                                   tions and general quality of life, in addition   "self-medication" basis.
                                   to factors intrinsic to their own personality.
                                   Our highly competitive, performance-orient-      Medicine not only cures illness, but is also
                                   ed society places increasing demands on          a socially recognized and tolerated "drug".
                                   people: psychological stress, shift and night    Prescription drug abuse is when medication
                                   work, monotonous jobs, a lack of opportuni-      is taken without medical grounds or in un-
                                   ty for personal advancement at work, pres-       necessary quantities. Although prescription
                                   sure to perform and deliver on time, fear        drug abuse is rampant in our society, it
                                   of losing one's job or being transferred to      rarely receives much public attention. It
                                   another site, competition among colleagues,      is often very difficult to draw a clear line
                                   and indeed working conditions in general,        between normal (medically necessary)
                                   increase the likelihood of addiction and         consumption and abuse. Six to eight per-
                                   substance abuse. The consequences can            cent of all prescribed drugs have some
                                   be devastating, not only for the individual      addictive potential (Fig. 2).

   32   95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007

Figure 2: Prescription medication abuse                                                                Figure 3: Driving under the influence of alcohol
is a widespread problem in our society.                                                                or drugs is not only a serious risk on the road.

Substance abuse – a problem at the                      employment relationship, as such people        users, however, may underestimate the
workplace too                                           tend to be occasional, controlled users        nature and duration of the side- and after-
If we examine the facts and figures relating            whose behaviour is in all other respects       effects, which continue to have a long-term
to the prevalence of substance abuse in the             fully conformist. Such users, or "chippers",   influence on their psychomental abilities
population as a whole, and view these in                may develop disorders or long-term symp-       even well after the intoxicating effect itself
the context of the different occupations and            toms which are not at all obvious. However,    has disappeared. This can give rise to
branches of industry in which professional              the "man-machine interaction" – something      problems with concentration, delayed per-
drivers who have been found to be abusing               which in modern industries is becoming in-     ception, an overestimation of one's own
substances such as alcohol, prescription                creasingly complex – can be impaired with-     abilities, incorrect colour perception and
medication and/or illegal drugs are active,             out this being noticed either by those con-    resulting incorrect response to light stimula-
we are forced to conclude that substance                cerned or by those on the outside.             tion, wandering thoughts etc. which can
abuse is a problem which now affects both                                                              pose a considerable potential risk. It may in
public sector and privately run companies               Substance abuse and addictive behaviour        certain cases be possible to detect alcohol
and organizations. This conclusion is con-              have negative consequences both for the        abuse by smell, but the effects of other
firmed by surveys conducted within the                  individual and for those around him. The       drugs are virtually impossible to pinpoint
industry itself [2].                                    adverse effects on the user's performance      by non-experts. Using high quality test
To date, little attention has been paid in              and work ability, and on his behaviour         procedures like the Dräger DrugCheck or
Germany to the problem of driving under                 and safety at work, are considerable. He       laboratory analytical processes with the
the influence of alcohol and/or drugs when              becomes less reliable and, as the sub-         aid of special oral fluid sampling systems
the vehicles in question are not used on                stance abuse becomes more pronounced,          (Dräger DrugTube) is the only way to
public roads. In potentially hazardous areas,           the quality and safety of his work suffer.     detect or confirm recent drug consumption.
substance abuse can pose a safety risk on               Users whose behaviour is conformist in         During such tests, the laboratory methods
account of the fact that the psychophysical             every other respect – whether they are         must meet the very highest standards of
ability of even occasional, controlled users            dependent on alcohol or other mind-altering    quality [3].
("chippers") is impaired. This is an accept-            substances – are not necessarily easy to       Occasional drug users ("social users") do
ed fact in connection with driving under the            spot. Unlike people who frequent a clearly     not regard themselves as drug addicts but
influence of alcohol and/or drugs, yet at               identifiable "drug scene", drug users in the   as well-integrated and well-adjusted mem-
the workplace there is still some reluctance            workplace are only noticed in exceptional      bers of society. They generally pursue the
to address this problem, with discussions               cases when their behaviour undergoes           same goals and have the same ambitions
in many areas only taking place "behind                 obvious changes over long periods of time.     as the rest of society, and in no way believe
closed doors" (Fig. 3).                                 Such users know the desired intoxicating       that their performance or motivation would
                                                        effect of the drugs they consume, can con-     be impaired by their "habit" – quite the con-
The acute effects of substance abuse are                trol their consumption well and can there-     trary. This also makes it clear that such
normally not recognized, or are only recog-             fore go undetected for long periods both in    users are to be found in all strata of society
nized sporadically, in users who are in an              their personal and working lives. Such drug    and, potentially, in any position.

                                                                                                                           95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007       33

                                                 European Alcohol Action Plan –                    make a voluntary commitment to avoiding
                                                 a European example                                alcohol at work, and is therefore an ideal
                                                 The target set by the European Community          method of prevention. The concept of situa-
                                                 is to significantly reduce the adverse health     tional abstinence is aimed at encouraging
                                                 effects from the consumption of addictive         responsibility and self-control rather than
                                                 substances such as tobacco, alcohol and           stigmatizing the consumption of alcohol as
                                                 psychoactive drugs in all member states by        a "misdemeanour", making no moral judg-
                                                 the year 2015. The strategy agreed to             ments, and not trying to educate people
                                                 achieve this was set down in the European         or infringe their personal rights. Instead, it
                                                 Alcohol Action Plan 2000-2005 [7]. One            is hoped that "situational abstinence" will

                                                 explicit objective of the plan is to reduce       become an integral part of the workplace
                                                 the problems brought about by the con-            culture.
                                                 sumption of alcohol at the workplace              Of course, situational abstinence is not
Figure 4: Diagnosis: the first step
                                                 (accidents, absenteeism, violence etc.).          limited to the workplace, and is equally
towards providing help.
                                                 This is to be achieved by promoting work-         applicable to road users. However, in this
                                                 place agreements, embedded for example            context measures of control and punish-
A lot of persuasion may be needed to             in health-promotion programmes in com-            ment of violations continue to be effective
change the problematic way in which such         panies.                                           and efficient means of emphasizing the
users view themselves. This may be done          The European member states generally              need for a responsible approach to intoxi-
by communicating to those who work in            base their substance abuse policy on the          cating substances.
safety-relevant areas that they have special     so-called "four-pillar model", i.e. repression,
privileges and that their professional           prevention, survival assistance and treat-        Many organizations and experts continue
function brings with it a particular level of    ment. Today, Dräger Safety measurement            to support a variety of programmes aimed
responsibility.                                  technology is already used in all four of         solely at appealing to a person's common
In many societies, people believe that youn-     these areas.                                      sense. However, there is increasing evi-
ger generations in particular have a right to                                                      dence that prevention programmes design-
"let off steam" from time to time, which is      Situational abstinence –                          ed to educate young people, for example,
why a certain degree of drug abuse –             responsibility is the goal                        have little effect. Although there is some
within limits – is often tolerated. However,     The concept of "situational abstinence"           indication that information events can help
this "letting off steam" must not take           was introduced in the late 1990s when             change people's behaviour and attitudes,
place in such a way as to pose unpredict-        the WHO published its European Alcohol            there is no evidence that such programmes
able risks to colleagues, workplaces or          Action Plan. The idea behind this concept         can actually significantly reduce, let alone
the environment[4]. It is estimated, for         was that anyone could avoid risks by treat-       completely prevent alcohol consumption
example, that a third of all accidents at        ing intoxicating substances in a responsible      or drug abuse. The results of a scientific
work are attributable to alcohol. One in ten     manner, and at the same time could act            evaluation of educational training courses
employees drink alcohol regularly during         as a role model. Naturally, there are certain     designed to establish and strengthen social
working hours, which in many cases is            situations (while driving, at work, during        skills or resist peer pressure, and of various
actually tolerated, as alcohol enjoys a high     pregnancy, while on medication, when              approaches to giving young people a nor-
level of social acceptance in our society        working with children and young people)           mative upbringing, are highly conflicting
[5].                                             in which alcohol, for example, should be          [8]. Prevention coupled with control (e.g.
                                                 completely avoided. The concept is based          breath-alcohol or drug testing) and the im-
There is a lot more to problems related to       on the principle that alcohol, when con-          position of sanctions if "rules" are violated,
alcohol and drugs at the workplace than          sumed in moderation for social purposes,          is still one of the most enduring combina-
simply the fact of diagnosing "abuse",           does not necessarily lead to addiction, but       tions of programme. One of the most strik-
"harmful use" or "dependence / addiction".       that a high level of consumption can have         ing examples of this is the widespread prac-
This is based on the observation that states     negative consequences. As far as the work-        tice of roadside spot checks for alcohol and
of intoxication have acute negative con-         place is concerned, this means making a           drugs in most European member states.
sequences such as injury or accident far         conscious decision not to drink alcohol be-
more often in those who drink rarely than        fore and during work time in order to main-       Why is there a need for monitoring?
in those who regularly consume alcohol.          tain work performance, quality and safety.        The main reason for conducting tests and
[6]                                              First and foremost, this requires workers to      measurements is to detect and identify any

