Contents • Part 1.Emergency Management in China How China Enhances The National Civil-Protection • Part 2. Emergency Response for Ms 8.0 Structure Wenchuan Earthquake in May 12,2008 Dr.Zhuoli Getu China Earthquake Administration firstname.lastname@example.org The Event Drivers Part 1.Emergency Management in China • The Severe Flooding along the Yangtze • Emergency Management is both an old and River in 1998; 220 million people affected; new topic in China and Chinese civilization 20 billion USD direct economic loss; suffered from many catastrophes in history; • The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 from Nov 16 2002 to June 24 2003 325 people died of SARS, The travel ban imposed and the schools closed. Target of Emergency Management Fundamental strategy • Reduce the causalities and the potential • The fundamental strategy in disaster impact of massive disasters through the reduction is Prevention first, followed by emergency management relief and rescue. • All the activities along the risk evaluation, • Pre-disaster preparedness + Emergency risk reduction ,response to the disaster and Response the reconstruction are part of emergency management Major Players in Disaster National Emergency Management Management in China Offices • The Major ministries responding to different • Emergency Management Office of China disasters: Central Government, Ministries and all local Ministry of Public Securities governments founded in 2006 Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Civil Affairs Ministry of Health Ministry of Land and Resources Ministry of Water Resources Ministry of Environmental Protection…. Emergencies Response Plans Mechanism of Emergency Management • Sector-based Disaster Approach • 1 General Response Plan for Rapid • Inter-agency Coordinating Scheme Response to Public Emergencies went • Local Government: Primary Responders effective on January. 8, 2006 • 25 national plans on specific emergency, e.g.. Earthquake etc. • 80 ministries emergency response plans • Local governments plans • Local government departments plans Early Warning System- Red, Orange, Yellow, Blue Classification of Public Emergency Accidents Public Contingency Accidents Kinds Natural Disaster Accident Catastrophe Public Health Incident Public Security Extraordinarily Serious Accident Major Accident Four Levels Serious Accident Not Severe Accident Legal Aspects on Emergency National Response Plan on Earthquake Response Emergency • Law of the People's • Level I : Ms 7.0- above, dead people: Republic of China on more than 300, Direct Economic Loss Emergency Response more than 1% of GDP (Order of the President of • Level II: Ms 6.5-7.0, dead people: more the People’s Republic of than 50 up to 300 China No. 69) went • Level III: Ms 6.0-6.5, dead people: more effective on Nov. 11, 2007 than 20 up to 50 • Level IV: Ms 5.0-6.0, dead people: less than 20 Law of the People's Republic of Legal Aspects on Earthquake China on Emergency Response Emergency Response • State Council headed by Primer to considerate, • Law of the People’s Republic of China on Protecting against and Mitigating decide and deploy for Extraordinarily Serious Earthquake Disasters Accidents • Regulations on Post-Wenchuan Earthquake Restoration and Reconstruction (the State Council No. 526) • Guiding Opinions of the State Council on Post-Wenchuan Earthquake Restoration and Reconstruction (NDRC  No.22) Primer. WEN Jiabao attend Primer. WEN Jiabao at railway station talked National Emergency Management with passengers blocked by heavy snow in Conference early 2008 Law of the People's Republic of China on Emergency Response National Urban and Search • Leadership: Central Government of China Rescue Training Base in • Local governments are primary responders and operation in July, 2008 accountable for the consequences of disasters • 4 level of governments responsible for equivalent 4 level of contingency incidents Government level Emergency Level Central Government Level I- extraordinarily serious accident Provincial Government Level II- major accident Municipal Government Level III- serious accident County Government Level IV- not severe accident Bird’s view of the Training Base Asia-Pacific Earthquake International Actors Exercise in 2006, China • International Participants: • Commemorate the 30th anniversary of Tangshan earthquake; 17 skeleton teams: Australia, Russia, the • Promote awareness of the concept of USAR in Phillipines, Korea, United States of China America, Mongolia, Japan, Italy, Sweden, • Practice the international coordination Switzerland, Singapore, New methodology; Zealand,India, Map Action, DHL • Test the cooperation between the national and international teams; UN OCHA • Set up joint operation between LEMA and OSOCC Chinese Actors • 17 Chinese Teams with