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KS3 2008 Science Curriculum Developer

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KS3 2008 Science Curriculum Developer Powered By Docstoc
					1.1 Explanations, argument and                    YEAR 7                                 YEAR 8                                  YEAR 9                                 YEAR 10                                 YEAR 11                          YEAR 11 EXTENSION
decisions
1.1a1 Scientific Thinking -        Use an existing model/analogy to        Describe more than one model to         Describe the strengths and             Justify the selection of a particular   Evaluate the effectiveness of using     Recognise that it is possible to have
developing explanations using      explain a phenomenon. Recognise         explain the same phenomenon and         weaknesses of a range of available     model as the most appropriate.          models and analogies in their           and to use different, and sometimes
ideas and models                   and explain the value of using          discuss the strengths and               models and select the most             Devise own simple models or             explanations. Evaluate the              conflicting, models in their
                                   models and analogies to clarify         weaknesses of the model. Describe       appropriate. Explain why the           analogies to explain observations,      strengths and weaknesses of their       explanation. Explain how the
                                   explanations                            how the use of a particular model or    manipulation of a model or analogy     data or scientific ideas                own models and analogies                devising and using of alternative
                                                                           analogy supports an explanation         might be needed to clarify                                                                                             models could help to make a
                                                                                                                   explanations                                                                                                           ‘creative leap’ in an explanation


1.1a2 Scientific thinking          Recognise that scientists of all        Recognise that science is a             Explain how bias, a lack of evidence   Describe the process of validating      Explain why it is important for the     Explain and justify why a 'scientific
challenge and collaboration in     disciplines and nationalities often     communal, and therefore fallible,       or misconceptions can give rise to     the work of other scientists and        scientific community to have a          claim' should be accepted or
developing explanations            work together to develop                human activity and that different       inappropriate theories and the role    explain how this influences on the      process for validating the work of      rejected by the application of the
                                   explanations. Recognise that            expanations can arise from              of scientists in questioning these.    acceptance or rejection of a theory.    other scientists and how this has       key components of validation to the
                                   sciecne cannot yet explain              individaul bias. Recognise              Identify some questions that the       Identify some questions that the        influenced the acceptance of            evidence. Explore the implications
                                   everything.                             questions that the scientific process   scientific process cannot yet          scientific process cannot yet           current theories. Explain why           of the provisional nature of scientific
                                                                           cannot answer.                          completely answer but can              completely answer but can               scientific proof is only ever           proof.
                                                                                                                   contribute to.                         contribute to, and explain the          provisional.
                                                                                                                                                          reasons for this.


1.1a3 Scientific thinking-         Identify a range of scientific data     Identify a range of scientific data     Use criteria to select relevant        Explain how the use of criteria         Devise criteria to select relevant      Devise criteria to select relevant
developing argument                and other evidence to back an           and other evidence to back an           scientific data and other sources of   improves the effectiveness of           scientific data and other sources of    scientific data and other sources of
                                   argument and the counterclaim in        argument and the counterclaim in        evidence to support or negate an       selecting scientific data and other     evidence to support or negate an        evidence to support or negate an
                                   less complex and /or familiar           more complex and /or less familiar      argument. Explain how scientific       sources of evidence to support or       argument in familiar contexts.          argument in less familiar contexts.
                                   contexts e.g. establishing a wind       contexts e.g. use of antibiotics.       evidence from a range of sources       negate an argument. Describe            Explain how scientific theories,        Explain how scientific theories,
                                   farm. Recognise that scientific         Describe how scientific evidence        can be used to support or disprove     examples where scientific theories,     applications and models have been       applications and models have been
                                   evidence can be used to support or      from different sources carries          theories.                              applications and models have been       modified by scientists as a result of   changed by the strength of new
                                   disprove theories.                      different weight in supporting or                                              changed by new evidence or              new evidence.                           evidence, changes in societal
                                                                           disproving theories.                                                           societal norms.                                                                 norms or values.


1.1b Applications, implications    Describe some benefits and              Explain some issues, benefits and       Evaluate the issues, benefits and      Evaluate the relevant issues,           Describe and evaluate examples of       Evaluate and analyse the potential
and cultural understanding         drawbacks of scientific                 drawbacks of scientific                 drawbacks of scientific                benefits and drawbacks of scientific    perceived and actual risk arising       impact of the application of new
                                   developments with which they are        developments with which they are        developments with which they are       developments with which they are        from the application of scientific or   scientific and technological
                                   familiar. Recognise that decisions      familiar. Recognise that decisions      familiar . Recognise that different    familiar and draw conclusions about     technological developments.             developments . Explain how
                                   about the use and application of        about the use and application of        decisions on the use and               which would be more appropriate.        Describe the power and limitations      scientific evidence can be shaped
                                   science and technology are              science and technology are              application of scientific and          Recognise that scientific evidence      of science in addressing a range of     by bias, scientific status, political or
                                   influenced by society and individuals   influenced by society and               technological developments may be      can be shaped by a number of            moral/ ethical issues and how this      economic factors and how this
                                                                           individuals, and how these could        made in different economic, cultural   factors (bias, scientific status,       could influence the impact of           could influence the impact of
                                                                           impact on people and the                and social contexts.                   political or economic factors) and      decisions taken on the application      decisions taken on the application
                                                                           environment.                                                                   how this could influence the            of scientific and technological         of scientific and technological
                                                                                                                                                          decisions taken on the application      developments                            developments
                                                                                                                                                          of scientific and technological
                                                                                                                                                          developments




1.1c Communication for audience Use key scientific vocabulary and          Use a range of scientific vocabulary    Communicate effectively and use        Communicate effectively using a         Communicate qualitative and             Use a wide range of technical
and with purpose                terminology in discussions and             and terminology consistently in         appropriate scientific temrinology     wide range of scientific terminology    quantitative evidence effectively       vocabulary and techniques with
                                written work. Identify and use the         discussions and written work. Adapt     and conventions in discussions and     and conventions in discussions and      using scientific terminology and        fluency, demonstrating
                                conventions of various genres for          the stylistic conventions of a range    written work. Adapt the stylistic      written work. Use simple criteria to    conventions and drawing on              communication and numerical skills
                                different audiences and purposes in        of genres for different audiences       conventions of a wider range of        judge the appropriateness of a          abstract ideas and models as            for a range of audiences and
                                scientific writing.                        and purposes in scientific writing.     genres for different audiences and     piece of scientific writing for a       appropriate to the audience and         purposes. Critically evaluate criteria
                                                                                                                   purposes in scientific writing.        particular audience.                    purpose. Devise criteria to judge the   udes to judge the appropriateness
                                                                                                                                                                                                  appropriateness of a piece of           of a piece of scientific writing for a
                                                                                                                                                                                                  scientific writing for a particular     particular audience.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  audience.


1.2 Practical and enquiry skills                  YEAR 7                                 YEAR 8                                  YEAR 9                                 YEAR 10                                 YEAR 11                          YEAR 11 EXTENSION
1.2a Planning an approach         Describe an appropriate approach        Describe an appropriate approach        Explain how the planned approach         Explain how the planned approach       Explain how to plan appropriate        Explain why different approaches
                                  to answer a scientific question using   to answer a scientific question using   to answer a scientific question was      was informed by a range of             approaches to investigatory work by    are required to investigate different
                                  a limited range of information and      sources of evidence and where           informed by scientific knowledge,        scientific knowledge, understanding    synthesising information from a        kinds of scientific questions and
                                  making relevant observations or         appropriate making relevant             understanding or other sources of        and evidenceand, where                 range of sources in complex            how scientific knowledge,
                                  measurements.                           observations or measurements            evidence.                                appropriate, how this influenced the   contexts and where variables are       understanding and sources of
                                                                          using appropriate apparatus.                                                     method of data collection.             less easily controlled.                evidence are used in the different
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         approaches




1.2b Selecting and managing       Recognise the range of variables        Describe and identify key variables     Use and apply independent and            Identify key factors in complex        Use and apply key variables in         Identify and manage a range of
variables                         involved in an investigation and        in an investigation and assign          dependent variables in an                contexts where variables are less      complex contexts including ones in     variables in complex contexts
                                  decide which to control                 appropriate values to these             investigation by choosing an             easily controlled                      which variables are less easily        including ones in which variables
                                                                                                                  appropriate range, number and                                                   controlled                             are less easily controlled.
                                                                                                                  value for each one.




1.2c Assessing risk and working   Explain how action has been taken       Explain how to take action to control Explain how approaches to practical Use and apply risk assessment in              Explain why the chosen approach to Explain how hazards are identified
safely                            to control obvious risk and how         the risks to themselves and others    work were adapted to control risk   carrying out practical procedures             practical work needed to be        and risks managed to collect data in
                                  methods are adequate for the task       and demonstrate competence in                                                                                           adapted to control risk            a safe and skilful manner
                                                                          their practical technique




1.2d Obtaining and presenting     Describe and record observations        Explain how the observation and         Use and apply qualitative and            Explain how inherent variation e.g.    Use and apply systematic               Use and apply systematic
primary evidence                  and evidence systematically.            recording methods are appropriate       quantitative methods to obtain and       from human error, sensitivity and      observation, precise measuring with    observation and precise measuring
                                  Recognise that the presentation of      to the task. Describe ways in which     record sufficient data systematically.   accuracy of instrument needs to be     a range of apparatus whilst taking     with a range of apparatus whilst
                                  experimental results through the        the presentation of experimental        Explain how the presentation of          considered when collecting data.       account of inherent variation to       taking account of inherent variation
                                  routine use of tables, bar charts and   results through the routine use of      experimental results through the         Apply and use appropriate ways of      obtain and record reliable data .      to obtain and record reliable data in
                                  simple graphs makes it easier to        tables, charts and line graphs          routine use of tables, charts and line   recording relevant observations and    Explain how the chosen                 a more demanding context. Explain
                                  see patterns and trends                 makes it easier to see patterns and     graphs makes it easier to see            comparisons, clearly identifying       presentation of data has been used     how the chosen presentation of
                                                                          trends                                  patterns and trends                      points of particular significance      to support a valid conclusion          data takes account of uncertainty or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         alternative conclusions.



1.2e Working critically with      Describe patterns and trends in         Describe how the patterns and           Explain how patterns and trends in       Explain how the numerical data has     Synthesise and manipulate data,        Synthesise and manipulate data,
primary evidence                  results and link this evidence to any   trends in results link to the           results can be manipulated to be         been manipulated to make valid         analyse findings and draw valid and    analyse findings and draw valid and
                                  prediction made. Describe and           conclusions drawn and whether the       consistent with the evidence             comparisons and conclusions linked     reliable conclusions consistent with   reliable conclusions consistent with
                                  suggest how planning and                evidence is sufficient. Describe and    gathered and the predictions made.       to the original scientific question.   the evidence and linked to the         the evidence and explain how
                                  implementation could be improved        suggest, with reasons, how planning     Explain how improvements to the          Evaluate the planning and              original scientific question.          strongly the evidence relates to the
                                                                          and implementation could be             planning and implementation would        implementation and explain how this    Recognise that correlation does not    original scientific question. Explain
                                                                          improved                                have led to the collection of more       could account for errors and           always imply causation. Evaluate       why correlation does not always
                                                                                                                  valid and reliable evidence and a        anomalies and how inadequacies         the planning and implementation        imply causation. Evaluate the
                                                                                                                  more secure conclusion.                  could be remedied                      and explain how this could account     planning and implementation and
                                                                                                                                                                                                  for errors and anomalies and the       explain how this could account for
                                                                                                                                                                                                  subsequent impact on the               errors and anomalies and the
                                                                                                                                                                                                  conclusion - in simple contexts        subsequent impact on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         conclusion - in more complex
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         contexts
1.2f Working critically with   Describe patterns and trends in     Describe what needs to be             Explain whether the collection and         Explain, using scientific knowledge     Evaluate the conclusions drawn by     Evaluate the conclusions drawn by
secondary evidence             secondary evidence and link these   considered in the collection and      manipulation of secondary evidence         and understanding, how some of          others, including scientists, in      others, including scientists, in less
                               to the prediction or conclusion     manipulation of simple secondary      is sufficient or insufficient to support   the limitations in the secondary        familiar or less complex contexts     familiar or more complex contexts
                               drawn. Recognise that different     evidence to evaluate the conclusion   the conclusion or interpretation           evidence can distort the conclusion     and consider how strongly the         and consider how strongly the
                               conclusions may be drawn from       or interpretation made. Recognise     made. Explain how secondary                drawn. Recognise that scientific        evidence supports these               evidence supports these
                               secondary data.                     that the selection, ordering or       numerical data have been                   controversies can arise from            conclusions or claims. Describe a     conclusions or claims. Explain how
                                                                   rejection of secondary data could     manipulated to support a particular        different interpretations of the same   range of issues that can affect the   scientific controversies can arise
                                                                   lead to different conclusions.        conclusion or viewpoint.                   evidence.                               credibility of data.                  from different ways of interpreting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  evidence.
2. Organisms, behaviour and               YEAR 7                              YEAR 8                               YEAR 9                              YEAR 10                              YEAR 11                       YEAR 11 EXTENSION
health
2.1 Life Processes            Describe the role of organ         Explain how the organs and           Explain how the specialisation of    Explain how individual               Explain how the different            Use and apply their
                              systems in plants and animals      tissues in plants and animals        cells in plants and animals          intracellular & extracellular        intracellular and extracellular      understanding of how life
                              that can contribute to the seven   function to support the seven life   support the seven life processes     processes and structures in          processes work together to           processes in organisms work
                              life processes.                    processes in a healthy organism.     in a healthy organism. Explain       plants and animals support the       support life in familiar contexts    together in unfamiliar contexts.
                                                                                                      how chemical, physical and           seven life processes Explain why     Evaluate the impact of chemical,     Critically evaluate the relative
                                                                                                      biological factors can disrupt the   certain chemical, physical and       physical and biological factors      impact of chemical, physical and
                                                                                                      seven life processes e.g.            biological factors can disrupt the   and explain their effects on the     biological factors and their effect
                                                                                                      smoking, environment, climate        seven life processes.                life processes e.g. drugs, foods,    on life processes in unfamiliar
                                                                                                      and microbes.                                                             hormones.                            contexts.


2.2 Variation and             Describe how organisms can         Explain how variation has            Explain how variation in             Explain how the combined             Apply and use their knowledge of     Apply and use their extensive
interdependence               vary and how this may lead to      benefits and limitations to the      organisms can be artificially        effects of changes to genes,         variation and interdependence to     knowledge of variation and
                              their survival in changing         survival of organisms in specific    induced (through the use of          environmental change and             explain: Natural selection; The      interdependence to critically
                              environments. Describe how the     habitats. Describe some              chemicals, radiation, genetic        natural selection can lead to        applications and implications of     evaluate the impact of human
                              major taxonomic groups are         examples of variation arising        engineering) and the effect of       variation in species. Explain the    artifical selection eg cloning and   activity on evolutionary and
                              classified. Use a combination of   from inherited and environmental     these organisms on the               fluctuations in distribution and     genetic engineering;                 ecological relationships.
                              food chains within a habitat to    factors. Explain energy transfer     environment. Explain how             population size using: Energy        Evolutionary and ecological
                              produce food webs.                 in food chains and webs and          internal and external factors can    Flow, Pyramids of Number and         relationships.
                                                                 relate this to the abundance of      affect energy transfer in food       Biomass, Predator/Prey
                                                                 organisms.                           chains and webs.                     Relationships


2.3 Behaviour                 Describe simple learned and        Explain how changes in learned       Make links between observed          Note: No statement in KS4 PoS        Explain the effects of natural and   Evaluate evidence from different
                              innate behaviours in response to   behaviour due to internal &          social behaviours and the benefit    re social behaviour Pupils can       artificial substances on chemical    sources about the impact of
                              internal & external stimuli and    external stimuli are of benefit to   to the survival of the species.      explain how chemical and             and electrical signals within the    natural and artificial substances
                              how these aid survival.            the organism.                        (Note: Links to specialised cells    electrical signals enable body       body, and possible effects on        on behaviour.
                                                                                                      and response to stimuli)             systems to respond to internal &     behaviour.
                                                                                                                                           external changes and the effect
                                                                                                                                           of this on behaviour.



