Craft Strategy Formation - Excel

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					              THEME      Author                                             Main Ideas
Cultural Change:      Thomas (1927)   Social Disorganization: is a decrease of the influence of existing social rules of
                                      behavior upon individual members of the group. Disorganization is part of a larger
                                      process called social stability which includes Reorganization (the production of
                                      new schemes and institutions) of isolated groups when in contact with external
                                      groups. In the case of the Polish Peasant in the city, the new immigrant (usually
                                      the younger generation) experiences a change in attitude from "we" to "I" and
                                      begins to differentiate between the family and the community--i.e. a breakdown of
                                      the start of dis organization, an unavoidable consequence of modernity.

                      Ogburn (1926)   Social Evolution is a cultural revolution not a biological one. Four factors
                                      explain cultural revolution: (1) invention, (2) accumulation, (3) diffusion, & (4)
                                      adjustment. These factors explain variation across cultures. A society changes
                                      when equilibrium is borken .
               THEME            Author                                              Main Ideas
Cultural Change:
(Inter)National Economic   Wallerstein (1974) National growth does not occur in isolation--must consider whole World-System
Development:                                  and the relationship between core and peripheral (and semi-
                                              perihpheral) countries. Capitalism involves the appropriation of raw materials and
                                              surplus value by core areas from perihpery in the whole world-economy. The
                                              capitalist world system rests on an international-division of labor and the unequal
                                              exchange between core and perihpery. Unlike traditional Marxist approaches,
                                              Wallerstein insists that the most important development is that of the modern
                                              world-economy during 16th Century. A world-system is a unit with a single
                                              division of labor and multipe cultural systems. [a precursor to globalization theory?]

                             North (1981)      Property Rights prior to the Industrial Revolution encouraged technological
                                               development, producing the Second Econmic Revolution. Political decisions
                                               concerning the reduction of transaction costs explain econmic growth.
                                               Technology has been over-emphasized, transaction cost neglected. The role of
                                               the state is mediating and affording mechanisms to reduce transaction costs for
                                               the producing entities in the country. Thus, the protection of property rights did
                                               this and encouraged growth. Vs. NeoClassical Economic Appraoch-- b/c it is
                                               institutionless, does not address the free-rider problem (diminishing returns), and
                                               social change occurs in a perfect market (neither of which are possible). Social
                                               change occurs in institutions, in this case, property rights.

                             Olson (1982)      The logic of collective action has implications for organizations of groups that
                                               influence policy and growth and it explains the low or high growth of nations. The
                                               longer the period of democratic stability and tranquility a nation enjoys, and the
                                               higher the number of organizations and distributive coalistions, then the lower the
                                               growth rate. Stable societies accumulate more organizations over time , espeically
                                               special interest groups. Distributional Coalitions (e.g. OPEC) hinder growth
                                               because they make decisions more slowly and have their own agendas--the
                                               removal of emasculation of them can create fast growth. Policies such as free
                                               trade can undermine these coalitions.
              THEME                Author                                              Main Ideas
Cultural Change: and Class:
Capitalism, Work,               Sabel (1982)      The organization of production into a dual economy (core and perihpery; primary
                                                  and secondary sectors) produces particular pathways for skilled and unskilled
                                                  workers; technology is the key differentiating element. Capitalist organization of
                                                  produciton creates clusters of jobs that offer different opportunities for the use and
                                                  acquisition of skills and for collective action. The types of jobs depend on the type
                                                  of investment strategy of the capitalist--which in turn depends on his position in the
                                                  market situation. Both result from political choices. Differences in property
                                                  holdings and cultural valueslead to differences in patterns of industrialization.

                              Piore/Sabel (1984) Mass production is not the only or most efficent model of capitalist production.
                                                 This arguement is against the technological determinism of Marx and Smith--the
                                                 use of machinery does not necessarily lead to mass production in factories. Craft
                                                 Production is also dominant and less explotive. Political Decisions not market
                                                 or technology lead to the dominance of mass production as the dominant mode--
                                                 local decisions and interests were crucial in orienting technology towards craft of
                                                 mass production. Technology does not rise out of simple market situations,
                                                 political factors (and elite agency) are also at play.

