ICT implementation and school leadership Case studies of ICT integration in teaching and learning Allan H.K. Yuen, Nancy Law and K.C. Wong University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China Background HKSAR government launched a five-year ICT strategy in schools in late 1998. Challenge involved: 1. not simply a case of technological adoption 2. a process of innovation 3. cooperation This study 1. case studies by the (CITE-HKU) on 2000. 2. aims to explore the leadership issues in ICT implementation in a case study of schools in Hong Kong. Selection of Cases Steering Committee of SITES-M1 Schools actively in Contract Research integrating EMB Officials Principals Team ICT curriculum Public Information (Newspaper) Number of Schools Selected Total: 18 Schools 7 Primary and 11 Secondary Data Collection Lesson Observation Filed Notes Video Interviews Teachers Students Principle ICT Team Documentary Data Goals and missions Year plan, annual report ICT implementation plan ICT infrastructure Staff development Model A The technological adoption model (11 schools) Key Features: Schools did not have strong traditions or cultures Enhanced teaching effectiveness and ICT competence of students were the main objectives Sharing of teacher produced course materials Leadership strategy: Ensure all teachers reach minimum level of ICT competence Clear targets for achieving ICT competencies Set timeline for all teachers Limitations (Model A: The technological adoption model) The role of teachers: narrow The role of ICT: narrow 1) to enhance the effectiveness of information presentation 2) to stimulate student interest using attractive multimedia Technical infrastructure , training Limitations (Model A: The technological adoption model) The role of ICT Technical •stimulate student interest infrastructure •enhance presentation Good staff training The role of teachers: Presenters and Evaluators Model B The catalytic integration model 5 schools Key Features: Schools have successfully engaged in a continuous process of reform ICT enhances the curriculum reform Have more interesting uses of ICT than those found in model A schools Leadership strategy: Visionary leadership and principal Top-down arrangement Staff development is stressed Limitations (Model B: The catalytic integration model) Teachers need to face some challenges (rethink their personal attitudes, beliefs and values about their roles as educators) The school principal needs to have a clear direction Model C The cultural innovation model (2 schools) Key Features: Strong cultural and historical foundation ICT is used as an empowering tool Students initiates new ideas with ICT Realization of students’ individual potential –development of self-actualization Leadership strategy: Principal Teachers’ freedom Limitations (Model C: The cultural innovation model) The intake ability of students The teachers’ value system Major differences between 3 models Model A Model B Model C Change process Rush Stress Smooth Pedagogical Practice Expository, Induction Task- based Great variety Approaches ICT Implementation Adoption Integrating Well Integrated Teacher’s role Presenter, evaluator Facilitator Facilitator Compulsory ICT Yes Yes Free Training Leadership Tradition & Culture Failed to build up Well established Role of Principle Top down Critical Role Not a key role Top down Multiple leadership Vision & Mission Don’t have strong Only the Strong & Clear educational principal philosophy Conclusion ICT is an innovation which can promote and foster various degrees of organizational changes The most important task for leaders in facing these changes was to mobilize people in the organizations to become adaptive Drilling Questions: Q1. Which model type does your school/workplace belong to? Please give some reasons why it belongs to that model. Q2. How ICT promote and foster change at your school/workplace?