3. Chemical and material                  YEAR 7                              YEAR 8                               YEAR 9                              YEAR 10                              YEAR 11                       YEAR 11 EXTENSION
behaviour
3.1 Particle models           Describe matter using a simple     Apply and use the particle model     Evaluate and refine the particle     Apply particle models in             Use the particle model and ideas     Use the particle model and ideas
                              model and use it to explain        to describe a range of physical      model to explain a range of          unfamiliar contexts, and begin to    from science and across              from science and across
                              changes of state. Recognise the    observations. Apply and use this     physical observations. Evaluate      evaluate the strengths and           disciplines to explain               disciplines to explain complex
                              link between heating and cooling   model to describe a range of         and refine the particle model to     weaknesses of the model.             phenomenon and evaluate the          phenomena and make critical
                              and changes of state Use the       separation techniques.               explain a range of separation        Refine the particle model to         use of the model.                    evaluations to justify the use of a
                              simple particle model to explain                                        techniques.                          explore the structure of atoms,                                           'good enough' model.
                              the physical characteristics of                                                                              including protons, neutrons and
                              solids, liquids and gases.                                                                                   electrons
3.2 Chemical reactions       Sort some reactions into              Recognise that materials can be      Use a particle model to construct   Use a particle model to construct    Use a particle model to predict       Use a particle model to predict
                             reversible and irreversible           made up of one or more kinds of      predictions for simple chemical     predictions for chemical             the outcome of chemical               the outcome of complex
                             Recognise that new materials          particles. Describe the type and     reactions and to produce word       reactions and to produce             reactions and to produce              chemical reactions and to
                             are made during chemical              arrangement of atoms in              equations.                          symbol equations Explain the         balanced symbol equations.            produce balanced symbol
                             reactions                             elements, compounds and                                                  evidence that a chemical             Explain the evidence that a           equations and ionic half
                                                                   mixtures. Describe and develop                                           reaction has taken place in          chemical reaction has taken           equations when appropriate.
                                                                   a particle model to explain the                                          terms of energy transfer and         place in terms of                     Explain the evidence that a
                                                                   differences between the terms                                            rearrangements of bonds              rearrangements of bonds               chemical reaction has taken
                                                                   atoms, elements, compounds                                               between atoms.                       between atoms, using the model        place (in a system at equilibrium)
                                                                   and mixtures.                                                                                                 of the differences of electron        in terms of energy transfer and
                                                                                                                                                                                 structure between elements.           rearrangements of bonds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       between atoms.


3.3 Patterns in chemical     Describe, record and group            Describe patterns in a range of      Link experimental and numerical     Explain properties and patterns      Apply knowledge of patterns of        Apply knowledge of patterns of
reactions                    observations from chemical            chemical reactions                   data to Illustrate a range of       in reactivity in terms of particle   reactivity in the periodic table to   reactivity in the periodic table to
                             reactions                                                                  patterns in chemical reactions      model for atomic structure.          predict the outcomes of               critically evaluate a range of
                                                                                                                                                                                 reactions from a range of             domestic and industrial
                                                                                                                                                                                 familiar contexts                     processes including systems at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       equilibrium



4. Energy, electricity and                YEAR 7                                YEAR 8                              YEAR 9                               YEAR 10                              YEAR 11                       YEAR 11 EXTENSION
forces
4.1 Energy                   Describe how energy can be            Use a simple model of energy         Develop more complex models         Apply the concept of                 Use quantitative measures and         Apply broader or deeper
                             stored eg. food, fuels & electrical   transfer (eg. A flow diagram) to     of energy transfer mechanisms       conservation of energy to energy     the concept of energy                 knowledge and understanding of
                             cells Describe how energy is          describe common observations         (incorporating ideas about          efficiency calculations in living    conservation to evaluate a range      energy in explanations of
                             transferred in simple contexts        (such as the way sound is            particles or waves) to explain      and non-living systems. Develop      of strategies to conserve limited     observations and phenomena.
                             such as heating and cooling,          produced, transmitted and            conduction, convection,             the idea of energy dissipation in    energy resources. Use and             Use valid and rational argument
                             food chains and simple circuits.      detected, how objects are seen,      radiation, reflection, refraction   a variety of contexts. Evaluate      apply complex models of energy        to offer solutions to problems
                             Recognize that quantitative           how heating transfers energy by      and dispersion of light, the        the economic costs and               transfer to a wide range of           arising from the aplications and
                             measures of energy transfer are       conduction, convection and           transmission of sound, the flow     environmental effects of energy      phenomena. Explain a wide             implications of energy.
                             needed to inform decisions e.g.       radiation, how an electric current   of electric current,                use through the measurement of       range of complex phenomena
                             about lifestyles. Describe how        transfers energy in a circuit, how   communication systems. Use          energy transfers and efficiency      using the principle of
                             energy stored in a range of           energy is transferred in             energy accounting system such       calculations. Describe the           conservation of energy and
                             energy resources such as food,        ecosystems). Explain why             as Sankey diagrams to track         effects of energy transfer to        appropriate wave or particle
                             biomass, oil, gas, wind and           quantitative measures of energy      energy transfers. Use               living systems by                    models.
                             waves can be usefully transferred     transfer should also be              quantitative measures of energy     electromagnetic and nuclear
                                                                   considered when making               transfer to support informed        radiations.
                                                                   informed decisions e.g. building     decision making e.g. comparing
                                                                   wind farms. Explain how              different transport systems when
                                                                   electricity is generated using a     considering how to travel. Apply
                                                                   variety of energy resources          the idea of energy conservation
                                                                                                        and dissipation to simple
                                                                                                        biological, chemical and physical
                                                                                                        systems.
4.2 Forces                     Recognise the forces acting on       Apply ideas about balanced and         Recognise how simple                Use simple quantitative             Use relationships involving         Apply knowledge and
                               an object in different situations.   unbalanced forces to explain the       quantitative relationships can be   relationships to make predictions   more complex quantities (eg         understanding of forces in
                               Distinguish between situations       way objects move. Investigate          applied to the way objects move     in more complex situations Use      acceleration, momentum ) to         explanations of observations and
                               involving balanced/unbalanced        situations where forces are            (including balanced and             simple relationships involving      make quantitative predictions in    phenomena to complex and
                               forces. Recognise that forces        applied over large or small areas      unbalanced forces). Recognise       more complex quantities (eg         more complex and unfamiliar         unfamiliar contexts. Use valid
                               can combine or wholly/partly         or have a turning effect               how simple quantitative             acceleration) to make               situations eg impulse, force and    and rational argument to offer
                               cancel each other out and their      Recognise that forces at a             relationships can be applied to     quantitative predictions in         time, Acceleration of an object     solutions to problems arising
                               size&direction can be                distance get weaker as the             situations where forces are         familiar situations                 on a circular path                  from the applications and
                               represented using arrows.            distance increases.                    applied over large and small                                                                                implications of forces.
                               Recognise that there are                                                    areas or have a turning effect.
                               Contact & Act-At-A-Distance
                               forces.




5. Environment, earth and                   YEAR 7                                YEAR 8                                YEAR 9                             YEAR 10                             YEAR 11                      YEAR 11 EXTENSION
universe
5.1 Changing Environment and   Describe how natural and human Explain some of the changes                  Use one or more models, such        Use primary and secondary           Evaluate the accuracy and           Link and synthesise data and
Sustainability                 processes have changed the     that have led to the composition             as the carbon cycle or food         forms of evidence to describe       validity of primary and secondary   evidence from a range of
                               atmosphere over time           of the current atmosphere.                   webs, to explain some of the        and explain the impact of human     evidence in relation to human       sources to explain human impact
                                                              Recognise simple ideas of                    consequences of changes in the      actions at a local, regional and    impact on the biosphere.            on the biosphere. Describe how
                                                              sustainable development                      environment                         global level                        Describe and analyse how            evidence and arguments from
                                                                                                                                                                                   complex data could be               different political and economic
                                                                                                                                                                                   represented or misrepresented       perspectives have been used to
                                                                                                                                                                                   to justify decisions taken to       justify decisions taken to
                                                                                                                                                                                   manage sustainability               manage sustainability.



5.2 Changing Earth             Recognise the processes             Describe the processes involved         Use the rock cycle as a model to    Use the theory of plate tectonics   Link plate tectonic theory to its   Apply and use the theory of plate
                               involved in the formation of rocks. in the formation of sedimentary,        explain the cyclical nature of      to explain some of the major        supporting geological evidence.     tectonics to explain related
                                                                   igneous and metamorphic rocks           rock forming processes and the      slow (long term) changes and                                            geological phenomena.
                                                                   and use the characteristics of          timescales over which they          the distribution and nature of
                                                                   the rocks to explain how they           operate.                            active zones on the surface of
                                                                   formed                                                                      the Earth


5.3 Earth, Space and Beyond    Describe the apparent                Describe the position of the           Apply models and use scientific     Explain some methods used to        Evaluate the available evidence     Explain using available evidence
                               movement of the Sun across the       Earth in relation to the position of   data to explain the relative        explore the solar system and        and explain why it favours an       and models of the universe, why
                               sky and the pattern in the           other bodies in the solar system       movement of the celestial bodies    galaxy (both from the Earth and     expanding universe as the           the ultimate fate of the universe
                               changing appearance of the           and use this to explain some           in the solar system. Describe       from space) Explain how the         current consensus model             is difficult to predict.
                               Moon                                 phenomena. Recognise that              how astronomy and space             electromagnetic spectrum can
                                                                    astronomy and space science            science provide evidence of the     inform the study of the stars in
                                                                    provide evidence about the solar       solar system and galaxy.            our galaxy (and Universe)
                                                                    system.
                                                                                     PLTS [Personal Learning and Thin
   Independent Enquirers                           Creative Thinkers                          Reflective Learners
Young people process and                    Young people think creatively by            Young people evaluate their
evaluate information in their               generating and exploring ideas,             strengths and limitations, setting
investigations, planning what to            making original connections. They           themselves realistic goals with
do and how to go about it. They             try different ways to tackle a              criteria for success. They monitor
take informed and well-reasoned             problem, working with others to             their own performance and
decisions, recognising that others          find imaginative solutions and              progress, inviting feedback from
have different beliefs and                  outcomes that are of value.                 others and making changes to
attitudes.                                                                              further their learning.



their investigations, planning what to do   generate ideas and explore possibilities    assess themselves and others, identifying
and how to                                                                              opportunities and achievements


go about it. They take informed and well-   ask questions to extend their thinking      set goals with success criteria for their
reasoned                                                                                development and work

decisions, recognising that others have     connect their own and others’ ideas and     review progress, acting on the outcomes
different                                   experiences in inventive ways


beliefs and attitudes.                      question their own and others’              invite feedback and deal positively with
                                            assumptions                                 praise, setbacks and criticism

consider the influence of circumstances,    try out alternatives or new solutions and   evaluate experiences and learning to
beliefs and feelings on decisions and       follow ideas through                        inform future progress
events

support conclusions, using reasoned         adapt ideas as circumstances change.        communicate their learning in relevant
arguments and evidence.                                                                 ways for different audiences.
al Learning and Thinking Skills]
                  Team Workers                                  Self Managers                         Effective Participators
        Young people work confidently                 Young people organise                        Young people actively engage
        with others, adapting to different            themselves, showing personal                 with issues that affect them and
        contexts and taking responsibility            responsibility, initiative, creativity       those around them. They play a
        for their own part. They listen to            and enterprise with a commitment             full part in the life of their school,
        and take account of different                 to learning and self-improvement.            college, workplace or wider
        views. They form collaborative                They actively embrace change,                community by taking responsible
        relationships, resolving issues to            responding positively to new                 action to bring improvements for
        reach agreed outcomes.                        priorities, coping with challenges           others as well as themselves.
                                                      and looking for opportunities.


        collaborate with others to work towards       seek out challenges or new                   discuss issues of concern, seeking
        common goals                                  responsibilities and show flexibility when   resolution where needed
                                                      priorities change

        reach agreements, managing discussions        work towards goals, showing initiative,      present a persuasive case for action
        to achieve results                            commitment and perseverance

        adapt behaviour to suit different roles and   organise time and resources, prioritising    propose practical ways forward, breaking
        situations, including leadership roles        actions                                      these down into manageable steps


        show fairness and consideration to others     anticipate, take and manage risks            identify improvements that would benefit
                                                                                                   others as well as themselves

        take responsibility, showing confidence in    deal with competing pressures, including     try to influence others, negotiating and
        themselves and their contribution             personal and work-related demands            balancing diverse views to reach workable
                                                                                                   solutions

        provide constructive support and feedback respond positively to change, seeking            act as an advocate for views and beliefs
        to others.                                advice and support when needed                   that may differ from their own.


