Urban Search Rescue Teams What Size or Type is Needed by nikeborome

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Running head: URBAN SEARCH & RESCUE TEAMS - WHAT SIZE OR TYPE IS




                        Leading Community Risk Reduction




            Urban Search & Rescue Teams - What Size or Type is Needed?

                             Frederick Chad Roberson

                         St. George Fire Protection District

                              Baton Rouge, Louisiana




                                   August 2007
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                                      Certification Statement

       I hereby certify that this paper constitutes my own product, that where the language of

others is set forth, quotation marks so indicate, and that appropriate credit is given where I have

used the language, ideas, expressions, or writings of another.

                                                   Signed: ___________________________
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                                            Abstract

         The problem was the East Baton Rouge Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Advisory

Committee is trying to determine what type US&R team is needed. The purpose of the research

was to identify what type of team fits for East Baton Rouge. Descriptive research was used to

answer research questions. Questions included finding what are the types of teams, what risks

warrant the need for a team, what factors determine the size of other teams, and do communities

with similar populations and risk have teams. The procedures incorporated a literature review

and questionnaire of US&R teams. The results identified what are other types of US&R teams.

Recommendations included steps to select the appropriate type of US&R team for East Baton

Rouge.
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                        Table of Contents

                                                            PAGE

Certification Statement…………………………………………………….…                      2

Abstract………………………………………………………………………                                3

Table of Contents…………………………………………………………….                          4

Introduction…………………………………………………………………..                            5

Background and Significance………………………………………………..                    6

Literature Review……………………………………………………………                           10

Procedures……………………………………………………………………                               22

Results………………………………………………………………………..                               24

Discussion……………………………………………………………………                               27

Recommendations……………………………………………………………                             31

References……………………………………………………………………                               33

                              Appendices

Appendix A: Urban Search and Rescue Questionnaire……………………          38

Appendix B: Questionnaire Results……………………………………….                  41
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                 Urban Search & Rescue Teams - What Size or Type is Needed?

                                                Introduction

       After the incident of 9/11, emergency responders in East Baton Rouge Parish starting

thinking are we prepared? Urban Search and Rescue would be one piece of the puzzle that would

be needed for a collapse incident response. The problem would be that the Baton Rouge area had

no urban search and rescue (US&R) assets, no personnel trained in US&R, no equipment to

work a US&R incident, and up to September 11, 2001 no plans to expand emergency responders

capability of urban search and rescue response.

       Discussions began between the emergency response agencies in East Baton Rouge Parish

to attempt to put together an urban search and rescue capability. The agencies knew that

personnel would need to be trained and equipment would need to be purchased. But how many

trained personnel were going to be needed and what type of equipment was going to be needed

and how much was going to be needed to handle an urban search and rescue incident. Personnel

were trained and equipment was purchased, but no blueprint was being followed, the team was

just flowing, but not in one particular direction.

       The research problem was that the East Baton Rouge US&R Advisory Committee had

taken great strides to form the team, have personnel trained, purchased equipment, and even

responded to incidents, however, there has never been an evaluation of what size or type of

US&R team is needed for East Baton Rouge Parish. The purpose of this research is to provide

the East Baton Rouge US&R Advisory Committee with a suggested plan of action for the size

and type the East Baton Rouge US&R Team should be in the future to meet the community

needs for US&R.
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       Descriptive research will be used to collect data using questionnaires and interviews. The

data collected will be from communities that either are compatible in size or have similar risks.

Data will also be collected from justifications that have developed successful urban search and

rescue teams. Research questions include the following:

1. What are the types of urban search and rescue teams?

2. What risk events warrant the need for an urban search and rescue team?

3. What factors determine the size of other urban search and rescue teams?

4. Do similar sized communities have established urban search and rescue teams and what is

their type or size?

5. Do communities facing similar risks have an established urban search and rescues team and

what is type or size?

                                      Background and Significance

       The St. George Fire Protection District is located in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana.

The district is in an un-incorporated area of East Baton Rouge Parish. The district borders the

city of Baton Rouge, which lies to the north and west. The district borders the parishes of

Livingston and Ascension to the south and east. The population of the district can be described

as growing, especially after the Hurricane Katrina disaster. . The census figures for 2000 place

80,000 residents in the district (Westbrook, 2005). The district continues strong growth with new

subdivisions, apartment complexes, shopping districts, and other retail buildings under

construction.

A five person Board of Commissioners governs the St. George Fire Protection District that is an

independent taxing authority (St. George Fire Protection District [SGFPD], n.d.a) The board
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hires the fire chief who runs the day-to-day operations of the fire protection district. The fire

district is also called and known as the St. George Fire Department.

The beginning of the St. George Fire Protection District dates back to 1966. The district started

as a non-profit corporation entitled “Village St. George Volunteer Fire Department and Social

Club” (St. George Fire Protection District [SGFPD], n.d.b). The first fire station was constructed

in 1968. In the late 1970’s the department started hiring part-time firefighters to work during the

day while most of the volunteers were at work. The fire district hired its first career firefighters

in the 1995. Today, the St. George Fire Protection District has 149 career personnel staffing 8

stations covering approximately 65 square miles. These stations house 8 engine companies, 2

ladder truck companies, 2 tankers or water tenders, 2 reserve engines, 1 reserve ladder truck, 1

salvage unit, 1 dive rescue unit with a boat, 1 rope rescue unit, 1 hazardous material response

trailer, and 1 safety house trailer unit. The St. George Fire Protection also houses the East Baton

Rouge Urban Search and Rescue Team’s truck and trailer. The district has a minimum personnel

manning of 3 per engine and ladder truck. The district has three shifts A, B, and C. The shifts

work 24 hours on duty then 24 hours off for five consecutive calendar days (working three) then

the shift is off for four consecutive days then the cycle is repeated. Three chief officers: 1

Assistant Chief and 2 district fire chiefs manage each shift.

       In 2005, the district responded to 7,260 incidents, a 22.2% increase from the 5,942

incidents the St. George Fire Protection District responded to in 2004 (St. George Fire Protection

District [SGFPD], 2006c). The St. Fire Protection District provides trained personnel that

respond to incidents that include firefighting, emergency medical services at the basic level

hazardous materials, and technical rescue.
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       The East Baton Rouge Urban Search and Rescue Team was first established in the spring

of 2002 as a result of the 9/11 attacks. The Baton Rouge Area Mutual Aid System (BRAMAS)

acquired $100,000 in grant funding from the State of Louisiana to develop and equip an Urban

Search and Rescue Team for the Baton Rouge region. The money was directed and the East

Baton Rouge Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness oversaw spending of

the $100,000. A US&R Committee was established by BRAMAS to develop and equip a team.

