Slide The Stimson Center Pragmatic Steps for Global Security by nikeborome


									 ー Through a lens of Capacity-Building -

             4 March 2011

     Col Nobutaka MINAMIKAWA, JGSDF
Visiting Fellow, The Henry L. Stimson Center
  1 Japan Ground Self-Defense Force’s Past Efforts in International Peace
     Cooperation Activities (IPCA)

  2 New Defense Program Guidelines and its implication for SDF’s IPCA

  3 Roles of SDF in Capacity Building

  4 Challenges for More Effective Activities

  5 Conclusion

The views expressed here are those of Nobutaka MINAMIKAWA.
Nothing spoken here reflects the views of the Henry L. Stimson Center,
the Japan Ground Self Defense Force, Ministry of Defense, or
Government of Japan.
  JGSDF’s past efforts in IPCA

1 Situations surrounding JGSDF IPCA

2 Ongoing Activities of JGSDF IPCA

3 Evaluation of JGSDF IPCA
International Peace Cooperation Activities Conducted by the SDF
       International Peace Cooperation Mission

                International Peace Cooperation Activities
               Activities based on the “Law Concerning Japan’s Cooperation in the U.N. Peacekeeping
               Activity and other Activities” (so-called “PKO Cooperation Law”)

                   International Disaster Relief Activities
               Activities based on the “Law Concerning the Dispatch of International Disaster
               Relief Teams” (so-called “International Disaster Relief Law”)

                Cooperation in Efforts toward the Reconstruction of Iraq
               Activities based on the “Law Concerning Special Measures on Humanitarian and
               Reconstruction Assistance and Support Activities for Ensuring Security of Iraq”
               (known as the Iraq Reconstruction Special Measures Law) (Ended in Feb. 2009)
                       Activities to Respond International Terrorism
               Activities based on the “Replenishment Support Special Measures Law”
               (Ended in Jan. 2010)

                          Anti-Piracy Activities
               Activities based on the “Law on Penalization of Acts of Piracy and Measures
               against Acts of Piracy” (known as “Anti-Piracy Special Measures Law”)

     Legend:       shows activities based on permanent laws
                   shows activities based on time-limited laws
                                    IPCA conducted by JGSDF

                                                              UN PKO
                                                              International disaster relief activities
                                                              International Humanitarian Assistance Activities
           Anti-Piracy                       IDRA
            (Djibouti)                                        Red letters : currently operating
              2009-                          2001

                             HRA                                                                             IDRA
    UNDOF                                                                                                   (Haiti)
(Golan Heights)             (Iraq)           UNMIN
                          2004-2006                                                                          2010
     1996-                                   (Nepal)
  UNMIS                                                                             IDRA                    2010
 (Sudan)                                                                         (Honduras)
  2008-                                                    UNTAC                    1998
  HRA                                                                               (East Timor)
(Rwanda)                                                                             2010 -2011
                                 IDRA                                               (East Timor)
  ONUMOZ                                                                             2002-2004
                    IDRA                  IDRA               IDRA                  IDRA
                  (Pakistan)          (Sumatra Island)   (Sumatra Island)       (Java Island)
                     2010                  2009               2005                 2006
                                          Current Activities
【UNDOF】                                   【Anti-Piracy activities】       【MINUSTAH】
Mission: HQ Staff and                     Mission: Base management       Mission: HQ staff &
       Logistic support (50)                   & force protection (62)   Reconstruction (approx.350)

                    Golan Heights
                                                         East Timor
【UNMIS】                                                                  Mission:
Mission: HQ Staff (2)                                                    Military liaison officer (2)

                    About 450 personnel currently on duty abroad
                       Evaluations of JGSDF IPCA
Iraq 【Humanitarian and Reconstruction Assistance in Iraq】
  The Iraqi people will never forget Japan’s contribution to the reconstruction
 and stability of Iraq, including the dispatch of the SDF, during this time of
 difficulties which Iraq has faced.
                                                       President Talabani(Jan., 2009)