                                                      manage their emotions, and build and
                                                      maintain relationships
                                                                                SEAL [Social and Emotional Aspect
                    Self-Awareness                                              Social Skills and Empathy
 problem-solve – decide, choose, evaluate, gain confidence in       work with others, e.g. to investigate, experiment, solve problems,
                                                                    discuss strategy;
using a range of problemsolving strategies in scientific enquiry,
gain a sense of mastery;




seek help, give and receive feedback, review their own progress     communicate with others, e.g. present a reasoned argument,
– as individuals, class, or group;                                  review and justify their choices, explain and justify inferences
                                                                    and deductions using mathematical reasoning;




build a sense of coherence, order and predictability in the world   explore how scientific enquiry and the development of scientific
by understanding the principles of scientific enquiry, exploring    thinking is not a straightforward progression from ignorance to
how things work, and discovering repeating patterns and laws of     truth, but is a set of theories or ‘paradigms’ which are socially
science;                                                            constructed – explore the role of interest groups, scientific
                                                                    communities, sponsorship and patronage, social and cultural
                                                                    change;

explore changing self at puberty, the effect of the changes of      explore issues of social responsibility in science and how they
adolescence, the influence of hormones and their effect on the      are applied in the world, develop their viewpoint and
mind, body and relationships;                                       communicate with others, e.g. on issues such as the
                                                                    environment, cloning, medical ethics, GM food, stem cell
                                                                    research, space exploration;


express and discuss personal feelings and opinions about issues appreciate how people’s perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, values
in science. Present a reasoned argument, review, justify and    and attitudes, including their own, impact on contemporary
improve their choices, explain and justify inferences and       scientific issues, e.g. energy conservation, animal testing;
deductions using scientific reasoning and theory


                                                                    explore human and animal variation, and how biological and
                                                                    genetic differences interplay with social and cultural differences
                                                                    to generate a wide range of social and emotional issues and
                                                                    outcomes;


                                                                    explore the social and emotional issues associated with human
                                                                    reproduction, e.g. effect of the changes of puberty/hormones on
                                                                    the mind, sexual relationships, responsibility, communication,
                                                                    need to look after oneself;


                                                                    study animal social behaviour, e.g. survival, self-preservation,
                                                                    reproduction, hunting, social bonding, rearing young and
                                                                    examine the similarities and differences between animals and
                                                                    humans;
learn autonomy by working independently when the opportunity
presents itself, expressing their own opinions and conclusions.
d Emotional Aspects of Learning]
                                Motivation                                                    Managing Feelings
       develop persistence, resilience and optimism in the course of       experience, explore and manage a wide range of both positive
       learning science, and solving scientific problems, e.g. challenge   and difficult emotions in the course of learning science and
       themselves, overcome fears, deal with uncertainty and anxiety,      solving scientific problems (e.g. fear of getting it wrong, anxiety
       handle disappointment and frustration, cope with unexpected         when uncertain about the right process to use, pleasure when it
       results;                                                            is going well, satisfaction if you solve it/get it right, sense of order
                                                                           when you see the pattern emerge,
                                                                           disappointment/anger/frustration if it does not turn out right);


       experience satisfaction and mastery;                                explore how scientific enquiry and the development of scientific
                                                                           thinking has not been a rational, cumulative linear progress but
                                                                           has been shaped by social forces and in particular the emotions
                                                                           and needs of individuals, groups and cultures, e.g. search for
                                                                           order and truth, repression through dogma and traditionalism,
                                                                           drive to explore and seek the new, wish to dominate nature, wish
                                                                           to cheat death, drive for status, power, money, sponsorship and
                                                                           patronage, interest groups, etc.;


       develop a range of problem-solving approaches, e.g. systematic      appreciate how people’s values and attitudes, including their
       trial and improvement, logical deduction;                           own, affect contemporary scientific issues, and clarify and
                                                                           develop their own values and attitudes about such issues;




       review their progress as they work, check and evaluate              understand the brain/mind and how it works, how it developed
       solutions, modify their approach if necessary;                      through evolution, and the central role emotion plays. Explore
                                                                           the role of emotion in thinking and reacting, and key biological
                                                                           concepts such as the ‘three-part brain’, ‘emotional hijack’,
                                                                           impulsivity, and the centrality of emotion to rational decision-
                                                                           making;

       build a sense of coherence, order and predictability in the world   understand what emotions do to the body – learning to recognise
       by understanding the principles of scientific enquiry, exploring    their own emotions, such as anger, fear, joy and stress, through
       how things work, and discovering repeating patterns and laws of     their bodily reactions such as raised heartbeat, flushing,
       science.                                                            sweating, and churning stomach;


                                                                           explore the relationship between the body and the mind –
                                                                           examine the effect of the changes of puberty/hormones, the
                                                                           growth of sexual feelings, and lifestyle (exercise, diet, stress,
                                                                           sleep, drug use and abuse) on emotions, mood, motivation and
                                                                           behaviour;

                                                                           study animal behaviour and the central role of emotion in the
                                                                           natural world, e.g. in survival, in self-preservation, in
                                                                           reproduction, and in social bonding and the examination of the
                                                                           similarities and differences between animals and humans.
                                           Jump to Objective Counter at foot of page.                                                                                                                                                  Audit Keys                        Y7   Y7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Y8   Y8
Topic




                 Lesson Title/Big                                                                                                                   HSW 2 - Practical and Inestigative
        No,                                            Range and Content                             HSW 1 - Scientific Thinking                                                                                 PLTS                             SEAL
                    Question?                                                                                                                                     skills                                                                                                 Y9   Y9
                                           3.1 (7) Describe matter using a simple model       1.1a1 (7) Use an existing model/analogy to          1.2a (7) Describe an appropriate approach to                                        problem-solve – decide,
                                           and use it to explain changes of state.            explain a phenomenon. Recognise and explain         answer a scientific question using a limited                                       choose, evaluate, gain
                                           Recognise the link between heating and cooling     the value of using models and analogies to          range of information and making relevant                                           confidence in using a range of
 1       1       Fake - Engage activity
                                           and changes of state Use the simple particle       clarify explanations                                observations or measurements.                                                      problemsolving strategies in
                                           model to explain the physical characteristics of                                                                                                        generate ideas and explore        scientific enquiry, gain a sense
                                           solids, liquids and gases.                                                                                                                              possibilities                     of mastery;
                                           3.1 (8) Apply and use the particle model to        1.1a3 (7) Identify a range of scientific data and   1.2f (7) Describe patterns and trends in
                                           describe a range of physical observations. Apply   other evidence to back an argument and the          secondary evidence and link these to the                                           build a sense of coherence,
                                           and use this model to describe a range of          counterclaim in less complex and /or familiar       prediction or conclusion drawn. Recognise that                                     order and predictability in the
                                           separation techniques.                             contexts e.g. establishing a wind farm.             different conclusions may be drawn from                                            world by understanding the
 1       2
                                                                                              Recognise that scientific evidence can be used      secondary data.                                                                    principles of scientific enquiry,
              What was the crime?                                                             to support or disprove theories.                                                                     support conclusions, using        exploring how things work, and
              Why do particles matter                                                                                                                                                              reasoned arguments and            discovering repeating patterns
              to forensic scientists.                                                                                                                                                              evidence.                         and laws of science;
                                                                                              1.1a1 (8) Describe more than one model to
                                                                                              explain the same phenomenon and discuss the
 1       3 What Happened to the                                                               strengths and weaknesses of the model.                                                                                                 work with others, e.g. to
           Guard? Why do particles                                                            Describe how the use of a particular model or                                                        question their own and others’    investigate, experiment, solve
           matter to forensic scientists                                                      analogy supports an explanation                                                                      assumptions                       problems, discuss strategy;
                                                                                              1.1c (7) Use key scientific vocabulary and
                                                                                              terminology in discussions and written work.                                                                                           communicate with others, e.g.
           Fake. What tests help                                                              Identify and use the conventions of various                                                                                            present a reasoned argument,
 1       4 forensic scientists solve                                                          genres for different audiences and purposes in                                                                                         review and justify their
           crimes? • Why do                                                                   scientific writing.                                                                                                                    choices, explain and justify
           particles matter to forensic                                                                                                                                                            adapt ideas as circumstances      inferences and deductions
           scientists?                                                                                                                                                                             change.                           using mathematical reasoning;
                                                                                              1.1a2 (7) Recognise that scientists of all
              Trace Evidence - Part 1.                                                        disciplines and nationalities often work together
 1       5
              How can we tell different                                                       to develop explanations. Recognise that sciecne                                                      collaborate with others to work
              substances apart?                                                               cannot yet explain everything.                                                                       towards common goals
                                                                                              1.1a3 (7) Identify a range of scientific data and
                                                                                              other evidence to back an argument and the
                                                                                              counterclaim in less complex and /or familiar
 1       6
           Trace Evidence- Part 2.                                                            contexts e.g. establishing a wind farm.
           How can we tell different                                                          Recognise that scientific evidence can be used
           substances apart?                                                                  to support or disprove theories.
           Drunk on Duty. How can                                                             1.1a2 (8) Recognise that science is a
           we tell different substances                                                       communal, and therefore fallible, human activity
           apart?• What tests help                                                            and that different expanations can arise from
 1       7
           forensic scientists to solve                                                       individaul bias. Recognise questions that the
           crimes?                                                                            scientific process cannot answer.

 1       8 Who dunnit?
                                        3.1 (7) Describe matter using a simple model          1.1a1 (7) Use an existing model/analogy to
                                        and use it to explain changes of state.               explain a phenomenon. Recognise and explain
                                        Recognise the link between heating and cooling        the value of using models and analogies to
 2       1    Describing properties
                                        and changes of state Use the simple particle          clarify explanations
                                        model to explain the physical characteristics of
                                        solids, liquids and gases.
                                        3.2 (7) Sort some reactions into reversible and       1.1a1 (8) Describe more than one model to
                                        irreversible Recognise that new materials are         explain the same phenomenon and discuss the
 2       2 Extending the particle model made during chemical reactions                        strengths and weaknesses of the model.
                                                                                              Describe how the use of a particular model or
                                                                                              analogy supports an explanation
                                           3.1 (8) Apply and use the particle model to        1.1a1 (9) Describe the strengths and
                                           describe a range of physical observations. Apply   weaknesses of a range of available models and
 2       3          Changing state         and use this model to describe a range of          select the most appropriate. Explain why the
                                           separation techniques.                             manipulation of a model or analogy might be
                                                                                              needed to clarify explanations
                                       3.2 (8) Recognise that materials can be made
                                       up of one or more kinds of particles. Describe
              Is any new stuff formed? the type and arrangement of atoms in elements,
 2       4    Where does it come from? compounds and mixtures. Describe and develop
                      Lesson 1         a particle model to explain the differences
                                       between the terms atoms, elements,
                                       compounds and mixtures.
                                       3.1 (9) Evaluate and refine the particle model to
              Is any new stuff formed?
                                       explain a range of physical observations.
 2       5    Where does it come from?
                                       Evaluate and refine the particle model to explain
                      Lesson 2
                                       a range of separation techniques.
           Substance, element,
2   6
               compound
            Modelling chemical
2   7    changes involving phase
                  change
             Understanding
         conservation of matter in
2   8
         chemical change through
                modelling
2   9
3   1
3   2
3   3
3   4
3   5
3   6
3   7
3   8
3   9
3   10
3   11
3   12
3   13
3   14
3   15
3   16
3   17
3   18
3   19
3   20
3   21
3   22
4   1
4   2
4   3
4   4
4   5
4   6
4   7
4   8
4   9
4   10
4   11
4   12
4   13
4   14
4   15
4   16
4   17
4   18
4   19
4   20
4   21
4   22
5   1
5   2
5   3
5   4
5   5
5   6
5   7
5   8
5   9
5   10
5   11
5   12
5   13
5   14
5   15
5   16
5   17
5   18
5   19
5   20
5   21
5   22
6   1
6   2
6    3
6   4
6    5
6    6
6   7
6    8
6    9
6   10
6   11
6   12
6   13
6   14
6   15
6   16
6   17
6   18
6   19
6   20
6   21
6   22
7    1
7    2
7    3
7    4
7    5
7    6
7    7
7    8
7    9
7   10
7   11
7   12
7   13
7   14
7   15
7   16
7   17
7   18
7   19
7   20
7   21
7   22
8    1
8    2
8    3
8    4
8    5
8    6
8    7
8    8
8    9
8   10
8   11
8   12
8   13
8   14
8   15
8   16
8   17
8   18
8   19
8   20
8   21
8   22
9    1
9    2
9    3
9    4
9    5
9    6
9    7
9    8
9    9
9   10
9   11
9   12
9   13
9   14
9    15
9    16
9    17
9    18
9    19
9    20
9    21
9    22
10   1
10   2
10   3
10   4
10   5
10   6
10   7
10   8
10   9
10   10
10   11
10   12
10   13
10   14
10   15
10   16
10   17
10   18
10   19
10   20
10   21
10   22
11   1
11   2
11   3
11   4
11   5
11   6
11   7
11   8
11   9
11   10
11   11
11   12
11   13
11   14
11   15
11   16
11   17
11   18
11   19
11   20
11   21
11   22
12   1
12   2
12   3
12   4
12   5
12   6
12   7
12   8
12   9
12   10
12   11
12   12
12   13
12   14
12   15
12   16
12   17
12   18
12   19
12   20
12   21
12   22
13   1
13   2
13   3
13   4
13   5
13   6
13   7
13   8
13   9
13   10
13   11
13   12
13   13
13   14
13   15
13   16
13   17
13   18
13   19
13   20
13   21
13   22
14   1
14   2
14   3
14   4
14   5
14   6
14   7
14   8
14   9
14   10
14   11
14   12
14   13
14   14
14   15
14   16
14   17
14   18
14   19
14   20
14   21
14   22
15   1
15   2
15   3
15   4
15   5
15   6
15   7
15   8
15   9
15   10
15   11
15   12
15   13
15   14
15   15
15   16
15   17
15   18
15   19
15   20
15   21
15   22
16   1
16   2
16   3
16   4
16   5
16   6
16   7
16   8
16   9
16   10
16   11
16   12
16   13
16   14
16   15
16   16
16   17
16   18
16   19
16   20
16   21
16   22
17   1
17   2
17   3
17   4
17   5
17   6
17   7
17   8




          Framework
          objectives and
          number of times
          each is used in the
          above table
                                2.1 (7) Describe the role of organ systems in plants and               1.1a1 (7) Use an existing model/analogy to explain a                  1.2a (7) Describe an appropriate approach to answer a                    identify questions to answer and problems to       problem-solve – decide, choose,
                                animals that can contribute to the seven life processes.               phenomenon. Recognise and explain the value of using                  scientific question using a limited range of information and             resolve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        evaluate, gain confidence in using a
                                                                                                   0   models and analogies to clarify explanations                        2 making relevant observations or measurements.                        1                                                   0 range of problemsolving strategies in       1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        scientific enquiry, gain a sense of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        mastery;
                                2.2 (7) Describe how organisms can vary and how this may               1.1a2 (7) Recognise that scientists of all disciplines and              1.2b (7) Recognise the range of variables involved in an               plan and carry out research, appreciating the     seek help, give and receive feedback,
                                lead to their survival in changing environments. Describe how          nationalities often work together to develop explanations.              investigation and decide which to control                              consequences of decisions                         review their own progress – as
                                the major taxonomic groups are classified. Use a combination       0   Recognise that sciecne cannot yet explain everything.               1                                                                      0                                                   0 individuals, class, or group;               0
          Jump back to top of   of food chains within a habitat to produce food webs.
          this sheet!
                                2.3 (7) Describe simple learned and innate behaviours in               1.1a3 (7) Identify a range of scientific data and other evidence        1.2c (7) Explain how action has been taken to control obvious          explore issues, events or problems from           build a sense of coherence, order and
                                response to internal & external stimuli and how these aid              to back an argument and the counterclaim in less complex                risk and how methods are adequate for the task                         different perspectives                            predictability in the world by
                                survival.                                                              and /or familiar contexts e.g. establishing a wind farm.                                                                                                                                         understanding the principles of
                                                                                                   0   Recognise that scientific evidence can be used to support or        0                                                                      0                                                   0 scientific enquiry, exploring how things    1
                                                                                                       disprove theories.                                                                                                                                                                               work, and discovering repeating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        patterns and laws of science;


                                3.1 (7) Describe matter using a simple model and use it to             1.1b (7) Describe some benefits and drawbacks of scientific           1.2d (7) Describe and record observations and evidence                   analyse and evaluate information, judging its     explore changing self at puberty, the
                                explain changes of state. Recognise the link between heating           developments with which they are familiar. Recognise that             systematically. Recognise that the presentation of                       relevance and value                               effect of the changes of adolescence,
                                and cooling and changes of state Use the simple particle           2   decisions about the use and application of science and              0 experimental results through the routine use of tables, bar          0                                                   0 the influence of hormones and their         0
                                model to explain the physical characteristics of solids, liquids       technology are influenced by society and individuals                  charts and simple graphs makes it easier to see patterns and                                                               effect on the mind, body and
                                and gases.                                                                                                                                   trends                                                                                                                     relationships;
                                3.2 (7) Sort some reactions into reversible and irreversible           1.1c (7) Use key scientific vocabulary and terminology in               1.2e (7) Describe patterns and trends in results and link this         consider the influence of circumstances,          express and discuss personal feelings
                                Recognise that new materials are made during chemical                  discussions and written work. Identify and use the conventions          evidence to any prediction made. Describe and suggest how              beliefs and feelings on decisions and events      and opinions about issues in science.
                                reactions                                                              of various genres for different audiences and purposes in               planning and implementation could be improved                                                                            Present a reasoned argument, review,
                                                                                                       scientific writing.                                                                                                                                                                              justify and improve their choices,
                                                                                                   1                                                                       1                                                                      0                                                   0 explain and justify inferences and          0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        deductions using scientific reasoning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and theory


