Colony Collapse Disorder in context by gjjur4356

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									                        Insights & Perspectives




                                                                                                                                                             Commentary
Colony Collapse Disorder in context
Geoffrey R. Williams1)2)Ã, David R. Tarpy3), Dennis vanEngelsdorp4),
Marie-Pierre Chauzat5), Diana L. Cox-Foster4), Keith S. Delaplane6), Peter Neumann7)8),
Jeffery S. Pettis9), Richard E. L. Rogers10) and Dave Shutler2)


Although most of humanity relies upon               in the past, such as the so-called unex-            morbidities occurring worldwide. In
foods that do not require animal polli-             plainable ‘‘Isle of Wight’’ disease in the          many cases, these morbidities can be
nation [1], production of 39 of the                 early 1900s [4], the magnitude and                  explained by known parasites or bee-
world’s 57 most important monoculture               velocity of these recent declines are               keeper management issues. One
crops still benefits from this ecosystem             likely unprecedented. Often in the                  example is the devastation caused by
service [2]. Western honey bees (Apis               media (e.g. ‘‘Mobile phones responsible             beekeepers’ inability to control
mellifera) are undoubtedly the single-              for disappearance of honey bee,’’ avail-            V. destructor, which not only feeds
most valuable animal pollinators to                 able at www.telegraph.co.uk), and                   on host haemolymph and weakens
agriculture because they can be easily              sometimes in the scientific literature               host immunity but also vectors a
maintained and transported to pollina-              (e.g. [5]), these losses are inappropri-            variety of viruses [7]. In other cases,
tor-dependent crops. Yet, despite an                ately equated with ‘‘Colony Collapse                however, these morbidities are genu-
almost 50% increase in world honey                  Disorder’’ or CCD, which is character-              inely unexplainable, including those
bee stocks over the last century, bee-              ized by the rapid disappearance of                  attributed to CCD sensu stricto [6]. In
keepers have not kept pace with the                 adult bees from colonies containing                 recent winters, colony mortality in
>300% increase in pollinator-depend-                brood and food stores but lacking dam-              Europe has averaged $20% (ranging
ent crops [3]. This has led to great uncer-         aging levels of parasitic Varroa destruc-           from 1.8 to 53% among countries), with
tainty surrounding the recent large-                tor mites or Nosema microsporidians                 starvation and parasites believed to be
scale die-offs of honey bees around                 [6].                                                the main contributors (‘‘Proceedings of
the world, and has sparked enormous                      Although, we agree that CCD is                 the 4th COLOSS Conference, Zagreb,
interest from both scientists and the               indeed a significant cause for concern,              Croatia, 3-4 March 2009’’, available
general public.                                     we believe that it is imperative to                 at     www.coloss.org/publications).
    Although sharp regional declines in             appropriately place CCD within the                  Colony mortality during the 2006/
honey bee populations have occurred                 greater context of other honey bee                  2007, 2007/2008, and 2008/2009 win-
                                                                                                        ters in the US, the only country where
                                                                                                        CCD has been documented sensu stricto,
                                                                                                        was 32% [8], 36% [9], and 29% [10],
DOI 10.1002/bies.201000075                                                                              respectively. During the winter of
                                                                                                        2008/2009, $10% of the 2.3 million
1)                                                  9)
     Department of Biology, Dalhousie University,      United States Department of Agriculture,         managed honey bee colonies in the US
     Halifax, NS, Canada                               Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD,
2)                                                                                                      died with ‘‘CCD-like symptoms’’, and US
     Department of Biology, Acadia University,         USA
     Wolfville, NS, Canada                          10)
                                                        Ecotoxicology, Bayer CropScience, Research      beekeepers self-diagnosed CCD as only
3)
     Department of Entomology, North Carolina           Triangle Park, NC, USA                          the 8th most important contributor to
     State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
4)
     Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania
     State University, University Park, PA, USA
5)                                                  *Corresponding author:
     French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA), Sophia-     Geoffrey R. Williams
     Antipolis, France                                                                                  * The commentary was produced in a consultatory
6)                                                  E-mail: geoffrey.r.williams@gmail.com
     Department of Entomology, University of                                                            process initiated by Geoffrey R. Williams, and
     Georgia, Athens, GA, USA                                                                           involving the other authors. The paper was written
7)                                                  Abbreviation:
     Swiss Bee Research Centre, Agroscope                                                               by Geoffrey R. Williams, David R. Tarpy, Dennis
     Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station ALP,        CCD, Colony Collapse Disorder.                      van Engelsdorp, Keith S. Delaplane and Dave
     Bern, Switzerland                                                                                  Shutler with contribution of additional ideas and
8)
     Department of Zoology and Entomology,                                                              comments by Marie-Pierre Chauzat, Diana L.
     Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South                                                              Cox-Foster, Peter Neumann, Jeffery S. Pettis and
     Africa                                                                                             Richard E. L. Rogers.



