Chapter 22 – Quiz Game Reform movements and Progressives Chapter 22 • In chapter 19, 20, and 21, we learned about how America changed because of the Industrial Revolution. We learned that working class poor people suffered a lot. We learned that the government was corrupt and didn’t help people. We learned that cities and factories were dangerous places. • In chapter 22 however, we learned how reform movements worked to change the government and solve many of America’s problems. QUIZ GAME • Now we will play a quiz game to see how well you learned the content of chapter 22. In the late 19th Century, some people started a new political organization called the National Grange. • Who started the National Grange? What kind of people? • Farmers started the National Grange. It was like a union for farmers. In the late 19th Century, the farmers owed the banks a lot of money because they had borrowed money. • Why had the farmers borrowed so much money? What had they used the money for? • They had used the money to buy new equipment that helped them grow more crops. In the late 19th Century, the U.S. government had something called the gold standard. • Under the gold standard, the U.S. government had to keep some gold for every paper dollar they printed. Anybody could trade in their paper dollars for gold any time they wanted. What was the purpose of the gold standard? • The purpose was to fix the value of money so it wouldn’t decrease. It made people trust the paper money. In the late 19th Century, America had a problem with deflation. • How does deflation affect the value of money? • With deflation, the value of money increases. In the late 19th Century, America had a problem with deflation. • How does deflation affect the price of goods and services? • Deflation causes everything to get cheaper. The prices all go down. In the late 19th Century, America had a problem with deflation. • What was causing the deflation? • The deflation was caused by the gold standard. The government had to buy gold every time it made more paper money, so the demand for gold kept increasing faster than the supply. This caused the value of gold to increase. Since the value of the money was based on the value of gold, it increased too. In the late 19th Century, the farmers wanted inflation. • What is inflation? How does it affect the price of goods and services? • Inflation causes the price of goods and services to increase. The farmers wanted more inflation in the late 19 th Century. • Why did the farmers want more inflation? • They wanted more inflation because inflation would let them sell their crops for higher prices and make more money. That would make it easier for them to pay back their debts. In the late 19th century, deflation was causing serious problems for farmers in America, but some people liked the deflation and wanted it to continue. • What kind of people liked the deflation? • Rich people and banks liked the deflation because with deflation the value of their money was always growing. In the late 19th Century, the price of crops was dropping, so farmers couldn’t make much money. • Besides deflation, what was causing the price of crops to drop? • The price of crops was dropping because the farmers were using new technology to grow too much. This was causing the supply to be higher than the demand. When the supply is bigger than the demand, the price goes down. In the late 19th Century, the farmers worked with the National Grange to fight against the railroad companies. • Why were the farmers angry with the railroad companies? • They believed the railroad companies were charging them too much to ship their crops to the cities. The railroad companies were trusts, so they had no competition and could charge any price they liked. Around 1890, a terrible depression struck the nation. • What is a depression? • A depression is when the economy is very bad so many people have no job and no money. In the late 19th Century, there was a terrible economic depression. • On what did most people blame the depression? What did they believe caused the depression? • Most people believed the depression was caused by the gold standard. Around 1900, some people started a new political party called the Populist Party. • What were the other two political parties at the time? • The other two political parties were the Democrats and the Republicans. Around 1900, some people started a new political party called the Populist Party. • What kind of people joined the Populist Party? Who was this party trying to help? • The Populist Party was formed to help farmers and factory workers. In the election of 1896, the Populist Party united with the Democratic Party. • Who was the Populist Party candidate in the election of 1896? • William Jennings Bryan was the candidate for the Progressive Party and the Democratic Party in 1896. In the late 19th Century, the Populists convinced the government to make many new laws. • Which law tried to force the railroad companies to charge farmers a fair price to ship their crops to the city? • The Interstate Commerce Act. The Populist Party was a very successful third party, but it ended in 1896. • Why did the Populist Party end in 1896? • The other two Political Parties promised to make the same reforms, so the Populist Party was no longer necessary. The reform movement was one of the most important political movements in American history. • What is reform? • Reform means changing something or fixing problems. The reformers were people who wanted to change America to make it a better place for all people. The Reform Movement was a political movement around 1900. • What kind of people was the Reform Movement trying to help? • The Reform Movement was trying to help