Golan Heights 【UNDOF】

  The SDF’s activities in the past decade were superb, as they showed
 professionalism in every part of the operation.
                                UNDOF Force Commander LTG Sharma(Jan., 2006)

Pakistan 【DR in Major Earthquakes in Pakistan 】
  Japan’s SDF has shown outstanding performance in helping the affected people
 in Pakistan.
                                              President Musharraf(Nov., 2005)

 International society has highly appreciated the SDF’s IPCA, which are
based on the Japanese style of trying to share the perspectives of local
New Defense Program Guidelines and its implication for SDF’s IPCA

1 Significance of NDPG

2 Major Points of the 2010 NDPG

3 Implications for IPCA
Status and significance
○ GOJ set the basic principles of Japan’s security policy and the target levels of
 defense equipment for the first time in the 1976 National Defense Program Guidelines
 (NDPG) and formulated Mid-term Defense Program (MTDP) for next 5 years under
 “the frame of 1% of GNP.” GOJ has conducted defense build-up based on the MTDP
 ever since. .
○ Both NDPG and MTDP are documents that are approved by the cabinet council.

Relations among NDPG, MTDP and Annual Budget
    National Defense          Vision for future direction of defense policy, and the
   Program Guidelines       target levels of defense capabilities to implement the
                            new policy.

       Mid-term              Maximum sum of cost in 5 years and numbers of main
    Defense Program         equipment

      Annual Budget           Appropriate necessary costs annually
 F     1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001    2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011   2012   2013   2014   2015   ・・・

                              1995 NDPG                                              2004 NDPG                           2010 NDPG

              1996 MTDP                          2001 MTDP                    2005 MTDP                                 2011 MTDP

                                             “FY2010 Defense Capability Arrangements, etc.” approved by the Cabinet
                           Major Points of 2010 NDPG
1. “Dynamic Defense Force” Concept

   Focus on how to better operate the SDF
   Focused on Readiness, Mobility, Flexibility, Sustainability, Multi-functionality

2. Enhance and Develop Japan-U.S. Alliance, Stabilize Asia-Pacific Region
   Articulate Japan-U.S. cooperation measure more concretely
   Emphasize “Stabilizing Asia-Pacific region security” as core defense role

3. Enhance response capabilities for contingencies in offshore island area
   Prevent a power vacuum by deploying SDF unit
   Strengthen and maintain the capability for the defense of sea/air space surrounding Japan
   Deploy new SDF unit strategically and enhance its ability for rapid deployment and response.

4 Promote global security cooperation
   Promote bilateral/multilateral cooperation
   Develop the capability for capacity-building

5 Identify Political Issues
   Tackle political issues, such as the establishment of a national security council, revise the 5
  Principles for participation in UN Peace Keeping from a new point of view
                 Excerpts on IPCA from 2010NDPG①
Ⅰ NDPG’s Objectives

Ⅱ Basic Principles of Japan’s Security Policy
    Japan will participate more actively in activities in which the international
 community cooperates (here in/after referred to as “international peace cooperation
 activities”), to improve the international security environment, including
 United Nations peace-keeping activities and activities to deal with non-traditional
 security issues, such as humanitarian assistance, disaster relief and counter-piracy

Ⅲ Security Environment Surrounding Japan
    The role of military forces in the international community is becoming increasingly
 diverse. In addition to deterring or responding to armed conflicts and building confidence
 and promoting friendship among countries, military forces, in cooperation with the
 non-military sector, are playing an important role in a growing number of cases, in
 conflict prevention, peace building such as reconstruction assistance, and in the non-
 traditional security field.

Ⅳ Basic Policies to Ensure Japan’s Security
 1 Japan’s Own Efforts
   Japan will participate in international peace cooperation activities in a more
   efficient and effective manner. Taking into consideration the actual situations of UN
   peace-keeping operations, Japan will consider how it will participate in future
   peace-keeping operations, by examining current policies such as the five principles
   for participation in peace-keeping operations.
                  Excerpts on IPCA from 2010NDPG②

2 Cooperation with its Ally
   Japan will strengthen various regular cooperation, such as joint training and joint/shared
 usage of facilities, and promote regional and global cooperation through international
 peace cooperation activities, maintenance and enhancement of international public goods
 such as outer space, cyberspace and sea lanes, as well as in the field of climate change.

