Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

Building Behavior Support Plans from the Competing Behavior by wuyunqing

VIEWS: 37 PAGES: 67

									Building Behavior Support Plans
 from the Competing Behavior
           Pathway
              BSP Supports
• Behavior Support planning Document
• SDE BIP form
• Implementation Training & Support planner
  (TBD)
 Intervention Planning focuses on
   manipulating environmental
              factors
• Antecedents/setting events = when
• Specific Behavior = What
• Function = Why
                Intervention Planning
Setting event          Antecedent        Behavior         Consequence
   Hungry             Playing with        Screams         Teacher sits
                       teacher, &       “no” and hits      back down
                      teacher gets        teacher             and
                       up to leave                        continues to
                                                              play
                                                        Function?
                                                        Access adult attention

Irrelevant                               Inefficient       Ineffective

Reduce the likelihood                       Teach a           Make
of the problem behavior                  functionally      replacement
                                          equivalent     behavior access
Neutralize or minimize the effects of   replacement      function rather
setting events and antecedents to          behavior       than problem
prevent the need for using the                               behavior
problem behavior
        Competing Behavior Pathway
      – Good behavior support plan yield challenging behaviors:
           • Irrelevant changing environment
           • Inefficient teaching easier replacement
           • Ineffective altering consequences


                                    Desired Response      Typical
                                                        Consequence


Setting Event         Antecedent        Behavior       Consequence


                                       Replacement
                                         Behavior


         Irrelevant                     Inefficient     Ineffective
                                                                      5
          Functional Equivalence
• Identify an acceptable way that the child can deliver
  the same message.
• Make sure that the new response is socially
  appropriate and will access the child’s desired
  outcome.
• Teach the child a skill that honors that function of the
  behavior (e.g., if child wants out of activity, teach
  child to gesture “finished”).
   Competing Behavior Equation

                 Child yells,     Adult gives child
 Child told     kicks, throws.     another turn.
peer gets a
   turn.

              Child asks for     Adult says “one more
              one more turn.      turn, then (peer’s
                                  name)’s turn” and
                                       gives turn.
            Discussion Activity:
        Competing Behavior Equation
                 Child screams    Teacher lets child
                  and resists.      out of activity.
   Child
 asked to
join circle.


                 Child gestures      Teacher lets
                  “all done.”         child out of
                                        activity.
       Competing Behavior Pathway
                                                         Existing Consequence
                                  Desired Behavior
                                                             Grades
                                 Work quietly
                                                            More work


                                                        Maintaining Consequence
Setting event      Antecedent     Problem Behavior
                                                             Gain
  None          Preferred peer       Talking
                                                         Peer attention



                                 Alternative Behavior


                                  Peer helper
       Competing Behavior Pathway
                                                         Existing Consequence
                                  Desired Behavior
                                                             Grades
                                 Work quietly
                                                            More work


                                                        Maintaining Consequence
Setting event      Antecedent     Problem Behavior
                                                             Gain
  None          Preferred peer       Talking
                                                         Peer attention



                                 Alternative Behavior


                                  Peer helper
 Building support plan from competing
           behavior pathway
Four Steps:
1. Diagram hypothesis statement & competing
   pathway
2. Identify ways to reduce likelihood of
   challenging behavior (make irrelevant)
3. Teach EASIER functionally equivalent
   replacement (make inefficient)
4. Allow replacement to access function with
   added incentive (make ineffective)
  1.   Remove/minimize CB’s ability to access reinforcement
                                                              11
 Step 2: Prevent Likelihood of Challenging
                 Behavior
COMPETING PATHWAYS




BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING




   Setting Event   Antecedent   Teaching     Consequence
   Strategies      Strategies   Strategies   Strategies
                                                           12
           Setting Event Interventions
Percentage of Time With Problem Behavior   Percentage of Time With Problem
                                                        Behavior

          Baseline             With             Baseline            With
                               Neutraliz                            Neutral
                                 ing                                 izing
                               Routine                              Routine

Setting Event
   &                 39%        3%
   Antecedent                                      20%              11%

Just Setting
   Event             5%         0%
                                                   7%                0%

Just
   Antecedent        6%         0%                 3%                0%

Neither Setting
   Event or
   Antecedent
                     0%         0%                 0%                0%
     SEs alter value of consequence
        We attempt to alter it back
1.    Eliminate or minimize occurrence of a setting event
     •    good nutrition; regular meals; good nights sleep

