The Tragedy of Julius Caesar The Tragedy of

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					                           The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
                             by William Shakespeare
Act I, Scene i

Commoners gather to rejoice in Caesar’s victorious triumph over Pompey.

   1. What does Flavius want the commoners to do? (Lines 1-5)
            Break up/ Go home

   2. How do Flavius and Marullus act toward the commoner’s attitudes (Lines 11-21)
            Angry; frustrated because they are not answering them directly

   3. How does the commoners’ attitude differ from that of Flavius and Marullus regarding Caesar’s return?
         Commoners are there to rejoice and make a holiday
         Flavius and Marullus are supporters of Pompey and are against Caesar’s triumphant return

   4. After Flavius and Marullus learn why the commoners are not working, what do they want the
      commoners to do? (Lines 33-61)
          Break up
          Go home
          Pray to the gods for forgiveness because they are rejoicing for the wrong man
          Cry until the Tiber River banks overflow

   5. After the commoners have left, what does Flavius decide he and Marullus need to do? (Lines 62-66)
              Disrobe the images of Caesar=> take down the decorations in support of Caesar’s return

   6. Why does Marullus question whether or not they should do so? (Lines 67-68)
            It is the Feast of Lupercal

   7. When does this occur? (Sidenote 22)
            February 15

   8. Why does Flavius say he and Marullus need to “drive away the vulgar from the street” (break up the
      commoners)? (Lines 73-76)
            Growing feathers give Caesar more flight=>support gives Caesar more power

   9. Why do Marullus and Flavius speak in iambic pentameter and the commoners do not?
            Social ranking

Scene ii
Caesar enters the Feast of Lupercal to see a race. Caesar is approached by the soothsayer. Cassius and
Brutus have a personal conversation. Casca explains the events of Caesar being offered the crown.

   1. Why does Caesar want Antony to touch Calpurnia when he runs by? (Lines 6-9)
            Romans believed that if a women who had not had children were touched by one running
            the race of Luperal, then she would lose her sterile curse.
            Calpurnia had produced Caesar no heir.

   2. What does Antony’s response to Caesar say about their relationship? (Lines 9-10)
         Antony is completely devoted to Caesar
         Caesar says, “Jump!” Antony says, “How high?”

   3. After Soothsayer yells for Caesar, Caesar says he has “turned to hear.” Aside from literally turning his
      head, what does this mean? (Line 17)
             Caesar is deaf in one ear

   4. What does Soothsayer say to Caesar? (Line 18)
            “Beware the Ides of March” March 15

   5. How does Caesar respond to the soothsayer’s warning? (Line 24)
            “He’s a dreamer, let us leave him.”

   6. What does this say about Caesar?
            He is overly confident, arrogant.

   7. What concerns Cassius, regarding Brutus? (Lines 32-34)
            Brutus hasn’t been as friendly has he once was.

   8. What is Brutus’ “excuse”? (Lines 39-47)
             He is struggling with his own personal stress.

   9. What does Brutus say when the trumpets sound and people shout? (Lines 78-79)
            He fears that the people want to make Caesar their king.

   10. After Cassius becomes excited at Brutus’ comment, how does Brutus try to recover from appearing to
       be against Caesar? (Lines 82-89)
            He loves Caesar; he is a friend to Caesar.
            Then he tries to redirect the attention by asking Cassius what he really wants.

   11. In Lines 90-131, Cassius tells two stories. What two stories does Cassius relay to Brutus?
              1. Caesar challenges Cassius to a swim in the Tiber River. Julius Caesar jumped in with all
                   his armor on and almost drowned. He had to be Cassius for his life. Cassius had to
                   carry Caesar out of the river.
              2. Caesar became sick in Spain. In a fever, Caesar shook / shivered like a sick girl, and
                   asked Titinius for a drink.

   12. What is the purpose of telling Brutus these two stories?
           Cassius is telling how Caesar is human just like the two of them and questions why he
           should be treated as a god.

13. Allusion is a literary term in which a reference is made toward something in history, literature, art, etc.
    What example of allusion is made during Cassius’ stories?
           Lines 112-115
           Cassius compares himself to Aenaes carrying Caesar out of the Tiber, as Aenaes carried
           Anchises out of the flames of Troy.

