VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 39 POSTED ON: 3/18/2011
Dr. V K Sethi , Director – UIT, RGPV Bhopal Sustained economic growth at 8 to 9% requires that by the year 2012, we would need an installed capacity over 2,00,000 MW and by 2050 at the level of 10 Lakh MW i.e. a trillion or Terra Watt – This poses a Terra watt challenges for India. Major Contradictory Challenges Faced by Developing world Quest for increased Generation capacity - Terawatt Challenge Climate Change - rising GHG level Continued focus on coal based generation Climate Change - rising GHG level Green House Gas level rise from a current level of 390 ppm and consequent climate change, floods and draughts has affected 260 million people between 2000 and 2004 through natural calamities of these, 98% were in developing nations. Developed countries with population of 15% of world population have the share of CO2 emissions at 50%. There is so much momentum in the system that we will certainly double CO2 level by end of the century. Global temperature rise by 3 to 4 0C will cause displacement of over 330 million people in developing world. • World Green House inventory is over 29,000 Million tones per annum (MTPA) with US over 20% (India with total emission of about 1400 MTPA is only at 4.8 %.) • Coal is going to remain main stay for power generation in at least next Three decades for India (92,157 MW Coal based generation out of 1,43,311 MW total power installed capacity) Therefore there is Global Tri-lima. The country is thus facing: Quest for increased generation. Dependence on Coal based generation. Climate change due to rising GHG level. Solution lies in Adoption of Green Power Technologies Low Carbon/ No Carbon technologies & Clean Coal Technologies Development of Carbon capture & Sequestration technologies The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) has confirmed: The temperature of the earth’s surface has increased by 0.76˚C over the past century. It is very likely (more than 90˚ probability) that most of this global warming was due to increased GHGs(green house gases ), resulting from human activity. Eleven of the last 12 years (1995-2006) were among the 12 warmest years on the instrumental record of global surface temperature. Mountain glaciers are receding and snow cover has declined in both the hemispheres. The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) has also confirmed: Widespread decreases in glaciers and ice caps have contributed to sea level rise. At continental, regional and oceans basin scales, numerous long term changes in climate have been observed. These include changes in Arctic temperatures and ice precipitation amount, ocean salinity, wind patterns, and aspects of extreme weather including droughts, heavy precipitation, heat waves, and the intensity of tropical cyclones. Temperature is projected to increase further during the 21st century. The extent of change will be determined by how much more GHGs we introduce in the atmosphere. Best estimate regarding the future changes in climate by 2099 for low scenario is 1.8” and for high scenario is 4.0”. INDIAN POWER SECTOR JOINS TERA CLUB BY 2010 POWER GENERATION BY UTILITIES TODAY 1,43,311 MW …600 Billion kWh per annum TARGETTED CAPACITY ADDITION BY 2010 Central 46,500 MW State & IPP 41,800 MW NCES 10,700 MW Nuclear 6,400 MW Total 105,400 MW BY 2010 WE NEED TO GENERATE ANNULLY …Over 1000 Billion kWh THUS WE WILL BE A TRILLION or TERA kWh (Unit) GENERATING POWER SECTOR BY 2010 Tera-watt Challenge for synergy in Energy & Environment A terawatt Challenge of 2010 for India To give over one billion people in India the minimum Electrical Energy they need by 2010, we need to generate over 0.2 terra watt (oil equivalent to over 3 million barrels of oil per day) and 1 TW by 2040,primarily through Advanced fossil fuel technologies like CCTs for limiting GHG emission levels By 2020 our mix of generation would have the Peak in Thermal, certainly it would be the Green Thermal Power: Thermal 326,000MW Renewable & Hydro 104,000 MW Nuclear 20,000 MW Total 450,000 MW Energy Security – Indian Perspective AGENDA FOR THE ENERGY GENERATION SECTOR: Increased use of Advanced Fossil Fuel Technology. Promote CCT in countries like India & China where coal is main stay fuel for Power Generation. Reduce Atmospheric Pollution from Energy Generating Systems. Enhance productivity through Advanced Fossil Fuel Technology. Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural Sector POWER SCENARIO IN INDIA Installed capacity in Utilities as on April 07 …1, 43,311 MW Thermal Installed Capacity…92,157 MW (Coal 70,618 MW, Gas 14,582 MW, Diesel 1202 MW + Others- cogen etc.) Hydro Power …35,909 MW Nuclear Power … 4120 MW Renewable Energy Sources …11,125 MW Electric Demand…..7-8% growth Peak & Energy Shortage…..16.7% & 12.1% Capacity Addition in 11th Plan……80,020 MW INDIAN POWER SECTOR - TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE POWER DEVELOPMENT Total Installed Capacity … 1,43,311 MW Thermal Generation … over 66 % Although no GHG reduction targets for India but taken steps through adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies,Combined cycles, Co-generation, Coal beneficiation,Plant Performance optimization Under Kyoto Protocol; Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) conceived to reduce cost of GHG mitigation, while promoting sustainable development as per Framework Convention on Climate change (FCCC) FRONTALS IN ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT GREEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES – PRIMARILY THE CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES, SUPERCRICAL - FOR ULTRA MEGA PROJECTS OF 4000 MW CAPACITY. ZERO EMISSION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSPORT, POWER PLANTS & INDUSTRIAL SECTOR. AFFORDABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 50,000 MW HYDRO INITIATIVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY CDM OPPORTUNITIES IN ENERGY SECTOR FRESH LOOK ON OUR NUCLEAR POWER POLICY & ACCELERATED GROWTH OF FAST BREEDER REACTORS BASED ON THORIUM. THRUST ON COAL WASHRIES & IGCC TECH Low Carbon Economy on Sustainable Path Combating Climate Change – Nature’s Fury Solar for irrigation High Efficiency CNT Based PV Cells Hydrogen as Fuel for future Accelerated Program on Thorium based Nuclear Reactor Clean coal Technologies like SCR, IGCC Bio-fuels for Railways and Mass Transport Energy Security by 2020, Energy Independence by2030 ….Reference: Address by President of India 14th Aug 2005 Energy for the Earth Planet- Some issues World Generates 15 Terawatt of Energy (the US - about 3TW, India - 0.12 TW) today to support 10 billion world population (Equivalent to230 million barrels of oil /day) By 2050 it is projected to need about 35 TW. Thus the world would need about 20 TW of non-CO2 energy to stabilize CO2 in the atmosphere by mid century. Among the non-CO2 options , it is possible that solar is the only one that can meet this Terawatt challenge and at the same time contribute to the reduction of climate change, with about 125,000 TW of global incident sunlight. Energy for the Earth Planet- Some issues…Contd. Key scenario for stabilizing CO2 in the atmosphere during 21st century turn on the viability of CO2 sequestration. This implies CO2 capture, storage and then pumping to aquifers, to stay for millennia. In any case minimum 10 TW is needed within a decade from Breeder Nuclear , CCTs and Renewables. Biomass CO2 sequestration could also meet this challenge. Prime Clean Coal Technology Options Supercritical Power Plants Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plants Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) Power Plants Zero Emission Technology (ZET) This Technology Combines and Forms a Part of : Clean Coal Technologies Solid to liquid fuel technology GHG mitigation technology Clean Development Mechanism for power sector Non-CFC Refrigerant and Non-CFC Aerosol Propellant Technology Clean Aviation Fuel or ATF for aircraft Substitute LPG for domestic use. NCES POTENTIAL AND INSTALLED CAPACITY (In MW) Renewable Energy Source All India MP Wind - Potential 84,776 5500 - Installed 14,772 15 Bio Mass - Potential 19,500 + Co-gen. 100 15,142 - Installed 36 Small Hydro – Potential 5000 410.13 - Installed 40 1705 - Energy - Potential 1700 from Waste - - Installed 42 - Solar PV - Potential 50 MW/Sq. km - Installed 120MWp Energy for the Earth Planet- Non-CO2 Options World Generates 15 Terawatt of Energy (the US - about 3TW, India - 0.12 TW) today to support 10 billion world population. This is Equivalent to230 million barrels of oil /day. By 2050 it is projected to need about 35 TW. The world would need about 20 TW of non-CO2 energy to stabilize CO2 in the atmosphere by mid century. Among the non-CO2 options , it is possible that solar is the only one that can meet this Terawatt challenge and at the same time contribute to the reduction of climate change, with about 125,000 TW of global incident sunlight. Energy for the Earth Planet- Non-CO2 Options…Contd. Key scenario for stabilizing CO2 in the atmosphere during 21st century turn on the viability of CO2 sequestration. This implies CO2 capture, storage and then pumping to aquifers, to stay for millennia. In any case minimum 10 TW is needed within a decade from Breeder Nuclear , Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and Renewables. Biomass CO2 sequestration could also meet this challenge. MAJOR TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES Technology Breakthroughs in areas like CO2 capture & Clean Coal Technologies Low cost Solar Photo Voltaic Cells. Energy efficiency on top of the agenda. Carbon trading in all Major Industries. Future funding in Clean Technologies. Evolving Base line methodologies for variety of Green & Clean technologies. Green Energy solutions Promote CCT in countries like India & China where coal is main stay fuel for Power Generation. Increased use of Advanced Fossil Fuel Technology Energy Farming Energy Efficiency Major shift towards Green Technologies Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural Sector Issues before the house Technology break thoughts in the areas like CO2 capture and Clean Coal Technologies Development of low cost solar photo voltaic cells Bringing Energy Efficiency & Energy Conservation on the top of the National Agenda Promotion of Carbon Trading on the strength of Energy Efficiency and Green Environment initiatives. • Energy conservation along with low-or-no- carbon energy sources is the key to dealing with the global warming problem. • All alternative sources such as Biomass, Geothermal, Tidal, Solar and Wind will meet only a quarter of projected demand for electricity by 2050 for supporting 10 billion world populations. • Though there are differing opinions of some technologists who favour nuclear fission, the only long term viable source of energy is thermo nuclear fusion. If there is any chance of Helium-3 fusion