                               Katznelson &       No single or linear path of working class formation; emphasize cultural and
                               Zolberg (1986)     historical factors to explain variations in different national contexts. Suggest
                                                  analyizing the working class in four distinct but semi-autonomous class layers: (1)
                                                  structure [characteristics common to all], (2) Way of Life [experience-near,
                                                  specific], (3) Disposition [shared understandings of social system, values, etc.],
                                                  and (4) Collective Action. Differences in working class formation occur because
                                                  of varying intersection of these variables.
                               Freeman (1994)     In contrast to supply-demand theory, Freeman offers an Institutional explaination
                                                  for rising inequality between U.S. and Europe--namely, the low degree of U.S.
                                                  unionization and formal training matter. The decline of these instiutions (de-
                                                  industrialization) has been the source of great income disparity. Trade offs
                                                  between different institutional wage setting and training mechanisms. Solutions
                                                  are not simple.
              THEME                  Author                                             Main Ideas
Cultural Change: & Revolution:
Social Movements                 McCarthy & Zald   Shifts discussion of social movements away from social psychology (collective
                                     (1977)        behavior of members; i.e. downplay grievances) to resource mobilization--
                                                   greivances alone are not sufficent. The influence and size of a social movement is
                                                   dependent upon resources. This resource aggregation requires a modicrum of
                                                   organizational wherewithall-i.e. a support base, stategy/tactics, etc. It emphasizes
                                                   rationality of movement participants and looks at social movement organizations
                                                   (SMOs) as formal organizations . Interaction between resource availability, pre-
                                                   existing organizational prefernce structures, & attempts to meet preference
                                                   demands. The trend in social movements in the U.S. is towards more
                                                   professinalization and formal organization.

                                   Tilly (1978)    Tilly provides a model of collective action (revolts, strikes, uprisings, etc.) that
                                                   consists of seven parts: (1) Interests, (2) Organization, (3) Mobilization
                                                   [capacity to act]: the process by which a group goes from being a passive
                                                   collection to an active participant in life, (4) Collective Action: outcome, joint
                                                   action in pursuit of common ends, (5) Opportunity/Threat, (6)
                                                   Repression/Facilitation: repression is an action which raises the other group's
                                                   cost of collective action, whereas facilititation is the opposite, and (7) Power: the
                                                   extent to which the interests of a given party prevail over the other. Three general
                                                   forms of collective action: (1) competitive, (2) reactive, and (3) proactive.

                                 Skcopol (1979)    Brings the State back into analysis as an active participant in the shape of social
                                                   movements--states are not merely arenas for participation, they are actors of their
                                                   own right. When old regimes are unable to meet the challenges of a changing
                                                   world, the upper-landed class can undermine the power of the state for its own
                                                   interest. There are four elements of a successful revolution: (1) Structure at World
                                                   Level: international political pressure; (2) Structure at National Level: organization
                                                   of state in relation to classes, esp upper-landed; (3) Structure at Local Level:
                                                   degree of peasant unrest; and (4) Structure at Group Level: degree and kinds of
                                                   solidarity of peasant communities. In short, social-political crises are not enough,
                                                   there also needs to be some peasant revolt against landed-elite.
              THEME      Author                                            Main Ideas
Cultural Change:      McAdam (1982)   Offers a new model to understand social movements: the Political Process
                                      Model which differs from the classical and resource mobilization models. Social
                                      movements are a process (from start to finish) that interact with other on-going
                                      social processes. Three sets of factors generate insurgencies: (1) political
                                      opportunties, (2) indigenous organizational strength, and (2) cognitive liberation [a
                                      transformation of consciousness]. All three of these attributed to the rise of the
                                      black insurgency.

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