each team represented by two leaders; • China International Search and Rescue Team ; Chinese Participants: 34+50 Summary of Part 1 • Four levels of disasters and definition of relevant measures; • Legal Instruments: laws , regulations and disaster response plans; • Accountability: local governments are accountable for the consequences of disasters; • Scientific Support: consultation with experts Part 2. Emergency Response for Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake in May 12,2008 Longmenshan Faulting system landslide Beichuan County broken bridge Massive landslides and collapsed bridges resulted in traffic failure. Dry mudflow Continuous aftershocks, earthquake lakes and a bunch of other things The highways are buckled and caved in from the quake and massive rockslides made rescue work much harder. lining the roads hamper the rescue efforts to a large extent. Distribution of Aftershocks Facts: Wenchuan Earthquake • Magnitude: 8.0 • Time: 14:28, May 12, 2008 • Epicenter: Wenchuan and the area along NE- extending Longmenshan fault • Dead:69,227 with 17,923 missing • Severely Affected Area: 130,000 Square Kilometers(=1/3 of Germany), 51 counties in Sichuan, Gansu and Shaanxi • Total affected area: 500,000 Square Kilometers including 417 counties, 4667 towns, 48810 villages. Emergency Response Wenchuan Earthquake • Activation of the national emergency plan • Severe secondary disaster: rampant for destructive earthquake; landslides, earthquake lakes, failure of the • Activation of National Earthquake Disaster lifeline facilities, severe ecological and Relief Headquarters with Premier Wen cultural impact Jiabao as the Chief commander and the • Evacuated population: 15.10 million relevant ministers as the members providing • Economic loss: RMB 845.1 Billion coordination and the external support • Reconstruction: three years Premier H.E.President HU Jintao Chief of CEA Amazing Quick Response of China Central Government •H.E. President HU Jintao made important comments and instructions immediately after the earthquake ! •Primer WEN Jiabao went to Sichuan in 2 hrs after the quake. he announced on the way that the State Council set up National Earthquake Disaster Relief Headquarters composed of 9 working teams to coordinate national disaster relief efforts. •On night of May 12, Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPC hold conference to make decision that the responding of this earthquake was the Primer WEN Jiabao at affected areas May 12-16 most urgent and most important task of the nation, and activated national mobilization • National mobilization: 20 professional USAR Teams, 146,000 soldiers, 75,000 paramilitary; • Six International Search and Rescue teams to conduct search and rescue operation. • May 16, 2008, H.E. President HU Jintao went to Sichuan The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA), the armed police, militia and reserve troops went all out into the rescue efforts. The troops were swiftly deployed in quake-hit Evacuation was urgently carried out in the remote and mountainous quake-hit areas. areas both by land and air for rescue operation and reconstruction. Action • Evacuated people of 15.1 m have been resettled in the temporary houses; • Injured people of 43 m have been treated with over 10, 000 severely injured transferred to 370 hospitals in 20 provinces; • 84017 people are rescued and affected people of 8.81m have received the relief support; • Schools opened before the beginning of new school semesters in September; 84017 survivals were successfully rescued from the collapsed buildings or debris. • Emergency Medical Policy Emergency Medical Policy The central government launched a special mechanism to 374,643 people were injured in the disaster, and some were mobilize various provinces to accept the seriously injured. More than 10,000 injured people had been transferred to seriously injured. hospitals outside Sichuan Province for treatment The central government implemented a free-of-charge policy for the cure of the common wounded. The central government provided an average of 28,000 As of Sept. 15, hospitals in major cities had treated 96,544 Yuan one person medical subsidy, and the subsidies for quake survivors, of whom 93,361 have been discharged. accompanying and nursing staffs and for the return journey of both. Temporary Resettlement Sichuan province initiated the mechanism for sheltering the affected people, coping with the emergency evacuation of millions of the affected people from mountainous regions. Almost all the towns along the affected The quake-hit areas urgently needed tents, quilts, food, medicines. areas became the shelters for the affected people. The Headquarters promptly decided to make an emergency production of 900,000 tents and a million of sets of plank houses, so as to ensure the victims' temporary shelter. 