Docstoc

BASELINE SURVEY ON UNRECORDED ALCOHOL

Document Sample
BASELINE SURVEY ON UNRECORDED ALCOHOL Powered By Docstoc
					     TASKFORCE COMMITTEE ON ALCOHOL POLICY
              PROCESSES IN MALAWI

                         SECRETARIAT




                P.O. Box 424, Lilongwe. Email: drugs.alcohol@yahoo.com




FINAL PROJECT           BASELINE SURVEY ON UNRECORDED
   REPORT                     ALCOHOL IN MALAWI



                          APRIL 2010




                            Funded by:
                        THIS REPORT IS PREPARED FOR THE:

  TASKFORCE COMMITTEE ON ALCOHOL POLICY PROCESSES IN MALAWI,
                                              BY:

                                   MR. DAGROUS MSISKA,

                          MAJESTIC SOLUTIONS,
      Project Management, Capacity Building & Organizational Development Consultants,
Physical Address: Area 1-Falls Housing Estate, FE/196. Postal Address: P.O. Box 20128, Lilongwe 2.
      Email Address: majestics06@gmail.com. Phone Numbers: 0999586820/0888986820.




                                                                                  Page | - 2 -
                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................................................... - 5 -

1     AN OVERVIEW OF THE BASELINE SURVEY ......................................................... - 7 -

    1.1      PROJECT CONTEXT ........................................................................................................ - 7 -
    1.2      LIMITATIONS OF THE SURVEY FINDINGS ....................................................................... - 7 -
    1.3      PROJECT STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION ............................................................... - 7 -
    1.4      SURVEY METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................. - 9 -
    1.5      DATA MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................................- 10 -
2     BASELINE SURVEY FINDINGS ........................................................................... - 10 -

    2.1      PREAMBLE TO SURVEY FINDINGS ...............................................................................- 10 -
    2.2      ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS (CONSUMERS) ....................................................................- 10 -
    2.3      ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS [PRODUCERS AND/OR TRADERS] ....................................- 23 -
3     DISCUSSION OF THE BASELINE SURVEY FINDINGS ......................................... - 29 -

    3.1      DOMESTIC & GENDER BASED VIOLENCE RISK .........................................................- 29 -
    3.2      RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIOR .............................................................................................- 29 -
    3.3      PARENTAL ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE .........................................................................- 29 -
    3.4      PEER GROUP PRESSURE ...............................................................................................- 30 -
    3.5      MARKETING OF ALCOHOL THAT APPEALS TO YOUNG PEOPLE ............................- 30 -
    3.6      DIMINISHING ROLE AND POWER OF TRADITIONAL INSTITUTIONS..........................- 30 -
    3.7      GOVERNMENT LAXITY..................................................................................................- 30 -
4     CONCLUSIONS FROM THE BASELINE SURVEY FINDINGS ............................... - 31 -

5     RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE BASELINE SURVEY FINDINGS ..................... - 32 -

    5.1      MITIGATING IMPACTS AND RISKS AMONG YOUTHS ...............................................- 32 -
    5.2      CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVEMENT .....................................................- 32 -
    5.3      PARENTS AND GUARDIANS ROLES ............................................................................- 32 -
    5.4      COMMUNITY MOBILIZATION AND SENSITIZATION ...................................................- 32 -
    5.5      EDUCATION AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT.....................................................- 32 -
    5.6      GOVERNMENT CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT......................................................- 33 -
6     AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH ..................................................................... - 34 -

7     APPENDICES .................................................................................................... - 35 -




                                                                                                                         Page | - 3 -
                                                       LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Age Distribution of Sample by Gender ..................................................................................... - 11 -

Figure 2: Sample Distribution by Marital Status Figure 3: Marital Status and Gender Distribution .. - 12 -

Figure 4: Frequency of Alcohol Consumption                  Figure 5: Frequency of Consumption by Gender ........... -              12 -

Figure 6: Distribution of alcohol drinking habits Figure7: Distribution of drinking habits by gender- 13 -

Figure 8: Forms of unrecorded alcohol Figure 9: Forms of unrecorded alcohol by gender ........... - 14 -

Figure 10: Education level distribution of the sample ............................................................................. - 15 -

Figure 11: Initial use of Alcohol in School Figure 12: Initial alcohol use in school by gender .......... - 15 -

Figure 13: Motivation/Inspiration for Initial Use Figure 14: Motivation for Initial Use by Gender ..... - 16 -

Figure 15: General effects among unrecorded alcohol consumers ................................................... - 17 -

Figure 16: Immoral Conduct and unrecorded alcohol consumption ................................................. - 18 -

Figure 17: Distribution of Income Generating Activities ......................................................................... - 19 -

Figure 18: Level of income against expenditure on alcohol ................................................................. - 20 -

Figure 19: Distribution of Respondents eating properly while drinking ................................................ - 20 -

Figure 20: Social Groups Membership Figure 21: Social Group Membership Impacts ................... - 21 -

Figure 22: Prosperity and Unrecorded alcohol consumption ............................................................... - 22 -

