Hazard Communication Standard

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					     HAZARD COMMUNICATION




        Hazard Communication
#1
                               Introduction

   Purpose                              Objectives
     » To provide information             » To increase knowledge of
       required to work safely with         hazardous chemicals in the
       chemicals                            workplace
     » To comply with requirements        » To reduce the number and
       of 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard          severity of accidents, injuries,
       Communication Standard               and illnesses resulting from
                                            chemicals
                                          » To increase understanding of
                                            protective measures required
                                            by exposure to hazardous
                                            chemicals


#2
         Purpose of Hazard Communication
           Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200)

        To ensure that the hazards of all chemicals produced
         or imported are evaluated
        To ensure that comprehensive material safety data
         sheets (MSDSs) are developed by the manufacturer
         or importer for every hazardous chemical
        To ensure that information concerning the hazards
         associated with hazardous chemicals is transmitted
         to employers and employees


#3
             Goals of the Hazard
           Communication Standard

      Reduce exposures
      Substitute less hazardous materials
      Establish proper work practices
      Prevent work-related illnesses and injuries
       caused by chemicals



#4
                        Scope

      Chemical manufacturers, importers - Assess
       hazards of chemicals
      Distributors - Transmit required information
       to employers
      Employers - Provide information to their
       employees about the hazardous chemicals to
       which they are exposed

#5
                    Related Regulations

        FIFRA (Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act)
         - Pesticides
        TSCA (Toxic Substance Control Act) - Toxic Substances
        FFDCA (Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act), Virus-
         Serum Toxin Act of 1913 - Food, food additives, color
         additives, drugs, cosmetics, or medical or veterinary devices
         or products, including ingredients in such products (e.g.,
         flavors, fragrances)
        Federal Alcohol Administration Act - Distilled Spirits
        SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) - Hazardous Waste

#6
            Related Regulations (Contd.)

        Consumer Product Safety Act and Federal Hazardous
         Substances Act - Consumer Products or Hazardous
         Substances
        Federal Seed Act - Agricultural or Vegetable Seeds Treated
         with Pesticides
        CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response,
         Compensation and Liability Act) - Hazardous Substances




#7
             Hazard Communication:
               Program Elements

      Written Program       MSDS (Material
      Hazardous Chemical     Safety Data Sheet)
       Inventory              Documentation
      Training              Program

      Labeling
                              Maintenance




#8
                     Written Program

        Insert date of facility       Hazardous Chemicals
         written program                Brought on Site By
        Insert how to obtain           Contractors, etc.
         copies of the written          » Contracts require
         program                          submission of MSDSs
                                        » Insert facility contact
        Insert who to contact to
         propose changes to the
         written program


#9
            Hazardous Chemical Inventory

          A list of hazardous chemicals known to be
           present
           » May be compiled for the workplace as a whole or
             for individual work areas
           » Identified in accordance with appropriate MSDS
          Required to be part of the written program



# 10
                             Training

          Initial assignment
           » By chemical (if few chemicals are used)
           » By hazard (if many chemicals are used)
          Whenever a new HAZARD is introduced




# 11
                               Labeling

          Requirements                  Requirements (Contd.)
           » Each container must be       » Name and address of
             labeled, tagged, or            chemical manufacturer,
             marked                         importer, or other
           » Legible                        responsible party
           » Prominently displayed       Voluntary
           » Identity of chemical         » Emergency telephone
           » Appropriate hazard             numbers
             warnings                     » First aid procedures
                                          » Leak and spill procedures
# 12
                    Labeling Exceptions

          Portable containers into which hazardous chemicals
           are transferred from labeled containers intended for
           immediate use by employee who transfers chemicals
          Drugs dispensed by pharmacy to healthcare provider
           for direct administration to patient




# 13
                  Labeling NOT Required

          Pesticides                   Wood or wood
          Tobacco or tobacco            products
           products                     Drugs or cosmetics
          Food or alcoholic            Ionizing and non-
           beverages (sold, used,        ionizing radiation
           or prepared in a retail      Biological hazards
           establishment)



# 14
                       Labeling Systems

          National Fire                 Hazardous Materials
           Protection Association         Identification System
           (NFPA) - Fire                  (HMIS) - Rectangular
           diamonds                       with horizontal strips
           » Red - Fire Hazard            » Copyright of the National
           » Blue - Health Hazard           Paint and Coating
           » Yellow - Reactivity            Association
           » White - Special              » Similar to NFPA
             information                  » White - Letters designate
           » Higher the number, the         personal protective
             more hazardous the             equipment (ppe)
             chemical
# 15
                  Labeling Systems (Contd.)

          Department of Transportation             American National
           Color-coded diamonds
            » Red - Flammable liquid or gas
                                                     Standards Institute
            » Orange - Explosive                     (ANSI)
            » Green - Compressed gas
            » Black and white - Corrosive
                                                    Upper Left Side
            » Yellow - Oxygen or oxidizer base       » DANGER
            » Yellow and white - Radioactive         » WARNING
            » White - Toxic or poison gas
                                                     » CAUTION
          Attached to hazardous materials
           being shipped
          Includes a four digit number (the
           United Nations identification code)

# 16
            Material Safety Data Sheets
                      (MSDSs)

        Manufacturers and importers must obtain or
         develop an MSDS for each hazardous
         chemical they produce or import
        Employers shall have an MSDS in the
         workplace for each hazardous chemical which
         they use (29 CFR 1910.1200(g))