34             95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
substance abuse. Contrary to widespread        fluenced by accompanying factors such as        times and in different places and are not
opinion, the majority of drug addicts do       the severity and immediacy of the punish-       announced in advance; nonetheless, they
not fit the classic picture of a junkie or     ments; campaigns promoting situational          are easy to spot and are quickly broadcast
drunk. The number of unreported cases is       abstinence and other preventive measures        in the media (radio, newspaper, TV) [9].
extremely high (especially as regards alco-    support this process.
hol and prescription medication addiction),                                                    The sort of random breath-alcohol testing
as the problem tends to remain undiscover-     Random checks and checks                        which is already performed in the USA,
ed for a long time. Sufferers appear to lead   based on suspicion                              Australia, France, Sweden etc. is making
a normal life, have a job and are often left   One method of catching road users who           an impressive contribution to reducing the
to deal with their problem alone.              are driving under the influence of alcohol      number of road traffic accidents caused
In other words, the first step towards help-   and drugs is to perform alcohol and/or          by alcohol. The more often and the more
ing an addict – e.g. by making available       drug testing based on suspicion. Where the      visibly random substance abuse checks are
treatment or therapy – is to diagnose the      police have grounds to suspect that a driver    performed, the greater the perceived risk
addiction or abuse. Alcohol and drug test-     is under the influence of intoxicating sub-     for drivers that they will get caught in an
ing devices are an essential instrument for    stances, a test is carried out. This approach   alcohol or drug check.
diagnostic and subsequent measures in the      considerably reduces the potential deter-       In Germany, there is no legal basis for ran-
area of prevention, therapy and assistance,    rent effect of such controls because habit-     dom testing of this kind.
not only for the attending professionals but   ual offenders rightly believe that they can     But what is the situation at the workplace,
in many cases also for the addicts them-       control their behaviour such that they will     in companies? In the working world it is
selves (Fig. 4).                               not be detected. One alternative to these       likewise not permissible to conduct random
                                               selective checks for substance abuse on         screenings without any specific grounds
Laws aimed at tackling drink driving are       the roads are random checks such as those       for suspicion; this is because the personal
generally adopted as a deterrent, hoping to    practised in Australia, New Zealand, the        rights of the employee are valued more
discourage people from driving if they have    USA, Austria, France, Sweden and Switzer-       highly than the interests of the employer
been drinking and/or using drugs. The          land (Fig. 5). The crucial difference in this   [10].
deterrent effect is achieved by increasing     type of random breath-alcohol or drug test
the subjective perception of the risk of       is that any driver of any vehicle can be
being caught and prosecuted for driving        requested to undergo a test at any time,
while under the influence of alcohol or        without being given any choice in the mat-                         Figure 5: Roadside checks –
drugs. This deterrent is also strongly in-     ter. The checks are carried out at different                       whether random or based
                                                                                                                  on suspicion – are effective
                                                                                                                  preventive measures.

                                                                                                               95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007      35

Occupational safety and health                   weakened the problem awareness for the                      has to ensure the welfare of his employees.
Workplaces of all kinds – both public sec-       fact that alcohol is in fact a strong drug with             This duty is the result of the aforemention-
tor and private – are one of the most im-        long-lasting effects. The intoxicating effect               ed legal regulations.
portant areas in our lives. For this reason,     of the substance, coupled with the subjec-
any adverse effects caused by substance          tive feeling of safety, have a direct negative              The following paragraph does not aim to
abuse in these areas have a far-reaching         influence on a person's ability to realistically            give an exhaustive overview of the legal
and long-lasting impact.                         assess any risk, reducing their psycho-                     regulations regarding company codes of
In the majority of European industries           mental resilience and drastically lowering                  conduct in the area of "addiction and sub-
nowadays there are effective technical and       their ability to concentrate.                               stance abuse", but simply highlights some
procedural occupational safety standards in                                                                  of the main laws.
place, imposing high demands. At the same        Key legal foundations                                       Regulations governing addiction and sub-
time, the last few decades have seen em-         The German system of occupational safety                    stance abuse are generally relevant to com-
ployees receiving more and more training         and health is composed of complementary                     pany regulations, employee codes of con-
and continuing education aimed at raising        safety aspects. Safety and health in the                    duct, accident prevention and occupational
awareness for the importance of safety at        workplace is enshrined in the applicable                    safety and health. The only way for a com-
work.                                            national regulations (Employment Protec-                    pany to implement these is to lay down the
The high system-based safety standards           tion Act, Occupational Safety and Health                    regulations in a works agreement. Under
achieved by modern industrial equipment          Act, Works Constitution Act, Federal Staff                  German law, the works council has a right
and the redundancy built into monitoring         Representation Act, Industrial Code and                     of co-determination on matters relating to
systems mean that workers confronted by          many others) and monitored by the com-                      the prevention of occupational accidents
such conditions can all too easily be lulled     petent state authorities. As a parallel                     and disease and concerning the protection
into a false sense of security – if an emer-     measure, there are accident prevention                      of health within the framework of the legal
gency situation does arise, the perceived        regulations in place.                                       regulations and accident prevention regula-
risk is reduced and the probability of an        An employee who is under the influence                      tions.
incorrect response rises.                        of intoxicating substances poses a risk to                  The duty of the employer to provide for the
The widespread acceptance of, for example,       himself and his working environment. One                    welfare of his staff means that the employer
alcoholic drinks/foods in our society, que-      ground-breaking regulation in the area of                   and the company's executive staff must
stioned as it is by very few people, has –       occupational safety and health with regard                  protect against any dangers to the lives
with few exceptions, e.g. drink driving –        to substance abuse is the duty an employer                  and health of the staff. This is done by
                                                                                                             implementing measures which conform to
                                                                                                             the state of the art in terms of technology,
                                                                                                             occupational medicine and hygiene, and
                                                                                                             also duly reflect any other well-founded
                                                                                                             conclusions of industrial health research.

                                                                                                             Even if such agreements only include
                                                                                                             measures which an employer or executive
                                                                                                             employee would have had to implement
                                                                                                             anyway in order to comply with the appli-
                                                                                                             cable laws, this nonetheless has benefits
                                                                                                             for both sides: every employee can find
                                                                                                             out about what constitutes an appropriate
                                                                                                             procedure/process, including diagnostics by

                                                                                                             Figure 6: Reliable diagnostic
                                                                                                             procedures for personnel and
                                                                                                             company doctor, embedded in

                                                                                                             a quality management system,
                                                                                                             require high quality instruments
                                                                                                             like the Dräger Alcotest 6510.