Figure 23: Distribution of Information Media among Unregistered Alcohol Consumers .................. - 22 -

Figure 24: Gender Description of the Unrecorded Alcohol Producers................................................ - 23 -

Figure 25: General Characteristics of the Unrecorded Alcohol Producer/Traders Sample-Education - 24 -

Figure 26: Business Role of Unrecorded Alcohol Traders ........................................................................ - 24 -

Figure 27: Distribution of the Type of Unrecorded Alcohol Traded in .................................................. - 25 -

Figure 28: Distribution of Customers for unrecorded alcohol ................................................................ - 25 -

Figure 29: Distribution of Business starting time for unrecorded alcohol traders ................................ - 26 -

Figure 30: Distribution of Mode of Sale for unrecorded alcohol ........................................................... - 26 -

Figure 31: Sales Estimate Distribution of Unrecorded Alcohol ............................................................... - 27 -

Figure 32: Minimum Age Estimate Distribution of Unrecorded Alcohol Customers ........................... - 27 -

Figure 33: Knowledge of Business Practices distribution among unregistered alcohol traders ...... - 28 -




                                                                                                                          Page | - 4 -
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Alcohol and drug uses are increasing in today’s society and Malawi is not an
exception. It is well-known that the practice can lead to serious health and social
consequences especially among the youth. Drug and alcohol abuse jointly present
a significant threat to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals,
related to national poverty eradication and sustainable development. This has the
potential to drastically change the living conditions of the majority of the population,
and hence have huge economic and social consequences triggered by the
negative impacts of alcohol and drug abuse.

This survey sought to find out the pattern and impacts of unrecorded alcohol
consumption in Malawi. The survey was carried out in nine districts across the
country’s three regions. The survey involved a combination of research
methodologies such as administration of both structured and unstructured
questionnaires, informal interviews with key community and government informants
such as Traditional Leaders and government officials. A total of 302 people were
interviewed during the survey including consumers, producers, distributors of
unrecorded alcohol as well as traditional leaders, civil society activists and
government officials.

The survey revealed that the main types of unrecorded alcohol consumed in the
communities are in the form of spirits, opaque beer and wines. Apart from the clear
description of the traditionally brewed spirit form (Kachasu), the descriptions of the
other forms of traditionally made products vary from one community to another and
can only be described as wine or beer based on the ingredients and nature or
process of production.

In summary, the key survey findings on the pattern and characteristics of unrecorded
alcohol consumers show that:
 75% do not have a stable source of income
 33% are addicted to unrecorded alcohol products
 60% take unrecorded alcohol on a regular basis (more than four times in a week)
 51% were inspired by friends (peer pressure) to start taking unrecorded alcohol
 34% started taking unrecorded alcohol while in school
 69% have experienced and/or perpetrated violence as a result of taking alcohol
 65% take alcohol without a proper meal before, during or after their drinking spree
 70% have either a radio or mobile phone
 44% prefer taking spirits to other forms of unrecorded alcohol
 Some start taking unrecorded alcohol from as early as 5 years of age
 90% believes that if they stopped taking alcohol they could prosper


                                                                             Page | - 5 -
Among other things, the findings from the survey intuitively prompt recommendations
that alternative mechanisms should be facilitated and appreciated as much as
possible for solutions to the problems that unrecorded alcohol consumption present
to the communities and the sustainable socio-economic development of the
country. The problems associated with unrecorded alcohol consumption stand a
better chance of being addressed if the communities themselves are given the
opportunity to take center stage in the whole process including devising specific
solutions to the challenges. Traditional institutions as well as emergent ones including
Community Based Organizations (CBOs) should be strengthened. This is a policy issue
that the government, donors and Civil Society Organizations should pursue to
address. Alternative mechanisms should be incorporated in the National policy on
Alcohol. There is thus an urgent need to lobby and engage government, Civil
Society Organizations and indeed Community Based Institutions and Structures to
take the cue and move the process forward.


Finally, the findings from the survey strongly prompt the survey team to recommend
that the promotion and distribution of alcohol should be critically analyzed in light of
the proliferation of handy packaged and cheap alcohol products considering the
following:
   Firstly, the need to guarantee security of the citizens especially children from
   coming into contact with the products.
   Secondly, the need to guarantee the safety of consumers.




                                                                             Page | - 6 -
1     AN OVERVIEW OF THE BASELINE SURVEY
1.1   Project Context
This base-line survey is an integral activity of the National Alcohol Policy Formulation
Process in Malawi. The Project was undertaken to establish baseline indicators/data
on alcohol production, distribution and consumption in the country. This report is
divided into three sections as outlined below:
                Outlines the Study Methodology including survey design, sample selection,
PART ONE
                questionnaire development and data management;
PART TWO        Reports the findings and observation in graphs and tabular format;
                Provides conclusions and recommendations in light of the Survey findings
PART THREE
                reported.