3 Multi-layered Security Cooperation with the International Community
 ○ Concerning multilateral security cooperation, through such frameworks as the
  ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and the ASEAN Defense Ministers' Meeting Plus
 (ADMM Plus), Japan will play an appropriate role in efforts toward establishing
 regional order, norms and practical cooperative relationships, particularly through
 initiatives in the non-traditional security field.

 ○ Japan will actively engage in diplomatic efforts, including the strategic and effective
  use of Official Development Assistance (ODA), in order to resolve root causes of
  conflicts and terrorism. Along with these diplomatic efforts, Japan will robustly engage
  in international peace cooperation activities. In doing so, Japan will strive to provide
  assistance which makes use of its knowledge and experience and will conduct such
  activities strategically, while comprehensively taking into account the various conditions
  surrounding it.
                  Excerpts on IPCA from 2010NDPG③

Ⅴ Future Defense Forces
 1 Roles of Defense Forces
 (1)Effective deterrence and response
 (2)Efforts to further stabilize the security environment of Asia-Pacific region.
     In non-traditional security fields, Japan will promote practical cooperation by
  utilizing SDF capabilities, including disposal of landmines and unexploded shells.
  Japan will also strive to establish and strengthen regional cooperation practice and
  support the capacity building of countries in the region.
 (3)Efforts to improve the global security environment.
     Japan will continue to actively participate in international peace cooperation
  activities. Japan will also actively engage in various activities conducted by the
  United Nations and other organizations such as support for capacity building.

 2 Self-Defense Forces : Force Posture
    The SDF will strive to enhance capabilities and posture applicable to diverse
 missions, rapid deployment and long- term operations so it can actively participate in
 international peace cooperation activities.
                   Excerpts on IPCA from 2010NDPG④

3 Self-Defense Force : Organization, Equipment and Force Disposition.
 ○ The SDF will enhance its capabilities for international peace cooperation activities
  by upgrading equipment, strengthening maritime and air transport capability,
  enhancing its logistical support posture, enhancing its engineering and medical
  functions, and reinforcing its education and training systems.
 ○ The SDF will improve the system for providing appropriate intelligence support for
  activities conducted in remote areas through such measures as strengthening
  capabilities to collect geospatial information, so as to enable SDF units dispatched
  abroad to perform missions smoothly and safely.
 ○ The GSDF will maintain mobile operating units sustaining specialized functions so
  that it can effectively perform international peace cooperation activities.
 ○ The ASDF will maintain air transport units and aerial refueling/transport units
  which enable effective international peace cooperation Activities.

Ⅵ Basic Foundations to Maximize Defense Capability
   In contributing to peace and promoting cooperation in international community, there are
 increasing opportunities to conduct effective cooperation activities through measures
 such as the utilization of heavy machinery and other defense equipment carried to the
 site by the SDF and providing equipment to disaster-stricken countries.

Ⅶ Additional Elements for Consideration
       The role of SDF in Capacity Building

1 What is “Capacity Building”?

2 The role of the military in Capacity Building

3 The role of SDF in Capacity Building
                              What’s Capacity Building?
Capacity Building is
  the creation of an enabling environment with appropriate policy and legal frameworks,
institutional development, including community participation, human resources
development and strengthening of managerial systems, and capacity building is a
long-term, continuing process.

Recipients of the capacity building assistance are
  fragile states (collapsed states, states in/after civil war), developing countries,
countries and regions that have suffered from large-scale natural disasters, countries
that will enable world and regional stability and security to take effect (including local

Donors are
 U.N., other international organizations, nations (government organizations, militaries)
NGO, Commercial companies and so on.