# 17
                         MSDSs (Contd.)

          General Information            Ingredients
           » Name of chemical              » Listed by percentage of
           » Name and address of             content
             manufacturer                  » OSHA permissible
           » Emergency telephone             exposure limit
             number                        » ACGIH threshold limit
           » Date of preparation and         value
             review                        » CAS Number



# 18
                           MSDSs (Contd.)

          Physical/Chemical              Reactivity
           Characteristics                 » Conditions to avoid
           » Appearance and odor           » Materials to avoid
           » Physical data                Transportation Data
          Fire and Explosion Hazard       » DOT requirements
           Data                            » Labeling for shipping
           » Extinguishing media          Label Data
           » Physical data                 » Signal word (e.g., Danger)
          Disposal Data                   » Special precautions



# 19
                 MSDSs - Health Hazards

          Routes of entry          Medical conditions
          Health hazards            aggravated by exposure
           » Acute                  Spill response
           » Chronic                Waste disposal
          Carcinogenicity          Storage requirements
          Signs/symptoms of        Other precautions
           overexposure
          Emergency/first aid

# 20
               MSDSs - Control Measures

          Respiratory Protection      Hygienic Work
          Ventilation                  Practices
          Protective Gloves           Supplementary Safety
          Eye Protection               and Health Data
          Other Protective
           Equipment




# 21
                     Other Considerations

          Procedure to follow when         Procedure to update the
           chemicals are delivered to        facility’s list of chemicals
           the facility and an MSDS is
           not provided/available




# 22
                Laboratory Requirements

          Labels on incoming containers of hazardous
           chemicals must not be removed or defaced
          MSDSs for hazardous chemicals must be maintained
          MSDSs must be readily accessible to laboratory
           employees during each workshift
          Appropriate information and training must be
           provided



# 23
               General Preventive Actions

          Specific Procedures          Reduce the hazard,
           Implemented by Facility       substitute a less hazardous
           » Work practices              chemical, if possible
           » Emergency procedures        » Facility procedure
           » PPE                         » Methods to minimize exposure
                                        Know emergency response
                                         procedures




# 24
               Preventive Actions (Contd.)

          Know the chemical with          Handle and dispose of
           which you are working            chemicals properly
          Read the label before use       Don’t smoke, drink, use
          Review the MSDS                  drugs, or cosmetics around
                                            hazardous chemicals
          Obtain additional training
                                           Let other workers know
          Use proper ventilation
                                            where you are/work as a
          Make sure fume hoods and         team
           other safeguards are
                                           Consult employee health or
           operating properly
                                            EAP, if symptoms develop
          Wear appropriate PPE
                                           Practice good housekeeping
# 25
                 Spill Response Procedure

      Attend to any medical emergencies            Develop and implement specific
      Isolate area                                  clean-up procedure
        » Leave immediate area of spill               » Consult MSDS for spill
        » Close windows and doors, if possible           procedure, if necessary
        » Warn others to stay out of area             » Put on appropriate PPE, if it
      Notify appropriate personnel                      varies from that being worn
        » Supervisors                                 » Clean up spill and area in
        » Safety professionals                           accordance with facility and
                                                         manufacturer’s guidance
                                                      » Dispose of cleaning materials
                                                         properly



# 26
                  Emergency Response

          Determine who notifies      Assist the emergency
           emergency response           response personnel
           personnel                    » Provide any technical
          Sound Alarm                    information available
                                        » Follow instructions
          Move to a safe area




# 27
             General First Aid Procedures

          Promptly obtain medical               Skin
           help for all medical                   » Immediately flush exposed
           emergencies                              skin with water
          Inhalation                             » Remove contaminated clothing
                                                  » Do NOT scrub exposed skin
           » Move to fresh air
                                                  » Do NOT apply ointments or
           » If breathing has stopped, give
                                                    neutralizing solutions
             artificial respiration
           » If breathing and pulse have         Eyes - Immediately flush
             stopped, perform CPR - if            exposed eye for 15 minutes
             properly trained
           » Provide oxygen


# 28
                First Aid Procedures - Shock

          Check for symptoms         Keep victim quiet and
           » Clammy, pale skin         lying down - feet
           » Rapid, faint pulse        slightly elevated
           » Quick, irregular         Cover with a blanket
             breathing
                                      Do NOT move victim
           » Weakness or nausea
                                       (unless absolutely
          Treat other injuries        necessary), if there is
          If unconscious, place       the potential for a neck
           victim on side              or spine injury

# 29
                   First Aid Procedures -
                          Ingestion
          Give water, Do NOT induce      Give Water, Induce
           Vomiting                        Vomiting
           » Benzene                       »   Acetone
           » Toluene                       »   Formaldehyde
           » Xylene                        »   Freon
                                           »   Phenol
                                          Give Salt Water, Induce
                                           Vomiting
                                           » Chloroform
                                           » Methyl alcohol
                                           » Trichloroethylene

# 30
                     Obtain Medical Aid

          Provide First Aid - Do         Give Water, Induce
           NOT leave injured               Vomiting
                                           »   Acetone
           employee alone
                                           »   Formaldehyde
          Contact Employee                »   Freon
           Health Personnel                »   Phenol
           » Insert Telephone Number      Give Salt Water, Induce
           » Insert Room Number            Vomiting
                                           » Chloroform
                                           » Methyl alcohol
                                           » Trichloroethylene

# 31
                       Hazardous Chemical

          Any chemical that is a physical hazard or a
           health hazard
           » A hazard is an inherent property
             of a chemical and exists no matter
             what quantity of the chemical is present




