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China search-and-rescue team


• Part 1.Emergency Management in China    How China Enhances The
                                           National Civil-Protection
• Part 2. Emergency Response for Ms 8.0           Structure
  Wenchuan Earthquake in May 12,2008

                                                  Dr.Zhuoli Getu
                                          China Earthquake Administration
            The Event Drivers                   Part 1.Emergency Management in China

• The Severe Flooding along the Yangtze         • Emergency Management is both an old and
  River in 1998; 220 million people affected;     new topic in China and Chinese civilization
  20 billion USD direct economic loss;            suffered from many catastrophes in history;
• The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
  in 2003 from Nov 16 2002 to June 24 2003
  325 people died of SARS, The travel ban
  imposed and the schools closed.
   Target of Emergency Management                        Fundamental strategy
• Reduce the causalities and the potential        • The fundamental strategy in disaster
  impact of massive disasters through the           reduction is Prevention first, followed by
  emergency management                              relief and rescue.
• All the activities along the risk evaluation,   • Pre-disaster preparedness + Emergency
  risk reduction ,response to the disaster and      Response
  the reconstruction are part of emergency
         Major Players in Disaster                National Emergency Management
          Management in China                                 Offices
• The Major ministries responding to different   • Emergency Management Office of China
  disasters:                                       Central Government, Ministries and all local
  Ministry of Public Securities                    governments founded in 2006
  Ministry of Agriculture
  Ministry of Civil Affairs
  Ministry of Health
  Ministry of Land and Resources
  Ministry of Water Resources
  Ministry of Environmental Protection….
 Emergencies Response Plans                  Mechanism of Emergency Management
                                             • Sector-based Disaster Approach
• 1 General Response Plan for Rapid          • Inter-agency Coordinating Scheme
  Response to Public Emergencies went
                                             • Local Government: Primary Responders
  effective on January. 8, 2006
• 25 national plans on specific emergency,
  e.g.. Earthquake etc.
• 80 ministries emergency response plans
• Local governments plans
• Local government departments plans
Early Warning System- Red, Orange, Yellow, Blue            Classification of Public Emergency Accidents

                                                                             Public Contingency Accidents        Kinds
                                                                              Natural Disaster                 Accident Catastrophe

                                                                               Public Health
                                                                                 Incident                            Public Security
                        Extraordinarily Serious Accident

                        Major Accident
                                                                                                       Four Levels

                        Serious Accident

                        Not Severe Accident
  Legal Aspects on Emergency     National Response Plan on Earthquake
           Response                           Emergency
• Law of the People's          • Level I : Ms 7.0- above, dead people:
  Republic of China on           more than 300, Direct Economic Loss
  Emergency Response             more than 1% of GDP
  (Order of the President of   • Level II: Ms 6.5-7.0, dead people: more
  the People’s Republic of       than 50 up to 300
  China No. 69) went           • Level III: Ms 6.0-6.5, dead people: more
  effective on Nov. 11, 2007     than 20 up to 50
                               • Level IV: Ms 5.0-6.0, dead people: less
                                 than 20
     Law of the People's Republic of                                              Legal Aspects on Earthquake
     China on Emergency Response                                                     Emergency Response
 • State Council headed by Primer to considerate,                              • Law of the People’s Republic of China
                                                                                 on Protecting against and Mitigating
   decide and deploy for Extraordinarily Serious                                 Earthquake Disasters
                                                                               • Regulations on Post-Wenchuan
                                                                                 Earthquake Restoration and
                                                                                 Reconstruction (the State Council No.

                                                                               • Guiding Opinions of the State Council on
                                                                                 Post-Wenchuan Earthquake Restoration
                                                                                 and Reconstruction (NDRC [2008] No.22)
Primer. WEN Jiabao attend       Primer. WEN Jiabao at railway station talked
National Emergency Management   with passengers blocked by heavy snow in
Conference                      early 2008
                               Law of the People's Republic of China on
                                        Emergency Response
National Urban and Search    • Leadership: Central Government of China
 Rescue Training Base in
                             • Local governments are primary responders and
 operation in July, 2008       accountable for the consequences of disasters
                             • 4 level of governments responsible for equivalent
                               4 level of contingency incidents