                                3.3 (7) Describe, record and group observations from                   1.1a1 (8) Describe more than one model to explain the same              1.2f (7) Describe patterns and trends in secondary evidence            support conclusions, using reasoned                 work with others, e.g. to investigate,
                                chemical reactions                                                     phenomenon and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of                  and link these to the prediction or conclusion drawn.                  arguments and evidence.                             experiment, solve problems, discuss
                                                                                                   0                                                                       2                                                                      1                                                   1                                             1
                                                                                                       the model. Describe how the use of a particular model or                Recognise that different conclusions may be drawn from                                                                     strategy;
                                                                                                       analogy supports an explanation                                         secondary data.
                                4.1 (7) Describe how energy can be stored eg. food, fuels &            1.1a2 (8) Recognise that science is a communal, and                     1.2a (8) Describe an appropriate approach to answer a                  generate ideas and explore possibilities          communicate with others, e.g. present
                                electrical cells Describe how energy is transferred in simple          therefore fallible, human activity and that different expanations       scientific question using sources of evidence and where                                                                  a reasoned argument, review and justify
                                contexts such as heating and cooling, food chains and simple           can arise from individaul bias. Recognise questions that the            appropriate making relevant observations or measurements                                                                 their choices, explain and justify
                                circuits. Recognize that quantitative measures of energy               scientific process cannot answer.                                       using appropriate apparatus.                                                                                             inferences and deductions using
                                transfer are needed to inform decisions e.g. about lifestyles.     0                                                                       1                                                                      0                                                   1 mathematical reasoning;                     1
                                Describe how energy stored in a range of energy resources
                                such as food, biomass, oil, gas, wind and waves can be
                                usefully transferred


                                4.2 (7) Recognise the forces acting on an object in different          1.1a3 (8) Identify a range of scientific data and other evidence        1.2b (8) Describe and identify key variables in an investigation       ask questions to extend their thinking            explore how scientific enquiry and the
                                situations. Distinguish between situations involving                   to back an argument and the counterclaim in more complex                and assign appropriate values to these                                                                                   development of scientific thinking is not
                                balanced/unbalanced forces. Recognise that forces can                  and /or less familiar contexts e.g. use of antibiotics. Describe                                                                                                                                 a straightforward progression from
                                combine or wholly/partly cancel each other out and their               how scientific evidence from different sources carries different                                                                                                                                 ignorance to truth, but is a set of
                                size&direction can be represented using arrows. Recognise              weight in supporting or disproving theories.                                                                                                                                                     theories or ‘paradigms’ which are
                                that there are Contact & Act-At-A-Distance forces.                 0                                                                       0                                                                      0                                                   0 socially constructed – explore the role     0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        of interest groups, scientific
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        communities, sponsorship and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        patronage, social and cultural change;
5.1 (7) Describe how natural and human processes have                   1.1b (8) Explain some issues, benefits and drawbacks of                1.2c (8) Explain how to take action to control the risks to           connect their own and others’ ideas and         explore issues of social responsibility in
changed the atmosphere over time                                        scientific developments with which they are familiar.                  themselves and others and demonstrate competence in their             experiences in inventive ways                   science and how they are applied in the
                                                                        Recognise that decisions about the use and application of              practical technique                                                                                                   world, develop their viewpoint and
                                                                        science and technology are influenced by society and                                                                                                                                         communicate with others, e.g. on
                                                                    0   individuals, and how these could impact on people and the          0                                                                     0                                                 0 issues such as the environment,              0
                                                                        environment.                                                                                                                                                                                 cloning, medical ethics, GM food, stem
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     cell research, space exploration;



5.2 (7) Recognise the processes involved in the formation of            1.1c (8) Use a range of scientific vocabulary and terminology        1.2d (8) Explain how the observation and recording methods              question their own and others’ assumptions      appreciate how people’s perceptions,
rocks.                                                                  consistently in discussions and written work. Adapt the              are appropriate to the task. Describe ways in which the                                                                 attitudes, beliefs, values and attitudes,
                                                                        stylistic conventions of a range of genres for different             presentation of experimental results through the routine use of                                                         including their own, impact on
                                                                    0   audiences and purposes in scientific writing.                      0 tables, charts and line graphs makes it easier to see patterns      0                                                 1 contemporary scientific issues, e.g.         0
                                                                                                                                             and trends                                                                                                              energy conservation, animal testing;

5.3 (7) Describe the apparent movement of the Sun across the            1.1a1 (9) Describe the strengths and weaknesses of a range           1.2e (8) Describe how the patterns and trends in results link to        try out alternatives or new solutions and       explore human and animal variation,
sky and the pattern in the changing appearance of the Moon              of available models and select the most appropriate. Explain         the conclusions drawn and whether the evidence is sufficient.           follow ideas through                            and how biological and genetic
                                                                        why the manipulation of a model or analogy might be needed           Describe and suggest, with reasons, how planning and                                                                    differences interplay with social and
                                                                    0   to clarify explanations                                            1 implementation could be improved                                    0                                                 0 cultural differences to generate a wide      0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     range of social and emotional issues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     and outcomes;


2.1 (8) Explain how the organs and tissues in plants and                1.1a2 (9) Explain how bias, a lack of evidence or                    1.2f (8) Describe what needs to be considered in the collection         adapt ideas as circumstances change.            explore the social and emotional issues
animals function to support the seven life processes in a               misconceptions can give rise to inappropriate theories and the       and manipulation of simple secondary evidence to evaluate the                                                           associated with human reproduction,
healthy organism.                                                       role of scientists in questioning these. Identify some questions     conclusion or interpretation made. Recognise that the                                                                   e.g. effect of the changes of
                                                                    0   that the scientific process cannot yet completely answer but       0 selection, ordering or rejection of secondary data could lead to    0                                                 1 puberty/hormones on the mind, sexual         0
                                                                        can contribute to.                                                   different conclusions.                                                                                                  relationships, responsibility,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     communication, need to look after
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     oneself;
2.2 (8) Explain how variation has benefits and limitations to the       1.1a3 (9) Use criteria to select relevant scientific data and          1.2a (9) Explain how the planned approach to answer a                 assess themselves and others, identifying       study animal social behaviour, e.g.
survival of organisms in specific habitats. Describe some               other sources of evidence to support or negate an argument.            scientific question was informed by scientific knowledge,             opportunities and achievements                  survival, self-preservation,
examples of variation arising from inherited and environmental          Explain how scientific evidence from a range of sources can            understanding or other sources of evidence.                                                                           reproduction, hunting, social bonding,
factors. Explain energy transfer in food chains and webs and        0   be used to support or disprove theories.                           0                                                                     0                                                 0 rearing young and examine the                0
relate this to the abundance of organisms.                                                                                                                                                                                                                           similarities and differences between
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     animals and humans;


2.3 (8) Explain how changes in learned behaviour due to                 1.1b (9) Evaluate the issues, benefits and drawbacks of                1.2b (9) Use and apply independent and dependent variables            set goals with success criteria for their       learn autonomy by working
internal & external stimuli are of benefit to the organism.             scientific developments with which they are familiar .                 in an investigation by choosing an appropriate range, number          development and work                            independently when the opportunity
                                                                        Recognise that different decisions on the use and application          and value for each one.                                                                                               presents itself, expressing their own
                                                                    0   of scientific and technological developments may be made in        0                                                                     0                                                 0 opinions and conclusions.                    0
                                                                        different economic, cultural and social contexts.

3.1 (8) Apply and use the particle model to describe a range of         1.1c (9) Communicate effectively and use appropriate                   1.2c (9) Explain how approaches to practical work were                review progress, acting on the outcomes         develop persistence, resilience and
physical observations. Apply and use this model to describe a           scientific temrinology and conventions in discussions and              adapted to control risk                                                                                               optimism in the course of learning
range of separation techniques.                                         written work. Adapt the stylistic conventions of a wider range                                                                                                                               science, and solving scientific
                                                                        of genres for different audiences and purposes in scientific                                                                                                                                 problems, e.g. challenge themselves,
                                                                    2   writing.                                                           0                                                                     0                                                 0 overcome fears, deal with uncertainty        0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     and anxiety, handle disappointment and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     frustration, cope with unexpected
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     results;


3.2 (8) Recognise that materials can be made up of one or                                                                                      1.2d (9) Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to        invite feedback and deal positively with          experience satisfaction and mastery;
more kinds of particles. Describe the type and arrangement of                                                                                  obtain and record sufficient data systematically. Explain how         praise, setbacks and criticism
atoms in elements, compounds and mixtures. Describe and                                                                                        the presentation of experimental results through the routine
develop a particle model to explain the differences between the     0                                                                          use of tables, charts and line graphs makes it easier to see      0                                                 0                                              0
terms atoms, elements, compounds and mixtures.                                                                                                 patterns and trends

3.3 (8) Describe patterns in a range of chemical reactions                                                                                     1.2e (9) Explain how patterns and trends in results can be            evaluate experiences and learning to inform       develop a range of problem-solving
                                                                                                                                               manipulated to be consistent with the evidence gathered and           future progress                                   approaches, e.g. systematic trial and
                                                                                                                                               the predictions made. Explain how improvements to the                                                                   improvement, logical deduction;
                                                                    0                                                                          planning and implementation would have led to the collection      0                                                 0                                              0
                                                                                                                                               of more valid and reliable evidence and a more secure
                                                                                                                                               conclusion.
4.1 (8) Use a simple model of energy transfer (eg. A flow                                                                                      1.2f (9) Explain whether the collection and manipulation of           communicate their learning in relevant ways       review their progress as they work,
diagram) to describe common observations (such as the way                                                                                      secondary evidence is sufficient or insufficient to support the       for different audiences.                          check and evaluate solutions, modify
sound is produced, transmitted and detected, how objects are                                                                                   conclusion or interpretation made. Explain how secondary                                                                their approach if necessary;
seen, how heating transfers energy by conduction, convection                                                                                   numerical data have been manipulated to support a particular
and radiation, how an electric current transfers energy in a                                                                                   conclusion or viewpoint.
circuit, how energy is transferred in ecosystems). Explain why
quantitative measures of energy transfer should also be             0                                                                                                                                            0                                                 0                                              0
considered when making informed decisions e.g. building wind
farms. Explain how electricity is generated using a variety of
energy resources



4.2 (8) Apply ideas about balanced and unbalanced forces to                                                                                                                                                          collaborate with others to work towards         build a sense of coherence, order and
explain the way objects move. Investigate situations where                                                                                                                                                           common goals                                    predictability in the world by
forces are applied over large or small areas or have a turning                                                                                                                                                                                                       understanding the principles of
effect Recognise that forces at a distance get weaker as the        0                                                                                                                                                                                              1 scientific enquiry, exploring how things     0
distance increases.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  work, and discovering repeating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     patterns and laws of science.
5.1 (8) Explain some of the changes that have led to the                reach agreements, managing discussions to       experience, explore and manage a wide
composition of the current atmosphere. Recognise simple                 achieve results                                 range of both positive and difficult
ideas of sustainable development                                                                                        emotions in the course of learning
                                                                                                                        science and solving scientific problems
                                                                                                                        (e.g. fear of getting it wrong, anxiety
                                                                                                                        when uncertain about the right process
                                                                    0                                                 0 to use, pleasure when it is going well,      0
                                                                                                                        satisfaction if you solve it/get it right,
                                                                                                                        sense of order when you see the
                                                                                                                        pattern emerge,
                                                                                                                        disappointment/anger/frustration if it
                                                                                                                        does not turn out right);


5.2 (8) Describe the processes involved in the formation of             adapt behaviour to suit different roles and     explore how scientific enquiry and the
sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks and use the                  situations, including leadership roles          development of scientific thinking has
characteristics of the rocks to explain how they formed                                                                 not been a rational, cumulative linear
                                                                                                                        progress but has been shaped by
                                                                                                                        social forces and in particular the
                                                                                                                        emotions and needs of individuals,
                                                                                                                        groups and cultures, e.g. search for
                                                                                                                        order and truth, repression through
                                                                    0                                                 0                                              0
                                                                                                                        dogma and traditionalism, drive to
                                                                                                                        explore and seek the new, wish to
                                                                                                                        dominate nature, wish to cheat death,
                                                                                                                        drive for status, power, money,
                                                                                                                        sponsorship and patronage, interest
                                                                                                                        groups, etc.;


5.3 (8) Describe the position of the Earth in relation to the           show fairness and consideration to others       appreciate how people’s values and
position of other bodies in the solar system and use this to                                                            attitudes, including their own, affect
explain some phenomena. Recognise that astronomy and                                                                    contemporary scientific issues, and
space science provide evidence about the solar system.              0                                                 0 clarify and develop their own values and     0
                                                                                                                        attitudes about such issues;


2.1 (9) Explain how the specialisation of cells in plants and           take responsibility, showing confidence in      understand the brain/mind and how it
animals support the seven life processes in a healthy                   themselves and their contribution               works, how it developed through
organism. Explain how chemical, physical and biological                                                                 evolution, and the central role emotion
factors can disrupt the seven life processes e.g. smoking,                                                              plays. Explore the role of emotion in
environment, climate and microbes.                                                                                      thinking and reacting, and key
                                                                    0                                                 0 biological concepts such as the ‘three-      0
                                                                                                                        part brain’, ‘emotional hijack’,
                                                                                                                        impulsivity, and the centrality of emotion
                                                                                                                        to rational decision-making;


2.2 (9) Explain how variation in organisms can be artificially          provide constructive support and feedback       understand what emotions do to the
induced (through the use of chemicals, radiation, genetic               to others.                                      body – learning to recognise their own
engineering) and the effect of these organisms on the                                                                   emotions, such as anger, fear, joy and
environment. Explain how internal and external factors can          0                                                 0 stress, through their bodily reactions       0
affect energy transfer in food chains and webs.                                                                         such as raised heartbeat, flushing,
                                                                                                                        sweating, and churning stomach;


2.3 (9) Make links between observed social behaviours and               seek out challenges or new responsibilities     explore the relationship between the
the benefit to the survival of the species. (Note: Links to             and show flexibility when priorities change     body and the mind – examine the effect
specialised cells and response to stimuli)                                                                              of the changes of puberty/hormones,
                                                                                                                        the growth of sexual feelings, and
                                                                    0                                                 0 lifestyle (exercise, diet, stress, sleep,    0
                                                                                                                        drug use and abuse) on emotions,
                                                                                                                        mood, motivation and behaviour;


3.1 (9) Evaluate and refine the particle model to explain a             work towards goals, showing initiative,         study animal behaviour and the central
range of physical observations. Evaluate and refine the particle        commitment and perseverance                     role of emotion in the natural world, e.g.
model to explain a range of separation techniques.                                                                      in survival, in self-preservation, in
                                                                                                                        reproduction, and in social bonding and
                                                                    1                                                 0 the examination of the similarities and      0
                                                                                                                        differences between animals and
                                                                                                                        humans.