# 32
                          Physical Hazards

          Combustible liquids       Compressed gases
          Flammables                Organic peroxides
           »   Liquids               Oxidizers
           »   Aerosols              Unstable (reactive)
           »   Gases
                                     Water-reactive
           »   Solids
          Explosives
          Pyrophorics

# 33
               Combustible and Flammable Liquids


          Combustibles (flashpoint at          Flammables (flashpoint less
           or above 100° F)                      than 100° F)
           »   Acetic Acid Glacial               »   Acetone
           »   Formalin (with Methanol)          »   Carbon Disulfide
           »   Formaldehyde (37% solution)       »   Ethylene Oxide
           »   Hydraulic fluid                   »   Ethyl Ether
           »   Kerosene (Fuel Oil No. 1)         »   Isopropyl Alcohol
           »   Linseed Oil                       »   Methyl Ethyl Ether
           »   Mineral Oil                       »   Toluene
           »   Transformer Oil                   »   Turpentine
                                                 »   Xylene

# 34
                          Isopropyl Alcohol

          General Information                   Fire and Explosion Hazard
           » Quantity - Not identified            » Extinguishing agents
          Physical/Chemical                          – Alcohol foam
                                                      – Dry chemical
           Characteristics
                                                      – Carbon dioxide
           » Colorless liquid
                                                      – Water may be ineffective
           » Slight odor of rubbing alcohol
                                                 Reactivity - Stable




# 35
                   Isopropyl Alcohol (Contd.)

          Health Hazard Data                  Effects of Overexposure
           » Carcinogenic - No                  » Inhalation
           » Target Organs                          – Nausea/Vomiting
               –   Eyes                             – Dizziness
               –   Skin                             – Drowsiness
               –   Respiratory System               – Irritation of Respiratory
               –   Central Nervous System             Tract
                   (Ingestion)                      – Pulmonary Edema
                                                    – Loss of Consciousness
          Levels NOT to be exceeded
                                                » Skin - Dermatitis
           » 400 ppm (8 hours)
                                                » Eye - Temporary Corneal
           » 500 ppm (15 minutes)
                                                  Damage

# 36
                Isopropyl Alcohol (Contd.)

          Protective Equipment                  First Aid
           » Ventilation - General or local       » Eyes - Flush with water for 15
             exhaust                                minutes
           » Respiratory Protection -             » Skin - Flush
             Chemical cartridge respirator        » Ingested - do not induce
             with organic vapor cartridge           vomiting
           » Eye/Skin Protection - Safety         » Inhalation
             goggles, uniform, apron,                 – Remove to fresh air
             neoprene gloves
                                                      – If not breathing, give
                                                        artificial respiration
                                                      – If breathing is difficult,
                                                        give oxygen

# 37
                Isopropyl Alcohol (Contd.)

          Storage and Handling                  Spill Procedures
           » Bond/ground containers when          » Wear suitable protective
             transferring liquid                    clothing
           » Keep container tightly closed        » Shut off ignition sources
           » Store in cool, dry, well-            » No flares, smoking, etc.
             ventilated flammable liquid          » Stop leak if possible
             storage area                         » Use water spray to reduce
          Disposal Procedure                       vapors
           » In accordance with Federal,          » Take up with sand or other
             state, and local environmental         non-combustible absorbent
             regulations                            material
                                                  » Flush area with water

# 38
                       Preventive Actions

          Reduce the hazard,               Know proper extinguishing
           substitute a less flammable       methods
           liquid, if possible              Know emergency response
          Store properly                    procedures
          Use proper ventilation           Personal Protection
          Eliminate possible sources        »   Avoid skin contact
           of ignition                       »   Don’t breathe the vapors
                                             »   Protect your eyes
          Dispose of properly
                                             »   Do NOT eat, drink, etc. in
                                                 areas where hazardous
                                                 chemicals are used

# 39
                Storage of Combustible and
                    Flammable Liquids

          Healthcare: 360 gallons      Industrial: 480 gallons
           in flammable liquid           in flammable liquid
           storage cabinets              storage cabinets, if
          Health-related Labs:          proper separation
           Outside approved              provided
           storage cabinets -           Offices: Prohibited,
           10 gallons                    except for maintenance
                                         and operation needs


# 40
                           Proper Storage

          Containers                       Storage Cabinets
           » Must be approved                » Labeled: FLAMMABLE
           » Individual capacity               - KEEP FIRE AWAY
             cannot exceed 60 gallons
           » Construction
              – One gallon or less -
                Original container or
                metal safety can
              – More than one gallon -
                Metal safety can


# 41
                                Flammables

          Aerosols                        Preventive Actions
           » Spray paint cans               » Reduce the hazard, substitute a
          Gases                              less flammable chemical, if
                                              possible
           » Acetylene
                                            » Store and dispose of properly
          Solids                           » Use proper ventilation
           » Zinc                           » Eliminate possible sources of
          Personal Protection                ignition
           » Avoid skin contact             » Know proper extinguishing
           » Don’t breathe the vapors         methods and emergency
                                              response procedures
           » Protect your eyes


# 43
            Flammable Aerosols - Spray Paint

          General Information         Hazards
           » Krylon Spray Paint         » Eyes - Irritation
           » Carcinogen - No            » Inhalation
           » Spray can burns like          – Dizziness
             blowtorch                     – Confusion
           » Contains                      – Weakness
              – Propane/Isobutane       » Fire
              – Hexane/Heptane             – Can burst violently in a
              – Toluene                      fire
              – Naphtha                    – Releases toxic and
                                             irritating compounds, if
                                             burned
# 44
               Flammable Gas - Acetylene