                              Government level                  Emergency Level
                            Central Government      Level I- extraordinarily serious accident
                            Provincial Government   Level II- major accident
                            Municipal Government    Level III- serious accident
                            County Government       Level IV- not severe accident
Bird’s view of the Training Base
                                                    Asia-Pacific Earthquake
        International Actors
                                                    Exercise in 2006, China
• International Participants:                 • Commemorate the 30th anniversary of Tangshan
  17 skeleton teams: Australia, Russia, the   • Promote awareness of the concept of USAR in
  Phillipines, Korea, United States of          China
  America, Mongolia, Japan, Italy, Sweden,    • Practice the international coordination
  Switzerland, Singapore, New                   methodology;
  Zealand,India, Map Action, DHL              • Test the cooperation between the national and
                                                international teams;
  UN OCHA                                     • Set up joint operation between LEMA and
           Chinese Actors
• 17 Chinese Teams with each team
  represented by two leaders;
• China International Search and Rescue
  Team ;
  Chinese Participants: 34+50
          Summary of Part 1
• Four levels of disasters and definition of
  relevant measures;
• Legal Instruments: laws , regulations and
  disaster response plans;
• Accountability: local governments are
  accountable for the consequences of
• Scientific Support: consultation with experts
                              Part 2. Emergency Response for Ms
                               8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake in May

Longmenshan Faulting system
                                                                   Beichuan County

  broken bridge

     Massive landslides and collapsed bridges resulted in traffic failure.
                                                                                     Dry mudflow
Continuous aftershocks, earthquake lakes and a bunch of other things   The highways are buckled and caved in from the quake and massive rockslides
made rescue work much harder.                                          lining the roads hamper the rescue efforts to a large extent.
                                                   Distribution of Aftershocks
  Facts: Wenchuan Earthquake
• Magnitude: 8.0
• Time: 14:28, May 12, 2008
• Epicenter: Wenchuan and the area along NE-
  extending Longmenshan fault
• Dead:69,227 with 17,923 missing
• Severely Affected Area: 130,000 Square
  Kilometers(=1/3 of Germany), 51 counties in
  Sichuan, Gansu and Shaanxi
• Total affected area: 500,000 Square Kilometers
  including 417 counties, 4667 towns, 48810
       Emergency Response                             Wenchuan Earthquake
• Activation of the national emergency plan     • Severe secondary disaster: rampant
  for destructive earthquake;                     landslides, earthquake lakes, failure of the
• Activation of National Earthquake Disaster      lifeline facilities, severe ecological and
  Relief Headquarters with Premier Wen            cultural impact
  Jiabao as the Chief commander and the         • Evacuated population: 15.10 million
  relevant ministers as the members providing   • Economic loss: RMB 845.1 Billion
  coordination and the external support         • Reconstruction: three years
                                                     H.E.President HU Jintao           Chief of CEA
                                                     Amazing Quick Response of China Central Government
                                                •H.E. President HU Jintao made important comments and instructions
                                                immediately after the earthquake !
                                                •Primer WEN Jiabao went to Sichuan in 2 hrs after the quake. he announced on
                                                the way that the State Council set up National Earthquake Disaster Relief
                                                Headquarters composed of 9 working teams to coordinate national disaster
                                                relief efforts.
                                                •On night of May 12, Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPC hold
                                                conference to make decision that the responding of this earthquake was the
Primer WEN Jiabao at affected areas May 12-16   most urgent and most important task of the nation, and activated national
• National mobilization: 20 professional
  USAR Teams, 146,000 soldiers, 75,000
• Six International Search and Rescue teams
  to conduct search and rescue operation.

                                              • May 16, 2008, H.E. President HU Jintao went to Sichuan
                                                                                     The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA), the armed police, militia and reserve
                                                                                     troops went all out into the rescue efforts. The troops were swiftly deployed in quake-hit
Evacuation was urgently carried out in the remote and mountainous quake-hit areas.
                                                                                     areas both by land and air for rescue operation and reconstruction.
                                                               • Evacuated people of 15.1 m have been
                                                                 resettled in the temporary houses;
                                                               • Injured people of 43 m have been treated
                                                                 with over 10, 000 severely injured
                                                                 transferred to 370 hospitals in 20 provinces;
                                                               • 84017 people are rescued and affected
                                                                 people of 8.81m have received the relief
                                                               • Schools opened before the beginning of
                                                                 new school semesters in September;
84017 survivals were successfully rescued from the collapsed
buildings or debris.                                           •
Emergency Medical Policy
                                                              Emergency Medical Policy
The central government launched a special mechanism to
                                                              „ 374,643 people were injured in the disaster, and some were
mobilize various provinces to accept the seriously injured.
More than 10,000 injured people had been transferred to       seriously injured.
hospitals outside Sichuan Province for treatment              „ The central government implemented a free-of-charge policy
                                                              for the cure of the common wounded.
The central government provided an average of 28,000          „ As of Sept. 15, hospitals in major cities had treated 96,544
Yuan one person medical subsidy, and the subsidies for
                                                              quake survivors, of whom 93,361 have been discharged.
accompanying and nursing staffs and for the return journey
of both.
                                                                         Temporary Resettlement

                                                                      Sichuan province initiated the mechanism for sheltering the affected
                                                                      people, coping with the emergency evacuation of millions of the affected
                                                                      people from mountainous regions. Almost all the towns along the affected
The quake-hit areas urgently needed tents, quilts, food, medicines.   areas became the shelters for the affected people.
                                             The Headquarters promptly decided to make an emergency production of 900,000 tents
                                             and a million of sets of plank houses, so as to ensure the victims' temporary shelter.