14. What conclusion does Cassius come to when he compares Brutus’ and Caesar’s names? (Lines 142-
          One man is no better than the other.

15. What is Cassius’ purpose in speaking about the names, complaining that one man hovering over Rome
    is ruining Rome, and referring to Brutus’ ancestors? (Lines 142-161)
            He is trying to coerce Brutus to go with him again Caesar.

16. Brutus realizes what Cassius is saying. What does he promise? (Lines 167-168)
           He will think about it.

17. What does Brutus notice about Caesar, Calpurnia, and Cicero as they re-enter the scene? (Lines 182-
        Caesar has a dark brow.
        Calpurnia’s cheeks are pale.
        Cicero looks like a ferret, with red eyes like he does when he is arguing at the Senate.

18. What kind of men does Caesar want about him? (Lines 192-193)
          Fat, bald men who sleep.

19. Why doesn’t he want Cassius around him? (Lines 194-195)
          He has a lean, hungry look and thinks too much. Those kinds of men are dangerous.

20. Does Antony agree with Caesar? (Lines 196-197)
          No. He says that Cassius wasn’t dangerous, but a noble Roman who is well-thought of by
          the people.

21. How does Caesar continue to express his dislike for Cassius? (Lines 198-210)
       Cassius reads a lot.
       He watches people and can see their true intentions.
       He doesn’t like plays or listen to music.
       He doesn’t smile.
       Caesar believes that these kinds of men have no emotional ease; therefore, they are

22. Julius Caesar begins and ends his monologue to Antony with “But I fear him not” (Line 198) and “for
    always I am Caesar” (Line 212). What does this say about Caesar?
            He is again arrogant, overly-confident. He thinks he’s invincible.

23. What infirmity is confirmed in Line 213?
              Caesar is deaf.

   24. According to Casca, why did Caesar “look so sad”? (Lines 220-232)
             Mark Antony offered Caesar the crown three times.

   25. Explain exactly what happened, according to Casca. (Lines 234-250)
              Mark Antony offered Caesar the crown (a coronet) but Casca thought that Caesar would
              rather have taken it than pass it on.
              Mark Antony offered it again; Caesar refused it but had a difficult time letting his fingers
              off it.
              Mark Antony it a third time, when Caesar refused it again, the people shouted and clapped
              their hands. As they shouted, their breath stunk so bad that Caesar fainted.

   26. What does Brutus believe is wrong with Caesar since he fainted and foamed at the mouth? (Line 254)
             He has epilepsy.

   27. What did Caesar do immediately before and after fainting? (Lines 263-275)
          Before, he thought the people shouted because they did not want him to be king.
             Therefore, he opened his shirt for them to slit his throat.
          After, he apologized for anything he might have said that was inappropriate and blamed it
             on his infirmity.

   28. What happened to Flavius and Marullus? (Lines 285-286)
             They were imprisoned for taking down the decorations for Caesar’s return.

   29. In scene i, we learn that the commoners speak in prose instead of iambic pentameter because of social
       ranking. If Casca is a Senator, why does he not speak in iambic pentameter? What supports this?
       (Lines 281-285)
            Lower intelligence
            Casca does not speak Greek which is learned in the Socratic method; therefore, he is not as
              intelligent as the others.

   30. At the end of scene ii, what does Cassius decide to do in his soliloquy? What does he hope to
       accomplish? (Lines 315-319)
            He will forge letters from citizens of Rome stating their love and support of Brutus.
            He hopes to fully convince Brutus that he should join the conspiracy against Caesar.

Scene iii

A month has passed. This scene takes place on March 14. The night is very stormy and citizens notice
odd sights. Cassius learns some very important news that makes him speed up his plot.

   1. Describe the storm, as Casca tells it? (Lines 5-10)
          Winds have blown so hard that they have split trees.
          Ocean has had wild waves that they “reach the clouds”
2. What does Casca attribute to the storm? (Lines 11-13)
     1. Civil strife in heaven = Roman gods are fighting
     2. World/People have made the Roman gods angry and they are going to send down

3. What else does Casca tell that has occurred throughout the night? (Lines 15-28)
      A slave’s left hand was on fire but was not scorched.
      Casca met a lion in the Capitol; although the lion looked at him, Casca walked by without
         being bothered
      Women saw men on fire walk up and down the streets
      The bird of night (the owl) was out during the day.