becoming a practical reality by 2050, we must better start now. • There is serious under investment today in basic low carbon energy technologies such as photovoltaic materials for cost effective Solar Cells, membrane materials for better fuel cells and wide band-gap semiconductors for power electronics. • Capacity addition targets of no-carbon sources comprise of 6400 MW through Nuclear and 10700 MW through non-conventional sources by 2012. These are encouraging steps of Government of India. • Major thrust in CO2 reduction in long term and sustainable basis world came through adoption of advanced technologies of Coal utilization for power generation like Supercritical/ Ultra-supercritical power cycle, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), Fluidized bed combustion/Gasification and so on. •Revamping of old polluting power plants and achieving energy conversion efficiencies in the range of 40-45% by 2010 is the need of the hour. •India joined hands with global community of 16 countries in R&D efforts through Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) in June 2003 and signed the charter. • India‟s position with regard to Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) is very clear. We don‟t make any commitment at this stage regarding deployment of CCS technologies. India advocates very strongly the Carbon Capture & Sequestration. • Some of the demo pilot projects include. - Pilot project on Geological CO2 sequestration in basalt rock formation. The question of adoption of CCS will depend on this technology being cost effective. -Projects under DST sponsored National Program on Carbon Sequestration (NPCS) • A Large number of projects are in different stages under NPCS through the country. • India has also joined „Methane to Markets‟ Partnership along with Argentina, Brazil, China, Columbia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, Russia, Ukraine, UK in November 2004, for Hydro- gasification of Coal & Biomass • India has also collaborated with Canada, EU countries, Japan, China and south Korea in “International Partnership for hydrogen Economy (IPHE)” in November 2003. • US and India have signed the framework protocol during April 2006 in New Delhi, for the “FutureGen” project aiming to design develop built and operate first coal fired emission free power plant of 275 MW. A project involving IGCC + CO2 capture. • The ITER- International Thermo Nuclear Experimental Reactor project is well on its way. Pre-combustion de-carbonization is offering a promising technology for carbon capture. A typical example is coal gasification for production of synthetic Gas (Syn Gas) of CO and H2. This CO and H2 then react with steam to produce CO2 and H2. The CO2 can be saturated and H2 used in fuel cell. Other options include Oxy fuel technology involving recycling of CO2 plus oxygen. Other options include IGCC, Supercritical and Underground coal mining which can reduce CO2 emission through environmentally benign coal utilization for Power Generation. Post combustion approach on an actual fossil fuel based Power Plant will be cost effective when CO2 concentration is increased such as in an oxy fuel technology stated above. Likely options currently identifiable for CO2 separation and capture include: Chemical & Physical absorption Pressure swing and electrical swing absorption Cryogenic Separation Capture in fuel cell & carbon Nano-tubes Biochemical approach RGTU INITIATIVES Hybrid power plant of Wind, Solar & Biomass has been setup which will pave way for sustainable power supply for variety of biomass fuels & environment limitations. Biomass Gasifier (10kW) & Bio-diesel Plant (100 LPD) has been commissioned Green Energy Technology Center has been set up to focus on following areas: - Clean Coal Technology & CDM - Bio-fuels and bio-diesel - Renewable Energy devices (hybrid) targeted to produce 1 MW Power for the campus - Energy Conservation & Management - CO2 Sequestration & CO2 capture technologies . The pilot plant at RGPV is one of the Carbon Capture & Sequestration plant together with CO2 conversion into Hydrogen, Methane & Biodiesel through Algae Route. FLUE GAS LEGEND FROM GASIFIER STEAM H2 N2 N2 F.G. CO2 MEA CH4 CATALYTIC MEA-01 MEA-02 MEA-03 CONVERTER CO METHANE LIGNITE H2 HYDROGEN CH4 PRODUCER CO ASH CONVERTOR GAS SCRUBBER 04 ST ST NaHCO3 CO2 STRIPPER 05 PURE MEA PURE H2 FOR SATURATED CO2 S 06 FULE CELL MEA -07 T E A FLUE M GAS P2 P1 BOILER CO2 CAPTURE PILOT PLANT CO2 Sequestration Plant A SUSTAINABLE POWER DEVELOPMENT MODEL FOR INDIA Meeting Energy need of Rural India (about 100 Billion Units per annum) through use of Renewable Energy technologies like Biomass, Wind, Solar and their Hybrid. Use of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) & Green Power Engineering (About 500 billion Units) for Mega Power Generation for Cities, Industries and all other sectors of economy. Summary Coal is going to remain our main stay in Power Scenario. A synergy between Energy & Environment is need of the day as over 56% GHG Emission is from Energy Generating Systems, for which: • Accelerated growth of Power generation should be coupled with Environmental concern through adoption of Clean Coal Technologies • Renewable Energy Technologies need a fillip particularly for Rural Sector • Energy Conservation measures will go a long way in reducing Demand : Supply Gap ONCE THE PROJECT IS TAKEN UP UNDER CDM IT BECOMES SELF SUSTAINABLE. THANK YOU
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