677,131 temporary houses have been built .
                                                                         About 10 million people, or 4.45 million households, had moved into
Social Participation and Donation                                        makeshift housing.

As of November. 25, domestic and foreign donations had reached           Sichuan Province gave the farmers who build temporary shelters
65.4 billion Yuan in cash and goods. Of this, 27 billion Yuan had been   themselves a subsidy of 2,000 Yuan per family to encourage
forwarded to quake-hit areas.                                            farmers to build interim houses.
Mutual-support Scheme
On June 11, the State Council announced official decision to
establish an mutual-support scheme of recovery and
reconstruction with "one external province helping one
heavily stricken county."

                                                               An estimated 180,000 volunteers from across the country went to aid survivors,
                                                               taking part in rescue work, medical and psychological care, relief distribution,
                                                               maintaining social order and cultural activities.
Government tightens management on quake

„ The audit offices and fiscal departments were asked to track
the donation.                                                        International Assistances
„ The supervision departments would inspect the government's
management on donations.
„ The media are encouraged to keep a close eye on any                The international community has demonstrated a highly
malpractice.                                                         commendable spirit of humanitarianism by extending
                                                                     helping hands, materials and sympathy.
Four principles for donation management:
                                                                     The 3 days after earthquake, 151 countries and 14 regional
„ Donation should be made voluntarily rather than compulsorily;
„ Organizations should respect donors' will in using the             or international organizations had offered support in various
donations;                                                           forms. Foreign rescue teams joined the joint relief efforts.
„ Donations should go to the exact needs of quake relief and
rehabilitation, especially to hard-hit areas;                        More than 4 billion Yuan of donation in cash and goods has
„ Governments and organizations should follow a legal and
                                                                     been donated from abroad to China through diplomatic
standardized way to distribute donations and publicize the results
timely.                                                              channels.
                                                 Media Coverage form the very
               Experience                                 beginning
• The rapid determination of earthquake       • Extensive media coverage of the disaster to
  parameters and the advice to the State        keeping the public informed and getting
  Council on the impact of the earthquake;      more support
• The rapid response to the disaster by the
  leaders of the central government;
                                                                  Premier WEN Jiabao 100
                                                                  Hours in the affected area

                                              May12-14:28 Earthquake 0hr
• The national mobilization of all the        May12-16:00 boarding at Beijing airport
                                              May12-19:10 Du Jiangyan 3rd hr
  professional forces ,the army and the       May12-22:00 Du Jiangyan 6th hr
  police;                                     May12-23:45 Du Jiangyan 8th hr
                                              May13-07:00 Du Jiangyan 15th hr
                                              May13-12:00 Mianzhu 22nd hr
• Real-time release of disaster situation     May13-20:30 Train 30th hr
  through the media, involving the media as   May14-09:00 Beichuan 40th hr
                                              May14-10:00 Qushan 42nd hr
  part of the disaster relief operation;      May14-15:00 Yingxiu 46th hr
                                              May14-21:00 Train 52nd hr
                                              May15-06:00 Guangyuan 63rd hr
                                              May15-12:00 Muyuzhen 68th hr
                                              May15-21:00 Train 80th hr
                                              May16-09:00 Train 90th hr
                                              May16-Morning back for Beijing
            Lessons learned                                       Experiences
• Top priority should be given to mass disasters    • Tremendous support from people all over
  such as destructive earthquakes;
                                                      the country ; Volunteers have played an
• Communication and transportation facilities are
  key to disaster relief operation;                   important role in disaster relief activity;
• Public awareness on disaster prevention should    • Reconstruction regulation was promulgated
  be further promoted;                                one month later and public and experts from
• Disaster prevention program should be               home and abroad were consulted on the
  incorporated into the urban planning;               reconstruction program ;
• More professional Search and Rescue Teams are
  needed;                                           • The effort of disaster preparedness over the
• Information sharing and on-site coordination        years have paid off: contingency plans ,
  needs to be strengthened;                           exercises, and shelters.
                  Next Steps
                                                                    Lessons learned
Capacity Building of Disaster Prevention
  Disaster response plans                                • Psychological intervention is as important
  Integration of the resources                             as the physical reconstruction;
  Disaster monitoring
  Improving the Infrastructure facilities for disaster   • Volunteers should be organized well on the
  prevention                                               basis of the sectors ( health, logistics,
  Public education and professional training               communication.)
  Retrofitting all school building nation wide
                                                         • Cooperation of military and non-civilian
  Rural housing safety program launched 2006
  International cooperation
                                                           forces need to be further strengthened;
Capacity Building of Emergency Management
  Professional teams
  Information management

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