The committee had no plan for the set up of the team. The money was spent on a 30’ response

trailer and basic US&R equipment. The committee sent out an invitation for team members to all

emergency response agencies in the eight-parish area of BRAMAS. After the equipment was

purchased and team applications were approved the team consisted of 50 emergency responders.

The Baton Rouge area was then awarded the Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI) grant. The

BRAMAS US&R Committee was able to make funding the US&R team one the UASI

strategies. When the state decided to fund the US&R initiative thru the UASI grant the state

decided on splitting the money, $400,000, between all the parishes based on population. This

affected the team in a negative way; since all eight public government agencies had different

ideas on how their money should be spent. The state made the process even messier by telling

each parish they could spend the money how they wanted too and they did not have to fund all

the strategies of the UASI grant. East Baton Rouge government officials then decided to back

down the US&R team from a regional membership to just a East Baton Rouge membership, but

would still support the region by responding thru Baton Rouge Area Mutual Aid System. So now

in the spring of 2004, the East Baton Rouge Urban Search & Rescue Team (EBR US&R) was

formed under its current format. This includes 25 members from four agencies in East Baton

Rouge Parish: St. George Fire Protection District (host agency), the Baton Rouge Fire
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Department, the Central Fire Protection District, and East Baton Rouge Emergency Medical

Services (EBR EMS).

       The four agencies chief’s along with the Director of East Baton Rouge Office of

Homeland Security & Emergency Preparedness make up the EBR US&R Advisory Committee.

This committee picked a program manager for the administrative leader and day-to-day manager

of the team.

       The EBR US&R team was asked by the State of Louisiana Health and Hospitals to

deploy to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. During the search and rescue operations the

program manager was asked by the Louisiana Fire Marshal’s & Louisiana Fire Chiefs

Association Hurricane Katrina Task Force to work with FEMA US&R officials. During this

assignment the FEMA US&R officials asked what search and rescue resource type would the

EBR US&R team fit under. The answer was that it resembled close to a Collapse Rescue Team

Type I, but was short of some equipment.

       So now almost two years after the Katrina response and other responses the EBR US&R

Advisory Committee has decided to add personnel to the team. The program manager has asked

the Advisory Committee what types of search and rescue team do they want to field and how are

we going to get to that point. The program manager and Advisory Committee need a road map

in order to fit into the National Incident Management System (NIMS) Search and Rescue

resource typing.

       This applied research project will assist the East Baton Rouge Urban Search and Rescue

Program Manager and the EBR US&R Advisory Committee in making informed decisions on

what size and type of US&R team is needed for the Baton Rouge area. Research will be available

to assist them in building out the team or task force.
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        The research will allow the fire district to support one of the operational objectives of the

U.S. Fire Administration, to “promote within communities a comprehensive, multihazard risk

reduction plan led by the fire service organization”(United States Fire Administration [USFA],

2003, p. II-2).

        Also, the applied research meets one of the goals in the Executive Development course of

the Executive Fire Officer Program. Goal 5 calls on executive fire officers (EFO’s) “to use

research to solve real world problems in their work environments”(National Fire Academy

[NFA], 2006, p. 12-4).

                                              Literature Review

1. What are the types of urban search and rescue teams?

        Resource typing is the classification and explanation of response resources (NIMS

Integration Center [NIC], 2005). The typing is done to provide emergency responders and

emergency managers with information that allow them to request and receive the suitable

resources for a disaster or emergency incident (NIC). The Integration Center states that resource

typing is a key component of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) allowing all

justifications from the federal level to the local level to locate, then request the correct or

appropriated resource for the emergency incident (NIC). Search and Rescue is one of eight

critical response assets that have been form by the NIMS Integration Center (NIC). The resource

tying definitions for 120 different resources was released on October 20, 2004 (NIMS Integration

Center [NIC], 2004). FEMA has invited all emergency services to continue to work to enhance

their resource typing initiative as they call this effort “an important component of the NIMS and

National Response Plan”(NIC).
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        Urban search and rescue typing is falls into two types of resources under NIMS;

collapsed search and rescue teams and urban search and rescue (US&R) task forces (US

Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2005).

The definition of a collapse search and rescue team according to FEMA is “a state, local, or

private technical rescue team that responds to locate, rescue, and recover individuals trapped in a

fallen structure or buried in structural collapse” (FEMA, p. 20). The collapse search and rescue

teams are defined by four types; Type I, Type II, Type III, or Type IV (FEMA, p.18). A Type IV

has a minimum capability of basic operations for 3-6 hours compared to a Type I Collapse

Search and Rescue Team that has minimum capabilities of sustained heavy operations for 18-24

hours. To help teams classify the type of collapse teams they fall under the FEMA Search and

Rescue Resource Matrix is broken down into metrics with definitions. The search and rescue

metrics are broken into the following categories: Training and Certifications, Sustained

Operations, Safe and Effective Response Operation Incidents, Specialty Search and Rescue

Capabilities, Technical Search Resources, Breathing Apparatus, Medical Materials and Supplies,

and HazMat Materials and Supplies (FEMA, p.18-20). Rescue teams would compare itself

against all the metric definitions and descriptions and then classify itself as a Type I, II, III, or

IV.

        The definition of a US&R task force according to the FEMA Search and Rescue Typed

Resources Definitions is a federal asset that is totally self-sufficient for the first 72 hours of a

deployment (FEMA, 2005, p. 38). The definition continues and states the task forces are “trained

and equipped by FEMA to conduct physical search and rescue in collapsed buildings, provide

emergency medical care to trapped victims, assess and control gas, electrical services and

hazardous materials, and evaluate and stabilize damaged structures.” The US&R Task Force
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resource is broken into two types; Type I or Type II (FEMA, p. 37). The Metric for the two task

forces are broken into the following; Number of People per Responses, Training, Areas of

Specialization, Sustained Operations, Organization, Rescue Equipment, Medical Equipment,

Technical Equipment, Communications Equipment, and Logistics (FEMA, p. 36-38). In contrast,

the NIMS online.com web page lists the same documents as the FEMA page and have under the

US&R task forces a Type I, Type II under construction, and a Type III, which would be the old

Type II (National Incident Management System [NIMS], 2004). It does state that a Type I

US&R task force when deployed by ground can add 10 ground support and a Type III can add 6

ground support personnel (NIMS). Under the NIMS Appendix they use the US&R Task Force

typing page as an example of a resource that the typing has been completed and it still lists a

US&R Task Force Type I and Type II, but no Type III (National Incident Management System

[NIMS], 2004, Appendix B). Also in the same NIMS document the glossary defines an US&R

Type I having weapons of mass destruction (WMD) capabilities and they define a US&R Type II

a light level task force (National Incident Management System [NIMS], 2004, Annex A).