1.2     LIMITATIONS OF THE SURVEY FINDINGS
Some of the Key limitations to the Survey findings include the following:
(i) Firstly, like most opinion based surveys, this survey required individuals to divulge
      information   about   behaviors    or   experiences    which    may    be      socially
      unacceptable or perhaps illegal, in some cases. Despite the interviewers’ efforts
      to guarantee anonymity, it is safe to assume that some of the behaviors may be
      under-reported.

(ii) Secondly, this survey was completed on a relatively smaller sample of the entire
      population with the characteristics being discussed hence some of the findings
      should be cautiously generalized to subjects beyond the respondents.


1.3 PROJECT STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION
1.3.1 Introduction to Drug Fight Malawi
Drug Fight Malawi is the Secretariat for the Taskforce Committee on Alcohol Policy
Processes in Malawi which is leading the process for the formulation of a National
Alcohol Policy. Drug Fight Malawi is a registered Non Governmental Organization
(NGO) incorporated into a trust in 2002 under the Trustees Corporation Act of 1962
(CAP: 5.03) of the laws of the Republic of Malawi. The organization was founded in
response to the growing problems associated with the harmful use of alcohol,
tobacco and other drugs particularly among the youth and other vulnerable groups
such as women and children. Drug Fight Malawi is a member of the Council for Non
Governmental Organizations in Malawi (CONGOMA) as well as the NGO-Board of
Malawi among others. Drug Fight Malawi is further recognized by the Government

                                                                               Page | - 7 -
through Ministries of Health, Education, Home Affairs and Internal Security as a
strategic partner on reducing the harm from drugs and promotion of sustainable
socio-economic development of the country.


1.3.2 Project Background Information
Unrecorded alcohol production, distribution and usage is on the rise in the country
especially among the youth. The practice is rampant in both rural and urban areas
of Malawi. Informal or unrecorded alcohol comes in various forms that range from
factory brewed to traditionally made wines, beer and spirits. The factory brewed
unrecorded alcohol represents the proliferation of cheap spirits packaged in sachets
or other handy forms and traditionally made alcohol includes various forms of spirits,
beers and wines common in rural and peri-urban areas. Either or both of the said
forms of unrecorded alcohol are consumed everywhere and at any time in the
country posing serious social, economic and health challenges on the individuals,
families, communities and indeed the nation at large.


1.3.3 Goal of the Baseline Study
The project was carried out to gather and analyze data pertaining to unrecorded
alcohol use in the country in order to generate findings that will assist the Taskforce
Committee on Alcohol Policy Processes in Malawi to draw recommendations and
experiences into the National Alcohol Policy formulation process for the country.


1.3.4 Specific Objectives of the Baseline Survey
Specifically, the study was carried out to achieve the following objectives on which
the analysis of the findings is based:

(i) To identify patterns and characteristics of unrecorded alcohol users, distributors and
    producers

(ii) To examine factors which contribute to use, distribution and production of
     unrecorded alcohol products in the country.

(iii) To identify direct and indirect effects of unrecorded alcohol use on sustainable
      national development agenda

(iv) To assess the impact and risks of unrecorded alcohol products on the youth, women
     and children including consequences for the fulfillment of their rights.
(v) To provide recommendations for the development of National Alcohol Policy,
    potential alcohol demand reduction program responses and baselines for future
    evaluations of their impact.

                                                                            Page | - 8 -
1.4 SURVEY METHODOLOGY
1.4.1 Survey Design
This was a cross-sectional survey combining both qualitative and quantitative
techniques of data collection. The qualitative technique included Key Informants
Discussions using a structured interview guide while quantitative data was collected
though face to face interviewer administered questionnaires.

1.4.2   Questionnaire Design
Preparations for the Survey commenced with designing the data collection tools
including qualitative as well as quantitative guidelines and questionnaires. The
quantitative questionnaires were then collectively translated by the study team
(together with all research assistants) into Chichewa which was the main language
used for the administration of the questionnaires during the survey.

1.4.3   Training of Research Assistants
The research assistants were adequately trained in the administration of the study
tools particularly the quantitative questionnaire. This was aimed at improving their
skills and get them acquainted with the questionnaire.

1.4.4   Sampling Methods
A combination of simple random and cluster sampling was applied to select
respondents for the survey. The primary respondent groups included women and
men involved in consumption, distribution and production of unrecorded alcohol
products while community leaders were interviewed as Key Informants to the survey.

1.4.5   Data Quality control
The Project Manager of the Baseline Survey (The Consultant) was responsible for the
field editing and sorting of the questionnaires at the end of each session until the
data collection exercise was completed.

1.4.6 Survey Period
Data collection was completed over a period of 10days from 15th April 2010.

1.4.7   Ethical Considerations
Permission was sought from The National Commission for Science and Technology
(NCST) to carry out this baseline survey. Local Authorities in the communities where
the survey was conducted were informed about the survey activities and some were
interviewed as key informants regarding unrecorded alcohol use in their areas.