36   95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
means of breath-alcohol or drug testing.        instruments for detecting and monitoring            instance, 0.05 percent. It is irrelevant in this
Many company executives have insufficient       substance abuse and are permissible within          context whether or not the work of the civil
detailed knowledge of the legal situation       more or less narrow legal confines under            servant in question has in fact suffered or
and are "amateurs" as regards recognizing       the current legislation in Germany.                 the reputation of the organization has been
substance abuse. They are uncertain how         The consumption of illegal drugs in parti-          damaged. The crucial point here is the risk,
best to act, and acquire moral support          cular is not something which can usually            even after consumption of small quantities
from the fact that company management           be detected beyond any reasonable doubt             of alcohol, that the civil servant's work
and worker representatives demand an            purely on the basis of external indicators. In      might suffer due to impaired performance
outcome-oriented approach.                      other words, an examination of, for example,        and ability [11]. The obvious next question
                                                blood, urine or oral fluid samples is requir-       is how a superior is supposed to detect
If there are grounds to suspect substance       ed to obtain conclusive proof. This type of         this degree of alcohol influence if no
abuse – whether alcohol and/or drugs –          test, however, is something which violates          evidence of work quality suffering is even
the works agreements can provide an op-         an employee's personal rights:                      needed to justify an alcohol misdemeanour.
portunity for those suspected of substance      1. taking of a blood sample violates the            Judging which quantities of alcohol can
abuse to undergo a test and clear their             basic protected right of every employee         be tolerated and assessing how much a
names once and for all.                             to inviolability of his person;                 person has drunk places superiors in a
This type of substance screening test is        2. supervised urine sampling unavoidably            difficult position. The only way to obtain
already routinely performed in the USA, the         violates a person's basic right to physical     an objective assessment in situ is to use
UK and Australia (where they are known              integrity.                                      diagnostic instruments such as breath-
as Workplace Drug Screening Programmes          Consequently, a diagnostic test for alcohol         alcohol detectors. This, however, presup-
or Employment Assistance Programmes).           and/or drugs cannot be performed against            poses that such equipment, as part of a
In Germany, however, this continues to be       the will of the employee.                           quality management process, is properly
somewhat problematic due to the fact that       Breath-alcohol tests as conducted using             operated and maintained.
such testing is considered to constitute        Dräger Alcotest instruments and drug tests
a violation of personal rights. If a works      based on oral fluid samples such as those           In Germany, the way companies lay down
agreement does not insist upon testing          performed with the Dräger DrugCheck Test            and implement such internal regulations
but provides for its voluntary performance,     Kit uphold each test subject's right to physi-      varies considerably. The following types of
this would appear to have fundamental           cal integrity and inviolability of his person.      regulation [12] are common:
advantages for all sides and can be taken       These diagnostic tests, which are very easy         – collective bargaining agreement
seriously if the agreement permits the in-      to perform, can be carried out anywhere             – works agreements
volvement of the works council.                 and at any time, without causing either pain        – employer / works council agreements on
There are also agreed drug testing pro-         or stress. Oral fluid in particular, as an ultra-      working conditions
grammes which target all new employees          filtrate of the blood, is scientifically recog-     – general sales agreements
and all employees who perform safety-re-        nized and has become well-established in            – general agreements on working
levant tasks or drive or operate machinery,     clinical-chemical drug diagnostic practice             conditions
as well as those who are currently under        (Fig. 7).                                           – specimen agreements on working
the influence of intoxicating substances.                                                              conditions
These testing programmes tend to be             Even if the various agreements and pro-             – agreements on regulations
accompanied by company guidelines on            grammes relating to substance abuse do              – guidelines, instructions, internal company
diagnosis and therapy; confidentiality is the   not provide for screening by means of a                regulations, employer declarations
overriding priority and the company doctor,     breath-alcohol or drug test, there are many         At the present time, the civil service leads
safety officer or independent medical con-      examples showing that there are virtually           the field as regards the number of such
sultant who performs the examination is         no alternatives to instrument-based screen-         agreements, remaining well ahead of indus-
permitted to diagnose merely "fit or unfit to   ing if the required measures are to be              try and the production sector, and followed
work" and notify the company accordingly        implemented.                                        by private service companies. It could be
(Fig. 6).                                       For example, civil servants in Germany are          speculated from this that it is easier to
                                                required by law to "devote themselves en-           enforce such agreements in public sector
Alcohol and drug screening at                   tirely to their work". Disciplinary courts have     organizations and/or that there is greater
the workplace                                   repeatedly ruled that the limit above which         willingness and/or more favourable condi-
Screening tests, for breath-alcohol or drugs,   a civil servant can be deemed to have neg-          tions to address the issues of substance
are among the most important diagnostic         lected his duty is, in the case of alcohol for      abuse.

                                                                                                                     95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007     37

There are reports, in the daily press for        The relevant literature repeatedly cites a
instance, of certain concrete and in some        study into the reduced performance of
cases drastic examples of how to imple-          so-called "average alcoholics" conducted by
ment alcohol testing programmes. Croatia's       the Stanford Research Institute in Califor-
largest paper manufacturer, "Belisce", has       nia. According to the findings of this study,
for example ordered its 1,500 employees to       an employee with an alcohol problem per-
undergo regular alcohol tests. A tolerance       forms at only around 75 percent of the
value of 0.05 percent was set, and offen-        normal level. This means that 25 percent
ders are punished with a cut in salary.          of the wage and salary costs would be lost
Blood-alcohol levels of over 0.3 percent         as a result of inadequate work performance.
were recorded at the workplace during the        For a company as a whole, the following
course of this campaign [13].                    equation can be applied: 5 percent of
                                                 employees have an alcohol problem, each
Another preventive approach is to control        generating a productivity loss of 25 percent
access to the actual production area.            = 1.25 percent of the total wage and salary
Before they can enter the production             bill. This calculation model illustrates very
hall – through a turnstile, for instance –       clearly that it is worthwhile taking steps to

employees have to submit a breath sample         prevent addiction at the workplace [16].
(in addition to the usual access checks          Various studies conducted in both the
such as presenting time card and company         Anglo-Saxon world and, mainly, in the Ger-
                                                                                                 Figure 7: Dräger DrugCheck – a simple
ID) (Fig. 8).                                    man-speaking world, into the effectiveness      pain- and stress-free procedure for in
                                                 and efficiency of measures taken by com-        situ diagnosis of illegal drugs

The issue of substance abuse at the work-        panies to address substance abuse – parti-
place is timeless, and nowadays anyone can       cularly alcohol – have been published.
easily find out more about the situation, as     Most of these studies focus on the rates of
all the standard Internet search engines         absenteeism due to alcohol. Even though         specialists which are active at the direct
(Google, Abacho etc.) produce over two           these studies can only be compared to one       local level.
million hits and a confusing plethora of         another to a limited extent, they do make it    An increasing area of focus is risk manage-
information. Another point which is indis-       quite clear that measures and programmes        ment of the "human factor" as an essential
putable is the fact that substance abuse         (e.g. health promotion programmes, em-          element of good risk management practice
penetrates all hierarchical levels and is the    ployee assistance programmes) aimed at          at the workplace. This is all the more im-
subject of public debate in the media [14].      preventing, diagnosing and treating sub-        portant given the fact that modern and
                                                 stance abuse can bring about real eco-          complex facilities are controlled by highly
Substance abuse – an economic                    nomic benefits which significantly exceed       sophisticated measurement processes and
phenomenon                                       the costs of the measures themselves [17].      personnel. This increases the demands on
Absenteeism due to alcoholism alone costs                                                        monitoring personnel who have to assess
the German economy around Euro 20 bil-           No matter how cautiously one views the          the complex processes from a wide range
lion (> 1.1% GDP) a year, which is about an      figures outlined above, investing in this       of digitalized and in some cases complex
average figure worldwide. Alcohol causes         aspect of occupational safety and health        information in order to properly control the
over 18.9 million work days to be lost each      represents a long-term investment in the        equipment.
year (> 3.8% of all work days lost due to        most important resource of any employer –
absenteeism). Alcohol-related accidents at       the human resource.                             Workplace and safety management
work and on the way to work are another                                                          Substance abuse at the workplace inevi-
major health problem, generating serious         Safety pays                                     tably impairs performance, and the risks
economic consequences. It is estimated           Modern-style management systems inte-           that this entails have an effect on occu-
that this causes over Euro 1.7 billion in        grate occupational safety and health, envi-     pational safety and health, the safety of
lost work time and almost Euro 1 billion         ronmental and facility protection, achieving    facilities, protection of the environment
in damage to property. The significant           a higher-level standard of overall safety.      and work quality in general.
mortality costs of Euro 7 billion include        Costs are reduced as businesses concen-         Modern corporate cultures are characteriz-
285,000 lost years of work for the German        trate more and more on their core com-          ed by buzzwords such as "Corporate Iden-
economy [15].                                    petencies and outsource processes to            tity", "Lean Production" and "Total Quality

38   95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
Management". As with occupational safety                    half a century, offering a broad technolo-            [6]    Room, R, und K. Mäkelä (2000): Journal of
                                                                                                                         Studies on Alcohol 61, 475-483
and health, this requires increased efforts                 gical diversity, many different fields of appli-
to be taken to develop human resources,                     cation and a wide-ranging and extensive               [7] (2007):
                                                                                                                         European Alcohol Action Plan 2000-2005,
supported by specialized health promotion                   product portfolio. Dräger Alcotest instru-                   EUR/LVNG010501, E67946
programmes.                                                 ments, among others, are used in works
Any comprehensive analysis of prevention                    agreements in which breath-alcohol testing            [8]    Barbor et al., (2005) Alkohol – kein gewöhn-
                                                                                                                         liches Konsumgut, Hogrefer Verlag GmbH &
requirements in situations involving a parti-               constitutes an integral part of the process.                 Co KG, Göttingen
cularly high level of risk (e.g. fire preven-               Dräger detection technology has proven
                                                                                                                  [9]    Barbor et al., (2005) Alkohol – kein gewöhn-
tion, hazardous substance management,                       itself worldwide, particularly with respect to               liches Konsumgut, Hogrefer Verlag GmbH &
safety during transport etc.) must include                  assuring the quality of such processes and                   Co KG, Göttingen
management of the "human risk factor".                      obtaining objective on-site assessments.
                                                                                                                  [10]   Musial, T. (2005), in “Der Mensch als Risiko
As such, advice on how to handle the multi-                 For more than ten years, Dräger has also                     und Sicherheitsreserve”, (Breitstadt & Kauert,
causal problem area of "substance abuse" –                  been focusing on how to detect other into-                   Hrsg.), Shaker Verlag, Aachen