       The state of California US&R Resources are recognized by four operational category

types as US&R Type-4 (Basic), US&R Type-3 (Light), US&R Type-2 (Medium), and US&R

Type-1 (Heavy) (California Governor's Office of Emergency Services, 2004, 21). California has

also typed US&R Task Forces. A regional US&R task force level for California is equipped to

handle large US&R operations and is to be self-sufficient for 24 hours (California Governor's

Office of Emergency Services, Appendix D). California also has the category of state / national

US&R task forces. These task forces just like the regional task forces they are equipped to

handle large US&R incidents and are to be self-sufficient for 72 hours (California Governor's

Office of Emergency Services, Appendix E). California has 8 state / national US&R task forces
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out of the 28 across the United States, giving the state of California almost one-third of the

national US&R Task Forces that are sponsored by FEMA (California Governor's Office of

Emergency Services, p. 2). California also has US&R strike teams that are broken down into

US&R Companies Type I thru Type 4 and US&R Crews Type I thru Type 4 (California

Governor’s Office of Emergency Services [OES], 2004, p. 14). The strike teams types are small

units than the task forces and their regional teams.

       The Florida Association for Search and Rescue has developed a USAR Resource Typing

Chart that is listed in their Resource Typing for Search and Rescue and Technical Rescue

Resources Manual. The Chart lists the Florida typing and compares it to the NIMS Typing

(Florida Association for Search and Rescue [FASAR], 2006, p. 7). Florida also gives its US&R

types a unique Florida designation. A Florida Type I USAR Team (NIMS Type I US&R Task

Force) is designated a Full Task Force, a Florida Type II (NIMS Type III US&R Task Force) is

designated an Intermediate Task Force, and a Florida Type III (NIMS Type I Collapse Search

and Rescue Team) is designated a Light Task Force (FASAR, p. 7). It is interesting to note that

the Florida’s Type II or Intermediate Task Force is compared to the NIMS Type III US&R Task

Force. The only problem with this is that the NIMS Typed Resources Definitions for Search and

Rescue Resources document does not have a Type III task force. The only US&R task forces in

the FEMA 508-8 document, as already noted are Type I and Type II (FEMA, 2005, p. 36-38).

       So does a federal type III US&R task force exist? The Introduction document of the

FEMA US&R task force equipment cache points out that the type III is a light task force

configuration (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2003, p. 9). When William

Lokey, Operations Branch Chief for the Response Division of FEMA DHS testified before the

US Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee on January 30, 2006 he
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stated that 11 Type III US&R task forces were part of the response to Hurricane Katrina (Senate

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, 2006, p. 6). In his testimony he stated

that a Type III task force has 28 members that are able to respond to small usually weather

incidents (Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, p. 4).

         Florida also has a Technical Rescue Team Typing Chart that lists 2 types of technical

rescue teams. A Florida Type I Technical Rescue Team is an NIMS Type II Collapse Search and

Rescue Team and is designated by Florida as a Heavy Technical Rescue Team (FASAR, p. 8). A

Florida Type II is listed as a NIMS Type III Collapse Search and Rescue Team and is designated

by Florida as a Light Technical Rescue Team (FASAR, p.8). Florida as does California bases its

typing system on an identified operational capability. Florida also uses four levels of operational

capability for US&R and they pair them with four general construction categories to help local

jurisdictions in identifying the appropriate US&R asset to request (FASAR, p. 4).

2. What risk events warrant the need for an urban search and rescue team?

       Urban Search and Rescue teams are used for all kinds of emergency events. These

include “earthquakes, hurricanes, typhoons, storms and tornados, floods, dam failures,

technological accidents, terrorist activities, and hazardous materials releases” (Federal

Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2007). Several of these events could easily occur in

Louisiana, especially in the greater Baton Rouge area. Louisiana, on average since 1871, can

expect a tropical storm or hurricane to strike every 1.2 years and we can expect a hurricane to hit

our state every 2.8 years (National Weather Service [NWS], 2003). I joined the St. George Fire

Protection District in 1992 and since that time we have had eight tropical systems to threaten the

Baton Rouge area. The state of Louisiana ranks #9 in the United States for the risk of death by

tornados (The Disaster Center [TDC], n.d.). On average since 1950, Louisiana has experienced
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25 tornados per year (TDC). In those tornados that strike the state of Louisiana an average of 3

people are killed per year along with an average of 48 injured (TDC). When one compares the

state of Louisiana against the rest of the nation by square mile it ranks fifth for the frequency of

tornadoes (TDC). Both hurricanes and tornadoes are just two events were urban search and

rescue teams are needed. During the Hurricane Katrina response members of the East Baton

Rouge Urban Search and Rescue Team were activated at one time or another for 25 days in

support of search and rescue operations. The East Baton Rouge Office of Homeland Security &

Emergency Preparedness lists the following potential disasters as threats: severe weather,

tornadoes, hurricanes, flooding, chemical emergencies, and the possibility of an act of terrorism

(East Baton Rouge Parish Office of Homeland Security & Emergency Preparedness

[EBROHSEP], n.d.).

       Florida’s Association for Search and Rescue states that US&R incidents can be caused by

several different events such as many already listed as tornadoes, acts of terrorism, hurricanes,

floods, and earthquakes that could cause damage to structures and could potentially trap

occupants in structures (FASAR, 2006, p. 4).

       Presidential Directive 8 National Preparedness (HSPD-8) pushes all levels of emergency

responders to do “all hazards preparedness” for “domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and

other emergencies” (White House [WH], 2003). The goal establishes a road map to help

agencies to determine their priorities, any targets, and a way to develop the needed capabilities

(US Department of Homeland Security [DHS], 2005). The road map includes jurisdictions

identifying any major events that could occur, the jobs that need to be done in “prevention,

protection, response, and recovery” and “the specific capabilities and levels of capability that

would minimize the impact on lives, property, and the economy” (DHS).
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       The Department of Homeland Security established 15 National Planning Scenarios in a

cross section of disasters and emergencies that they say “pose the greatest risk to the Nation.”

