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Challenges of Engineering Education

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Challenges of Engineering Education Powered By Docstoc
					   Dr. V K Sethi ,
Director – UIT, RGPV Bhopal
Sustained economic growth at 8 to 9% requires
that by the year 2012, we would need an installed
capacity over 2,00,000 MW and by 2050 at the level
of 10 Lakh MW i.e. a trillion or Terra Watt – This
poses a Terra watt challenges for India.
    Major Contradictory Challenges
     Faced by Developing world

    Quest for increased Generation
     capacity - Terawatt Challenge

    Climate Change
     - rising GHG level
    Continued focus on coal based
     generation
      Climate Change - rising GHG level

Green House Gas level rise from a current level
of 390 ppm and consequent climate change,
floods and draughts has affected 260 million
people between 2000 and 2004 through
natural calamities of these, 98% were in
developing nations.
Developed countries    with population of
15% of world population       have the share of
CO2 emissions at 50%.
There       is so much momentum        in    the
system that we will certainly double CO2
level by end of the    century.
Global      temperature rise by 3 to 4 0C will
cause       displacement of over 330 million
people in developing world.
•   World Green House inventory is over
    29,000     Million  tones    per annum
    (MTPA) with US over 20% (India with
    total emission of about 1400 MTPA is
    only at 4.8 %.)
•   Coal is going to remain main stay for
    power generation in at least next Three
    decades for India (92,157 MW Coal
    based generation out of 1,43,311 MW
    total power installed capacity)
Therefore there is Global Tri-lima. The country is
thus facing:
    Quest for increased generation.
    Dependence on Coal based generation.
    Climate change due to rising GHG level.

Solution lies in
  Adoption of Green Power Technologies
  Low Carbon/ No Carbon technologies & Clean
  Coal Technologies
  Development of Carbon capture & Sequestration
  technologies
        The Fourth Assessment Report of the
    Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change
               (IPCC) has confirmed:
   The temperature of the earth’s surface has increased by
    0.76˚C over the past century.

   It is very likely (more than 90˚ probability) that most of
    this global warming was due to increased GHGs(green
    house gases ), resulting from human activity.

   Eleven of the last 12 years (1995-2006) were among
    the 12 warmest years on the instrumental record of
    global surface temperature.

   Mountain glaciers are receding and snow cover has
    declined in both the hemispheres.
        The Fourth Assessment Report of the
    Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change
             (IPCC) has also confirmed:
   Widespread decreases in glaciers and ice caps have
    contributed to sea level rise.
   At continental, regional and oceans basin scales,
    numerous long term changes in climate have been
    observed.    These   include    changes     in   Arctic
    temperatures and ice precipitation amount, ocean
    salinity, wind patterns, and aspects of extreme
    weather including droughts, heavy precipitation,
    heat waves, and the intensity of tropical cyclones.
   Temperature is projected to increase further during
    the 21st century. The extent of change will be
    determined by how much more GHGs we introduce in
    the atmosphere. Best estimate regarding the future
    changes in climate by 2099 for low scenario is 1.8”
    and for high scenario is 4.0”.
    INDIAN POWER SECTOR JOINS TERA CLUB
                  BY 2010

   POWER GENERATION BY UTILITIES TODAY
     1,43,311 MW …600 Billion kWh per annum
   TARGETTED CAPACITY ADDITION BY 2010
        Central                    46,500 MW
        State & IPP                41,800 MW
        NCES                       10,700 MW
        Nuclear                    6,400 MW
        Total                       105,400 MW

   BY 2010 WE NEED TO GENERATE ANNULLY
                       …Over 1000 Billion kWh
   THUS WE WILL BE A TRILLION or TERA kWh (Unit)
    GENERATING POWER SECTOR BY 2010
Tera-watt Challenge for synergy in Energy
            & Environment
   A terawatt Challenge of 2010 for India
    To give over one billion people in India the minimum Electrical Energy
    they need by 2010, we need to generate over 0.2 terra watt (oil
    equivalent to over 3 million barrels of oil per day) and 1 TW by
    2040,primarily through Advanced fossil fuel technologies like CCTs for
    limiting GHG emission levels
   By 2020 our mix of generation would have the Peak in
    Thermal, certainly it would be the Green Thermal
    Power:
            Thermal                     326,000MW
            Renewable & Hydro           104,000 MW
            Nuclear                      20,000 MW
            Total                       450,000 MW
      Energy Security – Indian
            Perspective

AGENDA FOR THE ENERGY GENERATION SECTOR:
 Increased use of Advanced Fossil Fuel
Technology.
 Promote CCT in countries like India & China where
coal is main stay fuel for Power Generation.
 Reduce Atmospheric Pollution from Energy
Generating Systems.
 Enhance productivity through Advanced Fossil
Fuel Technology.
 Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies in
Rural Sector
                 POWER SCENARIO IN INDIA

    Installed capacity in Utilities as on April 07
                                              …1, 43,311 MW
   Thermal Installed Capacity…92,157 MW
    (Coal 70,618 MW, Gas 14,582 MW, Diesel 1202 MW + Others- cogen etc.)

