Unit Two Colonization of America

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					Unit Two: Colonization of
European Colonization of America
        Spanish Colonization
• The colonization of what is America today
  started with the Spanish during the Siglo de Oro
  with many colonies (settlements in a new land
  controlled and ran by a parent country) all
  across the New World.
• The largest area conquered and successfully
  colonized by Spain was the territory of the Aztec
  (Mexico) by Cortez, naming it
  New Spain.
• The city of Tenochtitlan
  (Aztec capital) was burned
  to the ground and replaced with Mexico City as
  the capital of New Spain.
                 New Mexico
• After the explorations of the Southwest of
  America, Juan de Onate in 1598 led a group of
  setters across the Rio Grande founding a new
  colony in the Southwest called New Mexico.
• Pedro de Peralta became the first governor of
  New Mexico and made the town of Santa Fe its
• As a way of settling the different colonies and
  stretching their boundaries the Spanish founded
  strings of presidios (missionaries/forts) to house
  monks and soldiers to Christianize and civilize
  the natives.
• The priests were either of the Dominican or
  Franciscan orders.
             New Mexico
• Starting in 1769 a Franciscan priest
  named Junipero Serra spread the Spanish
  empire into Alta California establishing
  presidios from San Diego to San
  Francisco which were linked together by
  the El Camino Real (Royal Highway).
• In the colony of New Mexico a Pueblo
  named Pope in 1680 led a
  massive revolt known as the
  Pueblo revolt to expel the
  Spanish from the area.
          The Spanish Empire
• To control and coordinate all Spanish colonies
  in the New World and Asia the Council of the
  Indies was formed to over see all the colonies.
• In the colonies the lands were divided into
  haciendas (large estates) ran by a labor
  system called the encomienda system run by
  an encomendero.
• The Natives were forced into servitude
  (slavery) to mine for gold, farm cash crops, or
  run ranches of cattle or pigs. (Indian cattle
  herders were called Vaqueros which were the
  first cowboys)
           Colonial Society
• In New Spain and other American colonies
  a new class system developed with the
  new emerging culture in the Americas.
  – 1.) At the top were the Peninsulares who were
    born on the Iberian Peninsula, if they were of
    nobility they were called Hidalgos.
  – 2.) In the middle were the Criollos who were
    born in the Americas, but pure blood Spanish.
  – 3.) The lower class were the Mestizos who
    were mixed Spanish and Native.
  – 4.) The lowest level of the society was true
    natives, Africans, or mixed African-Natives.
          French Colonization
• The French chose not to colonize the New World
  in large numbers, but rather use outposts for
  strategic military advantage and for the fur trade.
• The first colony founded in America by the
  French was on the island of Acadia (Nova
  Scotia) in 1603 by Pierre Dugua de Monts with
  its capital being Port Royal.
• In 1608 Samuel de Champlain
  founded the city of Quebec to
  be the capital of France’s second
  colony New France (Canada).
  The second major town in New
  France was Montreal.
               New France
• The French used New France as an outpost
  for the Fur trade in American beaver, deer,
  moose, and other animals.
• The French skinned the animals for their
  pelts (skin) to make all sorts of clothing.
• The French did not chose to enslave
  the natives, but rather chose to treat
  them as equals and learn their
  cultures. This allowed the French to create
  friendly relations with the natives and able to
  gain the ability to hunt across the land without
• The colony of Louisiana was founded by Robert
  Cavelier de La Salle in 1682 which incorporated
  all the lands along the Mississippi River between
  the Spanish (West) and British (East).
• In 1699 Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville and his
  brother Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville
  traveled along the Gulf of Mexico to rediscover
  the mouth of the Mississippi River.
• They established the settlements of Fort
  Maurepas (Biloxi, Mississippi) and the first
  capital of Louisiana Fort Louis (first city of
  mobile) in 1702.
• To colonize the area d’Iberville sent for a
  hundred women known as the “cassette girls”.
         Fort Louis (Mobile)
• The city of
  Mobile was later
  moved in 1711
  to its present
• Dauphin island
  island) was
  used as a deep
  water port for
              New Orleans
• In 1723 the new city of New Orleans
  founded by Jean-Baptiste Bienville
  became the new capital of Louisiana.
• It was built in a crescent of the Mississippi
  River (basically a bowl) to “protect it from
  hurricanes and tidal waves, and was also
  an excellent natural port.
• The founding part of the
  city was called the French
           Henry Hudson
• The Dutch East India Trading Company in
  1609 hired an English explorer Henry
  Hudson to find the Northwest Passage.
• Hudson explored the east
  coast of America discovering
  the North River (Hudson river)
  and present day New York.
• In 1610-1611 Hudson
  sailed for the British and
  discovered what is Hudson Bay in
          Dutch Colonization
• The Dutch claimed the land found by Hudson
  and established the colony of New Netherlands
  or New Holland.
• To protect their position the
  Dutch built Fort Orange
  (Albany, New York) in 1624
  making it their first settlement.
• In 1624 the Dutch purchased the Island of
  Manhattan from a couple of tribes of the Lenni-
  Lenape for trading goods ($24 dollars worth)
  founding the town of New Amsterdam as a
  center of trade for the Americas.
        Swedish Colonization
• In 1637 the Swedish empire (included Finland)
  wanted to create a cash crop economy in the
  New World, so they sent an expedition headed
  by Clas Fleming to explore the
  east coast of America.
• Fleming sailed up Delaware
  Bay into the Delaware river
  founding the colony of New
  Sweden at Fort Christina
  (Wilmington, Delaware).
• The Swedish built a new form
  of housing in America that
  became very important, the log cabin.