4. What does Casca predict about these “omens”? (Lines 31-32)
         “…they are portentous things/ Unto the climate that they point upon.”
         Bad signs for the country they are directed

5. Cassius describes the night as one that is “very pleasing” to “honest men.” What has he done to
   “prove” that he is an honest man? (Lines 48-51)
          During the lightning, he has bared his chest, tempting the gods to strike him down. Since
          they did not, he must be an “honest man.”

6. In Cassius’ monologue to Casca, he states that he believes the gods are using the signs to warn
   Romans of the monstrous state in which Rome is heading. He uses the events of the night to compare
   the forthcoming disaster of Rome to whom? (Lines 72-79)

7. What important information does Casca deliver to Cassius? (Lines 85-88)
         The Senators mean to make Caesar king to rule everywhere.

8. Why do Casca and Cassius shake hands? (Lines 116-119)
         Casca joins the conspiracy to kill Caesar before he becomes king.

9. Who are gathered at Pompey’s Theater?
         Noble Romans who have agreed to joined the conspiracy.

10. What does Cassius want Cinna to do? (Lines 141-146)
          Take papers (forged letters) to Brutus’ home and throw them in the window.

11. Why does Casca believe having Brutus join the conspiracy is so important? (Lines 157-160)
          Brutus is well-liked by the people. If they have Brutus, the people would be more likely to
          accept their task.
Act II, Scene i

On the same stormy night, Brutus makes a very important decision. Much is discussed among the
conspirators. Portia talks with Brutus.

   1. About what is Brutus discussing in his soliloquy in Lines 10-34?
          He’s weighing his options to kill Caesar.
          He thinks Caesar would abuse his power (Lines 18-19)
          He believes that Caesar’s humility will turn into a growing ambition
2. Explain the comparison of Julius Caesar and a snake. (Lines 32-34)
          Brutus compares Caesar to a snake. He believes it is better to kill Caesar, like a snake still in
          its shell, before he gains power or venom. If Caesar gains power, like a snake gains venom,
          he will “kill people” like a snake kills with venom.

3. What is “tomorrow”? (Line 40)
          Ides of March (March 15)

4. What is the importance of this day? (refer to Act I, scene ii)
          The soothsayer warned Caesar to beware of the Ides of March.

5. Lucius brings Brutus the forged letters from Cassius (although he does not know they are either forged
   or from Cassius). What does the letter he reads say? (Lines 46-48)
          Brutus, you are asleep and not paying attention. You need to open your eyes. Rome wants
          you to “speak, strike, redress”= act. Wake up!

6. What decision does Brutus make after reading the letter? (Lines 56-58)
         He will join the conspiracy if that is what Rome wants.

7. Cassius introduces Brutus to all of the conspirators who are present and think Brutus is a noble man.
   Name the conspirators who are introduced. (Lines 94-96)
          Trebonius                       Casca                 Decius Brutus
                         Cinna                   Metellus Cimber

8. In Lines 98-99, Brutus asks Cassius what keeps him and the conspirators up so late. Cassius speaks to
   Brutus in private. What do you suppose Cassius tells Brutus?
          Caesar is to be made king tomorrow by the Senate.

9. Why does Brutus say, “No, not an oath” when they shake hands forming the conspiracy? (Lines 114-
         A just cause needs no oath to bind the doers of their deed.

10. Why does Metellus support including Cicero in the conspiracy? (Lines 144-149)
          His gray hairs (old age) will give them support. Since most of them are younger, they could
          be considered wiser if they had swayed someone with experience in life.

11. Brutus opposes. Why? (Lines 150-153)
           He believes Cicero will never follow through with a plan started by someone else.