          General Information             Specific Guidance
           » Acetylene Oxygen Co.           » Store cylinders upright
           » Colorless gas                  » Do NOT store near oxygen
           » Distinctive garlic-like        » Cylinders can rupture violently
                                              if not kept cool
             odor
                                            » Under pressure can explode
          Health Hazards                     even without air or oxygen
           » Flammable Gas                  » Can accumulate in confined
           » Can act as asphyxiant            spaces (lighter than air)
           » Symptoms - Dizziness and       » Several fatalities occurred
                                              when used to fill balloons or
             Loss of Consciousness
                                              plastic bags (“playing”)

# 45
                      Flammable Solid - Zinc

          General Information                     Health Hazards
           »   Fisher Scientific                    » Eyes - Mechanical irritation
           »   Odorless                             » Skin - Irritation, dermatitis
           »   Blue solid                           » Ingestion
           »   Powder or liquid is pyrophoric           – Liver damage
                                                        – Perforation of digestive tract
                                                        – Severe pain, nausea,
                                                          vomiting, diarrhea, and
                                                          shock
                                                    » Inhalation - Metal fume fever




# 46
              Explosives and Pyrophorics

          Explosive          Pyrophoric
           » Picric acid       » Magnesium diamide




# 47
                Prevention of Explosive and
                    Pyrophoric Hazards

          Minimize amounts used         Wear proper protective
          Store properly                 gloves and clothing
          Follow proper                 Do not drop or shake
           procedures
          Shields, barricades, and
           guards should be used




# 48
                      Explosive - Picric Acid

          General Information                    Health Hazards
           »   Fisher Scientific                   » Eye - Irritation, conjunctivitis
           »   Yellow in color                     » Skin - Irritation, dermatitis,
           »   Odor - Not available                  sensitization, destruction, and
           »   Flammable solid                       ulceration
           »   Shock sensitive and thermally       » Ingestion
               unstable                                – Kidney damage
                                                       – Acute hepatitis
                                                       – Gastrointestinal irritation
                                                         with nausea, vomiting, and
                                                         diarrhea
                                                   » Inhalation - Respiratory tract
                                                     irritation, kidney damage
# 49
                       Compressed Gases

          Examples                         Preventive Actions
           »   Oxygen                        » Store and use properly
           »   Nitrous oxide                 » Secure cylinders in
           »   Ethylene oxide                  accordance with
           »   Acetylene                       manufacturer’s guidance
                                               and facility policy
           »   Propane
                                             » Use carts, hand trucks,
           »   Helium                          and other devices to move
           »   Hydrogen
           »   Liquefied Petroleum Gas

# 50
               Compressed Gas - Oxygen

          General Information              Precautions
           » Air Products and                » Store cylinders in well
             Chemicals                         ventilated areas
           » Carcinogen - NO                 » Do NOT store near
                                               flammable/combustible
           » Colorless and odorless            materials
           » Supports and vigorously         » Do NOT store in heavy traffic
             accelerates combustion            areas
           » Nontoxic under most             » Valve caps should remain on
             conditions                        when not connected
           » Necessary to support life       » Never lubricate valves/caps


# 51
                          Organic Peroxide

          Types of compounds known            Specific chemicals that can
           to form peroxides                    form dangerous concentrations
           » Aldehydes                          of peroxides on exposure to air
           » Ethers                             »   Cyclohexene
           » Compounds containing               »   Cyclooctene
             benzylic hydrogen atoms            »   Decalin (decahydronaphthalene)
           » Compounds containing the           »   p-Dioxane
             allylic structure, including       »   Diethyl ether
             most alkenes
                                                »   Diisopropyl ether
           » Vinyl and vinylidene
             compounds (vinyl acetate and       »   Tetrahydrofuran (THF)
             vinylidene chloride)               »   Tetralin (tetrahydronaphthalene)



# 52
            Prevention of Hazards Associated with
                     Organic Peroxides

          Minimize the amount of organic          Friction, grinding, and all forms of
           peroxides used                           impact should be avoided near
          Unused peroxides should not be           peroxides (especially solids)
           returned to the original container      Use polyethylene bottles with screw-
          Use ceramic or wooden spatulas,          caps, NOT glass bottles with screw-
           NOT metal ones                           cap lids or glass stoppers
          Smoking, open flames, and heat          Store at lowest possible temperature
           should NOT be permitted near             consistent with solubility or freezing
           organic peroxides                        point
          Clean up spills immediately             Dispose of properly
           (vermiculite can absorb
           solutions)


# 53
            Organic Peroxide - Ethyl Ether

          General Information               Health Hazards
                                              » Eyes - Irritation
           » Fisher Scientific                » Skin - Irritation, burns, defatting,
           » Carcinogen - No                    dermatitis
           » Color - Not available            » Ingestion - Central nervous system
                                                depression, chemical pneumonitis
           » Sweet, aromatic odor               (may be fatal)
           » Vapors may form                  » Inhalation - Respiratory tract
                                                irritation, seizures, blood
             explosive mixture with air         abnormalities
           » Not stable during routine        » Psychic abnormalities - anxiety,
                                                depression, excitability (chronic
             use and handling                   exposure)