3.2 (9) Use a particle model to construct predictions for simple        organise time and resources, prioritising
chemical reactions and to produce word equations.                   0   actions                                       0

3.3 (9) Link experimental and numerical data to Illustrate a            anticipate, take and manage risks
                                                                    0                                                 0
range of patterns in chemical reactions
4.1 (9) Develop more complex models of energy transfer                  deal with competing pressures, including
mechanisms (incorporating ideas about particles or waves) to            personal and work-related demands
explain conduction, convection, radiation, reflection, refraction
and dispersion of light, the transmission of sound, the flow of
electric current, communication systems. Use energy
accounting system such as Sankey diagrams to track energy
transfers. Use quantitative measures of energy transfer to          0                                                 0
support informed decision making e.g. comparing different
transport systems when considering how to travel. Apply the
idea of energy conservation and dissipation to simple
biological, chemical and physical systems.
4.2 (9) Recognise how simple quantitative relationships can be       respond positively to change, seeking advice
applied to the way objects move (including balanced and              and support when needed
unbalanced forces). Recognise how simple quantitative
relationships can be applied to situations where forces are      0                                                   0
applied over large and small areas or have a turning effect.

5.1 (9) Use one or more models, such as the carbon cycle or          manage their emotions, and build and
food webs, to explain some of the consequences of changes        0   maintain relationships                          0
in the environment
5.2 (9) Use the rock cycle as a model to explain the cyclical        discuss issues of concern, seeking
nature of rock forming processes and the timescales over         0   resolution where needed                         0
which they operate.
5.3 (9) Apply models and use scientific data to explain the          present a persuasive case for action
relative movement of the celestial bodies in the solar system.
Describe how astronomy and space science provide evidence        0                                                   0
of the solar system and galaxy.

                                                                     propose practical ways forward, breaking
                                                                     these down into manageable steps                0

                                                                     identify improvements that would benefit
                                                                                                                     0
                                                                     others as well as themselves
                                                                     try to influence others, negotiating and
                                                                     balancing diverse views to reach workable       0
                                                                     solutions
                                                                     act as an advocate for views and beliefs that
                                                                                                                     0
                                                                     may differ from their own.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Notes including
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Functional skills
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rich Questions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               text book
Topic Lesson        Title/Big Question            Range and Content                       HSW1                             HSW2                  Range&Content Objectives / context                                                                                                   Barriers to learning                    Links across the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       opportunities                  Evaluation/
                                                                                                                                                                                           HSW objectives for students           Range Outcomes   HSW Outcomes    (joining HSW with                          Prior Learning                                                             Starter                                                                                 Main                                                                    Plenary                                                              Apparatus/Resources                                      Homework   Assessment Opportunities     references and                            Key Words                          PLTS                      SEAL
                                                                                                                                                          for the lesson                                                                                                              e.g. misconceptions                        curriculum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Literacy,                    reflection
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 range and content)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              extra Risk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Numeracy, ICT)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            assessment details.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 In Fake, Billie and Dragon are trainee forensic scientists, aged about 17. Their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 mentor is Dr Sherl.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Billie is the voice of the students doing the activities. It is not specified whether
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Billie is male or female.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Slide 4, which has a space for you to insert a video clip of The Thomas Crown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Affair and introduces the Fake sequence. (you can download the film clip from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Throughout the learning sequence, Billie and Dragon are struggling to get to
                                              3.1 (7) Describe matter using                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=11EkV5RWgKM&eurl=http://www.allsubs.or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 grips with forensic techniques. They need to understand – and explain in terms                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              problem-solve –
                                              a simple model and use it to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               g/movie-trailer/thomas%20crown%20affair%2C%20the/11EkV5RWgKM See
                                                                                                               1.2a (7) Describe an                                                                                                                                                                                                              of particles – how and why they work. In this endeavour, Billie is the bright,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             decide, choose,
                                              explain changes of state.       1.1a1 (7) Use an existing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the instructions on http://www.wikiedscience.com/display/users/Video+tutorials
                                                                                                               appropriate approach to                                                                                                                                                                                                           conscientious one who thinks things through and is really keen to understand                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               evaluate, gain
                                              Recognise the link between      model/analogy to explain a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 for how to download the flim clip and inset it into the slide). Make sure students
                                                                                                               answer a scientific question                                                                                                                                                                                                      what she’s doing and why. Dragon is less keen – he jumps to conclusions that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               confidence in using a
1    1                                        heating and cooling and         phenomenon. Recognise and                                         Discover some of the things forensic   Consider alternative explanations for a                                                                                                                                                                                                           note how much the painting in the film clip is worth.                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_                                                 generate ideas and
               Fake - Engage activity                                                                          using a limited range of                                                                                                                                                                                                          are not backed up by evidence, and just wants to get the work done as quickly                                                                                                Show slide 8, and then students feedback their ideas.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         range of
                                              changes of state Use the        explain the value of using                                        scientists do                          range of observations.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In slide 5, Dragon tells the students what is known about the crime so far.                                                                                                                                                                                                        Scene_setter.ppt                                                      explore possibilities
                                                                                                               information and making                                                                                                                                                                                                            as possible before sloping off somewhere else...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           problemsolving
                                              simple particle model to        models and analogies to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Slide 6 is a statement from the guard who was on duty when the gallery got
                                                                                                               relevant observations or                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     strategies in scientific
                                              explain the physical            clarify explanations                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       broken into.
                                                                                                               measurements.                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Dr Sherl is Billie and Dragon’s rather serious – and very knowledgeable –                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  enquiry, gain a sense of
                                              characteristics of solids,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Slide 7 shows the crime scene. This can be printed out to give to students.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 mentor. She has even written a book on forensic techniques. She’s keen that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                mastery;
                                              liquids and gases.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         They work in pairs to discuss what could have happened, and what they would
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 her trainees should understand everything thoroughly, and, as far as possible,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         investigate. Important to note is that the valuable painting is still there!
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 work things out for themselves. She’s not averse to explaining some things to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 them, though.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 The activity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Show students slides 2 and 3, which introduces them to the whole Forensics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Elicit                                                                                                                                               Technician Guide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Show class slide 3. Have they come across any ways of showing up hidden                                                                              Activity 1 – What was the crime?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         fingerprints? Then show slide 4.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Explore                                                                                                                                              Equipment required:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Students work in pairs. They are given a small piece of laminated white card
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         which they must make a fingerprint onto. They then use brushes and charcoal                                                                          A5 sized pieces of laminated white card (enough for 1 between 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         powder to gently brush on the powder to show up the prints.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Discuss with students how good this technique is. Show them slide 5.                                                                                 Charcoal powder in a container which allows for easy sprinkling.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Students work in pairs. Boiling tubes will be prepared which has a strip of filter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         paper inside along with a substance at the bottom. Some pairs have coloured                                                                          Small paintbrushes.
                                                                              1.1a3 (7) Identify a range of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              wax, some iodine and some charcoal. Discuss with the students how to get                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           build a sense of
                                                                              scientific data and other                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the substances to move up to the oil. They may come up with the idea of                                                                              Boiling tubes set up as shown in diagram. Some with coloured wax chips                                                                                                                                                        coherence, order and
                                              3.1 (8) Apply and use the                                        1.2f (7) Describe patterns
                                                                              evidence to back an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        heating. They should try holding the tube for 2 minutes first to see if this gives                                                                   (preferably red or purple), some with small lumps of charcoal, some with 0.05g                                                                                                                                                predictability in the
                                              particle model to describe a                                     and trends in secondary                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Evaluate
                                                                              argument and the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the substances enough energy to move. (should be enough for iodine) If there                                                                         of iodine granules. The class will be working in pairs for this activity, and each                                                                                                                  support conclusions,      world by understanding
               What was the crime? Why        range of physical                                                evidence and link these to the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Slide 12 and 13 shown. Students write their response to
1    2                                                                        counterclaim in less complex                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Engage                                                                                  is no change, they should put the tubes in a beaker of hot water from the kettle                                                                     pair should have one of the tubes.                                                                                            ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_                                                 using reasoned            the principles of
               do particles matter to         observations. Apply and use                                      prediction or conclusion                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Dr Sherl. They should use the particle diagrams in their
                                                                              and /or familiar contexts e.g.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Present slide 2 to the class – invite responses. 
                                      and leave for 2 minutes (enough for wax). If still no change, they can heat by                                                                                                                                                                                                     Act_1.ppt                                                             arguments and             scientific enquiry,
               forensic scientists.           this model to describe a                                         drawn. Recognise that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          answer.
                                                                              establishing a wind farm.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  holding tube in test tube holders over a Bunsen burner (only for those with                                                                          Kettles filled with just boiled water                                                                                                                                                               evidence.                 exploring how things
                                              range of separation                                              different conclusions may be
                                                                              Recognise that scientific                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  charcoal).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         work, and discovering
                                              techniques.                                                      drawn from secondary data.
                                                                              evidence can be used to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Discuss with students if their substances fulfilled the criteria on slide 5.                                                                         250ml beakers                                                                                                                                                                                                                 repeating patterns and
                                                                              support or disprove theories.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 laws of science;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Explain                                                                                                                                              Bunsen burners
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Slide 6 is shown which shows how the iodine can be used to show up the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         fingerprints on the frame.                                                                                                                           Test tube holders
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Slide 7 introduces the essential question.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Slide 8 – Introduces the idea of particles using an animation.                                                                                       Large beaker with a suitable lid, inside around 0.25g of iodine.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Slide 9 – has diagrams that show the 3 states of matter. If preferred,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         animations can also be used instead here. See                                                                                                        Hot plate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/chemistry/particle_model_int
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ro.shtml for links to pages on solids, liquids and gases. Each of these pages                                                                        Strip of filter paper, about same height as beaker.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         contains animations that you can download. (See the page on the wiki
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         http://www.wikiedscience.com/display/users/Animation+tutorials for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Explore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Slide 6 introduces the evidence that the students must collect.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         For slides 7-9 demo an activity and then ask students to discuss the answers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to the questions in pairs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Slide 7: Put an air freshener at the front of the classroom (a non-spray type)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         and ask the students to put their hand up when they can smell it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Slide 8: Put a few drops of ether onto a watch-glass at the front of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         classroom and invite the class to stand near the front to smell it. Only a few
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         drops are needed.                                                                                                                                    Technician Guide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Slide 9: Pass round the class some sealed syringes that contain just air and                                                                         Activity 2 – What Happened to the Guard?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ask them to squeeze them.
                                                                              1.1a1 (8) Describe more than
                                                                              one model to explain the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Engage/elicit                                                                           Explain                                                                      Evaluate                                                                Equipment required:
               What Happened to the                                           same phenomenon and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Present slides 2 and 3 to the class. Invite initial ideas from students on how a        Slide 10: Show the class the animation of a gas being compressed into a      Slide 13 shown. Students prepare a response to explain                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                work with others, e.g. to
1    3         Guard? Why do particles                                        discuss the strengths and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          drug could have got from the vial to the guard (you might like to show the              liquid. See http://www.s-                                                    how their evidence proves that particles exist and how                  Air freshener (non-spray type)                                                                                                ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_                                                 question their own and    investigate, experiment,
               matter to forensic                                             weaknesses of the model.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           drawing of the crime scene again here)                                                  cool.co.uk/topic_quicklearn.asp?loc=ql&topic_id=4&quicklearn_id=2&subject_id the vial could have contained a drug to put the guard to                                                                                                                                              Act_2.ppt                                                             others’ assumptions       solve problems,
               scientists                                                     Describe how the use of a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Show slide 4 and then slide 5 which this contains the essential question that           =21&ebt=217&ebn=&ebs=&ebl=&elc=4 for a suitable animation and the page       sleep.                                                                  Ether (ethoxyethane) with dropper                                                                                                                                                                                             discuss strategy;
                                                                              particular model or analogy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        the students will be answering.                                                         on the wiki that explains how to download and embed animations
                                                                              supports an explanation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (http://www.wikiedscience.com/display/users/Animation+tutorials ). You can                                                                           Watch glass
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         talk about how some fire extinguishers contain liquid carbon dioxide.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Slide 11: Introduces the idea of diffusion. The webpages                                                                                             Plastic syringes full of air with end melted so it is sealed (about 5)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         http://www.purchon.com/physics/diffusion.htm and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         http://www.educationusingpowerpoint.org.uk/index.html?ks3science.html~main
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Frame contain suitable animations that can be downloaded.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Elaborate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Students are shown page 12. They have to match up the things they are trying
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to prove with the evidence they have been shown. This slide can be printed out
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         and given to groups of students.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Technician Guide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Activity 3 – Fake


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Explore                                                                                                                                              Equipment required:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Students work in groups of 2-4. Each group has a set of cards from slide 5, a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         small beaker with just enough water to cover the bottom, a piece of filter paper                                                                     Sets of cards from slide 5 (enough for 1 set between 2/4) and slide 8 (enough
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         with line marked in pencil and cross (see diagram on slide 5) and a black felt-                                                                      for 1 set each).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         tip pen. They must figure out how to separate the ink in the pen, begin to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         formulate ideas on how this works and how this could be used to find out if the                                                                      Copy of the glossary from slide 7 (enough for 1 each)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        communicate with
                                                                              1.1c (7) Use key scientific                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                painting is a fake.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              100ml beakers with small amount of water (1 between 2/4)                                                                                                                                                                  others, e.g. present a
                                                                              vocabulary and terminology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Engage/elicit                                                                           Students feedback ideas.
               Fake. What tests help                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    reasoned argument,
                                                                              in discussions and written                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Present slides 2 and 3 to the class. Invite initial ideas from students on how to                                                                                            Evaluate
               forensic scientists solve                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Strips of filter paper – just longer than height of beaker with pencil line drawn                                                                                                                                         review and justify their
1    4                                                                        work. Identify and use the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         get evidence that the painting is a fake: Are all paints the same? How can we           Explain                                                                              Slide 10 shown. Students write their response to the art                                                                                                                                      ..\..\UPD8\Fake\FAke_                                                 adapt ideas as
               crimes? • Why do                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1cm from bottom and a cross drawn in the middle. These should be taped to a                                                                                                                                               choices, explain and
                                                                              conventions of various                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tell one paint from another?                                                            Slide 6 is shown which outlines how the technique works. Students are given          gallery owner.                                                                                                                                                                                Act_3.ppt                                                             circumstances change.
               particles matter to forensic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   wooden splint or something similar so the bottom just hangs in the water. (1                                                                                                                                              justify inferences and
                                                                              genres for different                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Slide 4 – this contains the essential questions that the students will be               a copy of the glossary on slide 7 and a set of the cards on slide 8. They are
               scientists?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    between 2/4)                                                                                                                                                                                                              deductions using
                                                                              audiences and purposes in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          answering.                                                                              given a few minutes to read the glossary. The teacher explains that before
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        mathematical
                                                                              scientific writing.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        they can carry out the test they need to understand how it works. Teacher
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Black felt-tip pens enough for 1 between 2/4– all the same if possible and                                                                                                                                                reasoning;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         reads slide 9 to class. Students hold up correct cards when gap comes up.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              different to the ones used as pen A and B.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Elaborate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Students work in pairs. They are given ready prepared pieces of filter paper                                                                         Strips of filter paper with dot of black pen A, again taped to a wooden splint.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         with a dot of black pen marked A, and another marked B. They must try out                                                                            (enough for 1 between 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         chromatography on the pen. (NB – the students think its paint). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Strips of filter paper with dot of black pen B, taped to splint. (enough for 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              between 2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              100ml beakers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Technician Guide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Activity 4 – Trace Evidence