                                                                          Page | - 9 -
1.5 DATA MANAGEMENT
1.5.1 Quantitative Data Analysis
Quantitative data from the survey was double entered in Microsoft Excel and for
validation in Epi-Info 6.04 from which it was exported to Statistical Package for Social
Scientist (SPSS) where a data dictionary was fully developed describing all the
quantitative and quantitatively coded variables.

1.5.2 Qualitative Data Analysis
Qualitative data from Key informant interviews and discussions was translated from
local languages to English and were word-processed.

2  BASELINE SURVEY FINDINGS
2.1 Preamble to Survey Findings
The findings from the Survey provide baseline information with respect to the
prevailing unrecorded alcohol consumption, distribution and production practices in
the country. These findings are derived from a cross-section of consumers, producers
and distributors of the unrecorded alcohol products which have been systematically
analyzed and triangulated to generate the proposed way forward in form of
recommendations. The Research Team is highly optimistic that these baseline
findings provide an environmental scan into the practices among users of
unrecorded alcohol products which will provide additional background information
to the National Alcohol Policy Formulation which is an on-going process.

2.2 ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS (CONSUMERS)
2.2.1 Sample Patterns and General Characteristics
Primary respondents of the Survey, who are basically the consumers, were
approached at their drinking places in the communities where the survey was
conducted. As such, the composition of the sample was dependent on the
available characteristics of the consumers at particular sites where survey activities
were conducted as shown in the table below:

Table 1: Age Distribution of the sample
             Age Category (Years)                 Number Of Respondents At Specific Age
                    16-20                                          14
                    21-25                                          38
                    26-30                                          54
                    31-35                                          30
                    36-40                                          36
                    41-45                                          14
                    46-50                                           7
                     51+                                           15
                TOTAL SAMPLE                                      208



                                                                            Page | - 10 -
The age characteristics of the sample were further analyzed to give an appropriate
picture of the sample’s pertinent variables including measures of central tendency
as shown in the table below:

Table 2: Age Descriptive Statistics of the Respondents

DESCRIPTION                                      TOTAL     FEMALE         MALE

                                Sample Size       208         26           182

                              Average Age          33         36           33

                      Median (Middle Age)          30        33.5          30

 Mode(Most Common Age of Respondents)              28         20           28

              Minimum Age of Respondents           16         16           18

             Maximum Age of Respondents            80         67           80


The sample’s age characteristics were further analyzed by gender of the
respondents in order to allow appropriate level of generalization of the findings
among men and women as shown in the chart below:

Figure 1: Age Distribution of Sample by Gender




                                                                      Page | - 11 -
Further analysis of the sample by marital status of the respondents helps to
understand the social responsibility and structure of the sample. This analysis is shown
in the charts below:

Figure 2: Sample Distribution by Marital Status   Figure 3: Marital Status and Gender Distribution




2.2.2 Frequency of Unrecorded Alcohol Use
Respondents were asked how often they had taken alcohol in the past seven days
or one week period and the results indicate that:
     40% had taken alcohol once or twice in the past week
     28% had taken alcohol three to four times in the past week
     32% had taken alcohol five times or more in the past week

The results are summarized in the charts below:

Figure 4: Frequency of Alcohol Consumption        Figure 5: Frequency of Consumption by Gender




The results in the charts above further show that men are likely to take unrecorded
alcohol more often than women during the same period.


                                                                                             Page | - 12 -
2.2.3    Unrecorded Alcohol Dependency

The survey further sought to find out the level of dependency on alcohol by
unrecorded alcohol products consumers. As such, individual respondents were
asked to indicate whether their unrecorded alcohol drinking habit is perceived as
casual, regular or addicted. The results indicate the following about the respondents:
    35% are casual or occasional consumers of unrecorded alcohol products
    32% consume unrecorded alcohol on a regular basis
    33% are addicted to unrecorded alcohol products they consume

The following charts provide the summary of the responses as analyzed against key
demographic variables including gender and age.

Figure 6: Distribution of alcohol drinking habits   Figure7: Distribution of drinking habits by gender




                                                                                              Page | - 13 -
2.2.4    Forms of unrecorded alcohol

Respondents were required to indicate their most preferred form of unrecorded
alcohol that they take. The results, as shown in the charts below, illustrate the
following about those interviewed:
    44% prefer taking spirits
    27% take locally brewed beer
    27% take a mixture of both beer and spirits
    2% prefer traditionally made wine

The results are further described in the charts below:

Figure 8: Forms of unrecorded alcohol       Figure 9: Forms of unrecorded alcohol by gender




2.2.5 Impacts of Unrecorded Alcohol on National Development
It is an undoubted fact that human capital and/or labor is crucial to sustainable
economic development of the country. However, alcohol consumption has an
effect on the propensity of labor to be productive. Regular heavy alcohol
consumption and binge drinking is associated with physical problems, anti-social
behavior, violence, accidents, suicide, injuries and road traffic accidents and can
affect school performance and crime. Excessive alcohol use can also be associated
with a range of mental disorders and can exacerbate existing mental health
problems. These effects are evident at various levels as revealed by this study as
discussed under the subsequent headings.