12. Cassius thinks they should kill Antony when they kill Caesar. He believes Antony will cause the
    people to harm the conspirators. Why does Brutus disagree on killing Antony? (Lines 162-183)
        Killing Mark Antony will seem too bloody.
        Brutus compares Mark Antony to the limbs of Caesar’s body. Once the head is gone, the
           limbs cannot harm them.
        He wants to be sacrificers, not butchers.

13. Why is Cassius concerned Caesar might not come to the Senate? (Lines 193-201)
           Caesar has become very superstitious lately.
   14. Portia is upset with Brutus. Explain how he has behaved strangely toward her? (Lines 237-256)
           He has left her bed, ungently.
           At supper, he rose from the table, walked with his arms crossed and sighed. When she
               questioned what was wrong, he gave her an unpleasant look.
           She begged—he scratched his head and stomped his foot.
           She asked again and he brushed her off again by waving his hand at her for her to leave.
           She knows that he hasn’t eaten, spoken, or slept.

   15. How does Portia know that Brutus is not sick, as he says he is? (Lines 261-267)
          He has walked outside, when it is damp.
          If he were sick, he would not subject himself to such damp air.
          She also knows that other men have come to the house.

   16. Why does Brutus say, “Render me worthy of this noble wife”? (Line 303)
          Portia has just begged Brutus to tell her what woes him.
          She has also stabbed herself in the leg to show her devotion to him.

Scene ii

At Caesar’s home in the morning. Calpurnia has had dreams. All the conspirators come to Caesar’s

   1. Calpurnia begins to beg Caesar to not go to the Senate. What does she say the watchman reported?
      (Lines 16-26)
           A lioness gave birth in the street
           Dead people walked
           Angry warriors fought in the clouds
           Blood dripped from the Capitol.
           Horses neighed
           Dying men groaned
           Ghost shrieked and squealed in the street

   2. What do the augurers predict for Caesar? (Lines 38-40)
            He should not leave today because they could not find the heart of an animal.

   3. Even after Calpurnia’s dreams and the augurer’s forewarning, Caesar still refuses to stay. How does
      he try to explain his decision to go? (Lines 41-48)
           He says he would be a beast with no heart if he stayed at home.
           Danger is afraid of him.
           He and Danger were born on the same day, but Caesar is the older and more terrible.

   4. Describe the dream Caesar says Calpurnia had. (Lines 75-79)
             Caesar’s statue poured blood out of a hundred spouts like a fountain. Romans smiled as
             they washed their hands in the blood.
   5. In the previous scene, Decius gives himself a task. How does he complete this task in this scene?
      (Lines 85-90)
              He re-interpreted Calpurnia’s dream. When the Romans smiled while bathing in Caesar’s
              blood, they were smiling at the reviving blood that Caesar will bring to the country.

   6. Why does Caesar accept this?
            He is arrogant.

   7. What does Trebonius mean by “and so near will I be,/That your best friends shall whish I had been
      further”? (Lines 124-125)
              Caesar, unknowingly to the plan, tells Trebonius to be near him because he needs to talk
              with him. Trebonius will be so close to kill Caesar that Caesar’s friends would like to see
              Trebonius not there.

Scene iii

Artemidorus reads a letter.

   1. What letter does Artemidorus read? (Lines 1-9)
             He reads the letter that he has written and plans to give to Caesar. The letter lists all of the

Scene iv

Portia has followed Brutus out of the house. She stands on the street, watching.

   1. What does Portia send Lucius to do?
            Lucius is to go to the Capitol, watch for Brutus to see if he is well, see who is near Caesar,
            and then return to tell Portia.

   2. How does the soothsayer answer Portia’s question if he knows if Caesar is in any harm? (Line 32)
            He does not know of any, but he fears it.

   3. What is Portia’s concern at the end of the scene? (Lines 42-43)
             Brutus is going to ask Caesar for something that won’t be granted.
Act III, scene i

On the way to the Senate meeting, Julius Caesar is approached by Artimedorus. In the senate house,
Caesar is entreated by Metellus Cimber. Caesar falls victim to the plot. Brutus allows Mark Antony to

1. Why does Julius Caesar not read the letter from Artemidorus? (Line 9)
         He believes a letter that serves him should wait until he has handled the matters of the

2. What “enterprise” is Popilius referring? (Line 14)
         The enterprise of killing Caesar.

3. What is Cassius fearing? (Lines 16-22)
           He is afraid that other people have found out about the conspiracy and they will not be
           able to kill Caesar.