Out of the 15 Scenarios listed, scenario #10 Natural Disaster – Hurricane would be a major event

for the Baton Rouge area. The need for US&R assets would be great, just like Hurricane Katrina.

All 28 federal US&R task forces were deployed in response to Hurricane Katrina (Senate

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, 2006, p. 6). The Federal interagency,

coordinated by the Homeland Security Council (HSC) and in partnership with the Department of

Homeland Security created these scenarios so jurisdictions can create a minimum and effective

response capability by planning to be able to respond to a wide range of emergency events or

disasters (Homeland Security Council [HSC], 2005).

       From the national planning scenarios the next planning step developed was a wide-

ranging list of tasks, called the Universal Task List (UTL), that could be performed in any major

emergency or disaster, many which could be used in the 15 National Planning Scenarios (DHS,

2005). Jurisdictions would select only the tasks that would apply to their area of responsibility;

for example, the East Baton Rouge US&R Team would perform the US&R tasks. There are four

tasks listed under the Search and Rescue section of the UTL (US Department of Homeland

Security [DHS], 2005, p. 82). The tasks cover from developing US&R plans and procedures,

training, coordinating US&R response, and then conducting search and rescue operations (DHS,

p. 82-83). The US&R task supports the ‘response’ mission, one of the four missions. The four

missions categories that all the tasks fall under include; Prevention, Protection, Response, and

Recovery (DHS, p. ii-iii).

       The final guidance planning process is a list of 36 capabilities, version 1, needed to

perform the tasks identified for the 15 National Planning Scenarios called the Target Capabilities
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List (TLC) (United States Government Accountability Office [GAO], 2005, p. 18). The TLC

provides direction on the “specific capabilities and levels of capability that federal, state, local,

and tribal first responders will be expected to develop and maintain” (GAO, p.19). The TLC

Version 2.0 was released in September 2006 and it has 37 core capabilities (US Department of

Homeland Security [DHS], 2006, p. vi). Phase I capabilities are related to response. These are

capabilities that are going to be performed by local and state jurisdictions (DHS, p. vii). Urban

Search and Rescue is listed as one of the 37 core capabilities under Phase I. DHS is providing

assistance to jurisdictions by developing a capability summary for all the capabilities. The

summaries include “a definition and outcome, preparedness and performance tasks and measure,

capability elements (resources), national targets, and assigned responsibility for the building and

maintaining the capability” (DHS, p. vii). The capabilities work groups of TLC Version 2.0 are

assisting the NIMS typing of all the resources identified in the TCL, which this would include

US&R (DHS, p. viii). The Urban Search and Rescue Capability was one of 12 capabilities that

have been enhanced in Version 2.0 due to the findings and recommendations from Hurricane

Katrina reports. The reports included The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina Lessons

Learned from the White House, A Failure of Initiative from The House of Representatives Select

Committee, and Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared from The Senate Homeland

Security and Governmental Affairs Committee (DHS, p. 5). All of the capabilities in the TLC

define the resources required to perform the task as it relates to the specific level of performance

required (DHS, p. 11). The latest version of the TLC also uses the NIMS Resource Typing

Definitions when available for the resource listed and the others that need typing will be done

under the authority of the NIMS Integration Center (DHS, p. 11). The TLC has used three risk
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factors to set what level is needed for each one of the capabilities. The three include population

and population density, critical infrastructure, and the threat (DHS, p. 13-14).

       The Baton Rouge area for the last three years has been participating in the Department of

Homeland Security (DHS) Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI). The UASI program

“provides resources for the unique equipment, training, planning, and exercise needs of select

high threat urban areas” (Department of Homeland Security [DHS], 2006). The Baton Rouge

area identified projects for their UASI application and US&R was one of the projects listed. An

investment justification was done which recognized the enhancements for the Baton Rouge area

US&R effort. These enhancements listed which target capabilities of the National Preparedness

Goal were going to be met.

3. What factors determine the size of other urban search and rescue teams?

       It appears that the type of US&R Team or Task Force determines the number of

personnel on the team. The FEMA NIMS Type I has a 70-person response (FEMA, 2005, p. 36).

To fill the 70 spots for a response most task forces roster each position three deep. The task

forces that belong to the federal system have an agreement with FEMA that they must be staffed

three deep (Paulsell, 2003, p. 4). For example, Virginia US&R Task Force One sponsored by

Fairfax County Virginia Fire & Rescue Department has roughly 200 members on its task force

(Virginia Task Force One, n.d.).

       California’s Type I state / national US&R task forces also call for 70 personnel, which is

consistent with other Type I task forces (California Governor's Office of Emergency Services,

2004, p. 31). The regional US&R task force level for the state of California has 29 positions

(California Governor's Office of Emergency Services, p. 30). The California Type I and II

US&R Company have 13 personnel assigned to each resource. (OES, 2004, p. 14). The
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California Type III and IV US&R Company strike teams have 16 personnel assigned to each

one. The California US&R crew strike teams are identical as far as the number of personnel for

each type. A Type I and II US&R crew each has 13 personnel and the Type III and IV crews

have 16 personnel assigned to the resource (OES, p. 14).

       A FEMA Type III has 28 personnel assigned to it, about half of a Type I (Senate

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, 2006, p. 4).

       Florida’s Association for Search and Rescue USAR resource typing chart shows

minimum staffing based on their typing (FASAR, 2006, p. 7). A Florida Type I US&R resource,

which they designated as a Full Task Force, and also list as a NIMS Type I task force with 70

members. A Florida Type II, which they designate as an Intermediate Task Force, and list as a

NIMS Type III task force, but they call for a minimum of 35 personnel for staffing (FASAR, p.

7). A Florida Type III, which they designate as a Light Task Force, and list on their chart as a

NIMS Type I Collapse Search and Rescue Team, has a minimum staffing of 22 (FASAR, p. 7).

Florida US&R Task Force 5 based in Jacksonville, Florida has approximately 140 members on

their unit, so it appears they are two deep for every position of their task force (City of

Jacksonville Florida, n.d.). Florida also has two types of technical rescue teams that are used for

US&R events. The Florida Type I technical rescue team, which they designate a Heavy

Technical Rescue Team (TRT), is a NIMS Type II Collapse Search and Rescue Team that has a

minimum staffing of 8 personnel (FASAR, p. 8). Technical rescue team Florida Type II or a

NIMS Type III Collapse Search and Rescue Team, which Florida designates a Light TRT has a

minimum staffing of 6 personnel (FASAR, p. 8).