# 54
            Organic Peroxide - Isopropyl Ether

          General Information                   Health Hazards
           »   Fisher Scientific                  » Eyes - Mild irritation
           »   Carcinogen - No                    » Skin - Irritation, defatting,
           »   Clear, colorless liquid              dermatitis
           »   Ethereal odor                      » Ingestion - Digestive tract
           »   Explosive peroxides may form         irritation, central nervous system
               on concentration                     depression, respiratory failure
                                                    (fatal)
                                                  » Inhalation - Respiratory tract
                                                    irritation, headache, dizziness,
                                                    unconsciousness, coma



# 55
                                    Oxidizers

          Examples                               Preventive Actions
           »   Chlorine                            » Store in well ventilated areas
           »   Calcium hypochlorite                » Keep chemicals as cool as possible
           »   Chromic acid                        » Store and use in glass or other inert
           »   Oxygen (Gaseous)                      containers (preferably unbreakable)
           »   Perchloric acid                     » Do not use corks or rubber stoppers
           »   Fluorine                              with oxidizers
           »   Iodine                              » Reaction vessels containing
                                                     oxidizers should be heated using
           »   Hydrogen peroxide (3 to 90 %)         fiberglass mantles or sand baths




# 56
                       Oxidizer - Chlorine

          General Information          Health Hazards
           » Fisher Scientific           » Eyes - Irreversible eye injury,
           » Pale yellow liquid            conjunctivitis
           » Distinct odor               » Skin - Severe burns and
                                           ulceration, dermatitis
          Do NOT induce
                                         » Ingestion - Severe digestive
           vomiting - Give milk or         tract burns
           water
                                         » Inhalation - Severe irritation
                                         » Teeth - Erosion (chronic)


# 57
                     Unstable (reactive)

          Acrolein-Acrylonitrile      Preventive Actions
                                        » Refrigerate
                                        » Use immediately




# 58
                            Water-reactive

          Examples                      Preventive Actions
           »   Carbon tetrafluoride       » Avoid contact with water or
           »   Iodine chloride              other liquids
           »   Lithium
           »   Potassium
           »   Sodium metal
           »   Sodium hydride
           »   Sulfamic acid



# 59
               Water-reactive - Sulfamic Acid

          General Information           Health Hazards
           »   Fisher Scientific          » Eyes - Severe irritation, burns
           »   Carcinogen - No            » Skin - Irritation, possible burns, if
           »   White solid                  skin wet
           »   Odor - Not available       » Ingestion - Severe irritation
                                            gastrointestinal tract, nausea,
                                            vomiting, possible burns
                                          » Inhalation - Respiratory tract
                                            irritation, burning pain in nose and
                                            throat, coughing, shortness of
                                            breath, pulmonary edema



# 60
                          Health Hazards

          Carcinogens               Nephrotoxins (Kidneys)
          Toxic agents              Neurotoxins (Nervous System)
          Highly toxic agents       Agents which damage the
          Reproductive toxins        lungs, pulmonary system
          Irritants                 Agents that act on the
          Corrosives                 hematopietic (blood) system
          Sensitizers               Cutaneous hazards
          Hepatotoxins (Liver)      Eye hazards



# 61
                  Multiple Health Hazards

       Chemical   Kidney   Liver   Central   Reproductive Pulmonary   Skin
                                   Nervous     System      System
                                   System
       Acetone      X       X                                X         X

       Ammonia      X       X                                X         X

       Ethylene     X       X                                X         X
       Glycol
       Lead         X       X        X           X

       Sulfuric     X       X                                X         X
       Acid



# 62
                                Carcinogens

          Examples                      Preventive Actions
           »   Asbestos                   » If synergistic, do NOT smoke,
           »   Chlordane                    drink, use drugs
           »   Chloroform                 » Specialized medical testing for the
           »   DDT                          exposure as part of medical
           »   Dioxane                      surveillance provided by facility
           »   Formaldehyde
           »   Saccharin
           »   Soot
           »   Toluene
           »   Urethane
           »   Vinyl chloride


# 63
                    Carcinogen - Chloroform

          General Information                     Health Hazards
           »   Fisher Scientific                    » Eyes - Irreversible eye damage
                                                      (vapors or liquid)
           »   Carcinogen - Potential
                                                    » Skin - Burning, itching, redness,
           »   Clear, colorless liquid                dermatitis
           »   Sweet odor                           » Ingestion - Chemical pneumonitis
           »   Toxicity increased by alcohol,         (fatal)
               steroids, and ketones                » Inhalation - Depression of central
                                                      nervous system, kidney and liver
                                                      damage
                                                    » Adverse reproductive and fetal
                                                      effects



# 64
               Toxic and Highly Toxic Agents

          Toxic Agents                        Highly Toxic Agents
           » Orally                             » Orally
               – Acrylamide                         – Hydrogen cyanide
               – Barium                             – Sodium azide
               – Isopropyl Ether                    – Sodium cyanide
           » Continuous Contact                 » Continuous Contact
               – Dioxane                            – None identified
               – Ethylene Dibromide             » Continuous Inhalation
               – Hydrazine                          – Hydrogen cyanide
           » Continuous Inhalation                  – Hydrogen sulfide
               – Chlorine                           – Phosgene
               – Phenol
               – Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide


# 65
               Highly Toxic (Oral) - Sodium Cyanide


          General Information                     Health Hazards
           » Fisher Scientific                      » Eyes - Severe irritation, burns
           » Carcinogen - No                        » Skin - Severe irritation, burns,
           » White solid                              absorbed through skin, dermatitis,
           » Slightly bitter-almond odor when         necrosis, ulceration
             moist                                  » Ingestion - Severe gastrointestinal tract
           » Must have cyanide antidote kit           irritation (may be fatal), central
             available                                nervous system damage
           » Wash thoroughly after                  » Inhalation - Severe respiratory tract
             handling/before eating                   irritation, effects similar to ingestion