both internally and externally – as part of a               xicating substances – illegal drugs such as           [11]   DHS info (2001) Substanzbezogene Störung
comprehensive safety concept and quality                    cannabinoids (marijuana, hashish), cocaine                   am Arbeitsplatz – eine Praxishilfe für Personal-
                                                                                                                         verantwortliche; Deutsche Hauptstelle gegen
management is a key issue in achieving a                    and its by-products, opiates and designer                    Suchtgefahren e.V., Hamm
positive and conducive business environ-                    drugs like Speed, XTC etc. – on the basis
ment.                                                       of oral fluid samples. In this field of activity,     [12]   Braun, H. und Ch. Eggeredinger (2004):
                                                                                                                         Sucht und Suchtmittelmissbrauch,
                                                            Dräger Safety has already presented a                        Bund-Verlag GmbH, Frankfurt am Main
Substance abuse is a global phenomenon,                     variety of new developments, including pro-
                                                                                                                  [13]   Lübecker Nachrichten (2006): Promilletest in
with growing worldwide demand for specia-                   ducts such as the Dräger DrugCheck test                      der Fabrik, 20.07.2006, Lübeck
lized programmes and campaigns which                        kit, the Dräger DrugTube collection system
                                                                                                                  [14]   Kals, U. (2006) Suchttragödien auf allen
are tailored to regional, cultural and social               and other related services (Dräger Analy-
                                                                                                                         Ebenen, F.A.Z. 9.09.2006
circumstances. International bodies and                     tical Services).
organizations, as well as national institutions                                                                   [15]   Bergmann, E. und K. Horch (2002):
                                                                                                                         Beiträge zur Gesundheitberichterstattung
and experts, are calling for specialized pro-               For further information about the subject                    des Bundes – Kosten alkoholassoziierter
grammes to be established, installed,                       of substance abuse and diagnosis –                           Krankheiten; Schätzungen für Deutschland,
                                                                                                                         Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin
checked and further developed in order to                   Dräger Alcotest, Dräger Interlock,
address the widespread phenomenon of                        Dräger DrugCheck, Dräger DrugTube                     [16]   Dietze, K. (1992). Alkohol und Arbeit; Orell
substance abuse in society and at the work-                 and Dräger Analytical Services – visit                       Füssli Verlag Zürich

place in an effective and lasting manner (cf.                                           [17]   Rey-Riek, S. et al (2003): Lohnt sich betrieb-
for example [18, 19]) .                                                                                                  liche Suchtprävention? Zur Effektivität und
                                                                                                                         Effizienz betrieblicher Alkoholprävention;
                                                            Dr. Andreas Manns                                            Suchttherapie 4, 12-17.
Dräger has been active in the field of                      Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA
                                                                                                                  [18] – European Workplace Drug
breath-alcohol detection technology for over      
                                                                                                                         Testing Society

Figure 8: Breath-alcohol                                                                                          [19] – Civil Aviation Safety
access control; a Dräger                                    References                                                   Authority – CASA; Aviation Drug and
Interlock in use in the                                     [1] (2007) The European                   Alcohol Testing
food-processing industry                                          Alcohol Policy Alliance

                                                            [2]   Kauert, G. und R. Breitstadt (2005),
                                                                  in “Der Mensch als Risiko und Sicherheits-
                                                                  reserve”, (Breitstadt & Kauert, Hrsg.),
                                                                  Shaker Verlag, Aachen.

                                                            [3], (2007)
                                                                  European Laboratory Guidelins for Legaly
                                                                  Defensible Workplace Drug Testing

                                                            [4]   Happel, H.-V (2005), in “Der Mensch als
                                                                  Risiko und Sicherheitsreserve”, (Breitstadt &
                                                                  Kauert, Hrsg.), Shaker Verlag, Aachen

                                                            [5]   Gesterkamp, T. (2006): Alkohol am Arbeits-
                                                                  platz – ein unterschätztes Problem, Deutsche
                                                                  Polizei 9, 27-29

                                                                                                                                      95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007            39

           Are drugs involved? – Dräger DrugCheck™ gives you the answer
           A simple, accurate and quick test for on site application

                                               When people talk about drugs, it always            psychotropic effect is also taken into con-
                                               seems obvious what they mean. Often, how-          sideration, as are health, political, cultural
                                               ever, it quickly becomes clear that the term       and economic aspects. Another classifica-
                                               can be used to refer to many different             tion which is just as common and equally
                                               things. For instance, someone who enjoys           problematic involves determining the legal
                                               a glass of wine may well be unwilling to           status of drugs.
                                               accept that their "tipple" is also classified as
                                               a drug, while tea and coffee drinkers will         Dividing drugs up into natural and man-
                                               no doubt find it equally hard to understand        made substances is somewhat easier.
                                               that their "fix" counts as one of the common       Some parts of plants can be consumed as
                                               (legal) drugs.                                     drugs without much in the way of proces-
                                                                                                  sing, while others first need to be treated
                                               In most societies, certain substances are          chemically before the desired narcotic
                                               tolerated as drugs, and intoxication and           effect is obtained.
                                               ecstasy are permitted within the framework         If we look at how patterns of social con-
                                               of certain norms.                                  sumption have evolved and at the pre-
                                               In distinguishing between hard and soft            valence of drugs such as alcohol, nicotine,
                                               drugs, it is not only the drug's addictive         medication etc. we can see that the popu-
                                               potential that counts – the degree of              larity and consumption of these substances

                                               Fig. 1: Dräger DrugCheck
                                               Test Kit for oral fluid

           40       95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007

               95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007   41
                                                 has been determined by social and eco-           Once the product has been reported to the
                                                 nomic circumstances. Consequently, an "          competent authority, the product with its
                                                 addiction" can also be described as a            CE marking can be placed on the market.
                                                 "symptom" caused by the interaction of           In addition, the company responsible for
                                                 social, individual, biological, environmental    the product creates a product file so that all
                                                 and family-specific conditions.                  information relevant to the product can be
                                                                                                  recorded and is available at any time.
                                                 When a person is diagnosed as being an           The manufacturer of the product also has
                                                 "addict", "addicted" or "dependent", this
                                                 often marks a turning point in the life of

                                                 that person, and should automatically result
                                                 in help being sought and obtained. The
                                                 prevention, treatment and control of addic-
                                                 tion is a cross-functional task which involves
                                                 tackling the multicausal "symptom" of ad-
                                                 diction on an interdisciplinary level, follow-
                                                 ing a pedagogical, psychological, medical
                                                 or legal approach, e.g. in schools, youth
                                                 welfare programmes, by the police, by            Fig. 2: Taking a sample of oral fluid

                                                 health insurance companies, in self-help
                                                 groups or in professional medical associa-
                                                 tions. Specific, straightforward alcohol         to introduce and maintain a systematic pro-
                                                 and drug tests which are accessible any-         cedure for providing notification of any in-
                                                 where are an indispensable instrument of         cidents which could result in or have result-
                                                 measurement in the context of both diagno-       ed in the death or serious harm to the
                                                 sis and further-reaching measures within a       health of a patient or user.
                                                 programme of prevention and therapy, not
                                                 only for the professionals supervising the       Dräger DrugCheck: a medical device

                                                 process but also for the addicts themselves.     Deciding whether drug testing procedures
                                                                                                  fall within the scope of the in vitro diagnos-
                                                 CE marking of the                                tic medical devices directive of the Euro-
Fig. 3: Inserting the DrugCheck                  Dräger DrugCheck Test Kit                        pean Union (IVD Directive) [2] or, in Ger-
drug profile card                                In the European Union, the requirements          many, within the scope of the Medical
                                                 for drug screening test kits for medical         Devices Act (MPG (MPG) [3] depends on
                                                 use are mainly set down in EU Directive          what they are used for.
                                                 98/79/EC for in-vitro diagnostic instru-
                                                 ments (IVD Directive) [2] (in vitro = in a       The MPG defines an in vitro diagnostic
                                                 test tube). In Germany, these directives         medical device as follows:
                                                 have been transposed into national law           "An in vitro diagnostic medical device is
                                                 in the form of the Medical Devices Act,          a medical device which is intended to be
                                                 or Medizinproduktegesetz (MPG) [3].              used . . . as a reagent, reagent device, cali-
                                                                                                  brator material, control material, kit, instru-
                                                 If products satisfy the requirements of          ment, apparatus, equipment or system, ac-
                                                 these directives, they will be CE marked         cording to the intended purpose specified
                                                 and the manufacturer issues a declaration        by the manufacturer, for the in vitro exami-
                                                 of conformity. This documents that all the       nation of specimens derived from the
                                                 relevant requirements of the EU Directive        human body . . . purely or mainly with a view
                                                 have been met. These requirements may            to providing information
                                                 also stipulate a special quality assurance       a) on physiological or pathological
                                                 system, including auditing by an external           conditions,
                                                 authority.                                       b) congenital abnormalities, or