   Hydro Power …35,909 MW
   Nuclear Power … 4120 MW
   Renewable Energy Sources …11,125 MW
   Electric Demand…..7-8% growth
   Peak & Energy Shortage…..16.7% & 12.1%
   Capacity Addition in 11th Plan……80,020 MW
     INDIAN POWER SECTOR - TOWARDS
     SUSTAINABLE POWER DEVELOPMENT
   Total Installed Capacity … 1,43,311 MW
   Thermal Generation      … over 66 %
   Although no GHG reduction targets for India
    but taken steps through adoption of
    Renewable Energy Technologies,Combined
    cycles, Co-generation, Coal beneficiation,Plant
    Performance optimization
   Under Kyoto Protocol; Clean Development
    Mechanism (CDM) conceived to reduce cost of
    GHG mitigation, while promoting sustainable
    development as per Framework Convention on
    Climate change (FCCC)
     FRONTALS IN ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT

   GREEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES – PRIMARILY THE
    CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES, SUPERCRICAL - FOR
    ULTRA MEGA PROJECTS OF 4000 MW CAPACITY.
   ZERO EMISSION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSPORT,
    POWER PLANTS & INDUSTRIAL SECTOR.
   AFFORDABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
   50,000 MW HYDRO INITIATIVE
   ENERGY EFFICIENCY
   CDM OPPORTUNITIES IN ENERGY SECTOR
   FRESH LOOK ON OUR NUCLEAR POWER POLICY &
    ACCELERATED GROWTH OF FAST BREEDER
    REACTORS BASED ON THORIUM.
   THRUST ON COAL WASHRIES & IGCC TECH
Low Carbon Economy on Sustainable Path

    Combating Climate Change – Nature’s Fury
    Solar for irrigation
    High Efficiency CNT Based PV Cells
    Hydrogen as Fuel for future
    Accelerated Program on Thorium based Nuclear
     Reactor
    Clean coal Technologies like SCR, IGCC
    Bio-fuels for Railways and Mass Transport
    Energy Security by 2020, Energy Independence
     by2030
 ….Reference: Address by President of India 14th Aug 2005
    Energy for the Earth Planet- Some issues


   World Generates 15 Terawatt of Energy (the US -
    about 3TW, India - 0.12 TW) today to support 10
    billion world population (Equivalent to230 million
    barrels of oil /day)
   By 2050 it is projected to need about 35 TW. Thus
    the world would need about 20 TW of non-CO2
    energy to stabilize CO2 in the atmosphere by mid
    century.
   Among the non-CO2 options , it is possible that
    solar is the only one that can meet this Terawatt
    challenge and at the same time contribute to the
    reduction of climate change, with about 125,000
    TW of global incident sunlight.
          Energy for the Earth Planet- Some
                   issues…Contd.


   Key scenario for stabilizing CO2 in the
    atmosphere during 21st century turn on the
    viability of CO2 sequestration. This implies
    CO2 capture, storage and then pumping to
    aquifers, to stay for millennia.
   In any case minimum 10 TW is needed
    within a decade from Breeder Nuclear ,
    CCTs and Renewables.
   Biomass CO2 sequestration could also
    meet this challenge.
    Prime Clean Coal Technology Options


     Supercritical Power Plants
     Integrated Gasification Combined
      Cycle (IGCC) Power Plants
    Circulating Fluidized Bed
     Combustion (CFBC) Power Plants
    Zero Emission Technology
             (ZET)
    This Technology Combines and Forms a Part of :

   Clean Coal Technologies
   Solid to liquid fuel technology
   GHG mitigation technology
   Clean Development Mechanism for power
    sector
   Non-CFC Refrigerant and Non-CFC Aerosol
    Propellant Technology
   Clean Aviation Fuel or ATF for aircraft
   Substitute LPG for domestic use.
       NCES POTENTIAL AND INSTALLED CAPACITY (In MW)

           Renewable Energy Source     All India     MP

Wind          - Potential               84,776      5500

               - Installed              14,772
                                                      15