# 66
                    Reproductive Toxins

          Proven - Human Studies      Suspected - Human Studies
            » Anesthetic gases           » Carbon monoxide
            » Lead                       » Cytotoxic drugs
            » Organic mercury            » Ethylene oxide
            » Polychlorinated            » Organic solvents
              biphenyls (PCBs)         Suspected - Animal Studies
            » Radiation                  » Cadmium
            » Ribavirin                  » Organochlorine pesticides



# 67
           Prevention of Reproductive Effects

          Request to be assigned      Notify supervisor
           to another area that        Facility procedure to
           does not require             resolve differences
           working with
           reproductive toxins
           » Verbally
           » In writing




# 68
             Reproductive Toxins - Nitrous Oxide


          General Information                 Health Hazards
           » Air Products and Chemicals         » Eye/Skin - Contact with liquid or
           » Carcinogen - NO                      cold gas causes cryogenic burns
           » Appearance and odor Not            » Inhalation
             available                              – Headache
           » Supports and accelerates               – Nausea/Drowsiness
             combustion of flammables               – Other signs of oxygen
           » Simple asphixiant                        starvation
           » Use safe handling procedures           – Hysteria (high concentrations,
             for gas cylinders                        short exposure)
                                                    – “Laughing gas” can be abused


# 69
                    Irritants and Corrosives

          Irritants                  Corrosives
           »   Chloroform              »   Acetic acid glacial
           »   Formaldehyde            »   Ammonia
           »   Freon                   »   Chlorine
           »   Glutaraldehyde          »   Fluorine
           »   Hydrogen peroxide       »   Hydrochloric acid
           »   Iodine                  »   Hydrofluoric acid
           »   Isopropyl alcohol       »   Hydrogen chloride
           »   Toluene                 »   Nitric acid
           »   Xylene                  »   Sulfuric acid



# 70
                    Corrosive - Ammonia

          General Information             Health Hazards
           » Bower Ammonia and              » Eyes - Irritation
             Chemical                       » Skin - Burns
           » Carcinogen - No                » Ingestion - Symptoms NOT
           » Colorless liquid                 identified
           » Pungent odor                   » Inhalation
           » Wear goggles, if wearing          – Headache
             contact lenses                    – Coughing
                                               – Severe lung congestion



# 71
                                     Sensitizers

          Sensitizers                        Preventive Actions
           »   Natural latex                   » Minimize exposure
           »   Formaldehyde                    » Substitute products that do not
           »   Diazomethane                      contain sensitizers, if possible
           »   Chromium                        » Wear appropriate hand protection
           »   Nickel                            when contacting
           »   Bichromates                     » Wash thoroughly when task is
                                                 completed
           »   Isocyanates
                                               » Minimize exposure to unknown
           »   Certain phenols                   chemicals
           »   Methyl Methacrylate



# 72
               Sensitizer - Formaldehyde

          General Information           Health Hazards
           » Fisher Scientific            » Eyes - Irritation
                                          » Skin - Irritation, thickening,
           » Carcinogen - Potential         sensitization, discoloration
           » Appearance - Not             » Ingestion - May be fatal, blindness
             available                    » Inhalation
           » Has caused adverse               – Effects central nervous system
             reproductive and fetal           – Asthmatic attacks due to allergic
                                                sensitization
             effects in animals
           » Finger nail decay


# 73
               Sensitizer - Methyl Methacrylate

          General Information                     Health Hazards
           »   Fisher Scientific                    » Eyes - Severe irritation, burns
           »   Carcinogen - Yes                     » Skin - Severe irritation,
           »   Colorless liquid                       sensitization, dermatitis,
           »   Sweet, sharp odor                      destruction, ulceration
           »   Reproductive and fetal effects       » Ingestion - Depression, kidney and
                                                      liver damage, gastrointestinal
                                                      irritation, allergic reaction
                                                    » Inhalation - Allergic respiratory
                                                      reaction, effects similar to ingestion




# 74
                       Hematopoietic Damage


          Hematopoietic Toxins      Preventive Actions
           (Blood)
           »   Benzene
           »   Carbon Monoxide
           »   Ethylene oxide
           »   Lead
           »   Picric acid
           »   Xylene



# 75
               Hematopoietic Toxin - Ethylene Oxide


          General Information             Health Hazards
           » 3M                             » Eyes - Severe injury
           » Carcinogen - Suspected         » Skin - Irritation, dermatitis, and
                                               chemical blisters
           » Colorless gas
                                            » Inhalation
           » Sweet odor                         – Respiratory tract irritation
           » Will burn without                  – Cumulative lung, liver, and
             presence of air or other             kidney damage
             oxidizers                          – Mutagen/Suspect carcinogen
           » Do NOT incinerate                  – Neurotoxic
             cartridges


# 76
                              Liver Damage

          Hepatotoxins                     Preventive Actions
           »   Chloroform                    » Medical surveillance emphasizes
           »   DDT                             liver function
           »   p-Dichlorobenzene             » Avoid activities known to damage
           »   Ethylene oxide                  the liver (e.g., heavy drinking)
           »   Inorganic arsenic
           »   Phenol (hydroxybenzene)
           »   Picric acid
           »   Toluene
           »   Xylene