42    95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
                                                                           DIAGNOSTICS ARE DRUGS INVOLVED? – DRÄGER DRUGCHECK™ GIVES YOU THE ANSWER

c) to investigate the safety of or tolerance      stress factor for the patient, thus bearing           in oral fluid [2]. The parameters and cut-off
    by potential recipients, or                   heavily on the time and nerves of staff in            limits are based on the preliminary require-
d) to monitor therapeutic measures.“              the doctor's practice.                                ments for workplace monitoring issued
Drug testing procedures in the domain of          The new Dräger DrugCheck screening test               within the framework of the "US Federal
substance abuse are used – especially in          kit was developed with these factors in               Workplace Drug Testing Program“ [8].
substitution treatment and therapy – to           mind (Figure 1). The Dräger DrugCheck                 The Dräger DrugCheck delivers preliminary
determine whether patients are consuming          is suitable for detecting the presence of             test results; if necessary, the obtained sam-
other drugs besides the substitute. Further-      "drugs" in samples of oral fluid, while at the        ple can be subjected to further analysis,
more, the patient is monitored to check that      same time enabling sampling, on site ana-             e.g. a "confirmation analysis" in the Dräger
the substitute itself is being taken correctly.   lysis and the option of transporting and/or           Safety Analysis Laboratory (e.g. by means
In other words, this application corresponds      storing the sample.                                   of GC-MS, LC-MS or a similar procedure).
to the definition of in vitro diagnostic med-
ical devices contained in the MPG, and as         The Dräger DrugCheck is designed for in               The test process
such, devices and monitoring systems like         vitro diagnosis and forensic application to           The Dräger DrugCheck is based on the im-
the Dräger Drug-Check Test Kit must meet          enable the simultaneous qualitative detec-            munochemical test principle of competitive
the relevant legal requirements for in vitro      tion of different drugs and their metabolites         inhibition [9]. To conduct the test, an oral
diagnostic medical devices.                                                                             fluid collection device with a foam tip is
                                                                                                        used to absorb oral fluid in the mouth of
According to the current guidelines for sub-                                                            the test subject (Figure 2). The foam tip is
stitution treatment, unannounced random                                                                 squeezed out in the extraction mesh fitted
checks must be carried out to ensure that                                                               to the collection tube, and the oral fluid
the substitute is being used properly and                                                               flows into the tube (Figure 3). The mesh,
                                                   Fig. 4: Analysing the profile card
to ascertain whether other substances are                                                               together with the collection device clipped
being taken at the same time. The potential                                                             into it, are disposed of after the procedure.
use of oral fluid tests as a method of drug                                                             Next, the substance profile card is placed
screening during an ongoing programme of                                                                into the collection tube (Figure 4). Bio-
substitution therapy in a doctor's office has                                                           chemical reactions now take place, whereby
been described [4, 5] and is increasingly                                                               the oral fluid sample, the microparticles
being extended to include other fields of                                                               covered with anti-bodies, and the drug con-
application (during routine traffic spot                                                                jugate all influence one another. If there are
checks conducted by the police, for work-                                                               no drugs present in the sample, the anti-
place monitoring, in prisons etc.) [6, 7].                                                              body reacts with the drug conjugate and a
                                                                                                        pink-coloured strip becomes visible on the
In principle, drug analyses can be per-                                                                 profile card next to the name of the corres-
formed using a range of different bodily                                                                ponding drug/substance class (Figure 5).
materials such as blood, urine and saliva                                                               If there are sufficient concentrations of a
(or, to give the more precise term, oral                                                                particular drug in the oral fluid sample, the
fluid). Depending on the analysis medium                                                                microparticles are prevented from reacting
and the consumed substance, however,                                                                    with the drug conjugate. No strip appears
the possibility of detecting drug consump-                                                              in this case, i.e. the corresponding section
tion can vary, taking anything from a few                                                               of the profile card remains blank with
minutes to several months. The "window"                                                                 this type of preliminarily positive ("not nega-
for detecting drugs in oral fluid, for in-                                                              tive") sample. The result of the test can be
stance, generally lasts from minutes to days                                                            analysed after 10 to 15 minutes.
after consumption. Furthermore, oral fluid
is regarded as a "user-friendly" medium,                                                                Testing for drugs, besides allowing the
whereas the violation of the patient's per-                                                             detection of substance abuse, can also
sonal space and privacy which results when                                                              have a preventive ("educational") effect.

a monitored urine sample is required –                                                                  After all, the greater the risk of being
especially when no same-sex personnel is                                                                caught, the less likely a person is to use
available – can represent a considerable                                                                (or continue to use) drugs. The sort of

                                                                                                                         95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007    43

                                                                                                  A diverse range of closed forums are coor-
                                                                                                  dinated via this platform, including BAS
                                                                                                  e.V., Frankfurter Sub.Amb., ASIB etc.
                                                                                                  The "" information portal pub-
                                                                                                  lishes a newsletter at regular intervals.
                                                                                                  Interested parties can contact the informa-
                                                                                                  tion portal of the company CompWare
                                                                                                  Medical GmbH directly; registration and
                                                                                                  use are free of charge.

                                                                                                  Dr. Andreas Manns and
                                                                                                  Dr. Stefan Steinmeyer,
                                                                                                  Dräger Safety AG & Co. KG aA
                                                                                                  Dr. Rainer Polzius, Drägerwerk AG

                                                                                                  [1]   Council Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993
                                                                                                        concerning medical devices, Official Journal
                                                                                                        of the European Communities No. L 169 from
                                                                                                        7.12.1993, P.1
                                                                                                  [2]   Directive 98/79/EC of the European
                                                                                                        Parliament and of the Council of 27 October
                                                                                                        1998 on in vitro diagnostic medical devices,
                                                                                                        Official Journal of the European Communities
                                                                                                        No. L 331 from 7.12.1998, P.1

                                                                                                  [3]   Medical Devices Act (Medizinproduktegesetz
                                                                                                        – MPG), new version from 7.8.2002, BGBl I,
                                                                                                        2002, P.3147
Fig. 5: Analysis and sample
storage are both possible.                                                                        [4]   Möller, G et al., (2005) Suchtmed 7 (2), p.138

                                                                                                  [5]   Möller, G. et al., (2005) Suchttherapie 6,
tampering with the sample which can often         part of the "treatment and control of addic-
                                                                                                        p 200-210
be observed with urine samples is virtually       tion". It is suitable to be used to establish
impossible with the Dräger DrugCheck,             safe and error-free processes within the        [6]   Verstraete, A. und E. Raes,
                                                                                                        „ROSITA-2 Report“ (2006),
which represents a hygienic and user-             framework of systematic quality manage-
friendly alternative to urine-based checks.       ment in doctors' offices, outpatient depart-    [7]   Malamud, D. and S. Niedbala, "Oral-Based
                                                                                                        Diagnostics“ (2006),
                                                  ments and hospitals. The Dräger
The objective of a high-quality diagnostic        DrugCheck supports workflow and opera-          [8]   US. Food and Drug Administration (FDA),
analysis – including the procedure itself         tional process organization and the neces-  

and its analytical value – is to take full and    sary documentation systems required by          [9]   Polzius, R and A. Manns,
immediate account of each patient's individ-      the legal regulations for medical devices.            (2002) Drägerheft 373, p. 23-28

ual circumstances. Bearing this in mind, the
Dräger DrugCheck offers a key advantage           Further information on the subject of
and is able to add quality to the medical         "substance abuse and diagnostics" –
treatment process. This is because it is          Dräger Alcotest, Dräger Interlock and
much more likely than the so-called "visual-      Dräger DrugCheck – can be found at:
ly monitored urine samples" to meet the 
necessary medical and documentation re-
quirements and better reflects the patient's      Information in German about quality assur-
own – often subjective – capabilities (". . . I   ance in drug treatment is provided by the
don't want to, I can't, I don't have time).       " – Information portal for QA
The Dräger DrugCheck Test Kit promotes a          in drug treatment" at:
doctor-patient relationship based on trust as

44    95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007

Global certification for Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA

Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA, one of the         towards improving the efficiency of its com-               quality management department in Lübeck
world's leading manufacturers of personal       panies.                                                    and by the quality managers at the respec-
protective equipment and gas detection                                                                     tive companies. TÜV NORD CERT audits
technology, and a systems supplier of           Upholding and improving standards                          six different companies each year, allowing
complete safety services, has established a     A centralized quality management depart-                   it to monitor the effectiveness and further
globally standardized quality management        ment is responsible for ensuring that the                  development of the quality management
system in its 37 subsidiaries.                  standards of this quality management                       system.
                                                system are upheld and continuously
One of the objectives in doing so was to        improved. All the companies are audited                    Rainer Boldt
achieve joint ISO 9001 certification for all    once a year in accordance with standard-                   Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA
the group's companies. The certification        ized criteria by the staff of the central        
audits were conducted by TÜV NORD
CERT and concluded in February 2007. On
9 March 2007, Volker Klosowski, member
of the board of the TÜV NORD AG, pre-
sented the certificate to Dräger Safety AG
& Co. KGaA CEO Professor Albert Jugel.