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Equipment required:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Small zip-lock bags containing a mixture of calcium carbonate powder and a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              small amount of hair (supposed to be horse hair, but any course hair cut from a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              paintbrush will do). (enough for 1 between 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Explore
                                                                              1.1a2 (7) Recognise that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Engage/elicit                                                                           Show slide 4. They work in pairs to identify 6 white powders. They are                                                                               Magnifying glasses (enough for 1 between 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Explain
                                                                              scientists of all disciplines                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Present slide 2 to the class. Students work in pairs. Each pair is given a small        supplied with a set of cards (from slide 5), the 6 powders labelled A-F, and a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Students feedback which powder they think is which.
               Trace Evidence - Part 1.                                       and nationalities often work                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       bag containing the trace evidence (calcium carbonate with a small amount of             range of laboratory equipment: beakers, measuring cylinders, thermometers,                                                                           Sets of laminated cards from slide 5 (enough for 1 between 2)                                                                                                                                       collaborate with others
1    5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Good opportunity here for discussion - are they 100%                                                                                                                                          ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_
               How can we tell different                                      together to develop                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ‘horse’ hair.) They use a magnifying glass to look at the evidence. They need           filter paper, funnels, balances, water at room temperature, spatulas. They                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               to work towards
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              sure of which powder is which? Why not? What other                                                                                                                                            Act_4.ppt
               substances apart?                                              explanations. Recognise that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       to make sure they put the powder back into the bag.                                     must plan and carry out their own tests to identify the powders. If they ask                                                                         Small pots of powders, labelled. (about 4 of each)                                                                                                                                                  common goals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              tests would have been useful? Which tests were harder
                                                                              sciecne cannot yet explain                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         They feedback – what was the evidence? Show them slide 3.                               about carrying out the melting point tests, they can explain why this cannot be                                                                      A = Citric acid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              to do? Why?
                                                                              everything.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                done with the equipment they have.                                                                                                                   B = sodium chloride
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              C = sodium bicarbonate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D = Granulated white sugar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              E = Starch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              F = Calcium carbonate powder

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              100ml beakers, measuring cylinders, thermometers, spatulas, filter paper,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              funnels, balances, bottles of water at room temperature.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Photocopies of A5 sheet (slide 7) enough for 1 each.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Technician Guide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Activity 4 – Trace Evidence


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Equipment required:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Small zip-lock bags containing a mixture of calcium carbonate powder and a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              small amount of hair (supposed to be horse hair, but any course hair cut from a
                                                                              1.1a3 (7) Identify a range of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   paintbrush will do). (enough for 1 between 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Evaluate
                                                                              scientific data and other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Students are given a report sheet (slide 7) to fill in with     Magnifying glasses (enough for 1 between 2)
                                                                              evidence to back an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Elaborate                                                                            the name of the unknown substance and what the
                                                                              argument and the
               Trace Evidence- Part 2.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Show students slide 6. This introduces the next task. They need to carry out         evidence can tell them about the crime. (animal hair            Sets of laminated cards from slide 5 (enough for 1 between 2)
1    6                                                                        counterclaim in less complex                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_
               How can we tell different                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Recap evidence and story from previous lesson.                                          similar tests on the sample in the bag to identify the powder.                       could be horse hair, calcium carbonate can be used to
                                                                              and /or familiar contexts e.g.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Act_4.ppt
               substances apart?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Students feedback with which powder they think it is.                                groom horses - does the criminal work in a stable?)             Small pots of powders, labelled. (about 4 of each)
                                                                              establishing a wind farm.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              They also comment on how useful the evidence is (does           A = Citric acid
                                                                              Recognise that scientific
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              it tell us who the burglar was? Was it definitely left by the   B = sodium chloride
                                                                              evidence can be used to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              burglar? etc)                                                   C = sodium bicarbonate
                                                                              support or disprove theories.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D = Granulated white sugar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              E = Starch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              F = Calcium carbonate powder