Capacity Building is hoped
  to prevent fragile states from being security risks like a hotbed of terrorism, and to
strengthen cooperative relationships between donees and donors.
                             Image of Capacity Building①
Similar to solving a complex puzzle.
  There are a lot of parts based on the situation of recipients. Donors solve the puzzle with parts
in order to improve the situation. Those parts are look like they are similar, but they are infinitely
various and complex, because of race, religion, custom, history and so on.

  Training and
                                                         Establish systems
   for military
                                             (medical, finance, education, economy)
                                  Bring up

               Security sector              government and              Construct
                  reform                        the Diet             infrastructures

  Capacity building is activities that build up the capability of the state to
  It is very important that Donors work in cooperation in fields with which each
nation is proficient.
                             Image of Capacity Building②
bad                 Secure   Establish
        Fragile    Security government        Construct
                     and         and
        states                                  Infra.
                    safety the legislature

       countries   Lifesaving
                       and       Construct     Build up                  Stable Operation
         from       Disaster       Infra.     Capability                     of state
         LSND      restoration                  Of DR

      Developing       Bring up          Establish          Legends
       countries          HR             systems            Infra. : infrastructure
                                                            HR : human resource
                                                            DR : disaster Relief operations
                                                            LSND: large-scale natural disaster

        The goal of capacity building is to enable a nation-state to operate stably.
      There are various approaches to reach this objective.
              Roles of the Military in Capacity Building
  Features of Military

○ Combat power (military can secure security and safety with its own capability.)

○ Self-sufficient (military can conduct long-term activities by themselves.)

○ Multi-functionality (military can conduct various medical, transport (land/sea/air),
engineering, training and education activities.)

Roles of Military in Capacity Building
○ Securing safety in order to enable the activities for themselves and others.

○ Medical support, building up infrastructure, transportation support, education
 and so on in the early stages of commitment.

○ Training the country’s military forces and security police.
                   Features of SDF in Capacity Building
    Features of SDF
○ Combat power (although there are strict restriction against the use of weapons.)
○ Self-sufficiency and Multi-functionality
    SDF has a lot of experience in IPCA, especially in providing medical services,
transportation, engineering, disposal of unexploded shells and so on.
     SDF has the know-how to conduct disaster relief operations, as a country
  where natural disasters occur frequently.
○ SDF is one of the most advanced forces in the Asia-Pacific Region.

Considerations of GSDF’s activities

○ Area of activities are limited to non-combat areas.

○ Activities utilize GSDF’s experience and know-how.

○ Activities in Asia-Pacific, especially in South-East Asia, region are advisable.
          Requests from nations in Southeast Asia
  There are a lot of requests on HA/DR,
anti-piracy, disposal of landmines and
unexploded shells, and so on from                                  Concrete examples
developing countries, especially in                        JAPAN      Brunei
South-East Asia, to Japan through High-                               Education for HA/DR
level exchange.                                                       Cambodia
                                                                      Support for disposal
                                                                      of landmines and
                                                                      unexploded shells, DR
                                                    Support           operation and IPCA
                                                                      Support to improve
                             Vietnam                                  anti-piracy capability

                                                                      Support for training in
                         Cambodia                                     military techniques and
                                                                      school, DR operations.
                                                                      East Timor
                                                                      Support for DR

                              Indonesia      East Timor               Vietnam
                                                                      Support for Counter-
                                                                      Terrorism, HA/DR,
                                                                      IPCA, military, medical
      Challenges for More Effective Activities

1 Restriction on “the integration with use of force”

2 Restriction on the Three Principles on Arms

3 Strengthening relationships among the relevant

4 Through a lens of the Japan-US Cooperation
            Restriction on “the integration with use of force”

The Right of Collective Self-Defense

  Since Japan is a sovereign state, it naturally has the right of collective
self-defense under international law. Nevertheless, the Japanese Government
believes that the exercise of the right of collective self-defense exceeds the
minimum necessary level of self-defense authorized under Article 9 of
the Constitution and is not permissible.
The integration with the use of force

   Under the Constitution, SDF is not permitted to conduct an activity that
may be considered as integrated with the use of force when it is not under
direct attack.