                                                                                   Page | - 14 -
2.2.6   Unrecorded Alcohol Use and Schooling
The results of the study indicate that most unrecorded alcohol consumers have very
low level of education as shown in the chart below as follows:
    61% only managed to complete or attempt primary education;
    20% attended or completed junior secondary education;
    17% attended or completed senior secondary education and;
    Only 2% attended higher or tertiary education
Figure 10: Education level distribution of the sample




Based on the above findings, respondents were further asked whether or not they
started taking alcohol while in school which might have affected their progression
through the various stages of schooling. The results are summarized in the charts
below which indicate that 34% of the respondents indeed started taking alcohol
while in school and the majority of these are men representing 96% of those who
started taking alcohol while in school.
Figure 11: Initial use of Alcohol in School        Figure 12: Initial alcohol use in school by gender




                                                                                        Page | - 15 -
2.2.7     Initial Age for starting drinking

Respondents were asked when they started, (or for how long they have been) taking
unregistered alcohol. This information was deducted from their present age to
determine the age at which they started taking alcohol and the results are
summarized below using measures of central tendency:

Table 3: Descriptive Statistics on Age for starting Drinking Alcohol

                        Description                                Sample                Male            Female

                                               Average Age             22                  22              23

                                      Median(Middle Age)               21                  21              22

             Mode (Most Likely or Most Common Age)                     20                  20              22

                                              Minimum Age              5                    6              5

                                             Maximum Age               51                  48              51


2.2.8     Inspiration/Motivation to initial Alcohol Use
Respondents were asked to indicate who inspired or motivated (mentor) them to
start taking unrecorded alcohol and the responses that were generated, as shown in
the charts below, indicate that:
     51% were inspired by friends (Peer pressure)
     24% were self-motivated to start taking alcohol
     22% were inspired by family members
     Only 3% started taking alcohol due to other unspecified causes

Figure 13: Motivation/Inspiration for Initial Use      Figure 14: Motivation for Initial Use by Gender




                                                                                                 Page | - 16 -
2.2.9    Impacts and Risks Associated With Unrecorded Alcohol Use
2.2.9.1 General Effects
Respondents were asked to indicate cognitive, affective and/or behavioral effects
that they have experienced, which can be attributed to their unrecorded alcohol
consumption on:
   Themselves
   Their Family
   Their Friends
   Other members of the community
Table 4: General Effects of Unrecorded Alcohol Consumption

CATEGORY          ARRESTS   ACCIDENTS       VIOLENCE         THEFT    HEALTH       TOTAL
           Self     4%           7%             6%              1%       9%          28%
        Family      0%           1%            24%              1%       2%          27%
        Friends     0%           1%            22%              3%       0%          26%
  Community         0%           2%            18%              0%       0%          19%
          Total     4%          10%            69%              5%      11%         100%

The results are further presented in the chart below, which shows that violence is rife
among unrecorded alcohol consumers as it indicates that:
   24% had perpetrated violence against members of their family
   22% had violent conducts against their friends
   18% had violent conducts in the community
   6% had experienced violent acts themselves.

Figure 15: General effects among unrecorded alcohol consumers




                                                                           Page | - 17 -
2.2.9.2 Immoral Behaviour and Unrecorded Alcohol Use
The effects described above are further substantiated by the findings regarding
immoral conducts associated with unrecorded alcohol use. The survey required
respondents to indicate whether or not their unrecorded alcohol consumption habit
has an effect on their ability to control reckless and immoral behavior including
sexuality, loss of judgment and general respect for self and others. Respondents were
required to indicate whether or not they have experienced the following, among
others, in the recent past (7days, 1month, 3months, 12months) as a result of taking
unrecorded alcohol:
   Inability to control temper
   Regretting their drinking behavior
   Having sex with someone other than their usual partner

Figure 16: Immoral Conduct and unrecorded alcohol consumption




The results indicate and infer the following about the respondents:
   19% experience inability to control temper
   25% do regret their drinking habits
   11% have had sex with someone other than their usual partner
   17% experience loss of judgment
   13% have slept away from home
   15% have experienced loss of respect for either self or others or both




                                                                            Page | - 18 -
2.2.10 Income Generation and Food Security

Alcohol consumption like any other expenditure requires appropriate levels of
income to guarantee security of the consumers and others dependent on them
especially children and other members of the household. However as this study
found out, unrecorded alcohol drinking does not match income generation
capacity of the consumers. This in turn creates a great sense of financial need, lack
or insecurity to both consumers and the dependents. The findings are described
under subsequent headings.