4. Do similar sized communities have established urban search and rescue teams and what is

their type or size?
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       The TCL under their capability summary chart lists the resource unit; in this case US&R,

based on the size of the city (DHS, 2006, p. 53). The only US&R resource units listed for cities

are a Type II Collapse Search and Rescue Team and a Type II Heavy Rescue Squad. The chart

directs the resource based on the size of the community. A city that has more than 25,000 but

less than 100,000 is charted to have one Type II Heavy Rescue Squad. A Type II Collapse

Search and Rescue Team is the resource unit listed for cities that have a population greater than

100,000 (DHS, p. 53).

       A comprehensive list of local US&R resources is from the Master Mutual Aid System of

California. The California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services (OES) Fire and Rescue

Branch evaluated and certified the US&R resources (Urban Search and Rescue Emergency

Advisory Committee, 2003, p. 17). The list breaks types the US&R resource by capability. The

inventory of local US&R resources in California that were recognized by OES included 16

Heavy US&R Types, 22 Medium US&R Types, and 63 Light US&R Types (Urban Search and

Rescue Emergency Advisory Committee, p. 19). Santa Barbara County is listed as having a

medium US&R resource capability. The US census bureau states the population of Santa Barbara

County at 400,000 in 2003 (US Census Bureau [USCB], 2007c). This can be compared to East

Baton Rouge Parish with a population estimate of 429,000 in 2006 (US Census Bureau [USCB],

2007d). The city of Long Beach, California has a population of 475,000 and they have a US&R

resource capability typed as heavy (US Census Bureau [USCB], 2007e).

       The state of South Carolina with a population of 4.3 million has a very close population

to the state of Louisiana (Wikipedia, 2007). Louisiana has a population of 4.2 million based on a

estimate from the US Census Bureau (US Census Bureau [USCB], 2007b). The citizens of South

Carolina is protected by one Type I US&R task force known as South Carolina Task Force 1 and
                                                                             Urban Search &       21


four regional US&R teams based in Hilton Head, Greenville, Myrtle Beach, and Charleston

(Wikipedia, 2007).

5. Do communities facing similar risks have an established urban search and rescues team and

what is type or size?

       Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff stated the UASI communities are the

ones “facing the greatest risk and demonstrating the greatest need” (DHS, 2006). In fiscal year

2006, the Department of Homeland Security identified 46 urban areas in 28 states and the

District of Columbia (DHS). Comparing the list of FEMA US&R Type I task forces to the list of

UASI communities, 13 are not part of the UASI program (Federal Emergency Management

Agency [FEMA], 2006).

       Baton Rouge lies in a hurricane prone region along with being in the Zone III wind zone

based on the US Wind Zones (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2007, p. 4).

Levels of risk during high-wind events are based on the number of tornadoes per 3700 square

miles and the wind zone (FEMA, p. 3). East Baton Rouge Parish lies on the border between the

two levels of averaging 6-10 and 11-15 tornadoes per 3700 square miles. This places it in the

High Risk area for winds (FEMA, p. 3).

       In summary, the literature review revealed information on several types of urban search

and rescue task forces and collapse search and rescue teams that have been developed by the

federal government and different states. There is information in the literature review that shows

Type II or Type III task forces, even though they appear the same. It appears and research will

hopefully show how task forces are typing themselves for this 28-person task force. The

literature review then discusses several risk events that justify the need for communities to

establish US&R task forces or teams. The factors that determine the size or number of personnel
                                                                              Urban Search &        22


on a US&R task force or team is examined. The evaluation of literature discussed similar sized

communities to East Baton Rouge Parish and what type or size US&R task forces or team they

have established. The literature review on this and the next research question about communities

facing similar risk that East Baton Rouge face was tougher and very limited in making this

comparison. The literature review research and the finding led to the development of a

questionnaire that was conducted.

                                                 Procedures

          The procedures for my research project started with the establishing a questionnaire to

send out to established US&R task forces and collapse search and rescue teams to identify

solutions for my five research questions.

          Attempting to capture the largest amount of task forces and teams the questionnaire was

posted on the States Urban Search and Rescue Alliance (SUSAR) yahoo groups website. The

SUSAR Alliance is a non-profit agency that represents 35 states that have established US&R

teams across the United States and Puerto Rico (State Urban Search and Rescue Alliance

[SUSAR], 2006).

          The questionnaire developed included 13 questions based on my five research questions.

The questions were developed based on the literature review information that was discovered by

other authors.

          Descriptive research was used, since this type of research involves “describing a current

situation” (National Fire Academy [NFA], 2006, SM 4-19). The goal of the research project was

to identify what actions that the East Baton Rouge US&R Advisory Committee can decide on to

determine if the current team size or type meets the community needs for urban search and

rescue.
                                                                               Urban Search &        23


       This research paper has some limitations. The questionnaire posted on the SUSAR

website are only useful if they are completed and returned. Many areas of the United States had

no response. Other limitations include answers to the questions on the questionnaire answered

inadequately or not fully answered.

                                                 Definitions

Collapse search and rescue team: a state, local, or private technical rescue team that responds to

locate, rescue, and recover individuals trapped in a fallen structure or buried in structural

collapse.

National planning scenarios: a cross section of disasters and emergencies that pose the greatest

risk to the nation determined by the US Department of Homeland Security.

National Incident Management System: a consistent nationwide incident management system

designed to enable all government, private sector, and nongovernmental organizations to work

together during domestic incidents.

Resource typing: is the classification and explanation of response resources done to provide

emergency responders and emergency managers with information that allow them to request and

receive the suitable resources for a disaster or emergency incident.

Presidential Directive 8 National Preparedness (HSPD-8): pushes all levels of emergency

responders to do all hazards preparedness for domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and

other emergencies.

Target Capabilities: provides direction on the specific capabilities and levels of capability that

federal, state, local, and tribal first responders will be expected to develop and maintain

determined by the US Department of Homeland Security.
                                                                             Urban Search &         24


Universal Task List: a wide-ranging list of tasks that could be performed in any major

emergency or disaster, many which could be used in the 15 National Planning Scenarios.

Urban Search and Rescue: involves the location, rescue or extrication, and initial medical

stabilization of victims trapped in structural collapses.

                                               Results

       To gather research from other agencies a questionnaire was established using 13

questions (Appendix A). The questionnaire was sent out to US&R task forces and teams using

the SUSAR yahoo group’s page. Appendix B shows the results of the research. Twenty-three

US&R organizations responded to the questionnaire.