# 77
                      Hepatotoxin - Xylene

          General Information              Health Hazards
           »   Fisher Scientific             » Eyes - Severe irritation
                                             » Skin - Irritation, defatting,
           »   Carcinogen - Yes                dermatitis
           »   Clear, colorless liquid       » Ingestion - Central nervous system
           »   Aromatic odor                   damage, kidney and liver damage,
                                               chemical pneumonitis (can be fatal)
           »   Neurotoxic effects            » Inhalation - Respiratory tract
               include permanent brain         irritation, chemical pneumonitis,
               and nervous system              pulmonary edema
               damage


# 78
             Hepatotoxin - Xylene (Contd.)

          General Information                   Health Hazards
           » No manufacturer listed               » Eyes - Irritation
           » Emergency Telephone None             » Skin - Irritation
             available                            » Ingestion
           » Carcinogen -                             – Gastro-intestinal irritation
                                                      – Blurred vision
           » Colorless liquid
                                                      – Lowering blood pressure
           » Sweet, pleasant odor
                                                  » Inhalation
           » Ingestion or inhalation may be
                                                      – Respiratory tract irritation
             fatal
                                                      – Narcosis
           » Chronic effects include kidney
                                                      – Headache, nausea, etc.
             and/or liver damage


# 79
                                   Kidney Damage


          Nephrotoxins                      Preventive Actions
           » Chemicals listed as              » Medical surveillance emphasizes
             hepatotoxins                       kidney function
           » Cadmium                          » Reduce the hazard, substitute a less
           » Turpentine                         hazardous chemical, if possible
           » Mercury
           » Lead




# 80
                   Nephrotoxin - Toluene

          General Information           Health Hazards
           » Fisher Scientific            » Eyes - Irritation (vapors), corneal
                                            injury
           » Carcinogen - Yes             » Skin - Irritation, dermatitis
           » Colorless liquid             » Ingestion - Digestive tract
           » Sweetish, pleasant,            irritation, chemical pneumonitis
                                            (can be fatal)
             aromatic odor
                                          » Inhalation
           » Causes adverse                   – Respiratory tract irritation
             reproductive and fetal           – Cardiac sensitization and severe
             effects in animals                 heart abnormalities
                                              – Liver and kidney damage


# 81
                        Neurotoxins
                  (Nervous System Damage)

          Benzene                   Iodine
          sec-Butyl alcohol         Lead
          Carbon Monoxide           LPG
          DDT                       Methyl Methacrylate
          1,2-Dichloroethylene      Mercury
          Ethyl ether               Propane
          Ethylene oxide            Toluene
                                     Xylene



# 82
                  Neurotoxins - Acrylamide

          General Information        Health Hazards
           »   Fisher Scientific       » Eyes - Irritation, burns
           »   Carcinogen - Yes        » Skin - May be absorbed
           »   White solid               through skin, sensitizer
           »   Odorless                » Ingestion - Nervous system
                                         damage
                                       » Inhalation - Respiratory tract
                                         irritation



# 83
                     Pulmonary System Toxins
                   (Respiratory System Damage)

          Acetic acid*              Glutaraldehyde*
          Ammonia*                  Hexane
          Asbestos*                 Hydrogen peroxide
          Benzene                   Inorganic Arsenic
          n-Butyl alcohol           Iodine
          Cadmium                   LPG
          Chlorine                  Isopropyl alcohol*
          p-Dichlorobenzene         Methyl Methacrylate*
          1,2-Dichloroethylene      Mercury*
          Ethyl acetate             Nitric acid
          Ethylene oxide*           Phosphoric acid
          Ethyl ether               Portland cement*
          Fluorine                  Sulfuric acid
          Formaldehyde*             Toluene*



# 84
                        Respiratory Toxins -
                          Glutaraldehyde

          General Information              Health Hazards
           » Fisher Scientific               » Eyes - Severe irritation
                                             » Skin - Sensitizer, dermatitis
           » Carcinogen - No
                                             » Ingestion - Digestive tract
           » Colorless to light yellow         irritation, hemorrhaging,
             liquid                            permanent damage to esophagus,
                                               digestive tract
           » Pungent, sharp odor
                                             » Inhalation
           » Causes adverse                      – Respiratory tract irritation
             reproductive and fetal              – Asthmatic attacks
             effects in animals                  – Liver abnormalities


# 85
                          Cutaneous Hazards
                            (Skin Damage)
          Acetic acid*               Inorganic Arsenic
          Benzene                    Iodine
          n-Butyl alcohol            Isopropyl alcohol*
          Chloroform                 Methyl Methacrylate
          DDT                        Mercury
          p-Dichlorobenzene          Nitric acid
          Ethyl Acetate              Phenol (hydroxybenzene)
          Ethyl Ether                Phosphoric acid
          Fluorine                   Picric acid
          Formaldehyde*              Portland cement*
          Freon*                     Ribavirin*
          Glutaraldehyde*            Toluene
          Hexane                     Sulfuric acid
          Hydrogen peroxide          Xylene



# 86
               Prevention of Chemical Injuries to Skin


          Wear appropriate          Remove protective clothing
           protective clothing        properly
           »   Gloves                Dispose or launder protective
           »   Lab coat               clothing properly
           »   Apron
                                     Thoroughly wash hands and
           »   Face Shield
                                      skin immediately after
           »   Hood
                                      completion of task