2.2.10.1 Income Generation

The survey required participants to indicate their most probable means of
generating income to support their drinking habit and households. The results, as
shown in the chart below, indicate that most unrecorded alcohol consumers do not
have a stable income generating base as:
    34% rely on casual work
    31% rely on small scale businesses
    Only 18% are fully employed
    9% rely on temporary employment
    8% rely on farming

Figure 17: Distribution of Income Generating Activities




                                                                         Page | - 19 -
2.2.10.2 Income and Expenditure on Alcohol
The survey further required to determine the level of disposable income among
respondents based on the information provided on their source of income above. As
such, respondents were asked to indicate the amount of money they earned and
spent on alcohol consumption in the preceding week and the results as summarized
in the chart below indicate that:
    Over 50% earn less than K2500 in a week
    Over 50% spend K1000 or more in a week on alcohol consumption only

Figure 18: Level of income against expenditure on alcohol




2.2.10.3 Food Security
Respondents were asked to recall whether or not they have been able to take a
proper meal before, during and after taking alcohol in the past memorable period
of 1 week, two weeks, 1month and more. The results indicate that the majority of
respondents, 65%, do not take a proper meal as shown in the chart below:
Figure 19: Distribution of Respondents eating properly while drinking




                                                                        Page | - 20 -
2.2.10.4 Community Participation

As a way of finding means to devise interventions that would be channeled through
common and collective community based systems, the survey asked respondents to
find out if they belonged to any social group in community in which they are an
active member. The results indicate that respondents belong to various groups as
shown below:
   The majority, 48%, belong to a social group at their place of worship
   30% are members of a social group in their community
   22% of those working belong to a social group at their workplace

Figure 20: Social Groups Membership        Figure 21: Social Group Membership Impacts




The survey further required respondents to indicate how useful are the groups they
below to in their attempt to reduce or even stop unrecorded alcohol consumption
and the results were generated shown in the chart above indicating that:

    19% find their place of worship groups useful in helping them reducing and/or
    stopping alcohol consumption
    15% find their workplace groups useful in this regard
    22% find their participation in community groups useful to stop/reduce alcohol
    consumption




                                                                            Page | - 21 -
2.2.10.5 Prosperity and Development

Respondents were asked whether or not they could prosper if they reduced or even
stopped taking unrecorded alcohol. The majority of the respondents, 90%, indicated
that they were likely to prosper while 10% were indifferent.

Figure 22: Prosperity and Unrecorded alcohol consumption




2.2.10.6 Access to Information
The survey attempted to discern the medium through which the unrecorded alcohol
consumers can be reached with different types of messages and information
pertaining to national development. It was established that the majority of them
have appropriate digital electronic media including:
    The majority, 48%, have a radio
    32% have a mobile phone
    18% have a television set
    2% have access to digital satellite television (DSTV) or similar medium

Figure 23: Distribution of Information Media among Unregistered Alcohol Consumers




                                                                                    Page | - 22 -
2.3     ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS [UNRECORDED ALCOHOL PRODUCERS AND/OR TRADERS]
The study attempted to understand the dynamics on the supply side of unrecorded
alcohol in order to generate balanced findings about the industry. During the study,
respondents were identified as producers, distributors and/or consumers of the
unrecorded alcohol products found in a particular locality.

2.3.1    General Characteristics of Sample

The general characteristics of the sample of unrecorded alcohol producers,
distributors and/or vendors are described under the following:
      Gender
      Education
      Marital Status

2.3.1.1 Gender Description of the sample

The study reveals that like on the demand side, the supply side of the unrecorded
alcohol industry is also male dominated with 38% of the producers/suppliers of
unrecorded alcohol being men and 38% their female counterparts as shown in the
chart below:

Figure 24: Gender Description of the Unrecorded Alcohol Producers




                                                                        Page | - 23 -
2.3.1.2 Educational Level Description of the sample

The study shows that the producers of unrecorded alcohol, like the consumers, have
very low levels of education as shown in the chart below, which illustrate that:
    84% only managed to complete or attempt primary education;
    11% completed or attempted junior secondary education;
    4% attempted or completed senior secondary school education and;
    3% proceeded to other or higher education

Figure 25: General Characteristics of the Unrecorded Alcohol Producer/Traders Sample-Education




2.3.2 Business Information
2.3.2.1 Role in the Business
The study grouped the respondents based on their role as either involved in actual
production or sale of unrecorded alcohol or both. The results show that the majority
are involved in both,42%, and 37% are involved in production only while only 21%
does distribution only.

Figure 26: Business Role of Unrecorded Alcohol Traders




                                                                                  Page | - 24 -
2.3.2.2 Type of Unrecorded Alcohol Traded
The study revealed the industry characteristic propelled by the demand side that the
bulk of the unrecorded alcohol consumed is in the form of spirits as shown in the
chart below:

Figure 27: Distribution of the Type of Unrecorded Alcohol Traded in




2.3.2.3 Types of Customers
Respondents in this group were required to indicate the characteristics of their
market. The results shows that the majority of the customers of unrecorded alcohol
are men representing 63% of the responses and a mixture of customer characteristics
at 21%, the youth at 13% and women at just 3% of the market.

Figure 28: Distribution of Customers for unrecorded alcohol




                                                                        Page | - 25 -
2.3.2.4 Time for Starting Business
Respondents were asked to indicate the time when their business starts on a normal
business day generating the following information:
    72% start their business between 6 and 7am
    11% starts business before as early as 5am while
    15% starts business just after 8am

Figure 29: Distribution of Business starting time for unrecorded alcohol traders




2.3.2.5 Mode of Sale
The traders were requested to indicate how they sold their product. The
results show that the bulk of the produce, 88% sale on retail, 8% on wholesale
while as only 4% indicated that they sale alcohol on wholesale basis.