4. What is Trebonius’ job? (Lines 25-26)
          He is to take Mark Antony away from the meeting.

5. In Lines 27-30, the conspirators are making final adjustments to the plot. What does Caesar say that is
   ironic (see irony on Page R15) Explain how this is ironic.
        He asks, “Are we all ready?”
        This is dramatic irony. We, the readers, know that the conspirators are finalizing the plot
           and then Caesar asks, unknowingly, if everyone is ready.

6. What has Metellus Cimber approached Caesar about? (Lines 44-51)
         Metellus Cimber’s brother has been banished and Metellus Cimber is trying to get it

7. During the discussion, all the conspirators begin to crowd around Caesar. How is Caesar tricked into
   believing that nothing is amiss? (Lines 33-57)
           The conspirators are flattering Caesar:
                      1. “Most high, most mighty, and most puissant Caesar”
                      2. Metellus says his voice sounds sweetly in Caesar’s ear
                      3. Brutus kisses Caesar’s hand
                      4. Cassius bowed to Caesar

8. What two objects does Julius Caesar compare himself to as he describes how indestructible he is?
   (Lines 58-75)
        Mount Olympus illustrating that he compares himself to a god or he thinks he is the
          equivalent to a god.
        Northern Star. The Northern Star does change. Therefore, he is unmovable.

9. After proclaiming his magnificence and indestructibility, ironically, Julius Caesar is stabbed. Who is
   the first to stab him? What words does this person say to describe he stabbed Caesar? What do these
   words mean?
        Casca stabs Caesar first.
        “Speak hands for me!”
        He is wanting his hands to do the action that he is wanting.

10. Julius Caesar is stabbed thirty-three times by all of the conspirators. Why does he only speak to
    Brutus: “Et tu, Bruté”? (Line 78)
            Brutus is supposed to have been Caesar’s friend. To see Brutus also stab him, Caesar truly
            felt betrayed.

11. What do all the conspirators proclaim immediately after killing Caesar to support their action? (Line
          “Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead!”
12. Explain how on Page 864, shortly after the murder, the conspirators are demonstrating conflicting
         Cassius shouted confidently the he helped with the murder.
         Brutus has to tell people to not run.
         Publius is confused
         Metellus is afraid and feels they are safe only together.
         Brutus is confident and wants to make sure no one else takes credit for their actions.

13. What do the conspirators do that Calpurnia prophesied in her dream (Lines 105-110)
          They wash their hands in Caesar’s blood.

14. What is the joke that Brutus and Cassius make? (Lines 111-118)
           They joke about the plays that will be written about Julius Caesar, who the characters will
           be, and how Caesar will die.

15. What message does Antony’s servant bring to Brutus and the rest of the conspirators? (Lines 123-137)
       Brutus is noble, wise, valiant, and honest.
       Caesar was mighty, bold, royal, and loving.
       He loves and honors Brutus.
       He feared, honored, and loved Caesar.
       Antony wants to know if he can safely come to learn why they had to kill Caesar.
       Antony will follow Brutus through the troubles of the country.

16. How do Brutus and Cassius differ toward Antony’s intentions? (Lines 143-146)
       Brutus is glad Antony wants to join.
       Cassius is still afraid that Antony could cause problems.

17. What is the double meaning of Caesar lying “so low”? (Line 148)
       He is low because he is on the ground.
       He is low beneath those who murdered him.

18. When Antony first speaks to Brutus and Cassius, what does he say to them? What do they say in
    return? (Lines 151-178)
         Mark Antony say if he too should die, then there is no better place for him to die than at
           Caesar’s body and by the same sword that killed Caesar.
         Cassius and Brutus say that they have no intentions of killing Mark Antony. They will
           include him in the decision making for the country.

19. What three requests does Mark Antony make of the conspirators? (Lines 221-230)
           1. He want to know why they killed Caesar
            2. He wants to take Caesar’s body to the market place.
           3. He wants to be able to speak at Caesar’s funeral.