2.     Neutralize effect of SE - neutralizing routines
     •    Anxiety-humor; tired-rest/nap, unfamiliar person-build rapport

3.   Withhold or change triggering cues or events when setting event is present

1.   Add prompts for desired and alternative behaviors when setting events are
     present




                                                                                  14
      Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions

       Dan: 13 years old
       Problem behaviors:      tantrum (run through house screaming
                      obscenities); lying; stealing



Intervene here to reduce
presence of setting event
                                   Triggering           Problem           Maintaining
         Setting Events            Antecedents          Behavior          Consequences

                                                    Lying
          Earlier “secret”       Question           (Incorrect “yes” or   Avoid
          behavior               “Did you take..”   “no” reply)           Punishment


                      Intervene here
                      Neutralize setting event
                      when present                                                     15
Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions

Teddy: 7 years old, Asperger’s syndrome
Problem behaviors:                       severe aggression (destroy property, assault
                                         another by knocking them to the floor and biting)


                                        Triggering              Problem            Maintaining
 Setting Events                         Antecedents             Behavior           Consequences

  Visit from                           Negative                 Physical            Escape
  Mother during                        Interaction              Assault             aversive situation
  past 24 hrs
                  Neutralize Routine




                                                                                               16
      Antecedent Interventions
Antecedents trigger behaviors

  By changing the form of antecedent in some
   way we attempt to keep behavior from being
                    triggered.
 Basic Goals of Antecedent Strategies
Remove, modify or weaken cues/signals for problem
 behaviors
  • reduce or eliminate specific "triggers"
      (e.g., don't say "no," say ____ ; reduce demands)
  • offer choices or present requests as choices
      use self-scheduling or choice of sequence

  • embed difficult requests, use task interspersal, or task
    variation (e.g., behavioral momentum)
  • modify curriculum and instructional procedures
  • redesign tasks or activities/routines
      add aids or supports (e.g., tool, visuals, assistive

       technology)
                                                               18
Basic Goals of Antecedent Strategies
(continued)
Strengthen cues for, and add prompts for, alternative
 and desired behaviors
   • find instructional prompts that work and use antecedent
     (proactive) prompting strategies (e.g., most to least;
     errorless learning)
   • use precorrection and reminders
   • change discriminative characteristics to promote desired
     appropriate behavior
        teach in activity context; make it relevant; make it a

         game; utilize preferences
        use priming - make materials or activities familiar

   • add redundant cues (e.g., picture schedules) to promote
     desired behavior or to ensure predictability               19
Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions

Dan: 13 years old
Problem behaviors:      tantrum (run through house screaming
               obscenities); lying; stealing




                            Triggering           Problem        Maintaining
 Setting Events             Antecedents          Behavior       Consequences

                                             Lying
  Earlier “secret”     Question                                 Avoid
                                             (Incorrect “yes”
  behavior             “Did you take..”                         Punishment
                                             or “no” reply)

           Intervene here                 Intervene here
           Reduce anxiety                 Weaken Trigger
                                          No questions                       20
 Step 2: Prevent Likelihood of Challenging
                 Behavior
COMPETING PATHWAYS



                         Spelling
    tired
                         task




BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING

   Minimize:           Change: Specific
   Change bedtime      splng
   routine             activity/words
  Neutralize:       Strengthen: add extra
  Provide nap       verbal prompt for
  before work       replacement
   Setting Event        Antecedent          Teaching     Consequence
   Strategies           Strategies          Strategies   Strategies
                                                                       21
   Competing Behavior Pathway
• CBP/BSP
                          Spelling
     tired
                          task




 BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING

    Minimize:           Change: Specific
    Change bedtime      splng
    routine             activity/words
   Neutralize:       Strengthen: add extra
   Provide nap       verbal prompt
   before work       replacement
    Setting Event        Antecedent          Teaching     Consequence
    Strategies           Strategies          Strategies   Strategies
                 Big Ideas
• Prevention includes both manipulating and/or
  removing triggers (antecedents) as well as
  counter acting setting events.
• Prevention greatly decreases the likelihood
  the student will need to use the CB (but not
  completely).
• Prevention DOES NOT teach the student any
  new ways to get his/her needs met so should
  never be used alone!
    Writing Prevention Section of BSP

• Developed from Competing Behavior Pathway
• Should outline specific adult behaviors that
  will address outlined steps from Competing
  Behavior Pathway.