Figure 30: Distribution of Mode of Sale for unrecorded alcohol




                                                                                   Page | - 26 -
2.3.2.6 Sales Estimate
Respondents were required to estimate their daily, weekly and month sales based on
most recent sales. The results show that the majority of monthly sales are in excess of
K10,000.00, weekly sales are in excess of K5,000.00 while as daily sales are barely over
MK1,000.00.

Figure 31: Sales Estimate Distribution of Unrecorded Alcohol




2.3.2.7 Minimum Age of Customers
The traders were also asked to indicate the minimum age of their customers to their
best estimation. Results are summarized in the chart below, which confirm that the
majority of unrecorded alcohol consumers are young people of school going age.

Figure 32: Minimum Age Estimate Distribution of Unrecorded Alcohol Customers




                                                                               Page | - 27 -
2.3.2.8 Knowledge of Alcohol Business Information
The study attempted to discern the knowledge of unrecorded alcohol traders on key
business areas including the following:
    Knowledge of Minimum Age for Alcohol Consumption
    Having a Business License


The study further required the respondents to indicate whether or not they:
    Have ever been in problem with Law enforcers
    Would change given a chance to venture into alternative business


The chart below summarizes the findings, which indicate the following about the
respondents:
    14% do not know the legal age for alcohol consumption
    28% have had a problem with the law
    89% do not have a business license
    13% would not change to alternative business

Figure 33: Knowledge of Business Practices distribution among unregistered alcohol traders




                                                                                     Page | - 28 -
3   DISCUSSION OF THE BASELINE SURVEY FINDINGS
The results indicate a high degree of health, economic, moral and physical
vulnerability emanating from unrecorded alcohol production, distribution and
ultimately consumption.        The results tally with the growing perception that
unrecorded alcohol consumption lowers one’s as well as the broader community’s
quality of life and leads to financial, physical as well as sexual and reproductive
health related challenges among those involved and others. It is important therefore
to build mechanisms with communities in a holistic manner to empower both young
and adults in addressing this challenge collectively. Attention should be drawn on
the key findings of the study discussed in the following paragraphs:

3.1 Domestic & Gender Based Violence Risk
The results indicate that there are high incidences of violent conducts associated
with unrecorded alcohol consumption. Intentionally or otherwise, most of the
violence is perpetrated against family members and this corresponds with the largely
held view that unrecorded alcohol consumers tend to be aggressive towards
members of the family especially women and children. This in turn contributes to
escalating cases of gender based violence and other forms of women and child
rights violation (sexual or physical).

3.2 Risky Sexual Behavior
The study reveals that most unrecorded alcohol users have limited knowledge about
their sexual and reproductive health. This is evidenced by the level of both male and
female respondents who indicated having sexual pleasures with someone other
than their usual partner due to alcohol consumption. This is likely to lead to risky
behaviors that may contribute to the spread of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

3.3 Parental Alcohol Dependence
The study reveals that most unrecorded alcohol users are married, and hence, have
a degree of social responsibility to their families and other dependents including
children. However, dependence on alcohol by adults and parents as has been
established by the study can have profound effects on the lives of children,
including:
    Child rights abuse and neglect including failure to cater for basic needs
    Injuries and even deaths related to violence and accidents
    Increased odds that the children will become alcohol and other substance
    dependents or abusers themselves.

                                                                           Page | - 29 -
3.4   Peer Group pressure
The survey reveals that a good proportion of initial alcohol use is linked to schools as
more than a third, 35%, of respondents indicated that they started drinking while in
school. Peer pressure is often viewed, and confirmed by this study, as a major factor
influencing alcohol use in young people. As such, the need for guidance and
counseling in peer association (i.e. the belief that young people are likely to choose
as friends those who share similar interests) is just as important in curbing initial and
sustained alcohol use among school going children as the need for regulation.

3.5   Marketing of Alcohol That Appeals to Young People
Marketing is believed to play a critical role in escalating both initial and irresponsible
alcohol use especially amongst young people. Branding Alcohol products as “Kings
Beer”, “Officers’”, “Mafia,” “Tyson,” “Rider” and “Boss” were particularly identified as
inducing young people and other inexperienced consumers. Young people tend to
identify themselves with such impression-filled products to enhance their self esteem.

3.6   Diminishing Role and Power of Traditional Institutions
Traditional communities, the societal norms, cultures and values regulated human life
and promoted good upbringing of children in Malawi. The society operated under
strict norms and any deviation from the same was a taboo. The socio-cultural
institutions in the communities played a key role not only in preventing children from
indulging in alcohol, but also facilitated sustainable development. Misinterpretation
of the democratization concept in the country has greatly diminished and
demeaned traditional institutions. The respondents noted that belligerent youths
consume alcohol publicly without fear and respect of the elders including chiefs.