Focusing on customer benefits
Throughout this project, the central focus
for Dräger was always on the benefits to
the customer. The global quality manage-
ment system ensures that customers of
Dräger, wherever they may be in the world,
have access to the same high standards
of service and delivery.

The resulting benefit to the customer is
obvious – uniform standards as regards
service, consistent structures as regards the
delivery of goods, constant high standards

in the production plants and a globally stan-
dardized scope of delivery at a constantly
increasing level.
                                                Everyone is happy following presentation of the certification documents: Volker Klosowski (2. from right);
In putting uniform structures in place world-   Marcus Fülber (3 from left), TÜV NORD CERT, Rainer Boldt, Margret Schnoor, Prof. Dr. Albert Jugel,
wide, Dräger has now taken a further step       Dr. Klaus Plötz (from left)

                                                                                                                               95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007       45

Training fire brigades all over Germany

                                The Safety Academy's scheme to pro-             A major part of the huge logistical chal-
                                vide high temperature training through-         lenge that the project entailed was later
                                out the state of Hesse                          overcome by the local instructors and their
                                It is becoming more and more difficult for
                                fire brigade personnel to practise fighting     Once the concept had been drawn up and
                                real fires in closed rooms and to learn how     the prices calculated, the tender was sub-
                                to combat fire in a more targeted manner.       mitted. Once all the tenders had been re-
                                In response for calls by fire brigades for      viewed, the Academy was awarded the con-
                                more realistic training, the Hesse Ministry     tract – now it was time to turn the concept
                                of the Interior and Sport commissioned the      into reality . . .
                                Safety Academy to make this type of train-
                                ing available to fire brigades on site, using   The contract gave the Academy responsibil-
                                a mobile fire training system.                  ity for the following:
                                                                                – provision of the mobile fire training
                                As soon as the tender invitation to provide        system for 30 weeks, six days a week,
                                training for fire fighters in Hesse was            including transport of the system
                                received, a detailed conceptual proposal        – consumables (gas, smoke fluid etc.)
                                was drawn up at the Academy. The internal       – personnel to operate the system
                                description of services to be delivered con-    – trainers to ensure the safe running of
                                tained not only the technical specifications       exercises and to hold debriefings
                                of the system, but also a detailed descrip-        afterwards
                                tion of the requirements, e.g. that at least    – training of the local instructors
                                nine wearers of respiratory protective          Next, in close cooperation between the
                                equipment would be able to use the fire         Hesse State Fire Training School, the
                                training system per hour.                       Regional Council and Dräger Safety, a
                                The large number of respiratory protective      detailed training concept was drawn up.
                                equipment wearers requiring training posed      Once the necessary handbooks and check-
                                a considerable challenge to the Academy         lists had been compiled and the local in-
                                team. Other issues which the team needed        structors trained, the tour through Hesse
                                to focus on included their response to any      began in the town of Giessen in November
                                technical faults in the system, and how to      2004. The tour passed through a total of
                                organize training for the local instructors.    33 towns, ending in Fulda in mid 2005.
                                The instructors were provided by the dis-
                                trict governments and needed to be given        As a general rule, the fire training system
                                training before the programme commenced.        was open for use from 8 am to 10 pm from

46   95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
               Monday to Friday, and from 8 am to 6 pm       when the roof hatch is opened and their           ers analyse any mistakes which have been
               on Saturdays. Throughout this period, five    first attempt to get through the gallery.         made and the trainer suggests possible im-
               operators and as many as 13 trainers          Once they arrive in the fire room, a short        provements.
               from Dräger Safety were on hand, ready to     heat habituation exercise is always per-
               provide assistance. This meant that the       formed first. This gives the fire fighters the    The high temperature training tour was to
               emergency plans which had been drawn up       chance to experience and recognize the            prove a challenge for the Academy team
               could be quickly implemented if the system    effects of their protective clothing – for        too. Certain compromises, for example,
               were to break down, or indeed if an opera-    some it may even be the first time they           had to be made to take account of extreme
               tor or instructor were absent.                actually see a real fire as a professional fire   cold. When the mercury fell to minus 17°
                                                             fighter. Then follows a room fire scenario,       Celsius in the winter of 2004/2005, the
               The training gallery features an endless      where a flashover may erupt into a full-          conditions were no longer appropriate –
               ladder, an exercise area and a fire room      blown fire within the room. The fire fighters     the fact that the water for fire fighting was
               containing three fire seats and a flashover   practise how to handle the nozzles efficient-     freezing posed an increased level of risk
               simulation. All the exercises take place      ly and also learn how to work as a team.          with regard to the actual objective of the
               under controlled and safe conditions at       One person is always supposed to keep an          training. After consultation with everyone
               all times.                                    eye on the peripheral area and escape             involved the training was rescheduled for a
                                                             routes while the other targets the flames.        later date, as everyone naturally was keen
               Many inexperienced fire fighters find it                                                        to achieve their training goals.
               quite a challenge to deal with the smoke      After the exercise a debriefing takes place
               that rises at the beginning of the exercise   during which the trainer and the fire fight-
                                                                                                                                Entering the training gallery

                                                                                                                               95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007         47

               A familiar scene for the fire                                                Briefing in organizational
               brigades of Hesse in Germany                                                 processes

               At the end of the project, during the course      the training was necessary, both for their              they possibly can, due to the fact that the
               of which over 13,000 fire fighters received       own safety and for that of the general                  temperatures inside the fire room exceed
               training in 2004/05, its overall success was      public.                                                 300 °C. Once the fire has been success-
               assessed.                                                                                                 fully extinguished the fire fighters retreat
                                                                 There were a number of minor changes to                 and report "fire out".
               There was no dissent: the state of Hesse          the new tender invitation, relating both to             The entire training package, which compris-
               has approx. 25,000 fire fighters who use          the contents and to the system itself. More             es the teaching elements (organized by the
               respiratory protective equipment, and the         fire rooms were requested, and the focus                local fire brigade), the exercises performed
               general consensus on the basis of the ex-         of the training was to be slightly shifted.             with the nozzles, the course through the
               perience so far was that this type of training                                                            training gallery and the debriefing after-
               should continue. The instructors and train-       Dräger Safety, which was awarded the con-               wards, meant that the entire Hesse fire
               ing participants unanimously agreed that          tract for the next project in Hesse, came up            service could continue to receive this highly
                                                                 with exercise version 1 of the Dräger FIRE              qualified training. The training allowed the
                                                                 DRAGON.                                                 fire fighters to be prepared for their opera-

                                                                 This mobile fire training system comprises              tions safely and realistically – i.e. the best
                                                                 three fire rooms with six fire seats, includ-           case scenario.
                                                                 ing a flashover simulation. The variety of
                                                                 rooms, fire seats and access points means               In total, over 25,000 respiratory protective
                                                                 that all kinds of different scenarios are               equipment wearers from the fire brigades
                                                                 possible, e.g. simulating a fire in an apart-           of the state of Hesse were given training
                                                                 ment or in a workshop.                                  within the framework of the fire training
                                                                                                                         project between 2004 and 2006.
                                                                 In the case of a simulated apartment fire,              This training represents just one element
                                                                 the fire crew tackles the fire from the roof,           of the overall high temperature training pro-
                                                                 and then works its way into the living area             gramme. In providing this series of training
                                                                 via a staircase – where they may find a                 events, the state of Hesse has responded
                                                                 television, rubbish bin or sofa on fire. Then           to the wishes of the fire brigades. Feed-
                                                                 the flames spread to the kitchen. During                back relating to the training was extremely
                                                                 the exercise the fire fighters practise how             positive, as is clearly evident from the com-
                                                                 to handle the nozzles efficiently and learn             ment of Marburg Fire Brigade chief Werner
                                                                 how to work as a team. They have to walk                Fischer: "The opportunity to take part in
                                                                 in a crouching position, keeping as low as              this highly realistic training exercise is of

               48              95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007


               Explanation of the next stage                         Just before
               of the training                                       training starts

               unique and very special importance . . . ,           Another wide-area training programme is       run the training courses – yet another
               there are hardly any other opportunities to          currently being run by the Academy in         exemplary wide-area training programme.
               train in such a practice-oriented fashion . . . “.   Bavaria, where a solid fuel-run system is
               Nonetheless, a break is initially planned for        being used which allows a fire to be ob-      Carsten Joester
               2007, despite the fact that there were calls         served and tackled from the moment it         Timo Ahrens
               for the training to be continued.                    starts to the point of flashover. This cam-   Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA
                                                                    paign is being financed by the Bavarian
               One thing is certain: the fire brigades in           Insurance Chamber. The training is  
               Hesse have run a training programme                  scheduled and organized by the Bavarian
               which could well serve as a role model for           State Fire Brigade Association, while
               the entire trainings.                                the Academy has been commissioned to

               Mobile gas-powered fire training system:                                                                                                     ST-2281-2006

               Simulates fire scenarios using gas-powered fires, e.g. in staircases, kitchens or beds.
               The gas-powered fire container is used to give a realistic impression of heat, flames
               and water vapour.