     • Neutralizing Routine
     • Weakening the Trigger
     • Prompting for desired alternate
            Neutralizing Routines
• If “tired” is identified as a setting event then you need
   to be able to identify when it is in place and how it will
   be administered/monitored
• In Prevention Section
1. Adults will ask Joey if he is tired.
2. If Joey indicates he is, adults will offer him a choice
   between a 10 and 20 minute nap in the quiet area.
3. When the nap is over Joey will be asked if he is ready
   to start work or if he needs one more minute, and be
   reminded that if he needs the work to stop, to “ask for
   a break.”
        Weakening the Trigger
• If “Independent seat work” has been identified as
   the antecedent then an alternate needs to be
   planned for when the setting is in place.
• In Prevention Section
1. When Joey has had a nap, adults will inform Joey
   at the beginning of math class that he will be
   working on “math magician” when the class
   transitions to independent seat work by saying
   “Today is a ‘math magician’ day, so when the
   other kids start working by themselves, we will
   get you started on the computer.”
       Competing Behaviors Pathway
Teaching desired alternates:
                                        Desired        Maintaining
     COMPETING PATHWAYS                 response       Consequences

                          Triggering      Problem      Maintaining
         Setting Events
                          Antecedents     Behavior     Consequences

                                        Acceptable
                                        Alternative
     BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING




          Setting Event    Predictor      Teaching      Consequence
          Strategies       Strategies     Strategies    Strategies
Characteristics of Desired Alternate
•   Functionally Equivalent
•   Contextually Fit
•   A fluent skill
•   More efficient
•   More effective
         Functional Equivalence is…
• When two or more behaviors serve the same
  “function” or purpose
   Both behaviors produce the same outcome or
    maintaining consequence
   Ideally the new behaviors should lead to a better
    outcome.

 The new behavior needs to communicate the
 same thing for the student

                                                        29
                  Components of FCT

          Step 2: Teaching a “functionally equivalent”
           acceptable alternative behavior

                                   Desired Alternative          Maintaining
                                                                Consequence
                                  Says, “Hello.” Interacts
                                         with peers          Attention from peers
Setting Event      Antecedent            Behavior              Consequence

       Tired      Approached by        Scream / Hit            Escape Marge
                  Marge/Allison            head                 and Allison
                                  Acceptable Alternative
                                      Signs, “Leave.”

                                                                             30
                    Contextual Fit
• A skill the student is fluent in
   – If a student has challenges with language then
     language should not be the modality.

• Appropriate for setting
   – If the setting is large group then the replacement
     behavior should have a component that solicits
     adult attention.



                                                          31
More Efficient and Effective

• Less physical effort
• Shorter duration
• Better schedule, amount, & quality of
  reinforcement
• Less delay in obtaining the reinforcer




                                           32
                  Example
• Antecedent: circle time
• Problem behavior: Joe screams at circle
• Function: moved from circle to library (escape
  circle)




                                               33
   Example: Planning Intervention

• 2: Identify Acceptable alternative: acceptable request
  for leaving (sign, PECS, etc.)
• 3: Teach/Plan: based on his skill Joe will be taught to
  point to library corner picture to ask to go there
   – Less effort
   – More immediate (shorter duration)
   – Greater amount of reinforcement




                                                       34
                      Example
• Teach:
  – Away from circle, show Joe picture, model/prompt
    to point, go immediately to library (repeat several
    times)
  – Have criterion before moving back to circle
     • Ask Joe to come to circle, keep picture visible
     • Ignore any screams, prompt pointing to picture
     • Fade prompts and cues over time




                                                         35
        Competing Behavior Pathway

         Replace Challenging Behavior with a
         “functionally equivalent” acceptable
         alternative behavior
                                Desired Alternative      Maintaining
                                                         Consequence
                                    Stay at circle
                                                            ???????
Setting Event    Antecedent           Behavior           Consequence

    ?????        Circle time        Scream / Hit         Escape circle
                                        head
                               Acceptable Alternative
                                 Point at library pic.

                                                                         36
            Shaping Behavior
Shaping behavior is the process of changing the
  form of a behavior to the replacement
  behavior through a series of “successive
  approximations”.