1. What are the types of urban search and rescue teams?

       The question was asked how is your Urban Search and Rescue resource typed? Nineteen

responses stated they were an Urban Search and Rescue Task Force and four answered stating

they were a Collapse Search and Rescue Team. The next question used to determine what typed

resource is most teams or task forces using to classify their units. The questions were based on

the NIMS Typing for Search and Rescue Resources (November 2005) document. When placing

their teams the respondents had the choice of all four types of Collapse Search and Rescue

Teams: Type I to Type IV or the two types of US&R task forces (FEMA, 2005). The

respondents also had the chance to answer the question if they are not using the NIMS typing for

their Urban Search and Rescue resource. Thirteen of the respondents answered they were a

US&R task force with seven answering they were a type I and six stating they were a type II task

force. The next highest category was the Collapse Search and Rescue Team type I with four

stating they fell under this category. Two respondents stated they did not meet any of the listed

NIMS typed resources for search and rescue and were working toward meeting one of the types,
                                                                               Urban Search &          25


but did not state which one they were attempting to meet. One respondent answered that they

meet all the requirements of a task force except for the position of structural engineer.

2. What risk events warrant the need for an urban search and rescue team?

       The respondents had the opportunity to answer this exact question by checking all the

different risks that there task force or team faced. The choices included all of the risks listed in

the definition of US&R from FEMA. These include “earthquakes, hurricanes, typhoons, storms

and tornados, floods, dam failures, technological accidents, terrorist activities, and hazardous

materials releases” (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2007). Everyone who

answered the question checked storms and tornadoes as a potential risk for the need of having an

US&R resource for their community. Following in a close second was the answer of ‘floods.’

95.7% of the respondents checked this answer to the question. Terrorist activities was the third

highest risk event with 87% of the respondents checking the answered as a risk that warranted

the need for an US&R asset in their community. Hurricanes then technological accidents finished

closely behind with 78.3% and 73.9% respectfully. One respondent placed an answer of ‘war’

for a risk event for the need of having US&R capabilities. The next question on the questionnaire

asked the respondent to check their top risk event facing their US&R team or task force.

Hurricanes and storms or tornadoes tied for the top spot, both receiving 39.1%. The next closest

risk event was floods and terrorist event tying with 8.7%. It is interesting to note that when the

US&R teams and task forces had to opportunity to check all the risks that warrant the need for an

US&R resource that floods finished a close second with 95.7% of teams checking that risk, but

when the teams and task forces had the opportunity to check to the top risk the flood risk fell

below hurricanes as a risk event needed for US&R.

3. What factors determine the size of other urban search and rescue teams?
                                                                              Urban Search &      26


       Several factors that could determine the size of a US&R team or task forces were

proposed to the respondents of the questionnaire. The respondents had the opportunity to check

all that applied to their team or task force. The top factor according to the respondents was ‘team

or task force type’ with 65.2% of the respondents checking this answer. Following in a close

second was having qualified personnel to serve on the team or task force with 60.9% of the

respondents placing this as an answer as a factor. The next three answers were very close with

equipment funding, sustained operational funding, and population served coming in at 56.5%,

52.2%, and 47.8% respectfully.

       The next question asked for the respondents to answer was based on the US Homeland

Security core capabilities to achieve the four homeland security mission areas. The question

posed to the respondents was the size or type of your US&R team or task force determined by

using the Target Capabilities List (TLC). Urban Search and Rescue is one of the TLC’s 37

capabilities. 77.3% of the respondents stated that they did not use this as a determination for the

size or type of their US&R team or task force. One respondent stated their US&R asset was

developed in 1995, long before the TLC was established.

       The next question asked for the respondents to answer was based on the US Homeland

Security’s Universal Task List (UTL). This is a menu of tasks that may be performed in major

events illustrated by the National Planning Scenarios (DHS, 2005). The question asked was your

US&R team or task force developed to meet the UTL tasks? 59.1% of the respondents stated

they did not use the tasks to develop their US&R task force or team. Again, one respondent

stated their US&R asset was developed in 1995, before the UTL was developed.

4. Do similar sized communities have established urban search and rescue teams and what is

their type or size?
                                                                            Urban Search &       27


5. Do communities facing similar risks have an established urban search and rescue team and

what is their type or size?

       Research questions 4 and 5 are related so they are group together. The next question on

the questionnaire was what is the population served by your US&R asset. The total population of

all the respondents answering the questionnaire totaled 65.1 million people protected by US&R

assets. The current total population of the United States according to the US Census Bureau is

302 million (US Census Bureau [USCB], 2007a). So the respondents answering the

questionnaire protect 21.5% of the entire US population with the US&R resources listed.

       One other city in the state of Louisiana is Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) area.

The city of New Orleans along with 3 other parishes makes up the New Orleans UASI region.

They have developed Southeast Louisiana Urban Search and Rescue Task Force 1 (Southeast

Louisiana Urban Search and Rescue Task Force [SELATF1], n.d.). They state they are a Type III

US&R task force (States Urban Search and Rescue Alliance [SUSAR], 2007).

       The next question asked for the respondents to answer was based on the UASI grant

program. The UASI program has identified urban areas in the US that they classify as high- risk

areas (DHS, 2006).

                                               Discussion

       The research, literature review, and completed questionnaires have found that there is

several ways communities are protecting their communities with US&R resources. There are all

different types of US&R teams and task forces. A major objective of this ARP was to identify

was other areas of the United States are doing in regards of resource typing for urban search and

rescue and the size of their teams.
                                                                               Urban Search &      28


       On the subject of typing, there seems to be an updating problem between the FEMA

website and the NIMS online website in regards to the US&R task force typing for a Type II or

Type III. On the literature review the FEMA website was located first and cited the November

2005 document FEMA 508-8 typed resources definitions - search and rescue resources, which

states there is a Type II US&R task force and no Type III (FEMA, 2005, p. 36). Then on the

NIMS online website it states that there is a Type III US&R task force and the Type II as under

development (NIMS, 2004). It does not have a date that is updated. With other documentation as

the testimony of William Lokey before Congress on the search and rescue response stated that

Type III US&R task forces were developed to the Gulf coast (Senate Homeland Security and

Governmental Affairs Committee, 2006). This would seem to be the federal government not

updating all of its websites that reference the same document. This could really create some

confusion for emergency responders and emergency management officials that are attempting to

use the search and rescue resource document to order additional resources in the time of need for

their community.