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              100ml beakers, measuring cylinders, thermometers, spatulas, filter paper,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              funnels, balances, bottles of water at room temperature.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Photocopies of A5 sheet (slide 7) enough for 1 each.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Explore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Show slide 3. Depending on the ability of the class and their initial ideas, you
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         may want to read through the information with them and highlight important
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         points. They work in groups of 2-4 to work out a way of separating the alcohol                                                                       Technician Guide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         from the juice so they can present the alcohol to the judge as evidence. They                                                                        Activity 5 – Drunk on Duty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         also could figure out a way of proving to the judge that what they have found is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         alcohol.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Students feedback with ideas.                                                                                                                        Equipment required:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Evaluate
                                                                              1.1a2 (8) Recognise that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Show slide 5. Students write a statement to the gallery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Explain                                                                                                                                              Bottle of water and alcohol
               Drunk on Duty. How can                                         science is a communal, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      owner about what they have found out. They need to use
               we tell different                                              therefore fallible, human                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Demonstrate the distillation of a mixture of alcohol and water. Show class that      the science words: Distillation, liquid, gas, boiling,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Engage/elicit                                                                           the mixture is not flammable. Then distil the mixture. Ask the students to                                                                           4 Watch-glasses
1    7         substances apart?• What                                        activity and that different                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     condensing. You may find it useful to give students a                                                                                                                                         ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Present slide 2 to the class. Ask for initial ideas.                                    explain what is happening at each stage using the correct scientific
               tests help forensic                                            expanations can arise from                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      diagram of the apparatus to help them.                                                                                                                                                        Act_5.ppt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         terminology. Show the students that the distillate is flammable – proof it is                                                                        Matches
               scientists to solve crimes?                                    individaul bias. Recognise                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Show slide 6. Use this as an impetus to start a
                                                                              questions that the scientific                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              alcohol.                                                                             discussion on whether this evidence is enough to prove
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Show slide 4. You can also insert an animation here. See                                                                                             Distillation equipment with mixture of alcohol and water in the flask.
                                                                              process cannot answer.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the guard’s innocence.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/chemistry/elements_com_m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ix_8.shtml for the animation and                                                                                                                     Bottle of orange juice labelled: ‘Evidence #2.1: Drink found on guard’s desk’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         http://www.wikiedscience.com/display/users/Animation+tutorials for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         instructions on how to download animations and embed them into PowerPoint.                                                                           If possible, another set of distillation equipment with orange juice in the flask. If
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Invite responses to Billie’s final question.                                                                                                         not, just another flask full of orange juice.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Elaborate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Demonstrate the distillation of the guard’s drink. (this is in fact pure orange
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         juice). Again, try to set alight the drink. Then distil it. Encourage the students
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Show slide 5 and 6. Students study the chromatograms and write a short
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    statement explaining what they show.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Show students slides 2, 3 and 4. Ask students to discuss what they could do                                                                                                     Ask students to feedback ideas: is all this evidence
1   8   Who dunnit?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          with the brown show polish to help them work out if the police’s prime suspect         Show slide 7. Discuss Dr Sherl’s comments in pairs. They now how several                 enough to convict him? Would it stand up in court?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    pieces of evidence that point to the gallery owner as committing the crime. He                                                                                                                                                                   Act_6.ppt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             committed the crime. Ask for feedback.                                                                                                                                          What other evidence would be useful?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    was going bankrupt – was this an insurance scam? He has a horse so
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    spends time at stables – this links to the horse hair and calcium carbonate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    found at the crime scene.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             In the plenary, the teacher firstly reviews the posters
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             produced by the pupils and then builds upon these by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             using the key questions to introduce a scientific particle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             model for the three states of matter.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Assign cards (Table 1.1) to match observations from starter with possible             Q1: How do we explain compressibility?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    explanations.                                                                            Important points to be drawn out here: gases can be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Review pupil's observations and move towards an           compressed and so there must be large spaces
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    agreed pattern of properties of solids, liquids and gases.                               between the particles; liquids and solids cannot be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             3. show pupils handout          compressed so the particles must be closely packed;             Sheet 1.1 'Solids, liquids and gases properties.'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2.5 - 'What does the image suggest about the arrangement of particles in this            compression in gases is caused by the particles being
                                                                                                  To encourage the pupils to talk through                                                                                                                                                                                                                           solid?'                                                                                  pushed closer together rather than the particles                                Table 1.1 made into a card sort,
                                   3.1 (7) Describe matter using                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             themselves being compressed.
                                                                                                  their ideas about the properties of solids,                                                                           Identify their own                                                                                                                               4. Pupil group work: Develop models of what must be 'inside' the solid,
                                   a simple model and use it to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Q2: How do we explain fluidity?
                                                                                                  liquids and gases, thereby motivating them                                                                            ideas about the                                                                                                                             liquid and gas to give rise to the pattern of properties. - use cards and answers                                                                                                           3 sealed syringes: (1 plasticene, 1 water and 1
                                   explain changes of state.       1.1a1 (7) Use an existing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 In fluids (liquids and gases) the particles can move freely
                                                                                                  to start thinking about this topic.                                                                                   properties of solids,                                                                                                                       to 1.1 to help.                                                                                                                                          air),
                                   Recognise the link between      model/analogy to explain a                                                                                             Begin to recognise                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 across one another whereas in solids they cannot.
                                                                                                                     To collect Assessment for     Encourage pupils to develop a model to                               liquids and gases;                                                                                                                                                                     5. Display posters and agree key                                                                                                                                      2 beakers, ice cubes,
2   1                              heating and cooling and         phenomenon. Recognise and                                                                                              characteristic                                                                     Pupils to construct a model of solids, liquids and gases through observing                                                                                                      Pupils often suggest that this is because the particles in
        Describing properties                                                                     Learning (AfL) baseline information about        represent the properties of solids,                                  begin to construct a                                                                                                                        features in common.                                                                                                                                      trough/tank for water, glass, kettle, sugar, measuring cylinders (10 and 50 ml).
                                   changes of state Use the        explain the value of using                                                                                             properties of solids,                                                              some of their features, using a circus of demonstrations - Sheet 1.1.                                                                                                           solids are tightly packed together. The scientific
                                                                                                  the pupils’existing ideas on this subject.       liquids and gases.                                                   particle model that                                                                                                                                                                                              6. Pupils work
                                   simple particle model to        models and analogies to                                                                                                liquids and gases.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 explanation goes one step further in recognising that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        accounts for the                                                                                                                            in groups of about eight. Using their posters, they develop a role-play to explain                                                                       Handout 2.5 'Scanning tunnelling microscope image of platinum'.
                                   explain the physical            clarify explanations                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      there are bonds between solid particles that hold them
                                                                                                                                To develop a                                                                            properties that they                                                                                                                        how solids, liquids and gases are different from each other.
                                   characteristics of solids,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                together. Thus it is impossible to push your hand through
                                                                                                  shared view of the characteristic properties                                                                          have observed.                                                                                                                                            Pupils relate the role-play to each of the features they have                                                                                                        Poster paper and pens.
                                   liquids and gases.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        the desk. The bonds hold the particles together too
                                                                                                  of solids, liquids and gases.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     investigated, explaining how their model accounts for the observations they
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    have previously made.                                         Key questions to           strongly with some kind of attractive force. Hold up a                                              Sheet 1.2 'Particle models of solids, liquids and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    pose in moving towards a scientifically acceptable model for the three phases            piece of wire and pull hard on either end:                      gases.'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    are:                                                                                     ‘See, I’m pulling on the wire but I’m not strong enough to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           How do we explain compressibility?                                                snap it! I’m trying to pull apart the bonds between the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    How do we explain fluidity?                                                              particles but they’re too strong!’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    What is in between the particles?                                                        Of course there are also bonds between the liquid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             particles but these are much weaker.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ‘Can anybody think of any evidence that water particles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             are attracted to each other?‘
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Pupils may suggest that water forms droplets, showing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Activity 2.2 Brownian motion                                                             The water particlesback on their ideas, showing their role-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             that groups report hold together in a group, rather than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Show pupils a simulation of Brownian motion using a slide from Strengthening             plays, and the teacher draws upon features of pupils’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    the teaching and learning of particles in Key Stage 3 science.                           models to generate an agreed class model to explain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This image may be elaborated by using smoke cells, or observing fine talc or             diffusion and expansion. This will be along the following
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    lycopodium powder on a drop of water through a microscope, or observing                  lines:1. Metal expansion When the stand is heated, the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    pollen grains on drops of water, as Robert Brown did, through a digital                  particles in the stand move around more and take up             Sheet 2.1: ‘Expansion and diffusion: what happens?’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    microscope.                                                                              more space (no new metal has been created to make
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The purpose of these images is to introduce the idea that particles are                  the stand longer). There is no expansion of individual                              Brownian motion demonstration e.g. smoke cell.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Apply the particle                                                                                                                          generally in a state of motion.                                                          particles.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        model to different                                                                                                                          Activity 2.3: Observing expansion and diffusion effects                                  2. Gas expansion When the gas is warmed, the particles                                                 1. Metal expansion: A long needle (knitting
                                                                                                  To familiarise pupils with a range of                                                                                 situations, in                                                                                                                              In this activity the pupils observe various phenomena involving expansion and            move around more quickly and take up more space.                needle) is held in a tall clamp stand so that it is horizontal with its tip balanced
                                                                                                  examples of diffusion and expansion              To develop the particle model further in                             particular using ideas                                                                                                                      diffusion. This will help pupils to recognise that the particles are moving and          Some of the particles escape into the water, hence the          on a block.                                                        2. Gas
                                                                   1.1a1 (8) Describe more than   involving solids, liquids and gases.             order to explain the motion of the                                   about the movement                                   Lead a review of the particle model that was agreed by the class in the last           that the rate of movement is dependent on temperature.                                   bubbles. This reinforces the idea that gas is matter and        expansion: Flask of air under water,
                                                                   one model to explain the       To build up an agreed account of what            particles in each state.                                             of the particles.                                    lesson.                                                                                                                                                                         behaves just like the metal solid in ‘metal expansion’.
                                   3.2 (7) Sort some reactions
                                                                   same phenomenon and            happens for each example of diffusion and                                                                                                                                                         Key features of the model are:                                                                         Pupils move around a circus of
                                   into reversible and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             3. Potassium manganate (VII) in water: A crystal of potassium
2   2   Extending the particle                                     discuss the strengths and      expansion.                                                                   To provide                                                                                    ●● particles are touching in the solid and liquid (not compressible) but are more examples of expansion and diffusion and address questions on a prompt-sheet                                                        3. Potassium
                                   irreversible Recognise that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               manganate (VII) is placed into a beaker of warm water at the start of the circus.
        model                                                      weaknesses of the model.                                                        opportunities for pupils to show that                                                                                     widely spread out in the gas;                                                     focusing on what happens in each case.                                                        manganate (VII) in water The crystal dissolves in the
                                   new materials are made                                                                                                                                                Recognise                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         4. ‘Before and after’ potassium
                                                                   Describe how the use of a                                                       they can use the particle model to                                                                                        ●● particles are tightly packed in a regular arrangement in solids: the particles                                                                      Examples                 water and then the crystal particles intermingle
                                   during chemical reactions                                                                                                                                 examples of diffusion                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           manganate (VII) in agar: the potassium manganate (VII) will diffuse slowly
                                                                   particular model or analogy                                                To   generate explanations of two new                                                                                          in solids cannot move freely over each other (as they can in liquids);            and rationale:                                                                                continuously with the water particles. It seems that the
                                                                                                                                                                                             and expansion in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                through the agar, so a sample would need to be set up before the lesson.
                                                                   supports an explanation        generate an agreed class explanation of          physical properties of matter – diffusion                                                                                 ●● there is nothing between the particles in solids, liquids and gases.           1. Metal expansion: A long needle (knitting needle) is held in a tall clamp stand             two sets of particles must be moving around ‘of their own
                                                                                                                                                                                             solids, liquids and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   5. Blackcurrant cordial and orange juice:
                                                                                                  diffusion and expansion in terms of              and expansion.                                                              Model diffusion                                                                                                                 so that it is horizontal with its tip balanced on a block.                                    accord’ as ‘nothing is being done’ to the beaker/water.
                                                                                                                                                                                             gases.
                                                                                                  particles.                                                                                                            and expansion in                                                                                                                       The stand (but not the needle) is heated. The expansion of the metal stand                    This takes place in a matter of hours.                                                    6. Air freshener:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        terms of a simple                                                                                                                      causes the clamped end of the needle to rise so that the needle is no longer                  4. ‘Before and after’ potassium manganate (VII) in agar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        particle model.                                                                                                                        horizontal.                                                                                   The potassium manganate (VII) particles intermingle                                                  7. Red and blue water: Two containers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               This shows the expansion of a solid when heated. Pupils will often be surprised               slowly with the gel particles when ‘nothing is being done’      contain the same volume of water (about 1 litre). One has hot water, the other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               that a solid, which they imagine to be‘unchangeable’, can expand. For this to                 to the agar.                                                    cold. Red and Blue food colourings.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               happen the particles must                                                                     This can be seen in the course of 1 lesson, and gets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               have moved in some way, as no new metal has been created to make the                          more pronounced with time.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               stand longer.                                                                                 5. Blackcurrant cordial and orange juice The blackcurrant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2. Gas expansion: Flask of air under water, warmed by the pupils, hands.                      cordial and orange particles intermingle at the interface
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Alternatively use the two activities from Strengthening the teaching and learning             between the liquids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               of particles in Key Stage 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Although pupils will be very familiar with the change of state of water from ice to           Draw freshener The air freshener particles intermingle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             6. Air together key features of pupils’ models to develop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    water to steam, teachers may wish to demonstrate the process using a                     an explanation of phase change that is agreed by the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    thermometer to follow the temperature at which phase changes occur. During               class:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    the demonstration the teacher might pose the following questions:                        1. When the ice is heated, the particles vibrate more until
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Where is the water going? Where are the particles of water going? Do the                 the bonds between them break and the ice melts, turning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    particles just disappear? Can you see any evidence that the evaporated water             into water. As the ice is being heated its temperature
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    is still in the room?’                                                                   does not rise: the heating is doing the work of breaking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ‘Why does the temperature of the ice not go above 0oC? Why does the                      the bonds between ice particles.
                                                                   1.1a1 (9) Describe the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           temperature of the water not go above 100 oC?’                                           2. When the water is heated, the water particles move
                                   3.1 (8) Apply and use the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        After the demonstration, use a range of other models to simulate what is                 around more quickly and the temperature of the water
                                                                   strengths and weaknesses of
                                   particle model to describe a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     happening to the particles. This will enable pupils to connect what they have            rises.
                                                                   a range of available models                                                                                                                          Model changes of
                                   range of physical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                observed to what is happening at the particle level. Such models could include           3. At about 100 ºC, the bonds between the water
2   3                                                              and select the most            To introduce the properties associated with To model phase change in terms of the                                     state in terms of the
        Changing state             observations. Apply and use                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      using polystyrene or other balls on a tray and applying a form of vibration to the       particles break down and the liquid water changes into
                                                                   appropriate. Explain why the   change of state.                            simple particle model                                                     simple particle model
                                   this model to describe a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         tray, either through a signal generator or loud speaker cone. Pupils need to see         gaseous steam. Although the water is being continuously
                                                                   manipulation of a model or                                                                                                                           of matter.
                                   range of separation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              a clear connection between the amount of energy put into a system and the                heated at 100 ºC, the temperature does not rise further.
                                                                   analogy might be needed to
                                   techniques.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      vibrational energy that is transferred to the particles.                                 The heating at this point is doing the work of breaking the
                                                                   clarify explanations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Demonstrate the making of popcorn to pupils.                              bonds between water particles.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pupils should be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ask them to explain how this model can be used        provided with opportunities to transfer their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   to represent the changes in state that they have observed.                                understanding to new contexts. Provide groups of pupils
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ask pupils to identify any   with different scenarios to explain, using the particle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   clear weaknesses of the model and make suggestions for improvement where                  model. Here are some suggestions:-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   appropriate.                                                                              1. Ice-cream melts at a higher temperature than ice. How
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ‘What you need to do now is to draw upon your particle ideas to explain, in as            does the movement of the particles in these substances
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   much detail as you can, what is happening as the ice melts to form water and              compare at zero degrees centigrade?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Pupils go round a circus of examples of change processes and address
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   questions on prompt sheets. The examples include physical and chemical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   changes, as well as mixing processes which do not include physical or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   chemical change. The prompts direct pupils towards changes in properties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   which indicate that a new substance is formed (and properties which can
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   change when no new substance is formed). A key conclusion of the activity is
                                   3.2 (8) Recognise that                                                                                                                                     Recognise that a                                                                                                                                                     that it isn’t straightforward to tell by observation if new stuff is formed.
                                   materials can be made up of                                                                                                                                change in some                                                                                                                                                       It is worth noting that we have not used the school science notion that physical
                                   one or more kinds of                                                                                                                                       properties might                                                                                                                                                     change is reversible but chemical change is not, because of the problems that
                                                                                                  To address a key problem: if we can’t tell
                                   particles. Describe the type                                                                                                                               indicate that new stuff                                                                                                                                              it leads to:                       how can you ‘reverse’ the change when wood is          The teacher collates pupils’ responses, identifying
                                                                                                  by direct observation whether new stuff is                                                                            Appreciate that it is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sheet 4.1: ‘New stuff?’
                                   and arrangement of atoms in                                                                                                                                is formed (e.g. taste,                                                                                                                                               filed to produce sawdust, or a block of chocolate melts to a sticky mess in a             properties that appear to give a ‘good’ indication that ‘new
        Is any new stuff formed?                                                                  formed, is there any way we can use our                                                                               very difficult to tell by
2   4                              elements, compounds and                                                                                                                                    colour), but that                                                                                                                                                    warm bag?                                                                                 stuff’ has formed, or ones that are ‘not so safe’ for
        Where does it come from?                                                                  particle model to help?                                                                                               direct observation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Magnesium ribbon, tongs, silver nitrate solution, sodium bromide
                                   mixtures. Describe and                                                                                                                                     changes in other                                                                                                                                                     The examples in the circus, and the rationale for choosing each one, are as               indicating that ‘new stuff’ has formed. This leads to the
        Lesson 1                                                                                  To generate information about pupils’                                                                                 whether new stuff                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    solution, test tubes, beakers, salt (sodium chloride), spatulas, glass rods,
                                   develop a particle model to                                                                                                                                properties may not                                                                                                                                                   follows:                                                                                  idea that it is very difficult to identify by observation alone
                                                                                                  explanations of change and notions of                                                                                 has formed.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          orange squash (not to drink), marble chips, pipettes, HCl.
                                   explain the differences                                                                                                                                    indicate that new stuff                                                                                                                                              1. Melting chocolate Physical change: resulting in change of shape.                       when new stuff has formed.
                                                                                                  matter.
                                   between the terms atoms,                                                                                                                                   is formed (e.g.                                                                                                                                                      Properties that remain the same include colour, consistency, and melting point.
                                   elements, compounds and                                                                                                                                    shape);                                                                                                                                                              The taste and texture may change depending upon the method of heating.
                                   mixtures.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       See the RSC publication Inspirational Chemistry.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2. Burning magnesium Chemical change: resulting in change of properties like
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   colour, consistency.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   3. Making silver bromide: Chemical change: resulting in change of properties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   like colour, but also state.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   4. Dissolving salt Physical change: involving change in properties like colour,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   state, consistency, but not taste.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Demonstrates the formation of iron sulfide or other compounds made by direct              The worksheets ‘You’re the teacher!’ and the extension
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A common difficulty                                                                                            combination. Details of these can be found in Strengthening the teaching and              sheet ‘Modelling dissolving’ are then used to provide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    that pupils have when                                                                                          learning of particles in Key Stage 3 science, handout 3.12, to illustrate how             opportunities for pupils to practise using the new
                                                                                                                                                                                              Recognise a broader                                                                                                                                                  changes in key properties can indicate that new stuff has formed.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    first introduced to                                                                                                                                                                                      terminology.                      Experience suggests that
                                                                                                                                                                                              range of key                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  a. Teacher
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    particle                                                                                                                                                                                                 pupils will find it particularly difficult to learn to use this
                                                                                                                                                                                              properties and                                                                                                                                                       demonstration: making iron sulfide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    representations of                                                                                                                                                                                       new terminology and to describe change processes. in
                                                                                                                                                                                              changes which                                                                                                                                                        The formation of iron sulfide has long been used to introduce the notion of
                                                                                                  To demonstrate how changes in key                                                                                                                 chemical change is                                                                                                                                                                                       terms of changes in bonding between atoms. During
                                                                                                                                                                                              indicate that new stuff                                                                                                                                              chemical change. It has the advantage of involving reactants and products in
                                                                                                  properties (e.g. magnetic attraction) can                                                                                                         that they assume that                                                                                                                                                                                    subsequent lessons this process of using visual and
                                                                                                                                                                                              may have formed;                                                                                                                                                     one phase.
                                   3.1 (9) Evaluate and refine                                    indicate that new stuff has formed.                                                                                                               changes in properties                                                                                                                                                                                    verbal representations of particles to describe change          Sheet 4.2: ‘Iron and sulfur’.
                                   the particle model to explain                                                                                                                                                                                    are due to changes in                                                                                          Furthermore, the stoichiometry of the reaction enables simple diagrams of the             will need constant reinforcement.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Attempt to model                                     Recap pupils’ responses from previous lesson, identifying properties that             interaction of the particles to be drawn.
        Is any new stuff formed?   a range of physical                                                                  To introduce pupils to     To allow pupils to model a chemical                                                              the particles                                                                                                                                                                                            Through the worksheets, pupils return to the examples of              Worksheet 4.3: ‘Definitions’
2   5                                                                                                                                                                                                                   chemical change with                                 appear to give a ‘good’ indication that ‘new stuff’ has formed, or ones that are      Provide samples of coarse iron filings and sulfur for pupils who note key
        Where does it come from?   observations. Evaluate and                                     formal definitions of substance, element         change for the first time using a simple                                                         themselves, rather                                                                                                                                                                                       change processes met at the beginning of the lesson.            Worksheet 4.4a: ‘You’re the teacher!’
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Appreciate the      different kinds of                                   ‘not so safe’ for indicating that ‘new stuff’ has formed. This leads to the idea      properties, particularly that iron is attracted to a magnet but sulfur is not.
        Lesson 2                   refine the particle model to                                   and compound.                                    particle model.                                                                                  than the way in which                                                                                                                                                                                    They are presented with pieces of written work by               Worksheet 4.4b: ‘Modelling dissolving’
                                                                                                                                                                                              meaning of the terms      particles.                                           that it is very difficult to identify by observation alone when new stuff has formed.                                            Demonstrate the reaction by heating a
                                   explain a range of separation                                  To allow pupils the opportunity to use this                                                                                                       they are combined                                                                                                                                                                                        fictitious pupils. Working together, they have to identify
                                                                                                                                                                                              substance, element                                                                                                                                                   spatula of iron filings mixed with a spatula of sulfur in a pyrex tube. The
                                   techniques.                                                    new terminology appropriately in terms                                                                                                            (e.g. ‘yellow sulfur                                                                                                                                                                                     errors in the language used by the fictitious pupils, and                      Iron fillings, Sulfur, ignition tube, magnet.
                                                                                                                                                                                              and compound;                                                                                                                                                        resulting ‘stuff’ is grey: it is not a metal and it is not sulfur. It is no longer
                                                                                                  of the models of change processes that                                                                                                            particles change into                                                                                                                                                                                    suggest alternatives.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Attempt to use the                                                                                                                                                   attracted to a magnet. These changes give a ‘good indication’ that new stuff
                                                                                                  they have met so far in this unit.                                                                                                                grey iron sulfide                                                                                                                                                                                        As an extension task, pupils are presented with an
                                                                                                                                                                                              terms in the context                                                                                                                                                 has been formed.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    particles’). This will                                                                                                                                                                                   activity in which they generate visual and verbal models
                                                                                                                                                                                              of particle models                                                                                                                                                   b. Modelling iron sulfide formation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    need to be addressed                                                                                                                                                                                     of the process of dissolving sugar. They should be
                                                                                                                                                                                              that they have                                                                                                                                                       The worksheet ‘Iron and Sulfur’ supports the modelling of the reaction of iron
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    explicitly when the                                                                                                                                                                                      shown concrete examples of dissolving first, before they
                                                                                                                                                                                              developed.                                                                                                                                                           and sulfur. At this stage in the lesson, pupils are asked to make links between
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    particle model is                                                                                                                                                                                        attempt to visualise how the particles are arranged.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    introduced.                                                                                                    the particle model of matter developed in the lessons on physical change, and             Pupils will need to be reminded of the arrangement of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   their observations of the properties of matter in chemical change. Introduce a            particles in a liquid.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   wider range of models that pupils can use to explain what has happened to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The worksheet ‘Looking at properties’ is used first. This is a circus activity in         This plenary session could be organised in a variety of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   which pupils examine samples of elements, photographs of elements, and                    ways (whole-class quiz, teams, etc.). Good prompting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   writing about elements.                                                                   questions include:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The aim is to enable pupils to become accustomed to using the new term                    ‘Think about its appearance/how it is made: is there any
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   element in relation to familiar and unfamiliar substances. One compound is                evidence for more than one substance?’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   also included to remind pupils that both elements and compounds are                       ‘Do you know this substance’s chemical name/think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   examples of substances. Pupils use a range of different models to                         about the chemical name: is there any evidence for more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   demonstrate their ideas about what these substances look like (see                        than one kind of particle in its structure?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Strengthening the teaching and learning of particles in Key Stage 3 science                                     ’'Tell me why’                            Sheet 5.1: Looking at properties.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Handouts 3.5 and 3.6. Pupils are provided with a prompt sheet to focus their              In this activity, pupils have the opportunity to use the new
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   attention as they review the examples.                             The examples, and      terminology and ‘rules of thumb’ to identify and                             Samples, pictures or descriptions of the following chemicals clearly
                                                                                                  To establish a common understanding of                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the rationale for their selection, are as follows:                                        distinguish between some substances (particularly               labelled with their names:
                                                                                                  the terms substance, element and                                                            Use the terms                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  compounds) and mixtures.                 Present examples
                                                                                                  compound, and an agreed way of                                                              substance, element                                                                                                                                                    Calcium chloride This is a compound; the name suggests that it consists of               of elements, mixtures and compounds.                                           Calcium Chloride
                                                                                                  representing the particles in elements,                                                     and compound, and                                                                                                                                                     more than one kind of particle                                                           Pupils have to say whether each one is an element,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Begin with a plenary review of the particle, and verbal descriptions of
2   6   Substance, element,                                                                       substances and compounds.                                                                   their associated                                                                                                                                                      Gold Familiar material; element; metal                                                   mixture or compound, and explain why using appropriate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             substance/mixture, molecule, element/compound, physical/chemical change                                                                                                                                                                                                     gold
        compound                                                                                  To familiarise pupils with some well-known                                                  particle                                                                                                                                                              Uranium Material possibly familiar as a ‘scientific material’; element                   language.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             introduced previously.                                                                                                                                                                                                                          uranium
                                                                                                  elements and compounds, highlighting key                                                    representations, with                                                                                                                                                 Oxygen gas Familiar name; non-metal, gaseous element                                                           The examples suggested, and the           oxygen gas
                                                                                                  properties and features of nomenclature                                                     increasing                                                                                                                                                            Nitrogen gas As above                                                                    rationale for choosing these, are as follows:                   nitrogen gas
                                                                                                  that indicate whether they are elements or                                                  confidence.                                                                                                                                                           Chlorine gas As above                                                                                                                                    chlorine gas
                                                                                                  compounds.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Calcium Familiar material; element; metal; can be contrasted with calcium                                                   Soil: Many pupils will       calcium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    chloride                                                                                 know that soil is a mixture of sand, water, organic             iron
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Iron Familiar material; element; metal                                                   matter…                                                         sulfur
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sulfur Familiar non-metallic element.                                                    Sand Mixture: pupils may refer to the different colour of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             grains, the fact that sand is made as different coloured
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The prompt questions used by pupils, and their purpose, are          stones erode…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    as follows:                                                                              Orange juice Mixture: Pupils may refer to the contents
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             labelling on boxes of orange juice. This example allows
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Does it have a name including two ‘scientific’ words?                                    the teacher to distinguish between the meanings of ‘pure’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Introducing pupils to the idea that chemical nomenclature is related to the              used in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    chemical structure of substances, and that the name may indicate that the                everyday language and chemistry.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In this activity, pupils are asked toone kind of particle and verbal representations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    substance is made of more than construct particle.                                       Milk Mixture: Pupils may refer to the fact that milk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Pairs of pupils then come together to compare, contrast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    of the structure of matter during change processes and to describe these in              and review each others’ representations.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    terms of substance/element/mixture/compound/physical and chemical change                 No attempt is made to model the structure of the nitrate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    in order to revise the use of the new terminology and representations.                   ion at this stage. Furthermore, given their complexity, no
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pupils are then presented with a new               attempt is made to represent the structure of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    chemical change process to model, which involves a phase change.                         aqueoussolutions. Teachers may, however, choose to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Examples of these could be:                                                              do this with certain groups as an extensionactivity.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ●● burning magnesium ribbon or any other metal in air;                                   The teacher reviews models produced by pupils, drawing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ●● burning a splint – emphasising that it is made from carbon and hydrogen;              out salient features. An agreed, shared model is
                                                                                                                                                                                              Use the terms                                                                                                                                                         ●● displacing copper from copper sulfate solution with iron or zinc;                     generated for each example.
                                                                                                                                                                                              substance, element,                                                                                                                                                   ●● displacing hydrogen from an acid using a metal.                                                              Silver nitrate solution: Salient
                                                                                                                                                                                              molecule, mixture,                                                                                                                                                    Working in pairs, pupils are asked to generate sentences to describe the                                                                             Silver nitrate solution, sodium chloride solution, silver chloride powder.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             features to draw out:
                                                                                                                                                                                              compound, physical                                                                                                                                                    change processes, involving the terms substance, element, molecule, mixture,             ●● It is a solution
                                                                                                                                                                                              change and chemical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       magnesium ribbon;
        Modelling chemical                                                                        Revise and consolidate the use of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 compound, physical change and chemical change. For example in the case of                ●● It contains water, silver and nitrate particles
2   7                                                                                                                                                                                         change, and their                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          splint and matches
        changes involving phase                                                                   terminology and representations                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   burning magnesium ribbon in air, pupils might report:                                    ●● Because it is a liquid, the particles are touching, but
                                                                                                                                                                                              associated                                                                                                                                                            ●● two substances were heated together, magnesium and oxygen;                                                                                        displacing copper from copper sulfate solution with iron or zinc;
        change                                                                                    introduced so far in this unit.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            not bonded.
                                                                                                                                                                                              representations, to                                                                                                                                                   ●● magnesium and oxygen are elements;                                                                                                                displacing hydrogen from an acid using a metal.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ●● It will be necessary to discuss issues of size and
                                                                                                                                                                                              explain simple                                                                                                                                                        ●● oxygen is found in the air, which is a mixture of gases;                              scale with pupils.
                                                                                                                                                                                              physical and                                                                                                                                                          ●● after the oxygen and magnesium had reacted, a new substance formed,                                                                                            Sheet 6.1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Sodium chloride solution: Salient features to draw out:
                                                                                                                                                                                              chemical change                                                                                                                                                       magnesium oxide;                                                                         ●● It is a solution
                                                                                                                                                                                              processes.                                                                                                                                                            ●● magnesium oxide is a compound, because it is made of atoms from two                   ●● It contains water, silver and nitrate particles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    different elements;                                                                      ●● Because it is a liquid, the particles are touching, but
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ●● this is a chemical reaction, because a new substance has formed.                      not bonded.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The teacher then briefly demonstrates a familiar chemical change: the                    ●● It will be necessary to discuss issues of size and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    precipitation of silver chloride when solutions of silver nitrate and sodium             scale with pupils.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    chloride are mixed.                                                                      Silver chloride solid powder: Salient features to draw out:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Strengthening the teaching and learning of particles in Key Stage 3 science –            ●● It is a solid substance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Handout 4.12 may be used in conjunction with the handouts here.                          ●● It is a compound
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    After watching the demonstration, pupils work in pairs to produce a visual               ●● The particles are touching and bonded
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    representation of the arrangement of the particles, with prompting. Worksheet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A. The procedure of inflating and weighing a balloon is then carried out. Pupils
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              now generate models, involving particles, to address the question: why does
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              the mass of the balloon increase? For many pupils, the fact that ‘air makes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              things heavier’ is highly counter-intuitive: surely inflated balloons get lighter and
                                                                                                            There is considerable                                                                                             float upwards? This problem often relates to pupils not appreciating the
                                                                                                            evidence that pupils                                                                                              distinction between mass and density. During this activity, teachers can make
                                                                                                            find it difficult to                                                                                              explicit this problem with pupils by asking questions. Some ways of opening up
                                                                                                            appreciate that                                                                                                   problems, and dealing with them, are suggested below:
                                                                                                            matter and mass are
                                                                                                            conserved in change                                                                                                                                              1. Pupils expect that adding a gas to
                                                                                                            processes,                                                                                                        a balloon makes it lighter (or not to change its mass).
                                                                                                            particularly those                                                                                                How come the inflated balloon is heavier than the empty one?
                                                                                    Explain the                                                                                                                               ‘Think about all the air particles that you’re adding:
                                                                                                            involving gases. Many
                                                                                    conservation of mass                                                                                                                      the particles must weigh something’.
                                      To make the conservation of substance                                 pupils do not focus         Begin with a ‘predict-observe-explain’ activity: pupils initially predict what will                                                                                                                                                       The Sheets ‘Weighing air’ and ‘What happens to the weight?’ can be used to
          Understanding                                                             in terms of changes                                                                                                                       2. Pupils think that the air particles in the balloon ‘just float there’, so don’t add
                                      and conservation of mass plausible to                                 on matter in the gas        happen to the mass of a balloon when it is inflated. The process is not a                                                                                                      The teacher demonstrates the changes and works with        support
2    8    conservation of matter in                                                 in particles;                                                                                                                             mass.
                                      pupils, particularly in change processes                              phase during change         physical or chemical change, enabling attention to focus on the mass of gases.                                                                                                 pupils to generate agreed explanations of the              this activity. Baloons, sensitive balance, conical flasks, beakers, marble chips,
          chemical change through                                                   Appreciate how mass                                                                                                                       Remember the sealed syringe filled with air, and how we could push the air
                                      involving changes into, and out of, the gas                           processes. Even             Once the mass of air in a balloon has been dealt with, conservation of mass in                                                                                                 conservation of mass in terms of particle representations. HCl, magnesium ribbon, crucible with lid, matches, salt, silver nitrate solution,
          modelling                                                                 is conserved in                                                                                                                           particles closer together? Would that make the syringe heavier?
                                      phase.                                                                when gases are              physical and chemical change processes involving gases is addressed.                                                                                                                                                                      sodium chloride solution.
                                                                                    changes into, and out                                                                                                                     What if we could cool the air tomake liquid air? What would it weigh then?
                                                                                                            focused upon, they
                                                                                    of, the gas phase.                                                                                                                        Supposing you evaporate water to steam: will it loose its mass? Where will the
                                                                                                            are often thought to
                                                                                                            have zero mass or                                                                                                 mass come from when steam condenses on a cold window?
                                                                                                            negative mass                                                                                                     The purpose of these questions is to get pupils to think through the logically the
                                                                                                            (‘bubbles make                                                                                                    implication that phase change between the liquid and gas phases involves
                                                                                                            things lighter’). This is                                                                                         mass change.
                                                                                                            true for both physical                                                                                            3. Pupils think that air is ‘just nothing’.
                                                                                                            and chemical                                                                                                      Show pupils how water does not enter an inverted glass beaker when it is
                                                                                                            changes.                                                                                                          pushed into water.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Ask: How come the water doesn’t fill the beaker?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This activity aims to make plausible to pupils the fact that air and gases in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              general are ‘something’ rather than ‘nothing’.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 B. Pupils now practise modelling change
2    9                                                                                                                                                                                                                        processes involving gas in terms of particles, and explain how mass is
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This spreadsheet may help in the planning of your new KS3 SoW. The National Strategy's Planning Tool is available at http://www.s