Bio Mass     - Potential                19,500
+ Co-gen.                                            100

                                        15,142
              - Installed                            36

Small Hydro – Potential                  5000       410.13

              - Installed                            40
                                         1705
                                                      -
Energy      - Potential                  1700
from Waste
                                                      -
           - Installed
                                          42
                                                      -
Solar PV     - Potential             50 MW/Sq. km
            - Installed
                                       120MWp
Energy for the Earth Planet- Non-CO2 Options


    World Generates 15 Terawatt of Energy (the US -
     about 3TW, India - 0.12 TW) today to support 10
     billion world population. This is Equivalent to230
     million barrels of oil /day.
    By 2050 it is projected to need about 35 TW. The
     world would need about 20 TW of non-CO2 energy
     to stabilize CO2 in the atmosphere by mid
     century.
    Among the non-CO2 options , it is possible that
     solar is the only one that can meet this Terawatt
     challenge and at the same time contribute to the
     reduction of climate change, with about 125,000
     TW of global incident sunlight.
Energy for the Earth Planet- Non-CO2 Options…Contd.



   Key scenario for stabilizing CO2 in the
    atmosphere during 21st century turn on the
    viability of CO2 sequestration. This implies CO2
    capture, storage and then pumping to aquifers,
    to stay for millennia.
   In any case minimum 10 TW is needed within a
    decade from Breeder Nuclear , Clean Coal
    Technologies (CCTs) and Renewables.
   Biomass CO2 sequestration could also meet this
    challenge.
              MAJOR TECHNOLOGICAL
                  CHALLENGES
   Technology Breakthroughs in areas like CO2 capture
    & Clean Coal Technologies

   Low cost Solar Photo Voltaic Cells.

   Energy efficiency on top of the agenda.

   Carbon trading in all Major Industries.

   Future funding in Clean Technologies.

   Evolving Base line methodologies for variety of
    Green & Clean technologies.
      Green Energy solutions

 Promote CCT in countries like India & China
  where coal is main stay fuel for Power
  Generation.
 Increased use of Advanced Fossil Fuel
  Technology
 Energy Farming
 Energy Efficiency
 Major shift towards Green Technologies
 Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies in
  Rural Sector
    Issues before the house
   Technology break thoughts in the areas like
    CO2 capture and Clean Coal Technologies
   Development of low cost solar photo voltaic
    cells
   Bringing Energy Efficiency & Energy
    Conservation on the top of the National
    Agenda
   Promotion of Carbon Trading on the
    strength of Energy Efficiency and Green
    Environment initiatives.
•   Energy conservation along with low-or-no- carbon
    energy sources is the key to dealing with          the
    global warming problem.
• All alternative sources such as Biomass,
    Geothermal, Tidal, Solar and Wind will meet only a
quarter of projected demand for electricity by 2050
for supporting 10 billion       world populations.
• Though there are differing opinions of           some
    technologists who favour nuclear        fission,
    the only long term viable source of energy is thermo
    nuclear fusion. If there is any chance of Helium-3
    fusion becoming a practical reality by 2050, we
    must better start now.
• There is serious under investment today in basic low
carbon energy technologies such as photovoltaic
materials for cost effective Solar Cells, membrane
materials for better fuel cells and wide band-gap
semiconductors for power electronics.
• Capacity addition targets of no-carbon sources
comprise of 6400 MW through Nuclear and 10700 MW
through non-conventional sources by 2012. These are
encouraging steps of Government of India.
• Major thrust in CO2 reduction in long term and
sustainable basis world came through adoption of
advanced technologies of Coal utilization for power
generation like Supercritical/ Ultra-supercritical power
cycle, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC),
Fluidized bed combustion/Gasification and so on.
•Revamping of old polluting power plants and
achieving energy conversion efficiencies in the range
of 40-45% by 2010 is the need of the hour.