       Also the FEMA 508-8 typed resource document states the task forces as federal assets,

and it lists the collapse search and rescue teams as a state or local rescue team used in structural

collapse rescue (FEMA, 2005). But in my literature review and research it is clear that states

have developed US&R task forces that are not in the federal system. The state of Florida on their

US&R resource typing chart list a Florida Type I as an equivalent to the NIMS Type I US&R

Task Force (FASAR, 2006, p. 7). The state of Florida answered my research questionnaire and

stated they have 9 US&R task forces. Two of the task forces are part of the 28 federal task forces

and the other 7 are state assets. Again this would go against the NIMS resource-typing

document. The authors understands what states are trying to do and develop US&R task forces as
                                                                                 Urban Search &      29


a state asset so they can have their own protection and not have to wait on a federal response. But

it appears that the everyone need to get on the same page and straighten out some of the

terminology so that a layperson looking at the documents on search and rescue resources would

not get easily confused.

        Some states, such as Florida have their own typing system and designations for their

US&R resources, but still reference there the NIMS search and rescue designation (FASAR,

2006). Using two different terms for resource typing would seem to add confusion to an effort

that the key is to eliminate confusion in identifying search and rescue typing. This seems to go

against the NIMS statement that resource typing is used for officials to “request the correct or

appropriated resource for the emergency incident” (NIC, 2005).

        Another federal document that has just been updated but does not seem to match up with

the NIMS search and rescue resource typing is the Version 2.0 Target Capabilities List (TLC)

released in 2006. It states on its capability chart the resource unit based on the size of the city. It

has listed for a city that has more than 25,000 but less than 100,000 is charted to have one Type

II Heavy Rescue Squad (DHS, 2006). But the problem is that the NIMS resource typing for

search and rescue does not have a Type Heavy Rescue Squad listed as a resource. The problem is

further compounded or unexplained as the TLC version 2.0 states the capabilities work groups of

TLC Version 2.0 are assisting the NIMS typing of all the resources identified in the TCL, which

this would include US&R (DHS, p. viii). A Type II Collapse Search and Rescue Team is the

resource unit listed for cities that have a population greater than 100,000 (DHS, p. 53). Now this

makes common sense as it is a listed search and rescue resource under the NIMS document

(FEMA, 2005). It was interesting to note from the response to the questionnaire question #8 that
                                                                              Urban Search &      30


77.3% of the US&R teams and task forces did not use the tasks to determine the size or type of

their US&R asset.

       The risk events were to be found straight forward and no surprises on type of risks affect

the need for US&R assets. The big ones over the last few years have been the hurricanes that

have struck the United States. In my research the questionnaire response hurricanes turned out to

be the top risk event listed for facing US&R teams or task forces.

       Factors determining the size of task forces and teams started with the type of the US&R

task force or team. The literature review showed that a Type I US&R task force has 70 members.

To fill the 70 spots for a response most task forces roster each position three deep. The task

forces that belong to the federal system have an agreement with FEMA that they must be staffed

three deep (Paulsell, 2003, p. 4). My research question # 11 asked US&R task forces and teams

how many personnel are on team or task force? Over 80% of the respondents had over 140

personnel on their team or task force. This shows that most if a Type I task force are at least

double staffed but not three deep as the federal task forces are required to do to meet their

agreement with FEMA.

       Findings on the research of similar sized communities and similar based risks for the

need of urban search and rescue was mixed. The UASI grant program identifying high- risk areas

was a great comparison to determine if those areas had US&R assets. It was a great identifier

since the Baton Rouge area was a UASI region for the last three years. The data showed in fiscal

year 2006, the Department of Homeland Security identified 46 urban areas in 28 states and the

District of Columbia (DHS). Comparing the list of FEMA US&R Type I task forces to the list of

UASI communities, 13 are not part of the UASI program (Federal Emergency Management

Agency [FEMA], 2006). Reviewing the size of cities and what size or type of US&R asset they
                                                                             Urban Search &         31


had was shown by the questionnaire question # 10 showed most of the large metro area had

established Type I or III US&R task forces. This would be similar to the list of the federal task

forces, with many in large urban areas, such as New York, Los Angeles, and Miami.

                                            Recommendations

       The East Baton Rouge Urban Search & Rescue Advisory Committee now has the

research to help it identify the types of US&R teams and task forces that are being used across

the United States. This information can be used to assist them in making the decisions on future

expansion for the protection of our community based on our risks. The following

recommendations are being made to help the East Baton Rouge Urban Search & Rescue

Advisory Committee decide on what type of US&R asset is needed in the Baton Rouge area.

1. Review the risk events that affect East Baton Rouge Parish and determine which ones would

need an urban search and rescue asset.

2. Select a US&R Team or Task Force Type based on the NIMS resource typing search and

rescue document.

3. Select a US&R Team or Task Force Type based on the US&R asset being able to respond

effectively to manage any of the identified 15 National Planning Scenarios that would affect the

Baton Rouge area.

4. Select a US&R Team or Task Force Type based on the US&R asset needed to achieve the

core capabilities of the Target Capabilities List (TLC.

5. Select a U&SR Team or Task Force needed to achieve the menu of tasks that needs to be

performed in major events illustrated by the 15 National Planning Scenarios.

6. Select a US&R Team or Task Force Type that is the appropriate for the size of the East Baton

Rouge community.
                                                                            Urban Search &    32


       A recommendation to readers and future researchers for the advancement of the urban

search and rescue is to not to give up. This ARP is intended to point out the ways other

communities are being protected by US&R resources. These resources are not used much over

time but have demonstrated in times of need, such as Oklahoma City, 9-11, and the Hurricane

Katrina disaster they are very valuable and are a needed asset.
                                                                            Urban Search &     33


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       m_.htm#elements
                                                                            Urban Search &     35


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                                                                          Urban Search &     36


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       November 14). FEMA 508-8 typed resources definitions - search and rescue resources.
                                                                            Urban Search &   37


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                                                                    Urban Search &     38


                                      Appendix A

                          Urban Search and Rescue Questionnaire

1. How is your Urban Search and Rescue resource Typed?

   •   Collapse Search & Rescue Team
   •   Urban Search & Rescue Task Force

2. Does your team or task force meet the NIMS Typing for Search and Rescue Resources
(November 2005) Document?

   •   Yes – Collapse Search and Rescue Team Type I (Skip to Question #3)
   •   Yes – Collapse Search and Rescue Team Type II (Skip to Question #3)
   •   Yes – Collapse Search and Rescue Team Type III (Skip to Question #3)
   •   Yes – Collapse Search and Rescue Team Type IV (Skip to Question #3)
   •   Yes – US&R Task Force Type I
   •   Yes – US&R Task Force Type II (based on Nov 05 Document) Really US&R Task Force
       Type III (Skip Question #3)
   •   No – (If No please go to Question #3)
   •   If Necessary – Add any Comments to your answer