3.7 Government Laxity
Many parts of the country visited during the study have experienced influx of various
kinds of unregulated alcohol products. These are scantly regulated by government,
prompting their mass distribution even by road side hawkers and street vendors some
even next to schools and other public places. Scenes of school-going children
wielding sachets of alcohol products are abound across the country. Traditional
Leaders noted, and expressed concern, that government institutions have been
unwilling to control the distribution and selling of alcohol products to minors and the
under-aged making the situation perceived as normal in some cases.


                                                                             Page | - 30 -
4   CONCLUSIONS FROM THE BASELINE SURVEY FINDINGS
Negative effects caused by the use of unrecorded alcohol products have become
a growing concern in society. The considerable revenues generated by the industry,
especially among the members of the rural poor, have led to the proliferation of
production and distribution units across the communities where the practice is rife.

Continued and increasing levels of unrecorded alcohol production and use has
unprecedented effects on the quality of human capital and impose a particular
burden on women and children who typically have had to meet the social and
economic consequences of addiction within the family and the community at large.

The study has revealed that players in the unrecorded alcohol industry typically tend
to have poor access to health, education and are particularly vulnerable to various
socio-economic lapses in society. As such concepts on alternative development
should be pursued with a conscious realization that the production and use of
unrecorded alcohol cannot be addressed by control alone. Specific political and
economic framework conditions need to be fulfilled and law enforcement measures
should be considered as a complementary element of alternative development.




                                                                           Page | - 31 -
5     RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE BASELINE SURVEY FINDINGS
This survey revealed key findings as discussed above for which corresponding
recommendations are necessary. These recommendations are merely suggestions or
options as to what can be done to address, mitigate or reduce the perceived
impacts of the findings. The appropriate selection of interventions should carefully
consider different factors such as availability of resources as well as feasibility of
given approach, opinion and priorities of the communities being targeted.

5.1     Mitigating Impacts and Risks among youths
Multiple interventions need to be implemented in schools as this will help to
strengthen the effect of interventions in the community. There is an urgent need to
enhance knowledge and awareness on the risks associated with unrecorded
alcohol consumption among the youth. This can follow a participatory approach
involving the local administration, community leaders and civil society organizations
to cascade and pass on the lessons learnt to dissuade initial, and reduce as well as
stop further, consumption of unrecorded alcohol among the youth.

5.2    Civil Society Organizations Involvement
The scale and scope of the problems associated with unrecorded alcohol
consumption calls for concerted and complementarities in efforts among all
stakeholders. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) working with the rural
communities where unrecorded alcohol production practices are rampant should
create and include alternative income generating and livelihood security activities
in their programs.

5.3    Parents and Guardians Roles
Parents and care takers need deliberate and continuous sensitization and education
on unrecorded alcohol issues with respect to them as adults and to the young ones
who eventually fall victims of the practice at an early age.

5.4    Community Mobilization and Sensitization
Community leaders emphasized the need to be mobilized and to hold a number of
seminars with emphasis on unrecorded alcohol issues, moral build up, income
generating activities etc.

5.5    Education and Curriculum Development
The study has shown that the pattern of behaviors that contribute to alcohol use
frequently emerge during adolescence or even earlier. As such education about
alcohol needs to begin early. This is more likely to be effective and efficient when it
flows from a set of principles developed through an appropriate consultation
process, based on accepted practice and consistent with current curriculum theory.

                                                                           Page | - 32 -
5.6 Government Control and Enforcement
Government is considered as the key custodian for safeguarding the society from
perceived harmful effects of various socio-economic endeavors. As such, there is
urgent need to engage government to control mass production, distribution and
consumption of both recorded and unrecorded alcohol products in all parts of the
country.   This would be an initial step towards normalizing the situation which is
steadily getting out of proportion.




                                                                       Page | - 33 -
6   AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
This baseline survey unveils areas of significant further research that would help in
consolidating the insight into unrecorded alcohol practices as well as complement
on-going activities to address the problem including:

(i) Possible avenues for sensitization on general improvement on the quality of life
    on a gradual and long term approach.         This will illuminate the communities’
    desires and readiness for viable income generating activities demonstrated by
    most respondents during the survey.

(ii) Community-based Strategies for Developing Profitable/Sustainable Alternatives
    that could stop and prevent initial and continued production, distribution and
    consumption of unrecorded alcohol

(iii) Facilitating Development of an appropriate policy and/or legal framework; one
    that allows producers and distributors of unrecorded alcohol to be treated first as
    candidates for development rather than criminals.




                                                                           Page | - 34 -
7   APPENDICES

A. SAMPLE SURVEY TOOLS

      a. KEY INFORMANT GUIDELINES

      b. INDIVIDUAL (CONSUMERS) QUESTIONNAIRE

      c. PRODUCERS AND DISTRIBUTORS QUESTIONNAIRE

B. BASELINE SURVEY TEAM MEMBERS

C. CONSENT FORM




                                                    Page | - 35 -

				
DOCUMENT INFO