# 87
                 Cutaneous - Sulfuric Acid

          General Information                  Health Hazards
           » Fisher Scientific                   » Eyes - Severe burns, conjunctivitis,
           » Carcinogen - Yes                      irreversible injury
           » Colorless liquid                    » Skin - Severe burns
           » Odorless                            » Ingestion - Chemical burns to
           » Remove contaminated clothing          respiratory tract
             immediately                         » Inhalation - Chemical burns to
           » Emergency response time is of         respiratory tract, nosebleeds,
             the essence                           perforation of nasal septum
           » Get medical aid immediately         » Teeth - Erosion




# 88
                                  Eye Hazards

          Acetic acid*                    Glutaraldehyde*
          Ammonia*                        Fluorine
          Benzene                         Hexane
          n-Butyl alcohol                 Hydrogen peroxide
          sec-Butyl alcohol               Iodine
          Chloroform                      Isopropyl alcohol*
          p-Dichlorobenzene               Methyl Methacrylate*
          1,2-Dichloroethylene            Mercury
          Ethyl Ether                     Phosphoric acid
          Ethyl Acetate                   Picric acid
          Ethylene oxide*                 Portland cement
          Freon*                          Ribavirin
          Nitric acid                     Sulfuric acid
          Formaldehyde*                   Xylene



# 89
           Prevention of Chemical Injuries to Eyes


          Wear appropriate eye      Work near an eyewash
           protection                Make sure eyewash is
           »   Safety glasses         operational
           »   Goggles
                                     Avoid working alone
           »   Face Shield
           »   Hood




# 90
                  Eye Hazard - Acetic Acid

          General Information                   Health Hazards
           » Fisher Scientific                    » Eyes - Severe irritation, irreversible
           » Carcinogen - No                        damage (vapors and liquid)
           » Colorless liquid                     » Skin - Burns, dermatitis
           » Pungent, vinegar-like odor           » Ingestion - Severe pain, permanent
           » Flush eyes for 15 minutes,             damage to digestive tract
             occasionally lifting the upper       » Inhalation - Chemical burns to
             and lower eyelids                      respiratory tract, chronic bronchitis
           » Get medical aid immediately          » Teeth - Erosion




# 91
                         Other Health Hazards

          Teeth/Gums                 Peripheral Nervous System
            »   Acetic acid             » DDT
            »   Lead                    » Freon
            »   Nitric acid           Bones/Bone Marrow
            »   Sulfuric acid           » Benzene
          Cardiovascular System        » Cadmium
            »   Cadmium               Gastrointestinal Tract
            »   Carbon Monoxide         » Lead
            »   Chloroform              » Xylene
            »   Freon                 Mucous Membranes/Throat
            »   Iodine                  » Glutaraldehyde
          Lymphatic System             » Methyl Methacrylate
            » Inorganic Arsenic


# 92
             Hazardous Pharmaceuticals


          If an MSDS cannot be obtained, the facility
           must document the efforts to obtain the MSDS




# 93
                    Detecting Effects of
                   Hazardous Chemicals

          Monitoring                    Documentation
           » Conducted periodically       » Exposure records
           » Continuous monitoring        » Medical records
             devices
           » Visual appearance
           » Odor




# 94
                  Program Maintenance

        Safety committee reviews - Annually
        Safety office updates - As necessary
           » Submit comments to (insert)
           » Revised as necessary
          List - Other facility procedures




# 95
                Exposure of Family Members

          Contaminants can cause health        Preventive actions
           effects among worker’s families        » Reduce exposure - Use good
            » Arsenic                               safety practices
            » Asbestos                            » Leave soiled clothes at work
            »   Asthmagens and allergens          » Store work clothes away from
                                                    nonwork clothes
            »   Cadmium
                                                  » Change work clothes before
            »   Chlorinated hydrocarbons
                                                    leaving work
            »   Fibrous glass
                                                  » Launder work clothes separately
            »   Infectious agents
                                                  » Shower before leaving work, if
            »   Lead                                possible
            »   Mercury                           » Do not take tools, scrap,
            »   Pesticides                          packaging, etc. home


# 96
                          CHEMTREC

          Emergency Telephone         Chemical information
           800-424-9300                 from data base of 1.5
          Spill control and fire       million MSDSs
           fighting information        Non-emergency
          Emergency medical            inquires (9 a.m. - 6 p.m.
           treatment information        EST) 800-262-8200
          Manufacturer, shipper,
           carrier contact

# 97
                                Summary

          Review facility’s written        Read label and MSDS, be
           program and inventory             able to quickly locate
          Review health hazard             Follow manufacturer’s
           information periodically          guidance for chemical
                                            Handle and dispose of
          Ensure fume hoods and             chemicals properly
           storage areas are effective
                                            Store chemicals properly
          Wear appropriate PPE             Assure safety committee
          Reduce the hazard,                effectively addresses
           substitute a less hazardous       chemical hazards and
           chemical, if possible             hazard communication
                                             requirements
# 98
                       Summary (Contd.)

          Chemicals may have               Know facility emergency
           multiple health hazards and       response procedures
           can be synergistic               Know facility policies
          Review personal                   concerning re-assignment
           monitoring and medical           Do not inadvertently expose
           records periodically              your family to workplace
          Visit employee health and         chemicals
           employee assistance
           personnel, when necessary



# 99
                Walk Around Portion of Training

           Flammable Liquid              Emergency Shower
            Storage                       Emergency Eye Wash
            »   Storage Cabinet           Proper storage of
            »   Inside Storage Room        compressed gas
            »   Cut Off Room               cylinders
            »   Outside Storage Area
                                          Ventilation - Fume
                                           Hoods



# 100