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Building Behavior Support Plans from the Competing Behavior Pathway BSP Supports • Behavior Support planning Document • SDE BIP form • Implementation Training & Support planner (TBD) Intervention Planning focuses on manipulating environmental factors • Antecedents/setting events = when • Specific Behavior = What • Function = Why Intervention Planning Setting event Antecedent Behavior Consequence Hungry Playing with Screams Teacher sits teacher, & “no” and hits back down teacher gets teacher and up to leave continues to play Function? Access adult attention Irrelevant Inefficient Ineffective Reduce the likelihood Teach a Make of the problem behavior functionally replacement equivalent behavior access Neutralize or minimize the effects of replacement function rather setting events and antecedents to behavior than problem prevent the need for using the behavior problem behavior Competing Behavior Pathway – Good behavior support plan yield challenging behaviors: • Irrelevant changing environment • Inefficient teaching easier replacement • Ineffective altering consequences Desired Response Typical Consequence Setting Event Antecedent Behavior Consequence Replacement Behavior Irrelevant Inefficient Ineffective 5 Functional Equivalence • Identify an acceptable way that the child can deliver the same message. • Make sure that the new response is socially appropriate and will access the child’s desired outcome. • Teach the child a skill that honors that function of the behavior (e.g., if child wants out of activity, teach child to gesture “finished”). Competing Behavior Equation Child yells, Adult gives child Child told kicks, throws. another turn. peer gets a turn. Child asks for Adult says “one more one more turn. turn, then (peer’s name)’s turn” and gives turn. Discussion Activity: Competing Behavior Equation Child screams Teacher lets child and resists. out of activity. Child asked to join circle. Child gestures Teacher lets “all done.” child out of activity. Competing Behavior Pathway Existing Consequence Desired Behavior Grades Work quietly More work Maintaining Consequence Setting event Antecedent Problem Behavior Gain None Preferred peer Talking Peer attention Alternative Behavior Peer helper Competing Behavior Pathway Existing Consequence Desired Behavior Grades Work quietly More work Maintaining Consequence Setting event Antecedent Problem Behavior Gain None Preferred peer Talking Peer attention Alternative Behavior Peer helper Building support plan from competing behavior pathway Four Steps: 1. Diagram hypothesis statement & competing pathway 2. Identify ways to reduce likelihood of challenging behavior (make irrelevant) 3. Teach EASIER functionally equivalent replacement (make inefficient) 4. Allow replacement to access function with added incentive (make ineffective) 1. Remove/minimize CB’s ability to access reinforcement 11 Step 2: Prevent Likelihood of Challenging Behavior COMPETING PATHWAYS BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING Setting Event Antecedent Teaching Consequence Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies 12 Setting Event Interventions Percentage of Time With Problem Behavior Percentage of Time With Problem Behavior Baseline With Baseline With Neutraliz Neutral ing izing Routine Routine Setting Event & 39% 3% Antecedent 20% 11% Just Setting Event 5% 0% 7% 0% Just Antecedent 6% 0% 3% 0% Neither Setting Event or Antecedent 0% 0% 0% 0% SEs alter value of consequence We attempt to alter it back 1. Eliminate or minimize occurrence of a setting event • good nutrition; regular meals; good nights sleep 2. Neutralize effect of SE - neutralizing routines • Anxiety-humor; tired-rest/nap, unfamiliar person-build rapport 3. Withhold or change triggering cues or events when setting event is present 1. Add prompts for desired and alternative behaviors when setting events are present 14 Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions Dan: 13 years old Problem behaviors: tantrum (run through house screaming obscenities); lying; stealing Intervene here to reduce presence of setting event Triggering Problem Maintaining Setting Events Antecedents Behavior Consequences Lying Earlier “secret” Question (Incorrect “yes” or Avoid behavior “Did you take..” “no” reply) Punishment Intervene here Neutralize setting event when present 15 Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions Teddy: 7 years old, Asperger’s syndrome Problem behaviors: severe aggression (destroy property, assault another by knocking them to the floor and biting) Triggering Problem Maintaining Setting Events Antecedents Behavior Consequences Visit from Negative Physical Escape Mother during Interaction Assault aversive situation past 24 hrs Neutralize Routine 16 Antecedent Interventions Antecedents trigger behaviors By changing the form of antecedent in some way we attempt to keep behavior from being triggered. Basic Goals of Antecedent Strategies Remove, modify or weaken cues/signals for problem behaviors • reduce or eliminate specific "triggers" (e.g., don't say "no," say ____ ; reduce demands) • offer choices or present requests as choices use self-scheduling or choice of sequence • embed difficult requests, use task interspersal, or task variation (e.g., behavioral momentum) • modify