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disorders in kidneys


disorders in kidneys & organism changes due to kidney disorders

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									                Pathology of kidneys.
     Kidneys principal role is:
1)   the elimination of vast products and the regulation of homeostasis.
2)   participate in the control of the volume and composition of body fluids.
3)   participate in blood pressure regulation. 3 main mechanisms are: renin-
     angiotensin-aldosterone pressor system; sodium homeostasis; renal vasodepressor
     system includes the following components: prostaglandin E2 – powerful
     vasodilatator has Na-uretic effect; urinary kinin-callekrein system; platelet
     activating peptide; nitric oxide; neutral lipid.
4)   endocrine function - secreting products are: renin, erythropoietin, prostaglandins,
     callekrein system.
5)   control of hemostasis by the production of urokinase and activation of fibrinolysis.
     Pathology of kidneys – disturbances of urine output due to changes of renal
     function and general disturbances of circulation and metabolism. Point to this the
     following uropoietic disorders are distinguished: 1) renal; 2) extrarenal. extrarenal
     disturbances in their term are divided into prerenal and postrenal.
        Prerenal factors disturbing urine secretion: 1) disturbances in nervous,
     endocrine regulation; 2) changes of general circulation. A slowing or acceleration
     of circulation and changes of blood pressure affect the excretion of urine, which
     may increase or decrease or even ceasing (BP – 40-50 mercury mm.); 3) changes
     in chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of the blood. Examples:
     billiribin, bile acids, glucose. A drop in osmotic or oncotic pressure of plasma
     leads to the increase of urine production with low gravity, for example,
     administration of fluids, intravenous injections of hypotonic solutions.
        Post renal (subrenal) factors: this group includes factors causing urinary tract
     obstruction and prevention urine outflow: renal calculi, tumors etc.
         Renal factors include: 1) inflammatory processes in kidneys, especially with
     autoimmune mechanism, for example, glomerulonephritis; 2)distinct infectious
     processes: focal nephritis, pyelonephritis; 3) disturbances in protein and lipid
     metabolism followed by the development of nephrose; 4) toxic kidneys affections
     (sepsis, mercury poisoning, Pb poisoning); 5) congenital abnormalities of kidneys
     (hypoplasia, polycystic disease); 6) hereditary defects of tubule enzymes.
          Kidney pathology manifests itself in changes in the amount of urine and in the
     composition of urine. The following changes in the amount of urine: 1) oliguria;
     2) anuria; 3) polyuria; 4) nocturia; 5) pollakiuria (frequent micturation).
         Oliguria – diminished excretion of urine. It may be both renal and extrarenal
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