               Mobile solid fuel-powered fire training system:
               Simulates fire scenarios using burning wood or other solid fuels.
               This enables fire fighters to experience at first hand how a fire starts and

               develops into a full-blown room fire, how smoke fills the room and how a
               flashover takes place.

               Both versions allow fire fighters to train under highly realistic conditions, giving
               them the chance to acquire some initial experience or to build on their existing
               skills and improve their teamwork.

                                                                                                                                 95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007                  49

Online training for filtering respiratory protection:
                                                                                                                                                                    Dräger X-plore 7500
                                                                                                                                                                    filtering device with
                                                                                                                                                                    short hood

There are a number of different factors                                     tion helps you to remain up-to-date and                 Internet – once you have registered to use
which need to be taken into account when                                    provide customers with professional advice              the programme, you can do so at any time
selecting and using filtering respiratory                                   and support in all issues relevant to the               free of charge.
protective equipment: how to establish a                                    topic of respiratory protection. From the               The platform can be accessed via
respiratory protection programme, how to                                    design of training programmes and the          or from the
choose the right respiratory protective                                     duties and obligations of employees, to                 national homepages of the Dräger Safety
devices, and how to organize user training                                  choosing the right filters and devices to               websites.
are just some of the aspects which safety                                   suit your particular application, you will
officers are confronted with on a day-to-day                                find all the information you need here.                 Which contents can be accessed?
basis. To make it easier to meet this                                                                                               Dr. X-pert is your personal guide, helping
challenge, we have set up an APR Online                                     You have to be able to depend on safety,                you to navigate through the training plat-
Training site, an online training platform for                              and the fact that our programme is online is            form and pointing out key aspects during
filtering respiratory protection. This platform                             important because it allows users to obtain             the training. The training contents are
offers advice and support whenever you                                      advice wherever they are and whenever                   divided into five different categories:
need it. Our training platform for selecting                                they need it, seven days a week and 24
and using filtering respiratory protective                                  hours a day.                                            01 Hazards
equipment offers you assistance in develop-                                 Any user of the platform can access the in-             The introduction to the topic of respiratory
ing a respiratory protective programme in                                   formation they need, wherever in the world              protection includes the basic principles of
your company or organization. The informa-                                  they may be. All you need is access to the              human respiration, an analysis of hazards

Dräger X-plore 7500
power-assisted filtering
device with helmet                                     Dräger X-plore 4790                                           Dräger X-plore 1700 FFP2V
during grinding work                                   half mask during paint work                                   during use in timber processing
ST-4696-2003 ST-4696-2003



50                          95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007

and how to deal with them in a company or       04 Standards + more                           and application consultants mean an end
industry setting. This is the section where     The use of respiratory protective equipment   to uncertainties and doubts when it comes
the user can find, among other things, the      is monitored by numerous institutions. In     to selecting the right product.
information needed to establish a respira-      this section you can find out all you need
tory protection programme in a company.         to know about the currently applicable        What are you waiting for?
                                                standards and regulations.                    Get online and register on the start page
02 Training                                                                                   of APR Training:
This section contains useful knowledge          05 Product consultant               
about how to select the right respiratory       There's no need to search, because there      And then you are ready to start!
protective device, about how to handle          you'll find information about the features    If you already have a user name for one of
filtering respiratory protective equipment in   and functions of the Dräger range of          our other services (e.g. the Dräger VOICE
general, and about user training. Further-      X-plore respiratory protection products.      hazardous substances database or the
more, you will find free training materials     The programme has a suitable solution for     Technical Documentation Service), then all
which you can use in your company.              every application.                            you need to do is update your profile. To
                                                                                              do this, simply log on to one of the other
03 Application consultant                       What are the advantages offered by the        applications and click on the profile link.
Do you know the field of application in         APR Online Training?                          Now place a tick in the corresponding box.
which you work, but aren't sure which the       The Dräger APR Online Training is a pro-
appropriate respiratory protective device is    fessional and comprehensive information       If you should have any questions, please
to use? If so, the application consultant can   portal providing reliable information 24      send an e-mail to:
help. The application consultant is also        hours a day, seven days a week. You no
available here to tell you how exactly to go    longer need to purchase or design any         Suzanne Johnson
about choosing the right device: which          expensive training documents and teaching     Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA
device is suitable for which application?       materials. All the documents are provided
Which filters are appropriate for which con-    free of charge, and we can guarantee that

taminants? Which limit values need to be        our documents and information are fully
observed?                                       up-to-date. What is more, our equipment

                                                                                                              95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007   51

Dräger Seminar in St Gall
Fire Brigades and Cultural Heritage

On 25 August 2006, Dräger Safety                 time, this is precisely why it is so painful
Schweiz AG invited customers and busi-           when buildings and cultural monuments are
ness partners to the eighth Dräger Seminar       lost, because the original historical sub-
of its kind, focusing on the subject of "Fire    stance cannot be restored, even if the
Brigades and Cultural Heritage". Traditio-       building in question is rebuilt. A society rich
nally, the topic of this full-day information    in cultural heritage holds the foundation         prepared. At the time, there was no con-
event is first illuminated from different        stones of our collective memory; this helps       cept of the fire brigade being responsible
angles by experts and then presented in          us define our identity, shapes our present        for protecting cultural heritage, as its job
a more practical live demonstration.             and allows us to conceive the future.             was – and remains today – composed of
Urs J. Weder, General Manager at Dräger          Urs J. Weder explained that St Gall –             three tasks: rescue – maintain/protect –
Safety Schweiz AG, was quite clearly in a        where the conference was taking place –           extinguish.
good mood when he welcomed just over             reflects the entire spectrum from past to         As in a number of other cases, reality has
100 guests to the conference from Switzer-       present on account of the fact that its           since put this theory somewhat into context
land and neighbouring countries. In his wel-     cultural heritage is evident at every step        – after all, the fire brigade is not only able
come address, he noted – glancing at the         throughout the town. Furthermore, the             to fight fires, but can also make an impor-
packed auditorium – that there was no            Stiftsbezirk – or conventual area – has           tant contribution to preventing them from
doubt that people were interested in what        been classified since 1983 as a UNESCO            occurring in the first place. Fire prevention
may appear to be a somewhat unusual              site of world cultural heritage, making its       is the key concept here, showing that there
conference topic. He went on to say that         protection a matter of not only regional          is a very clear connection between the
this was actually not at all surprising when     or national but international importance.         fire brigade and the protection of cultural
you come to think about it, as our cultural                                                        heritage.
heritage is not merely some vague and            Rescue – maintain/protect – extinguish            As Peter W. Schneider went on to explain,
unrealistic notion but in fact the omnipre-      Giving a lecture with the somewhat pro-           a distinction needs to be made in practice
sent legacy of our society. At the same          vocative title of "Protection of cultural         between preventive action which is taken
                                                 heritage – a topic of (no) interest to the fire   to protect fixed and mobile cultural assets
Urs J. Weder, General Manager at
Dräger Safety Schweiz AG, welcoming the guests   brigade", Peter W. Schneider, Secretary-          in public ownership and those in private
                                                 General of the Swiss Fire Brigade Coor-           hands. In the former case, the necessary
                                                 dination Service (FKS), was the first of          preconditions are generally in place to allow
                                                 the experts to address the audience. Mr           operations to be properly planned and the
                                                 Schneider had acquired first-hand experien-       necessary exercises performed. In the pri-
                                                 ce in this area as a young man during his         vate sector, on the other hand, the situation
                                                 military service, when he learnt that, in the     is far less encouraging on account of the
                                                 event of war breaking out, the Civil Defence      fact that the necessary measures and pre-
                                                 would be responsible for protecting the           cautions are mainly implemented on a