20. On the third request, how do Brutus and Cassius again disagree? (Lines 231-243)
        Brutus has no problem with Antony speaking.
        Cassius thinks the crowd will be swayed by what Mark Antony will say.

21. What are the conditions of Mark Antony speaking at the funeral? (Lines 244-250)
          1. Mark Antony cannot blame the conspirators.
              2. As Mark Antony speaks will of Caesar, he must say that he does it by the permission of
              the conspirators.
              3. Mark Antony can speak but only after Brutus has finished his speech.

   22. What does Mark Antony say to Caesar’s body when he is alone? (Lines 254-275)
          He apologizes fro being friendly to those who butchered him
          He expresses concern for the conspirators for making Caesar shed blood.
          He prophesies over Caesar’s body a curse of domestic fury and civil strife. He will cause
             blood and destruction so badly that mothers will smile when they see their children

   23. Why does Mark Antony think Octavius Caesar should wait before he comes to Rome? (Lines 287-
           He thinks Rome is too unstable for Octavius.
           He wants to see how the people react to his speech before calling for Octavius.

Scene ii

In the market place at Caesar’s funeral. Brutus makes an appealing speech to the crowd, just before
Mark Antony gives his famous “Friends, Romans’, Countrymen…” speech.

1. Why do Brutus and Cassius speak at two separate places?
             Just like the president and the vice-president, they should not be together in
             case something goes wrong.

   2. Why does Brutus say he killed Caesar? (Lines 20-29)
        1. Not that he loved Caesar less, but he loved Rome more.
        2. he thinks the people would rather be free with Caesar dead, than to live as slaves with
            Caesar alive.
        3. He cries for Caesar because Caesar loved him.
        4. He rejoices because Caesar was fortunate.
        5. He honors Caesar because Caesar was valiant.
        6. Because Julius Caesar was ambitious, Brutus killed him.

   3. How does Brutus leave his speech with a foreshadowing to the end? (Lines 45-48)
            He says he has the same dagger that he used on Caesar fro himself when the time calls for
            him to die.

   4. How do the commoners react to Brutus’ speech? (Lines 49-71)
         They fully support Brutus.
         They want to make a statue for him.
         Threaten that Antony should not speak ill of Brutus.
   5. How does Mark Antony counteract Brutus’ accusations that Caesar was ambitious? (Lines 89-98)
        1. Caesar brought home captives.
        2. Caesar brought money in to Rome.
        3. Caesar cried when the poor cried.
        4. Caesar refused the crown all three times when Mark Antony offered it.

   6. What does Mark Antony mean when he says “…Bear with me;/My heart is in the coffin there with
      Caesar,/ And I must pause till it comes back to me”? (Lines 106-108)
             He is so overcome with grief at the death of Caesar that it is as if he has died too and he
             needs a moment to compose himself.

   7. How do the commoners now react to Mark Antony’s speech? (Lines 109-118)
            They now support Caesar and feel that his death was unjust.

   8. Why does Mark Antony say he will not read the will after he mentions it to the people?
            He is playing reverse psychology making them want to hear it.

   9. Before Mark Antony even reads the will, the people are in a rage and ready to mutiny. What does
      Mark Antony reveal is in the will? (Lines 242-253)
          Each citizen gets 75 drachmas.
          Everyone gets the land, oceans, orchards.
          They all get places of recreation.

   10. What did Brutus and Cassius do? Why? (lines 269-270)
          They fled Rome.
          The people were so angry they Brutus and Cassius felt in danger.

Scene iii

Cinna the Poet is approached by angry commoners.

   1. Why are the commoners questioning Cinna the Poet?
            They want to know if he is a conspirator.

   2. Even though this is Cinna the Poet and not the conspirator, why is he killed? (Line 30)
             He is a bad poet and his name is Cinna.

   3. What is the purpose of this scene?
             It shows the unstable mood of the people.
Act IV, scene i

Over a month and half has passed. Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus have formed the new triumvirate.

   1. What does Antony mean by “their names are pricked”? (Line 1)
            They are discussing all those who should die for Caesar’s death.

   2. What task does Mark Antony send for Lepidus to do? (Lines 7-9)
             To bring the will and see how they will split up the money.