Why shape?
• When the difference between the challenging
  behavior and replacement behavior are too
  great, intervention will be ineffective
             Shaping Behavior
When is shaping needed?
  – The replacement behavior is not “in repertoire”
     • A new skill or process needs to be learned
     • EG: Using cards/symbols for communication

  – Features of challenging behavior out weigh others
     • Remove a feature, while other challenging aspects are
       still present
     • EG: Building a verbal “break” request in a student with
       violent tantrums
                Shaping Behavior
Identifying successive approximations:
  1. Identify an appropriate acceptable alternate behavior.
     •   PECS verses a verbal response
  2. Identify that behaviors component skills.
     •   Attend to card
     •   Touch/grab card
     •   Move card to specific location
  3. Identify which of the component skills the student can
     fluently perform
     •   Joey can easily attend to the card and grab it
     •   Joey has difficulty velcroing card to board
                     Shaping behavior
Allow all approximations to access
  reinforcement until a criterion is reached.
 Use break
 card in PECS


                                        5 minute break
     Hand Break                         from activity
     card to staff



                     Touch Break
                     card
                  Shaping behavior
Allow all approximations to access
  reinforcement until a criterion is reached.
 Respectfullys
 ay “may I
 have a break”

                                       5 minute break
      Say “May I have a                from activity
      break”



                    Say “break”
      Promoting Generalization
• Support variation in the response that fit with
  variations of the situation
  – Sign “more food” when hungry
  – Sign “more drink” when thirsty

• Reinforce other communicative behaviors
  – A basic of FCT is getting your child hooked into
    communication
  – High efficiency communicative behavior will likely
    beget more communicative behavior

                                                         42
 When writing the Teaching Section of
                       the BSP think
         Annual Goal and Objectives
• Requirements: In a Nutshell
    – Description of anticipated change
       • Who will do
       • What behavior
       • In which (when) context (be specific)
       • By what date
       • Measured to a criterion

• Goal/Objective verbage Example:
    –   Given a 15 minute free time activity, Polly will keep her hands engaged in appropriate activities
        (drawing, playing with toys) or to her sides during 90% of that period for 8 of 10 days by the end of
        the month.


• Annual goal should reflect what Bobby will be doing a year from now
  (remember this should reflect the stage of learning the behavior will be at)
• Objectives should reflect the process of shaping Bobby’s acceptable
  alternate behaviors to the annual goal.
                                     Example
Objective 1:
When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the
  activity by saying “skip”, “skip please”, “May I skip this activity?”, or “Can I skip this one
  please?” across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by data
  collection, by 04/24/09.

Objective 2:
When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the
  activity by saying “skip”, “skip please”, “May I skip this activity?”, or “Can I skip this one
  please?” in a normal classroom voice across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple
  settings, as measured by data collection, by 04/24/09.

Goal:
When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the
  activity by saying “May I skip this activity?” or “Can I skip this one please?” in a normal
  classroom voice across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by
  data collection, by 04/24/09.
                 Remember
• Replacement behavior should be…
  – Functionally Equivalent
  – Contextually Fit
  – A fluent skill
  – More efficient
  – More effective
                   Big Ideas
• We need to teach the student a way of
  communicating what they need that is appropriate
  for our school.
• Replacement behaviors need to be more easier and
  more efficient than the challenging behavior
• We may need to help shape the desired behavior
  through helping the student use a series of
  approximations first.
• Using replacement behaviors should be IEP goal
  rather than a reduction of challenging behaivor.
       Consequence Strategies
Consequence Strategies lead to the challenging
  behavior becoming ineffective Through a
  process called “Differential Reinforcement”

Differential Reinforcement:
• Extinguishing (discontinuing access
  reinforcement) the challenging behavior
• Reinforcing another behavior
      Components of Responding
Desired Behaviors            Challening Behavior
• Added reinforcement for    • Minimize access to function
  basic                        & Prompting Replacement

• Controlled access to       • Punishment
  function for replacement
                             • Safety Planning
      Competing Behaviors Pathway
Consequence Strategies:
                                       Desired        Maintaining
    COMPETING PATHWAYS                 response       Consequences

                         Triggering      Problem      Maintaining
        Setting Events
                         Antecedents     Behavior     Consequences

                                       Acceptable
                                       Alternative
    BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING




         Setting Event    Predictor      Teaching      Consequence
         Strategies       Strategies     Strategies    Strategies
         Consequence Strategy
• Functional Equivalence:
  – Acceptable Alternate needs to access the function
  – To start the replacement behavior needs to access
    the function every time it is performed
    (continuous reinforcement)


Though the replacement needs to access the
  function, the access needs to be controlled.
                     Example
It appears that little Jimmy’s “tantrum” behaviors are
   maintained from an escape from difficult tasks such as
   independent math work and independent reading. Mr. D
   decided that he needed to teach Jimmy to ask to skip a
   task.