curriculum and instructional procedures • redesign tasks or activities/routines add aids or supports (e.g., tool, visuals, assistive technology) 18 Basic Goals of Antecedent Strategies (continued) Strengthen cues for, and add prompts for, alternative and desired behaviors • find instructional prompts that work and use antecedent (proactive) prompting strategies (e.g., most to least; errorless learning) • use precorrection and reminders • change discriminative characteristics to promote desired appropriate behavior teach in activity context; make it relevant; make it a game; utilize preferences use priming - make materials or activities familiar • add redundant cues (e.g., picture schedules) to promote desired behavior or to ensure predictability 19 Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions Dan: 13 years old Problem behaviors: tantrum (run through house screaming obscenities); lying; stealing Triggering Problem Maintaining Setting Events Antecedents Behavior Consequences Lying Earlier “secret” Question Avoid (Incorrect “yes” behavior “Did you take..” Punishment or “no” reply) Intervene here Intervene here Reduce anxiety Weaken Trigger No questions 20 Step 2: Prevent Likelihood of Challenging Behavior COMPETING PATHWAYS Spelling tired task BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING Minimize: Change: Specific Change bedtime splng routine activity/words Neutralize: Strengthen: add extra Provide nap verbal prompt for before work replacement Setting Event Antecedent Teaching Consequence Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies 21 Competing Behavior Pathway • CBP/BSP Spelling tired task BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING Minimize: Change: Specific Change bedtime splng routine activity/words Neutralize: Strengthen: add extra Provide nap verbal prompt before work replacement Setting Event Antecedent Teaching Consequence Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies Big Ideas • Prevention includes both manipulating and/or removing triggers (antecedents) as well as counter acting setting events. • Prevention greatly decreases the likelihood the student will need to use the CB (but not completely). • Prevention DOES NOT teach the student any new ways to get his/her needs met so should never be used alone! Writing Prevention Section of BSP • Developed from Competing Behavior Pathway • Should outline specific adult behaviors that will address outlined steps from Competing Behavior Pathway. • Neutralizing Routine • Weakening the Trigger • Prompting for desired alternate Neutralizing Routines • If “tired” is identified as a setting event then you need to be able to identify when it is in place and how it will be administered/monitored • In Prevention Section 1. Adults will ask Joey if he is tired. 2. If Joey indicates he is, adults will offer him a choice between a 10 and 20 minute nap in the quiet area. 3. When the nap is over Joey will be asked if he is ready to start work or if he needs one more minute, and be reminded that if he needs the work to stop, to “ask for a break.” Weakening the Trigger • If “Independent seat work” has been identified as the antecedent then an alternate needs to be planned for when the setting is in place. • In Prevention Section 1. When Joey has had a nap, adults will inform Joey at the beginning of math class that he will be working on “math magician” when the class transitions to independent seat work by saying “Today is a ‘math magician’ day, so when the other kids start working by themselves, we will get you started on the computer.” Competing Behaviors Pathway Teaching desired alternates: Desired Maintaining COMPETING PATHWAYS response Consequences Triggering Problem Maintaining Setting Events Antecedents Behavior Consequences Acceptable Alternative BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING Setting Event Predictor Teaching Consequence Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies Characteristics of Desired Alternate • Functionally Equivalent • Contextually Fit • A fluent skill • More efficient • More effective Functional Equivalence is… • When two or more behaviors serve the same “function” or purpose Both behaviors produce the same outcome or maintaining consequence Ideally the new behaviors should lead to a better outcome. The new behavior needs to communicate the same thing for the student 29 Components of FCT Step 2: Teaching a “functionally equivalent” acceptable alternative behavior Desired Alternative Maintaining Consequence Says, “Hello.” Interacts with peers Attention from peers Setting Event Antecedent Behavior Consequence Tired Approached by Scream / Hit Escape Marge Marge/Allison head and Allison Acceptable Alternative Signs, “Leave.” 30 Contextual Fit • A skill the student is fluent in – If a student has challenges with language then language should not be the modality. • Appropriate for setting – If the setting is large group then the replacement behavior should have a component that solicits adult attention. 