   3. What is Mark Antony’s concern regarding Lepidus? (Lines 12-15)
             He does not think that Lepidus should take part in the Triumvirate because all he is good
             only to be sent on tasks.

   4. To what does Mark Antony compare Lepidus? How? (Lines 29-40)
            He compares him to a horse who is used to be taught where to go and when to turn.
   5. About what does Octavius worry at the end of the scene?
            He worries that there are several of his enemies look friendly.

Scene ii

During the months since Brutus and Cassius fled Rome, hard feelings have developed. A meeting has
been arranged for Brutus and Cassius to talk face to face.

   1. What does Brutus fear? (Lines 6-10)
            He is afraid that Cassius might have changed his mind or is regretful about killing
            Caesar. He says that he believes Cassius may wish some things done undone.

   2. Why does Brutus describe Cassius as “A hot friend cooling”?
            He isn’t as friendly as he used to be.

   3. Brutus and Cassius have not seen each other in months. How doe they first greet each other? (Lines
             Angrily: You have wronged me!

   4. Why does Brutus decide he and Cassius should go inside the tent to speak? (Lines 41-47)
              He doesn’t want to have a disunified front before their soldiers.

Scene iii

Brutus and Cassius step into Brutus’ tent to discuss differences they are having. After arguing, the men
resolve their problems and make plans for their next attack on Mark Antony and Octavius. Brutus has a

   1. What are Brutus and Cassius arguing over? (Lines 1-5)
            Cassius is angry because Brutus would not consider the letters regarding Lucius Pella not
            taking bribes.

   2. What does Brutus accuse Cassius of? (Lines 9-10)
            Brutus accuses Cassius of taking bribes himself.

   3. How does Cassius compare himself to Brutus? (Lines 30-32)
            Cassius says he is an older soldier.

   4. How has Cassius offended Brutus? (Lines 69-77)
            Cassius did not send gold to pay Brutus’ legions when Brutus asked for it.

   5.   Why does Cassius say “Come Antony, and young Octavius, come…” in Line 92?
          He is inviting someone to come kill him to put him out of his misery of fighting with
          Brutus, and since Antony and Octavius are his enemies then they would be the best
          people to kill him.

6. Why does Brutus tell Cassius to “sheathe [his] dagger”? (Line 106)
         Cassius has pulled his sword to have Brutus to kill him as they are fighting.

7. The two of them stop fighting by blaming anger on their humours. A poet urges to see Brutus and
   Cassius. Why? (Lines 123-125)
          He doesn’t want them to fight. It is not meet that two honorable men be fighting.

8. What does Brutus blame for his temper? (Lines 143-146)
         Portia is dead.

9. What news does Messala send to Brutus and Cassius? (lines 166-190)
         1. 100 Senators have been killed

          2. Portia is dead.

          3. Cicero was one of the senators killed.

          4. Octavius and Mark Antony have built a large army that is on its way to Phillipi.

10. Why does Cassius not want to go to Philippi? (Lines 198-201)
          1. The enemy will waste energy and resources coming to them.

          2. They will be rested when approached.

11. What is Brutus’ reason why they should not allow Mark Antony and Octavius come to them? (Lines
           1. They are on a tide of good fortune.

          2. They will cut them off when Antony and Octavius’ army approaches them.

12. What does Brutus’ behavior toward his servants as demonstrated in Lines 239-265 say about him?
          He cares about them. He is a compassionate leader.

13. Who comes to visit Brutus at the end of Act IV? What information does this person bring? (Lines
          Caeasr’s ghost comes to Brutus.
              He tells Brutus that he will see him at Phillipi.

Act V, scene i

Brutus and Cassius meet during the battle of Philippi and speculate its outcome. They say a final farewell
in case they do not survive the battle.

   1. Octavius says that Brutus and Cassius are on their way to meet his and Mark Antony’s armies.
      However, Antony says he knows why they do it. What are his reasons? (Lines 8-12)
             Brutus and Cassius want to appear that they have bravery.

   2. The stress of war is beginning to take a toll on Mark Antony and Octavius. What do they argue over?
      (Lines 17-20)
             They argue who is going to go in which direction.