Sheet 'HSW' contains the How Science Works Framework objectives for reference. Sheet 'Range' includes the Framework's Range

                        Making Use of the KS3 Science Developer Tool for planning and auditing schemes of learning:

The 'Medium Term Plan' sheet enables you to broadly plan the outline of a year's worth or Key Stage worth of lessons - simply re-n
Under this planning outline you have the Year 7, 8 and 9 HSW and Range yearly learning objectives (YLOs) from the framework, to
Use the links at top and bottom of sheet to move up and down easily and quickly.

Selecting YLOs and checking curriculum coverage:
Click on cell D4 and you will see a small arrow appear. Click on the arrow and you will have a list of all the first lines of the yr 7-9 Ra
Clicking in cells E4 and F4 enables you to add How Science works objectives in the same way.
You can then type a broad lesson title in cell C4.
Returning to the foot of the sheet (rows 373 on) you can now see that there are counters showing the number of times that each obj
You can either enter YLOs against each lesson in your scheme, or it is probably easier and more appropriate to indicate which YLO

Checking and planning progression:
You may like to Audit your work to ensure you have made progression through the objectives. Click on the 'Audit Now' button at the
Y7 objectives are lighter than Y9 ones! Scroll down the sheet to see if you have suitable progression and a suitable spread of when

Using the Tool to help complete your short term plans:
Once you have inserted a few objectives and lesson titles into the first topic area on the Medium Term Planner sheet, click on the 'S

You should now see that all your work has been copied over - the Framework objectives and your broad lesson titles are all in place
These cells (with green background) are protected so you cannot alter them (for your own protection), except from the medium term
If you scroll to the right you will see numerous columns - add extra columns of your own choosing, or change the titles if you so wish

Incorporating existing topics/lessons:
If you wish to incorporate any of your existing KS3 lessons you can copy and paste them into the relevant cells. To avoid potential f
You can also include hyperlinks to resources/websites etc.

Generating lesson plans for printing:
To generate a conventional-looking series of lesson plans from this you need the Word file: 'KS3 Lesson Template for Mail Merge'
This Word file is set up to mail merge off this spreadsheet so when you go through the mail merge process you can generate a year
When you open the Word File you may have to locate this spreadsheet for the PC (depends where you saved it) and then select 'Sh

Adding further columns to the spreadsheet means that you will have to choose to update the file during the mail merge process. Yo

To start the Mail Merge simply go to Tools>Letters and Mailings>Mail Merge when you are in the word Document.
I have put all the fields in place so keep clicking 'Next' in the bottom right corner and you should end up with all the lessons in a new
To generate the individual lessons select edit individual letters on the 6th step of the mail merge process and you can select an indiv
As the plans are then saved into a conventional word file you may edit them and include hyperlinks to resources etc.
Strategy's Planning Tool is available at http://www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/secondary/framework/

ce. Sheet 'Range' includes the Framework's Range&Content objectives. Similar sheets for PLTS and SEAL objectives.

 nning and auditing schemes of learning:

 s worth or Key Stage worth of lessons - simply re-number the lessons to divide into topics of your desired length.
 learning objectives (YLOs) from the framework, together with PLTS (Personal Learning and Thinking Skills) and SEAL (Social and Emotional Aspects of L



u will have a list of all the first lines of the yr 7-9 Range objectives from the framework. Click on one to choose it.


ounters showing the number of times that each objective has been used to enable you to get an overview of where you are focusing, identifying any gaps
easier and more appropriate to indicate which YLOs will be covered in a complete unit of work.


e objectives. Click on the 'Audit Now' button at the top of the page and follow the menus. The key is shown at the top right.
uitable progression and a suitable spread of when you revisit skills and content. Clicking the 'Clear Audit' button removes the colours.


on the Medium Term Planner sheet, click on the 'Short Term Planner' tab.

ectives and your broad lesson titles are all in place in the light green squares.
your own protection), except from the medium term plan sheet.
ur own choosing, or change the titles if you so wish in order to match the format of your school’s short term plans.


te them into the relevant cells. To avoid potential formatting problems it is best to paste into the cell editing bar at the top of the sheet once you have high



 Word file: 'KS3 Lesson Template for Mail Merge'
 h the mail merge process you can generate a year's, KS or topics worth of lesson plans off the spreadsheet with a couple of mouse clicks .
C (depends where you saved it) and then select 'Short Term Plan' to make it work.

 update the file during the mail merge process. You may also wish to adjust the word template to reflect the elements you want to see in your short term le

n you are in the word Document.
nd you should end up with all the lessons in a new word File ready to be printed/amended.
he mail merge process and you can select an individual lesson, a whole topic or the whole key stage. Save the file (default ‘letters’ under an appropriate n
nclude hyperlinks to resources etc.
kills) and SEAL (Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning) - see rows 373 onwards. (These are also included on the first 4 pages of the spreadsheet and




 w of where you are focusing, identifying any gaps or areas that are not well covered.




 t' button removes the colours.




 ting bar at the top of the sheet once you have highlighted the relevant cell.




 heet with a couple of mouse clicks .


  the elements you want to see in your short term lessons plans.




Save the file (default ‘letters’ under an appropriate name e.g. topic title).
cluded on the first 4 pages of the spreadsheet and you may find it useful to print these for reference when selecting YLOs from the drop down lists).
en selecting YLOs from the drop down lists).

				
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