everybody, but mostly people who needed help the most. They focused mostly on helping immigrants, factory workers, and African-Americans. The Reform Movement was a political movement around 1900. • What had caused most of the problems that the Reform Movement was trying to solve? • The Reform Movement was trying to solve the problems caused by the Industrial Revolution. The reform movement convinced the government to pass many new laws. One of these laws was called the Civil Service Act or the Pendleton Act. • What is the Civil Service? • The Civil Service is all the people who work for the government. The reform movement convinced the government to pass many new laws. One of these laws was called the Civil Service Act or the Pendleton Act. • What was the purpose of the Pendleton Act? • The purpose of the Pendleton Act was to stop government corruption by reforming the Civil Service. It said that people had to pass a test before they could get a government job. One group of women reformers, called the Suffragettes, fought hard to get suffrage for women. • What is suffrage? • Suffrage is the right to vote. One of the many victories the reformers had was giving women the right to vote. • What law gave women the right to vote? • The law that gave women the right to vote was the 19th Amendment. Many artists and writers worked for the reform movement. • Which cartoonist used his cartoons to criticize the government? • Thomas Nast made political cartoons for newspapers. His cartoons showed people who the corrupt government officials were. People voted against those government officials. Some of those government officials even went to jail. In the late 19th Century, the government was very corrupt. Most cities were controlled by party bosses. Those bosses stole a lot of money and took bribes. • Who was the most famous of all the corrupt party bosses? • The most famous of all the corrupt party bosses was Boss Tweed. He controlled New York city. During the reform movement, some people started settlement houses. • What was a settlement house? • A settlement house was a large house for people who needed help. Settlement houses helped immigrants, working women, and African- Americans get a better life. They could get free day care, medical care, and English classes. During the reform movement, some people started settlement houses. • Which person is most famous for starting settlement houses? • Many people started settlement houses, but the most famous of those people is Jane Addams. During the reform movement, writers, photographers, and artists helped educate people about America’s problems. • What did people call the journalists who wrote newspaper articles and books about Americas problems? • People called these journalists “muckrakers”. During the reform movement, writers, photographers, and artists helped educate people about America’s problems. • One famous photographer took pictures of poor people living in the tenements. His pictures taught other Americans how difficult life was for poor immigrants. Who was the famous photographer who took pictures of poor people? • His name was Jacob Riis. The Progressive Movement was another movement like the Reform Movement or Populists. • Who was Upton Sinclair? • He was a famous progressive movement writer who wrote a book about the Meat Packing industry. His book taught people how dirty and dangerous the meatpacking factories were. Because of this book the government passed laws giving the government the power to inspect meatpacking companies and check the safety of their products. In 1901, Vice President Theodore Roosevelt became President when President McKinley was assassinated. • People called Roosevelt a “trustbuster”. Why did they call him that? • They called him a trustbuster because he broke up monopolies and trusts. Theodore Roosevelt was a Progressive President. He believed in conservation. • What is conservation? • Conservation means protecting trees, forests and mountains to keep the nation natural, beautiful, and clean. The Reform Movement and the Progressives made many changes to the Constitution of the United States of America. • What did the 16th Amendment do? • The 16th Amendment gave congress the power to collect an income tax. Originally, only rich people paid income tax, so poor people thought it was great. The Reform Movement and the Progressives made many changes to the Constitution of the United States of America. • What did the 17th Amendment do? • The 17th Amendment allowed people to directly vote to elect their Senators. This made America more democratic. Before the 17th Amendment, the Senators were chosen by the State Legislators, not the people. Child labor laws made it illegal for children to work. People who passed child labor laws wanted children to go to school and get an education instead. • Who was the first President to pass Federal child labor laws? • The first President to pass federal child labor laws was President Wilson. Progressives made new government agencies to help solve some of America’s problems. • One of those agencies was the FTC, or Federal Trade Commission. What specific problem was the FTC trying to address? • The FTC was a special commission set up to identify monopolies and trusts. Once they were identified, they would fine them or break them into smaller companies. We still have the FTC today. One of the biggest changes President Wilson made was the creation of the Federal Reserve Banking System. • The Federal Reserve is like a huge bank for the whole country. What is the purpose of this bank? • The Federal Reserve Bank controls the money supply by either holding back large amounts of money or releasing it. By controlling the supply, they can control the value of our money.