  There are similar restrictions when SDF cooperates with other countries
in IPCA.
  In capacity building, however, individual activities (for instance
training of the armed forces, rifle training, combat training, etc) needs to
be considered on a case-by-case basis.
       Restriction on Three Principles on Arms Exports
On Apr. 21, 1967, then Prime Minister Eisaku Sato declared at the House of Representatives’ Audit
Committee meeting.
○ Communist Bloc countries
○ Countries to which arms export is prohibited under the U.N. resolutions
○ Countries which are actually involved or likely to become involved in international conflicts.
On Feb. 27, 1976, then Prime Minister Takeo Miki announced the Government’s view at
House of Representatives’ Budget Committee meeting.
○ The export of “arms” to the areas subject to the Three Principles shall not be permitted.
○ The export of “arms” to areas other than the areas subject to the Three Principles shall be restricted
 in line with the spirit of the Constitution and the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Control Law.
○ Equipment related to arms production shall be treated in the same category as “arms”.
○ Moreover arms referred to in the Three Principles on Arms Exports are
 ◆ those that are used by the military forces and directly employed in combat.
 ◆ Such equipment as destroyers, fighters and tanks that move, intrinsically carrying firearms,
   for purposes of directly killing and injuring peoples or destroying things as a means of armed struggle,
   are considered “arms”.

 Equipment of SDF are interpreted as “arms” under the Three principles on Arms
Export. Therefore SDF must carry back all equipment sent abroad each time.
Strengthen relationship among the relevant organizations


                                                  The government
            NGO                                   offices concerned
                               Cabinet Office

               MOFA                                    MOD
                      The government
                      offices concerned   NGO
  ○ Strengthen function of Prime Minister’s Official Residence (Kantei)
  and relationship among other relevant organizations
  ○ Plan strategically and implement the activities
                 Improve Japan-US Cooperation in IPCA
Current situation of Japan-US Cooperation
 ○ Guidelines for Japan–US Defense Cooperation in 1997
   ◇Main focus on the defense of Japan and stability in Northeast Asia.
   ◇There are statements about cooperation in peace time
    ・ ”The close cooperation for mutual support as necessary to improve the International security
     environment” as a principle
    ・ Cooperation in UNPKO and HA/DR is conducted as the need arises.
 ○ Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement(ACSA)
  ◆ Applied for Defense of Japan, Response to Situations in Areas Surrounding Japan, IPCA and
   Bilateral Training
  ◆ Not applied for HA/DR
 ○ Cooperation in IPCA
    Iraq humanitarian assistance and reconstruction activity, HA/DR in Pakistan and Haiti
  and Anti-Piracy Activity in Djibouti.
 ○ Bilateral Training in peace time
   Main efforts on defense of Japan, there are Cobra Gold Exercise and Pacific Partnership as others.
 Challenges of Japan-US Cooperation

○ Cooperation in IPCA is not enough compare with the defense of Japan
○ For the future, it is necessary to promote Japan-US cooperation in:
 【concrete tools】
  ・ the application of ASCA
  ・ strengthening Bilateral Training
     To utilize existing bilateral and multilateral frameworks in order to
    increase training opportunities, especially effective utilization of
    ASEAN and ARF
     Matters under consideration in Japan
    ○   “General law” that governs IPCA
    ○   5 Principles for participation in U.N. peacekeeping forces
    ○   3 Principles on Arms Exports
    ○   Application of Japan-US ACSA in International Disaster Relief Activities
    ○   Efforts in new IPCA

             International Peace Capacity                Defense
                 Cooperation     Building               Exchange

○From “first step” of MOD/SDF to “upgrade” as activities conducted by Japan
○To enhance Japan-US cooperation in IPCA including capacity-building
                Enhancing response capabilities for IPCA

Direction of build-up

【New posture of CRF】                       Attaching Capacity building
                                           function to IPCA Training Unit, etc.
                                   CRF     Enhancing coordination with
                                           branch schools

         CRF HQ              CRR         IPCATU             Other units

          H& HS Co        Infantry Co    Engr Co

   Enhancing Rear Area                        Enhancing Engineering
   functions (Medical &

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