Bioessays 32: 845–846,ß 2010 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.                                                          www.bioessays-journal.com             845
             G. R. Williams et al.                                                                               Insights & Perspectives       .....
             colony mortality, behind starvation,          discriminate among types of colony                   6. vanEngelsdorp D, Evans JD, Saegerman C,
                                                                                                                   et al. 2009. Colony Collapse Disorder: a
             queen-related issues, and parasites [10].     mortality occurring worldwide. This will                descriptive study. PLoS One 4: e6481.
             The point is, honey bees die from many        permit a more informed and appropriate               7. Rosenkranz P, Aumeier P, Ziegelmann B.
Commentary




             things. We must be careful to not syno-       allocation of research efforts into CCD                 2010. Biology and control of Varroa destruc-
                                                                                                                   tor. J Invertebr Pathol 103: S96–S119.
             nymize CCD with all honey bee losses.         specifically and other causes of
                                                                                                                8. vanEngelsdorp D, Underwood R, Caron D,
                 There is a growing consensus that         mortality in general.                                   et al. 2007. An estimate of managed colony
             colony mortality is the product of                                                                    losses in the winter of 2006–2007: a report
             multiple factors, both known and                                                                      commissioned by the Apiary Inspectors of
                                                                                                                   America. Am Bee J 147: 599–603.
             unknown, acting singly or in combi-           References                                           9. vanEngelsdorp D, Hayes J, Underwood
             nation [11, 12]. Considering the reliance                                                             RM, et al. 2008. A survey of honey bee colony
             that modern agriculture places on hon-         1. Ghazoul J. 2005. Buzziness as usual?                losses in the U.S., fall 2007 to spring 2008.
                                                               Questioning the global pollination crisis.          PLoS One 3: e4071.
             ey bees for pollination, coordinated                                                              10. vanEngelsdorp D, Hayes J, Underwood
                                                               Trends Ecol Evol 20: 367–73.
             efforts, such as those of CANPOLIN                                  `
                                                            2. Klein AM, Vaissiere BE, Cane JH, et al. 2007.       RM, et al. 2010. A survey of honey bee colony
             (Canadian       Pollination     Initiative,       Importance of pollinators in changing land-         losses in the United States, fall 2008 to spring
                                                               scapes for world crops. Proc R Soc B-Biol           2009. J Apic Res 49: 7–14.
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             (Prevention of Honeybee Colony                 3. Aizen MA, Harder LD. 2009. The global stock         health in crisis: what is causing bee mortality?
             Losses, www.coloss.org), and the US               of domesticated honey bees is growing               Am Bee J 147: 441.
             Department of Agriculture’s Areawide              slower than agricultural demand for pollina-    12. Neumann P, Carreck NL. 2010. Honey bee
                                                               tion. Curr Biol 19: 915–8.                          colony losses. J Apic Res 49: 1–6.
             and      Managed       Pollinator     CAP      4. Underwood R, vanEngelsdorp D. 2007.             13. Pettis JS, Delaplane KS. 2010. Coordinated
             (Coordinated Agricultural Project) [13],          Colony collapse disorder: have we seen this         responses to honey bee decline in the USA.
             are urgently needed to understand and             before? Bee Culture 35: 13–8.                       Apidologie 41: 256–63.
             mitigate these losses. The first step in        5. Ratnieks FLW, Carreck NL. 2010. Clarity on
                                                               honey bee collapse? Science 327: 152–3.
             these efforts should be to objectively




             846                                                                             Bioessays 32: 845–846,ß 2010 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

								
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