   3. The four men are trading early Roman “Yo Mama!” slams at each other. After Mark Antony insults
      Brutus, Cassius tells Brutus that only he himself is responsible for Mark Antony’ offenses and if
      Cassius had had his way, this would not have happened. (Lines 45-47) What does he mean by this?
             He is blaming Brutus for not having killed Mark Antony when Cassius suggested it.
   4. When does Octavius say he will put his sword back into the sheath again? (Lines 53-55)
            1. When Caesar’s thirty-three wounds have been avenged.

              2. He has been killed by Brutus and Cassius

   5. On this day, which is Cassius’ birthday, he changes his mind about omens and predicting events.
      What makes him change his mind? (Lines 80-88)
             They has been followed by two eagles who had been eating out of their hands (good sign),
             but now were being followed by crows, ravens, and kites (bad sign).

   6. Brutus’ stoic philosophy forbids suicide; although, he hints that he has considered it (Lines 103-107).
      What does Brutus answer when Cassius asks if he would rather “be led in triumph through the streets
      of Rome” ?(Lines 108-109)
             He will never go bound back to Rome—he will never go back as a captive.

Scene ii

Brutus sends a message to Cassius. He sees that Octavius has a weakness and one gentle push will allow
them to take over.

Scene ii

A mistaken observation turns fatal for Cassius. Brutus and Titinius mourn.

   1. After Brutus’ troops overpower Octavius, what do Brutus’ men start to do? (Line 7)
             They began looting.

   2. Titinius reports that Cassius’ camp is taken over. Cassius send Titinius to learn if the men are friend
      or foe. Pindarus watches from atop a hill and reports to Cassius. What does he report? (Lines 27-31)
              Pindarus reports that Titinius has been surrounded and taken.

   3. What does Cassius have Pindarus do? Why? (Lines 35-46)
            Cassius asks Pindarus to stab his with his own sword because he is so upset that his dear
            friend Titinius is dead.

   4. Why does Titinius say the sun of Rome is set? (Line 63)
            Cassius is dead. He is considering Cassius to be the “sun” with life and the “son” of
   5. How is it possible for Titinius to have a speaking role on the next two pages after what Pindarus
      reports? (Lines 80-90)
              Pindarus misinterpreted / misconstrued what he had seen. Titinius was been awarded a
              crown to bestow upon Cassius—not killed.

   6. What does Titinius do? (Line 90)
            He stabs himself.

   7. Why does Brutus say “O Julius Caesar, thou art mighty yet!”? (Line 94)
            Even in his death, Caesar is still, inadvertently, killing people, making him strong.

   8. What does Brutus mean when he says he owes “moe tears” and he’ll “find time”? (Line 101-103)
            He is upset that Cassius and Titinius are both dead. He will devote more time to both of
            their deaths when he has time to mourn for them. They have been supportive in his
            cause and he needs to cry and mourn for them more than he can do at the present

Scene iv

Lucilius tries to help save Brutus’ life.

   1. Why does Lucilius say “And I am Brutus, Marcus Brutus, I; / Brutus, my country’s friend; know me
      for Brutus”? (Lines 7-8)
             He is trying to save Brutus’ life by pretending to be Brutus to allow Brutus to not be

Scene v

Brutus realizes he is defeated. He makes one final decision. Mark Antony praises Brutus.

   1. What does Brutus ask of Clitus, Dardanius, Volumnius, and Strato? (Lines 4-48)
            He asks them to kill him.

   2. Who actually grants Brutus his wish?
            Strato stabs Brutus.

   3. What does Lucilius mean by proving “Lucilius’ saying true”? (Line 56)
            In the previous scene, Lucilius says that Brutus is safe where he will never be captured.

   4. Why does Antony say that Brutus is the “noblest Roman of them all”? (Lines 68-75)
            Brutus was the only one who killed Caesar for the best of Rome while all the other
            conspirators killed him out of envy.
5. How does Octavius intend for Brutus to be treated? Why does he do this? (Lines 76-81)
             He will be treated with all the respects and rites of a burial.

              Brutus is an honorable soldier.