FIRAS BANI SALMAN _060079_ U210-A AOU Every talk _ political and

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       Every talk , political and religious .Where speakers are
trying to be persuasive or build a strong case for their claims ,
Also to elicit and orchestrate support from their audiences , Of
course to obtain that , everybody need to study the techniques of
using language effectively , and their speech’s or discourses
must have excessive or ornamentation and contrivance
regardless the meaning of content ,this act called the rhetoric ,
the original basis for the study of rhetoric in English are tending
myself to begin by looking at the classical Greco-Roman oratory
(Maybin, Mercer, 2002, pp122, 124)

      Historically, classical rhetoric has its inception in a school
of pre-Socratic philosopher know as sophist .it is later taught as
one of the three original liberal arts or trivium in western culture
.in ancient and medieval time , grammar concerned it self with
correct , accurate , pleasing , and effective language use through
the study and criticism of literary models, dialectical concerned
it self with the testing and invention of new knowledge through
a process of question and answer , and rhetoric concerned it self
with persuasion in public and political setting such as
assemblies and court of law . As such, rhetoric is said to flourish
in open and democracy societies with rights of free speech, free
assembly, and political enfranchisement for some portion of the

      And in classical ancient Greek civilization, there are three
types of rhetoric .first there was judicial rhetoric, which was
used to argue legal cases, secondly there was deliberative
rhetoric, which was used to persuade an audience to take a
certain course of action, or to adopt asset of beliefs. And thirdly
there was demonstrative rhetoric, which occurred in more
formal public ceremonies.

(Maybin , Mercer ,2002, p122)
     Greek society was expected that all citizens would be able
to represent themselves in legal debate. For that they concerned
the importance of the judicial rhetoric. that legal presentation
of this type should have six parts: exordium ,narration
,confirmation ,refutation and conclusion .the to the speaker .the
narration should provide a brief , clear account of the case and
may include some attacks on an opposing argument .the
partition is a description of what is to be proved ;this also should
be clear and brief. The confirmation is the basic argument for
the points that the speaker wishes to prove. The refutation, as
the term suggests, involves undermining and opponent s
argument. The conclusion should consist of three parts:
summing up the speakers argument, inciting indignation against
the opponent, and ensuring that the speaker or the speakers
client    is    perceived     sympathetically.     These      simple
recommendations formed the basis for courses in rhetoric for
many centuries.

(Maybin, Mercer, 2002, pp122, 124)

    Rhetoric thus evolved as an important art, one that provided
the orator with the forms means, and strategies for persuading
an audience of the correctness of the orators’ arguments. Today
the term rhetoric can be used at times to refer only to the form of
argumentation, often with the pejorative connotation that
rhetoric is means of obscuring the truth. Classical philosophers
believed quite the contrary: the skilled use of rhetoric was
essential to the discovery truth.

   Rhetoric is not only a method for training effective
communicators as a discipline for advanced study, it is a method
for understanding on a the theoretical as well as a practical level
who humans use language to a alter or shape our understanding
of reality, every text, it advisement, lecture,s speech, letter, or
chat . Inhabit a given discourse environment, hence the term
discourse analysis. Rather than providing a particular method,
discourse analysis is a way of approaching
And thinking about problem: neither qualitative nor quantitative
research method, but rather questioning of the basic assumption
of quantitative and qualitative research methods.

    Political speech are designed to hold the attention of the
member of the audience and gain their approval and support for
the politicians and the message and sentiments begin expressed
in their speech and audience can display approval in many ways
as booing ,cheering and heckling but the most common kind of
display is the clapping of hands . Clapping can occur either at
the end of a speech, or in shorter bursts during the speech
.Atkinson was relying on applause as a kind of parameter of the
effectiveness of speeches. And he derived a way of taking
account of three crucial features of applause: the varying
intensity applause, the precise moment that a round of applause
begins and ends, and the length of applause.

   (Maybin, Mercer, 2002, pp125, 126)

   The devises used are: three - part lists, use of contrasts, non-
verbal aspect (gesture, intonational features, and head
movement).Then the audience would go along with the set up
expecting and having their expectations confirmed through the
three – part list or the contrast. The applause at the end is both
an attestation to the correct guess of the audience as well as
agreeing with the speaker’s position.

(Maybin, Mercer ,2002, , p126)
     Study of preaching by Sutcliffe and Tomlin suggest that
some of the ways in which this content is communicated reflect
traditional African religious ceremonies. Sutcliffe and Tomlin
focused on three features of Pentecostal services: preaching,
testimony and prayer. Moreover, they suggest that it draws on
styles of language use which are commonly found in
communities with African cultural roots (as they use proverbs to
illuminate and emphasize specific point in the sermon) and they
are commonly found Pentecostal church rhetoric .the use of
parables and journey metaphors is a common feature of
Christian .And they referred to as the call and response, this
refer to the way congregation will echo the words of the
preacher or even add words of their own. Affirmative or
commentary, affirmative such as Yeah, alright and amen, and
the commentary such as I like it, talk about it and yes it is .both
types of response provide positive evaluations of the speech.
However, whereas affirmations tend to mark the audiences
approval of a line of argument, commentaries tend to occur in
response specific devices, I will cite that in some examples
from Martian Luther king speech’s( I have a dream ).


“We can never be satisfied as long as the negro in Mississippi can not vote and a
negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote.”

Audience                                             (      Affirmative.
       “Now is the time    to make real the…………….   “


                    (     Commentary.

Martian Luther kings speech elicits categories of response that
affirmation, commentaries and used devices in their speech as
three –part lists, contrasts, repetitions, metaphors, cultural
specific narratives and paralinguistic features.
(Maybin, Mercer, 2002, , pp127,131)

    Finally Rhetorical theory today is as much influenced by the
research results and –research method of the behavioural
sciences and by theories of literary criticism as by an ancient
rhetorical theory ,and influenced a new generation of rhetorical
scholars how drew from various disciplines to more fully
comprehend the phenomenon of human communication in all it
is aspects .while ancient rhetorical scholarship had focus
primary in rhetoric as speech .also current rhetorical theory
draws heavily from cultural studies ,performance studies ,and
design studies. Topics of interest to contemporary scholars
include the relationship between rhetoric and gender.

1. (Encyclopaedia)
2. (Maybin, Mercer, 2002, AOU Book)

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