• Tantrum = timeout or trip to office
• Skip request = get out of assignment/assignment w/help
                    Example
• Jeannie “under the table kicked” her table group
  during Independent reading in social studies until
  they yelled at her, resulting in a talking to from
  Mrs. Walters and detention. Mrs. Walters
  decided to teach her ask for “1:1 time”.

• Under the table kick = Adult attention and
  detention
• 1:1 request = assigned work at teachers desk
                   Example
• Joseba’s “wrist biting” seemed to happen when
  there was a schedule change. It seemed to lead
  to Joseba being removed from classroom. It also
  seemed to always lead to a 5-10min. Of
  discussion about the schedule change. Mr.
  Washington decided to teach Joseba to ask for
  “talk-time”.

• wrist biting = leaving class room/discussion
• Talk-time request = 5-10min. In discussion spot
  w/adult
                       Controlled Access
 • Escape from Independent work : Escape from work
         Help request/skip activity            Break

 • Escape from multiplication : Escape from table group
      skip activity                            Move request

 • Escape from Independent Reading : Escape from
   reading
      Help request/skip activity             skip activity

 • Access to computer : Access to cartoon network
Request computer based activity           Request cartoon network

 • Connect four : Activities with Robby
Request Connect four                  Request work/play with Robby
            Controlled Access
Considerations
    1. Where- Can it be given in regular setting
    2. Form- What are the specific behaviors when the
       student is accessing function
    3. How much- How much time or what amount of the
       function the student will get.
        Thinning reinforcement
Once the acceptable alternate has been
 established and is being used consistently it is
 time to considering “thinning” (intermittent
 reinforcement) the schedule of reinforcement.
Why thin?
  – Thinning actually strengthens established
    behaviors
  – Thinning builds a “tolerance” for delayed
    reinforcement (how we are generally reinforced)
        Thinning Reinforcement
Thinning: Slowly changing from reinforcing the
  behavior every time it is performed to a level
  or reinforcement that works for the student
  and the context.
Considerations:
  1. Thinning to quickly results in a reoccurrence of
     challenging behavior
  2. The reduction should match the context
                  Examples
Break from a math activity: Thin by gradually
  requiring more and more work before the
  break.
Break from a person or a setting: Thin by
  gradually increasing the amount of time
  he/she must stay before the break is received.
Requesting access to a preferred activity or toy:
  Thin by gradually increasing the amount of
  time he/she must wait before getting to do
  the activity
        Thinning Reinforcement
When necessary, use visual cues to make the
 requirement clear
     • Increased time: Have a visual timer available
            » Watch with alarm set
            » Big red clock
            » Stopwatch
     • Increased work: Have a tally or check off system
            » Sticker chart
            » An adapted token boards
            Reinforcer Overlay
It is sometimes difficult to give enough access to
   the function. Then what?

• Up the amount of reinforcement available for
  the replacement behavior.
  – Tokens:
  – Treats:
  – Attention (adult and/or peer)
 Overlay should be used to reinforce both the
 replacement behavior and the ultimate goal.
Jerome’s tantrums lead to escape from work ALL
   DAY.
  – Break request = 10 minute break
          »   Functionally Equivalent, but in far less quantity
  – Overlay = 5 min. of work gets Jerome 5 min of
    preferred activity
          »   Good because it reinforces work (the end goal)
  – Overlay = While on break Jerome can play a
    game with a peer
          »   Less good because it because it doesn’t tie back to work
             Safety Routine
• When does teaching stop and crisis
  intervention begin?
                           The MODEL

High
  Behavior Intensity




                       AGITATION
Low
                           
                               Time
                            The MODEL

High
  Behavior Intensity




                       ACCELERATION


Low
                               Time
     Safety Routine Components
• Specific behavior that signals to adult to shift
  the focus from teaching to crisis intervention

• Specific steps adults will follow

• Specific ways adults will interact w/ student
  until they are fully deescalated
 When writing the responding section
         be sure to include
• Responding to desired behavior
  – Acknowledgement
• Responding to challenging behavior
  – Prompting Strategy
• Safety Routine
  – Crisis intervention plan
                    Idaho SDE
                     BIP Form

Coming soon . . .

								
To top