31 More Efficient and Effective • Less physical effort • Shorter duration • Better schedule, amount, & quality of reinforcement • Less delay in obtaining the reinforcer 32 Example • Antecedent: circle time • Problem behavior: Joe screams at circle • Function: moved from circle to library (escape circle) 33 Example: Planning Intervention • 2: Identify Acceptable alternative: acceptable request for leaving (sign, PECS, etc.) • 3: Teach/Plan: based on his skill Joe will be taught to point to library corner picture to ask to go there – Less effort – More immediate (shorter duration) – Greater amount of reinforcement 34 Example • Teach: – Away from circle, show Joe picture, model/prompt to point, go immediately to library (repeat several times) – Have criterion before moving back to circle • Ask Joe to come to circle, keep picture visible • Ignore any screams, prompt pointing to picture • Fade prompts and cues over time 35 Competing Behavior Pathway Replace Challenging Behavior with a “functionally equivalent” acceptable alternative behavior Desired Alternative Maintaining Consequence Stay at circle ??????? Setting Event Antecedent Behavior Consequence ????? Circle time Scream / Hit Escape circle head Acceptable Alternative Point at library pic. 36 Shaping Behavior Shaping behavior is the process of changing the form of a behavior to the replacement behavior through a series of “successive approximations”. Why shape? • When the difference between the challenging behavior and replacement behavior are too great, intervention will be ineffective Shaping Behavior When is shaping needed? – The replacement behavior is not “in repertoire” • A new skill or process needs to be learned • EG: Using cards/symbols for communication – Features of challenging behavior out weigh others • Remove a feature, while other challenging aspects are still present • EG: Building a verbal “break” request in a student with violent tantrums Shaping Behavior Identifying successive approximations: 1. Identify an appropriate acceptable alternate behavior. • PECS verses a verbal response 2. Identify that behaviors component skills. • Attend to card • Touch/grab card • Move card to specific location 3. Identify which of the component skills the student can fluently perform • Joey can easily attend to the card and grab it • Joey has difficulty velcroing card to board Shaping behavior Allow all approximations to access reinforcement until a criterion is reached. Use break card in PECS 5 minute break Hand Break from activity card to staff Touch Break card Shaping behavior Allow all approximations to access reinforcement until a criterion is reached. Respectfullys ay “may I have a break” 5 minute break Say “May I have a from activity break” Say “break” Promoting Generalization • Support variation in the response that fit with variations of the situation – Sign “more food” when hungry – Sign “more drink” when thirsty • Reinforce other communicative behaviors – A basic of FCT is getting your child hooked into communication – High efficiency communicative behavior will likely beget more communicative behavior 42 When writing the Teaching Section of the BSP think Annual Goal and Objectives • Requirements: In a Nutshell – Description of anticipated change • Who will do • What behavior • In which (when) context (be specific) • By what date • Measured to a criterion • Goal/Objective verbage Example: – Given a 15 minute free time activity, Polly will keep her hands engaged in appropriate activities (drawing, playing with toys) or to her sides during 90% of that period for 8 of 10 days by the end of the month. • Annual goal should reflect what Bobby will be doing a year from now (remember this should reflect the stage of learning the behavior will be at) • Objectives should reflect the process of shaping Bobby’s acceptable alternate behaviors to the annual goal. Example Objective 1: When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the activity by saying “skip”, “skip please”, “May I skip this activity?”, or “Can I skip this one please?” across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by data collection, by 04/24/09. Objective 2: When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the activity by saying “skip”, “skip please”, “May I skip this activity?”, or “Can I skip this one please?” in a normal classroom voice across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by data collection, by 04/24/09. Goal: When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the activity by saying “May I skip this activity?” or “Can I skip this one please?” in a normal classroom voice across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by data collection, by 04/24/09. Remember • Replacement behavior should be… – Functionally Equivalent – Contextually Fit – A fluent skill – More efficient – More effective Big Ideas • We need to teach the student a way of communicating what they need that is appropriate for our school. • Replacement behaviors need to be more easier and more efficient than the challenging behavior • We may need to help shape the desired behavior through helping the student use a series of approximations first. • Using replacement behaviors should be IEP goal rather than a reduction of challenging behaivor. Consequence Strategies Consequence Strategies lead to the challenging behavior becoming ineffective Through a process called “Differential Reinforcement” Differential Reinforcement: • Extinguishing (discontinuing access reinforcement) the challenging behavior • Reinforcing another behavior Components of Responding Desired Behaviors Challening Behavior • Added