•India joined hands with global community of 16
countries in R&D efforts through Carbon Sequestration
Leadership Forum (CSLF) in June 2003 and signed the
charter.
•   India‟s position with regard to Carbon
    Capture & Storage (CCS) is very clear. We
    don‟t make any commitment at this stage
    regarding deployment of CCS technologies.
    India advocates very strongly the Carbon
    Capture & Sequestration.
•   Some of the demo pilot projects include.
    - Pilot project on Geological CO2
    sequestration      in basalt rock formation.
    The question of adoption of CCS will depend
    on this      technology being cost effective.
    -Projects under DST sponsored National
    Program on         Carbon      Sequestration
    (NPCS)
• A Large number of projects are in different
  stages under NPCS through the country.
• India has also joined „Methane to Markets‟
  Partnership along with Argentina, Brazil, China,
  Columbia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, Russia,
  Ukraine, UK in November 2004, for Hydro-
  gasification of Coal & Biomass
• India has also collaborated with Canada, EU
  countries, Japan, China and south Korea in
  “International     Partnership  for   hydrogen
  Economy (IPHE)” in November 2003.
•   US and India have signed the framework
    protocol during April 2006 in New Delhi,
    for the     “FutureGen” project aiming to
    design develop        built and operate
    first coal fired emission free power
    plant of 275 MW. A project involving
    IGCC + CO2 capture.

• The ITER- International Thermo Nuclear
  Experimental Reactor project is well on
  its way.
Pre-combustion de-carbonization is offering a
promising technology for carbon capture. A typical
example is coal gasification for production of
synthetic Gas (Syn Gas) of CO and H2. This CO and
H2 then react with steam to produce CO2 and H2.
The CO2 can be saturated and H2 used in fuel cell.
Other options include Oxy fuel technology involving
recycling of CO2 plus oxygen. Other options include
IGCC, Supercritical and Underground coal mining
which can reduce CO2 emission through
environmentally benign coal utilization for Power
Generation.
 Post combustion approach on an actual fossil fuel
 based Power Plant will be cost effective when CO2
 concentration is increased such as in an oxy fuel
 technology stated above. Likely options currently
 identifiable for CO2 separation and capture include:
Chemical & Physical absorption
Pressure swing and electrical swing absorption
Cryogenic Separation
Capture in fuel cell & carbon Nano-tubes
   Biochemical approach
            RGTU INITIATIVES
    Hybrid power plant of Wind, Solar & Biomass has been
    setup which will pave way for sustainable power supply for
    variety of biomass fuels & environment limitations.
    Biomass Gasifier (10kW) & Bio-diesel Plant (100 LPD) has
    been commissioned
    Green Energy Technology Center has been set up to focus
    on following areas:
     - Clean Coal Technology & CDM
     - Bio-fuels and bio-diesel
     - Renewable Energy devices (hybrid) targeted to
        produce 1 MW Power for the campus
     - Energy Conservation & Management
     - CO2 Sequestration & CO2 capture technologies
.
                  The pilot plant at RGPV is one of the Carbon Capture &
                  Sequestration plant together with CO2 conversion into
                  Hydrogen, Methane & Biodiesel through Algae Route.


                              FLUE GAS                                     LEGEND
                           FROM GASIFIER
                                                                                             STEAM
                             H2            N2     N2                                         F.G.
                                                                                             CO2
                                                                                             MEA
CH4   CATALYTIC          MEA-01        MEA-02   MEA-03
      CONVERTER                                                                              CO
       METHANE
                                                              LIGNITE                        H2
      HYDROGEN                                                                               CH4
      PRODUCER
                                                                  CO         ASH
                                                               CONVERTOR

  GAS SCRUBBER
        04
                                                                             ST     ST
              NaHCO3                                          CO2 STRIPPER
                                                                   05




       PURE MEA        PURE H2 FOR                       SATURATED CO2                   S
          06            FULE CELL                          MEA -07                       T
                                                                                         E
                                                                                         A
                                                                     FLUE                M
                                                                     GAS
                                                                P2

        P1
                                                                             BOILER
                         CO2 CAPTURE PILOT PLANT
CO2 Sequestration Plant
    A SUSTAINABLE POWER DEVELOPMENT MODEL
                   FOR INDIA

    Meeting Energy need of Rural India
     (about 100 Billion Units per annum)
     through use of Renewable Energy
     technologies like Biomass, Wind, Solar
     and their Hybrid.

    Use of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) &
     Green Power Engineering (About 500
     billion Units) for Mega Power Generation
     for Cities, Industries and all other sectors
     of economy.
                   Summary
   Coal is going to remain our main stay in Power
    Scenario.
   A synergy between Energy & Environment is need
    of the day as over 56% GHG Emission is from
    Energy Generating Systems, for which:
•      Accelerated growth of Power generation should be
       coupled with Environmental concern through adoption
       of Clean Coal Technologies
•      Renewable Energy Technologies need a fillip
       particularly for Rural Sector
•      Energy Conservation measures will go a long way in
       reducing Demand : Supply Gap

   ONCE THE PROJECT IS TAKEN UP UNDER
    CDM IT BECOMES SELF SUSTAINABLE.
THANK YOU