3. How is your US&R team or task force typed?


4. What risk(s) events warrant the need for your US&R team or Task Force? (Check all
that apply)

   •   Earthquakes
   •   Hurricanes
   •   Storms or Tornadoes
   •   Floods
   •   Technological Accidents
   •   Terrorist Activities
   •   Other (please specify)

5. Please check your top risk event facing your US&R team or task force?

   •   Earthquakes
   •   Hurricanes
   •   Storms or Tornadoes
   •   Floods
   •   Technological Accidents
   •   Terrorist Activities
   •   Other (please specify)
                                                                       Urban Search &    39


6. What factor(s) was used to determine the size of your US&R team or task force? (Check
all that apply)

   •   Team or Task Force Type
   •   Equipment Funding
   •   Sustained or Operational Funding
   •   Population Served
   •   Qualified Personnel to serve on the team or task force
   •   Risks Events
   •   Other (please specify)

7. The US Department of Homeland Security has identified 15 National Planning
Scenarios that pose the greatest risk to the Nation. Was your team or task force developed
to be able to respond effectively to manage one of these events?

   •   Yes
   •   No
   •   Other (please specify)

8. The Target Capabilities List (TLC) developed by the US Department of Homeland
Security contains core capabilities to achieve the four homeland security mission’s areas.
Urban Search and Rescue is listed under the “Respond” mission area. Was the size or type
of your team (task force) determined by using the TLC?

   •   Yes
   •   No
   •   Other (please specify)

9. The Universal Task List (UTL), developed by the US Department of Homeland Security,
has a menu of tasks that may be performed in major events illustrated by the National
Planning Scenarios. Was your US&R team or task force developed to meet these tasks?

   •   Yes
   •   No
   •   Other (please specify)

10. What is the population served by your US&R asset?



11. How many personnel does your team or task force members have on it?


12. Did your team or task force use Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant money to
equip and train your US&R team or task force?
                                                                      Urban Search &     40


   •   Yes
   •   No
   •   Other (please specify)
13. Thank you for taking time to complete the questionnaire. Please list your team or task
force name. Your information will not be released and only used for any follow up
questions.

Thanks

Chad Roberson
                                                                   Urban Search &      41


                                      Appendix B

                                 Questionnaire Results
   ________________________________________________________________________
1. How is your Urban Search and Rescue resource Typed?
                                                            Response
                                                            Percent
Collapse Search & Rescue Team                               17.4%
Urban Search & Rescue Task Force                            82.6%

2. Does your team or task force meet the NIMS Typing for Search and Rescue Resources
(November 2005) Document?
                                                                     Response
                                                                     Percent
Yes – Collapse Search and Rescue Team Type I (Skip to Question #3)   17.4%
Yes – Collapse Search and Rescue Team Type II (Skip to Question #3)   4.4%
Yes – Collapse Search and Rescue Team Type III (Skip to Question #3) 4.4%
Yes – Collapse Search and Rescue Team Type IV (Skip to Question #3) 0.0%
Yes – US&R Task Force Type I                                         30.4%
Yes – US&R Task Force Type II (based on Nov 05 Document)             26.1%
Really US&R Task Force Type III (Skip Question #3)
No – (If No please go to Question #3)                                17.4%
If Necessary – Add any Comments to your answer                       3 answers

3. How is your US&R team or task force typed?

                                                                  10 answers

4. What risk(s) events warrant the need for your US&R team or Task Force? (Check all
that apply)

                                                                  Response
                                                                  Percent
Earthquakes                                                       60.9%
Hurricanes                                                        78.3%
Storms or Tornadoes                                               100%
Floods                                                            95.7%
Technological Accidents                                           73.9%
Terrorist Activities                                              87.0%
Other (please specify)                                            13.0%
                                                                       Urban Search &    42


5. Please check your top risk event facing your US&R team or task force?

                                                                      Response
                                                                      Percent

Earthquakes                                                            4.4%
Hurricanes                                                            39.1%
Storms or Tornadoes                                                   39.1%
Floods                                                                 8.7%
Technological Accidents                                                0.0%
Terrorist Activities                                                   8.7%
Other (please specify)                                                 0.0%




6. What factor(s) was used to determine the size of your US&R team or task force? (Check
all that apply)
                                                                    Response
                                                                    Percent
Team or Task Force Type                                             65.2%
Equipment Funding                                                   56.5%
Sustained or Operational Funding                                    52.2%
Population Served                                                   47.8%
Qualified Personnel to serve on the team or task force              60.9%
Risks Events                                                        43.5%
Other (please specify)                                              2 answers

7. The US Department of Homeland Security has identified 15 National Planning
Scenarios that pose the greatest risk to the Nation. Was your team or task force developed
to be able to respond effectively to manage one of these events?

                                                                      Response
                                                                      Percent
Yes                                                                   59.1%
No                                                                    40.9%
Other (please specify)                                                2 answers

8. The Target Capabilities List (TLC) developed by the US Department of Homeland
Security contains core capabilities to achieve the four homeland security mission’s areas.
Urban Search and Rescue is listed under the “Respond” mission area. Was the size or type
of your team (task force) determined by using the TLC?

                                                                      Response
                                                                      Percent
Yes                                                                   22.7%
                                                                    Urban Search &    43


No                                                                  77.3%
Other (please specify)                                              2 answers

9. The Universal Task List (UTL), developed by the US Department of Homeland Security,
has a menu of tasks that may be performed in major events illustrated by the National
Planning Scenarios. Was your US&R team or task force developed to meet these tasks?

                                                                    Response
                                                                    Percent
Yes                                                                 40.9%
No                                                                  59.1%
Other (please specify)                                              2 answers

10. What is the population served by your US&R asset?
                                                                    Response
                                                                    Percent
                                                                    19 answers


11. How many personnel does your team or task force members have on it?

                                                                    Response
                                                                    Percent
                                                                    20 answers




12. Did your team or task force use Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant money to
equip and train your US&R team or task force?

                                                                    Response
                                                                    Percent
Yes                                                                 40.0%
No                                                                  60.0%
Other (please specify)                                              5 answers

								
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