reinforcement for • Minimize access to function basic & Prompting Replacement • Controlled access to • Punishment function for replacement • Safety Planning Competing Behaviors Pathway Consequence Strategies: Desired Maintaining COMPETING PATHWAYS response Consequences Triggering Problem Maintaining Setting Events Antecedents Behavior Consequences Acceptable Alternative BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING Setting Event Predictor Teaching Consequence Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies Consequence Strategy • Functional Equivalence: – Acceptable Alternate needs to access the function – To start the replacement behavior needs to access the function every time it is performed (continuous reinforcement) Though the replacement needs to access the function, the access needs to be controlled. Example It appears that little Jimmy’s “tantrum” behaviors are maintained from an escape from difficult tasks such as independent math work and independent reading. Mr. D decided that he needed to teach Jimmy to ask to skip a task. • Tantrum = timeout or trip to office • Skip request = get out of assignment/assignment w/help Example • Jeannie “under the table kicked” her table group during Independent reading in social studies until they yelled at her, resulting in a talking to from Mrs. Walters and detention. Mrs. Walters decided to teach her ask for “1:1 time”. • Under the table kick = Adult attention and detention • 1:1 request = assigned work at teachers desk Example • Joseba’s “wrist biting” seemed to happen when there was a schedule change. It seemed to lead to Joseba being removed from classroom. It also seemed to always lead to a 5-10min. Of discussion about the schedule change. Mr. Washington decided to teach Joseba to ask for “talk-time”. • wrist biting = leaving class room/discussion • Talk-time request = 5-10min. In discussion spot w/adult Controlled Access • Escape from Independent work : Escape from work Help request/skip activity Break • Escape from multiplication : Escape from table group skip activity Move request • Escape from Independent Reading : Escape from reading Help request/skip activity skip activity • Access to computer : Access to cartoon network Request computer based activity Request cartoon network • Connect four : Activities with Robby Request Connect four Request work/play with Robby Controlled Access Considerations 1. Where- Can it be given in regular setting 2. Form- What are the specific behaviors when the student is accessing function 3. How much- How much time or what amount of the function the student will get. Thinning reinforcement Once the acceptable alternate has been established and is being used consistently it is time to considering “thinning” (intermittent reinforcement) the schedule of reinforcement. Why thin? – Thinning actually strengthens established behaviors – Thinning builds a “tolerance” for delayed reinforcement (how we are generally reinforced) Thinning Reinforcement Thinning: Slowly changing from reinforcing the behavior every time it is performed to a level or reinforcement that works for the student and the context. Considerations: 1. Thinning to quickly results in a reoccurrence of challenging behavior 2. The reduction should match the context Examples Break from a math activity: Thin by gradually requiring more and more work before the break. Break from a person or a setting: Thin by gradually increasing the amount of time he/she must stay before the break is received. Requesting access to a preferred activity or toy: Thin by gradually increasing the amount of time he/she must wait before getting to do the activity Thinning Reinforcement When necessary, use visual cues to make the requirement clear • Increased time: Have a visual timer available » Watch with alarm set » Big red clock » Stopwatch • Increased work: Have a tally or check off system » Sticker chart » An adapted token boards Reinforcer Overlay It is sometimes difficult to give enough access to the function. Then what? • Up the amount of reinforcement available for the replacement behavior. – Tokens: – Treats: – Attention (adult and/or peer) Overlay should be used to reinforce both the replacement behavior and the ultimate goal. Jerome’s tantrums lead to escape from work ALL DAY. – Break request = 10 minute break » Functionally Equivalent, but in far less quantity – Overlay = 5 min. of work gets Jerome 5 min of preferred activity » Good because it reinforces work (the end goal) – Overlay = While on break Jerome can play a game with a peer » Less good because it because it doesn’t tie back to work Safety Routine • When does teaching stop and crisis intervention begin? The MODEL High Behavior Intensity AGITATION Low Time The MODEL High Behavior Intensity ACCELERATION Low Time Safety Routine Components • Specific behavior that signals to adult to shift the focus from teaching to crisis intervention • Specific steps adults will follow • Specific ways adults will interact w/ student until they are fully deescalated When writing the responding section be sure to include • Responding to desired behavior – Acknowledgement • Responding to challenging behavior – Prompting Strategy • Safety Routine – Crisis intervention plan Idaho SDE BIP Form Coming soon . . .
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