677,131 temporary houses have been built . About 10 million people, or 4.45 million households, had moved into Social Participation and Donation makeshift housing. As of November. 25, domestic and foreign donations had reached Sichuan Province gave the farmers who build temporary shelters 65.4 billion Yuan in cash and goods. Of this, 27 billion Yuan had been themselves a subsidy of 2,000 Yuan per family to encourage forwarded to quake-hit areas. farmers to build interim houses. Mutual-support Scheme On June 11, the State Council announced official decision to establish an mutual-support scheme of recovery and reconstruction with "one external province helping one heavily stricken county." An estimated 180,000 volunteers from across the country went to aid survivors, taking part in rescue work, medical and psychological care, relief distribution, maintaining social order and cultural activities. Government tightens management on quake donation The audit offices and fiscal departments were asked to track the donation. International Assistances The supervision departments would inspect the government's management on donations. The media are encouraged to keep a close eye on any The international community has demonstrated a highly malpractice. commendable spirit of humanitarianism by extending helping hands, materials and sympathy. Four principles for donation management: The 3 days after earthquake, 151 countries and 14 regional Donation should be made voluntarily rather than compulsorily; Organizations should respect donors' will in using the or international organizations had offered support in various donations; forms. Foreign rescue teams joined the joint relief efforts. Donations should go to the exact needs of quake relief and rehabilitation, especially to hard-hit areas; More than 4 billion Yuan of donation in cash and goods has Governments and organizations should follow a legal and been donated from abroad to China through diplomatic standardized way to distribute donations and publicize the results timely. channels. Media Coverage form the very Experience beginning • The rapid determination of earthquake • Extensive media coverage of the disaster to parameters and the advice to the State keeping the public informed and getting Council on the impact of the earthquake; more support • The rapid response to the disaster by the leaders of the central government; Premier WEN Jiabao 100 Hours in the affected area Experiences May12-14:28 Earthquake 0hr • The national mobilization of all the May12-16:00 boarding at Beijing airport May12-19:10 Du Jiangyan 3rd hr professional forces ,the army and the May12-22:00 Du Jiangyan 6th hr police; May12-23:45 Du Jiangyan 8th hr May13-07:00 Du Jiangyan 15th hr May13-12:00 Mianzhu 22nd hr • Real-time release of disaster situation May13-20:30 Train 30th hr through the media, involving the media as May14-09:00 Beichuan 40th hr May14-10:00 Qushan 42nd hr part of the disaster relief operation; May14-15:00 Yingxiu 46th hr May14-21:00 Train 52nd hr May15-06:00 Guangyuan 63rd hr May15-12:00 Muyuzhen 68th hr May15-21:00 Train 80th hr May16-09:00 Train 90th hr May16-Morning back for Beijing Lessons learned Experiences • Top priority should be given to mass disasters • Tremendous support from people all over such as destructive earthquakes; the country ; Volunteers have played an • Communication and transportation facilities are key to disaster relief operation; important role in disaster relief activity; • Public awareness on disaster prevention should • Reconstruction regulation was promulgated be further promoted; one month later and public and experts from • Disaster prevention program should be home and abroad were consulted on the incorporated into the urban planning; reconstruction program ; • More professional Search and Rescue Teams are needed; • The effort of disaster preparedness over the • Information sharing and on-site coordination years have paid off: contingency plans , needs to be strengthened; exercises, and shelters. Next Steps Lessons learned Capacity Building of Disaster Prevention Disaster response plans • Psychological intervention is as important Integration of the resources as the physical reconstruction; Disaster monitoring Improving the Infrastructure facilities for disaster • Volunteers should be organized well on the prevention basis of the sectors ( health, logistics, Public education and professional training communication.) Retrofitting all school building nation wide • Cooperation of military and non-civilian Rural housing safety program launched 2006 International cooperation forces need to be further strengthened; Capacity Building of Emergency Management Professional teams Information management Thanks!