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					     Trafficking in Children:
        China and Asian
           Perspective

Xin Ren, Ph.D.
Criminal Justice Division
California State University, Sacramento
renx@csus.edu
            Trafficking in Children
   International legal instruments
    – CRC Articles 1, 11, 21, and 32-36
    – UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in
      Persons, Article 3(a)
    – Hague Conventions on
           Inter-country adoption
           The civil aspect of children abduction
           Parental responsibilities and protection of children
    – ILO Convention No. 182
        Eliminating worst forms of child labor
        
    – WTO’s Global Code of Conduct for Tourism 1999
Purpose of Trafficking in Children

   Illegal child adoption
   Illegal border crossing for family
    reunification
   Bridal trade
   Forced prostitution
   Child labor exploitation
   Forcible organ removal
Trafficking in Children in Asia

   800,000 to 900,000 men, women, and
    children are trafficked across
    international borders worldwide into
    forced marriage, prostitution, and
    slavery labor
   225,000 victims or ¼ victims of world
    wide are trafficked annually from the
    Southwest and Southeast Asia
Trafficking in Children

   Between 200,000 to 500,000 Chinese girls
    and children have been trafficked into or
    through Thailand in the past 10 years
   Thailand alone has some 200,000 sex
    workers
   Every year an estimated 5,000 to 7,000
    Nepali girls are trafficked to the red light
    districts of Indian cities
Trafficking in Children

   One third of 55,000 prostitutes in Cambodia
    are Vietnamese boys and girls under age of
    18
   200,000 Bangladeshi woman were trafficked
    to Pakistan in the last ten years working as
    prostitutes
   Some 20,000 to 30,000 Burmese girls are
    estimated to work in Bangkok as prostitutes
       Characteristics of Trafficked
          Child Victims in China
   From 1980-2000, a total of 10,768 children were
    abducted and trafficked domestically in China
   Of them, 66.4% are boys and 33.6% are girls
   Price ranges from 10,000-20,000 yuan ($1,250-$2,500)
    for a boy to 500-800 yuan ($60-$100) for a girl
   Abduction premises
    – 36% abducted from private homes
    – 21% abducted from public place
    – 6% from school premises
   Recruiting regions and direction of trafficking flow:
    – 42% of children were recruited from three provinces: Sichuan,
      Guizhou, and Shanxi
    – Children were trafficked from the southwest inland provinces
      onward to east and coastal regions
        Age of Child Victims

Age group Total      Boys   Girls
          Population
1 day-7     69%     78%     36%
years old
8-14 years 31%      22%     64%
old
Total       100%    100%    100%
    Means of Recruitment

Sold by Parents      50%
False                27%
Pretense/deception
Stealing/abduction   11.3%
Robbery/Arson/Murder 2.3%

Unknown              9.4%
Traffickers

   51% under age of 25
   Women traffickers
    – 1990:   10.3%
    – 1991:   11.8%
    – 1992:   13.9%
    – 2000:   20%
   75-89% cases involved more than
    three traffickers
Causes

   The stronghold of traditional patriarchal value
   Poverty in rural and mountainous regions
   Widening gap between the poor and the rich
   Lack of economic opportunity for women in rural
    areas
   Gender discrimination in rural economy
   Enforcement of birth control policy
   Economic openness and booming tourist industry
Regional Co-operation
   The Inter-government Summit of Association of Southeast
    Asian Nations (ASEAN- Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia,
    Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore,
    Thailand, and Vietnam)
   ASEAN Tourism Agreement and the ASEAN Plan of Action to
    Combat Transnational Organized Crime of Kuala Lumpur in
    2002
   ASEAN Subcommittee on Women in 1999 and the 6th
    Meeting of ASEAN Heads of Immigration Departments and
    Ministries of Foreign Affairs in 2002
   A Joint Declaration of ASEAN and China on Cooperation in
    the Field of Non-Traditional Security Issues identified
    combating trafficking in women and children as one of the six
    prioritized tasks that require inter-regional governmental
    cooperation.
Anti-Trafficking Practice

   Mekong Subregional Project
    – TICW works in education, skill training,
      employment creation, alternative
      livelihood and legal literacy
   China: In collaboration with UNICEF to
    combat trafficking in women and
    children.
   Cambodia: Anti-Pedophilia Program
              Legal Obstacles in
       Assisting Victims of Trafficking

   Identification of rescued victims and
    repatriation
   Status offense for victims of trafficking
   Legality v. humanity in rescuing victims
   Children without country and citizenship
   Trafficking in children and immigration policy
   Prevention v. intervention
Public Education
Campaign in Henan
Victim Speaks up at Public
 Rally Against Trafficking
Assembled Victims for
Repatriation in Henan
Rescued Victims in Henan
Rescued Victims in Shanxi
Victims Repatriation
Rescued Children under
    the Police Care

				
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posted:3/18/2011
language:English
pages:21