                                                 country's cultural heritage, and that every-      voluntary basis. In the event of an emergen-
                                                 thing was extremely well organized and            cy, therefore, unnecessary and irrevocable

52             95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007
Simulated fire fighting manoeuvre from a balcony at the same height as the cathedral roof     Impressive live demonstration at the cathedral of St Gall

damage takes place time after time. In the               tion, provides help with analysing the situa-       into the situation across the border in Ger-
interests of everyone involved, careful con-             tion and taking decisions in connection with        many. In his discussion of the topic of fire
sideration must always be given to how                   renovation and restoration work, and with           safety in cultural heritage buildings, Michael
much time and money can be invested in                   conducting periodic checks. In individual           Rost pointed out that measures aimed at
fire prevention, bearing in mind the worst               cases the building insurance provider can,          reducing the risk of fire breaking out or
case scenario. Expert knowledge and com-                 citing the guideline, demand or even order          spreading would almost inevitably lead to
mon sense should be used as the basis for                that specific fire prevention measures be           conflicts between the different individual
practicable measures of cultural heritage                taken if the risk to a building is classed as       interests of those in charge of fire safety
protection, both today and in the future.                serious.                                            and those responsible for protecting the
                                                         When verifying and specifying concrete fire         building as a historical monument. While
Fire prevention appropriate                              prevention measures, explained Rudolf               the latter prefer solutions which are, as far
to different situations                                  Zenger, it is always a question of finding a        as possible, 'invisible', fire prevention ex-
Rudolf Zenger, a fire prevention expert at               middle path between the needs and requi-            perts generally favour (feasible) solutions
Building Insurance Berne (GVB), reported                 rements associated with fire prevention and         which guarantee without compromise the
on how such fire prevention measures are                 those related to protecting the building in         protection of people. In the case of histori-
being implemented in cultural heritage                   question. It is also necessary to reconcile in      cal buildings requiring protection, in other
buildings in the Canton of Berne with the                the best way possible the need to protect           words, special protection objectives need
aid of a new guideline entitled "Fire safety             people – the unshakeable uppermost                  to be formulated and fire safety measures
in cultural heritage buildings". The previous-           priority of fire prevention – with the goals        implemented on this basis.
ly applicable regulations and laws had been              of protecting the cultural heritage building.
revised following a major fire which broke               Where the conditions of the building are            When weighing up the costs and benefits in
out on 30 January 1997 in the old part                   found to be deficient or unsatisfactory, they       any particular situation, explained Michael
of Berne, which is likewise classified as a              should be compensated for by implement-             Rost, existing empirical values can be used;
UNESCO world cultural heritage site.                     ing technical or operational measures.              depending on the type of building or object
The guideline, which has been in force                                                                       in question (e.g. museum, office, archive,
since 2005, stipulates that target-oriented              Solutions aimed at protection                       attic room etc.), these can be used to de-
fire prevention measures which are appro-                Following a short break for coffee, Dr              termine the ideal type of escape routes, to
priate to the prevailing circumstances must              Michael Rost, Deputy Professor for Building         identify the different contents of objects re-
be implemented in cultural heritage build-               Fire Safety at the University of Magdeburg-         quiring protection, and to assess the diffe-
ings. The new standard, and especially the               Stendal and government-approved fire pre-           rent speeds at which a fire could spread.
accompanying comprehensive documenta-                    vention expert, gave the audience an insight        Since in reality there are virtually never the

                                                                                                                                 95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007   53

                                                                                                                   protection, so there is still a lot of work
                                                                                                                   needing to be done.

                                                                                                                   Platform for sharing knowledge
                                                                                                                   and experience
                                                                                                                   After lunch, which Dräger Safety Schweiz
                                                                                                                   AG invited all participants to attend in the
                                                                                                                   attractively decorated vehicles hall of the
                                                                                                                   professional fire brigade of St Gall, buses

                                                                                                                   were on hand to shuttle everyone over to
                                                                                                                   the inner courtyard of the monastery. On
                                                                                                                   arrival, Christian Isler first gave a brief
Revelling in the applause of the seminar participants: members of the professional fire brigade of St Gall after
the live demonstration                                                                                             explanation of the operational tactics which
                                                                                                                   would be implemented in the event of a
perfect conditions for optimum fire preven-                new fire prevention concept in 1995. The                fire in the cathedral's roof. No sooner had
tion measures to be implemented, Michael                   analyses and conceptual studies carried out             he finished his talk than the sirens of the
Rost named at the end of his presentation                  up till then also served as the basis for a             professional fire brigade could be heard –
a whole range of so-called 'compensation                   project to renovate and update the convent              moments later the fire engines screeched
measures' which have been drawn up by                      of St Gall and catalogue its contents for the           into the courtyard and got into position. It
his institute and are intended to help prac-               purposes of fire prevention; this was agreed            took hardly five minutes for the extendable
ticable compromise solutions to be found.                  in the year 2000, implemented in a series               ladder of one of the fire engines to reach a
                                                           of stages and completed in 2003.                        balcony at the same height as the cathedral
Documentation "of fire brigade interest"                   In his lively lecture, into which he had clear-         roof, allowing a simulated fire fighting
To round off the interesting and informative               ly put his heart and soul, Christian Isler              manoeuvre to be performed, both from the
morning programme, and to get the audi-                    pointed out that merging the fire brigade               ground and via the walkways installed in the
ence in the right mood for the live presen-                and civil defence in St Gall to form a single           timberwork of the roof.
tation which was to follow in the afternoon,               organization would optimize on a step-by-
Christian Isler, Chief Fire and Operations                 step basis the various interfaces and areas             To give the participants the chance to see
Planning Officer of the professional fire                  of cooperation in the field of cultural heri-           for themselves the extensive prevention
brigade of St Gall, talked about his ex-                   tage protection. Nonetheless, the resound-              measures in place in preparation for possi-
periences in the field of intervention pre-                ing success of the aforementioned pre-                  ble emergency scenarios in the cathedral,
paration and prevention.                                   vention measures undertaken in the                      they were taken in groups to view the im-
                                                           conventual area could not, in Christian                 pressive installations during a tour.
When in July 1992, in the immediate vicinity               Isler's view, disguise the fact that the fire
of the monastery, fire broke out in the                    brigade has at its disposal only very few               René David
Church of St. Laurence, there was no doubt                 documents "of fire brigade interest" con-               Dräger Safety Schweiz AG
in the minds of those in charge at the pro-                cerning cultural heritage buildings requiring 
fessional fire brigade of St Gall that the
information at their disposal and the plans                 Conclusion
that existed would not be sufficient to pro-                The Dräger Seminar on the subject of "Fire Brigades and Cultural Heritage" certainly gave
tect the historic substance of the neighbou-                the impression that the theoretical and technical bases for an effective and efficient pro-
ring UNESCO world cultural heritage site                    tection of cultural heritage buildings are in place. Nonetheless, for these to be put into
efficiently and effectively in the event of a               practice, constructive cooperation is needed between all kinds of different groups, e.g. the
fire.                                                       owners, persons responsible for the protection of monuments and listed buildings, those
                                                            in charge of cultural heritage protection, fire prevention inspectors, fire brigade and civil
In October of the same year, a rough gene-                  defence officers, and many others besides. Let us hope that the growing interest in and
ral plan was therefore drawn up, detailing                  understanding of the importance of protecting our cultural heritage soon becomes an every-
how to deal with an emergency in the con-                   day facet of life in as many regions, cities and decision-making bodies as possible. To this
ventual area. With the cooperation and in-                  extent the Dräger Seminar provided all the participants with the ideal platform for learning
volvement of all the institutions concerned,                about both the positive and unhappy experiences of those who have already taken a step
this planning basis was used to create a                    further in this direction.

54             95 DRÄGER REVIEW 09|2007

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with acknowledgement to Dräger Safety AG &Co. KGaA, editionship of the Dräger
Review. The data in Dräger Review correspond to the current state of our knowledge                                       Revalstraße 1
and are designed to provide information on products and possible applications. They                                      23560 Lübeck, Germany
are thus not intended to guarantee specific properties of the products of suitability                                    Tel +49 451 882 0
of these products for any specific application. International Standard Serial Number
ISSN 0366-9610                                                                                                           Fax +49 451 882 2080

                                                                                                                         Burkard Dillig
                                                                                                                         Tel +49 451 8 82 2185
                                                                                                                         Fax +49 451 8 82 3122
                                                                                                                         Editorial office:
                                                                                                                         Annedore Glas
                                                                                                                         Tel +49 451 882 3179
                                                                                                                         Fax +49 451 882 3122
                                                                                                                         Translation: Chris Cave
Dräger Review 95
SEP 2007

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