Lesson Plan Natural Disasters pub by nikeborome

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									                Lesson 8: Natural Disasters
    Lesson Overview: This lesson will explain what natural disasters are
    and discuss their impact on daily life, agriculture and the local
    economy. Students will learn about the floods, earthquakes and
    freezes faced by early settlers to Orange County and how they coped
    with these disasters.

Expected Learning Outcomes:                              Natural Disasters”
                                                ♦       Copy of My Orange County history book
In this lesson, students will be able to:               page for each student
♦ Identify three types of natural disasters
  Orange County settlers faced during the           Target Vocabulary:
  20th century.
♦ Explain the impact that natural disasters
                                                    Write these words on the board before each
  have on agricultural communities.
                                                    lesson to reinforce key lesson concepts:
♦ Discuss the measures farmers and other
                                                    ♦ natural disaster
  community members in Orange County
                                                    ♦ flood
  took to minimize or prevent damage from
                                                    ♦ earthquake
  future natural disasters.
                                                    ♦ freeze

Correlations to California’s Content                Starting The Lesson – Activating Prior
Standards:                                          Knowledge:
♦ History-Social Studies: 3.1; 3.3; 3.5;            ♦ Review teacher background information
                            4.1; 4.4                  for this lesson plan.
♦   English-Language Arts (Listening and            ♦ Ask students to define “natural disaster.”
    Speaking): 3.1                                    Together as a class, have students
♦   English-Language Arts (Writing): 3.1; 3.2         compose their own definition of “natural
♦   English-Language Arts (Written and Oral           disaster.” Write this definition on the
    Language Conventions): 3.1                        board.
♦   Sciences (Life Sciences): 3.3                   ♦ Give students dictionary definition of a
♦   Visual and Performing Arts (Creative              natural disaster and together, if
    Expression): 3.2                                  necessary, rewrite/correct their defini-
♦   Visual and Performing Arts (Connections,          tion.
    Relationships, Applications): 3.5               ♦ Discuss the impact natural disasters can
                                                      have on a community and explain the
Materials:                                            short-term and long-term social,
                                                      physical, and industrial effects a disaster
♦ Photos:                                             can have on a community. If desired, use
    ◊ Buena Park flood damage, ca. 1938               modern day examples including
    ◊ Santa Ana River flood damage,                   Hurricane Katrina (2005), the Indian
         Anaheim, ca. 1938                            Ocean Tsunami (2004), and the
      ◊ Icicles on Orange fountain, ca. 1913          Northridge Earthquake (1994).
      ◊ Earthquake damaged building and
         car, ca. 1933                              The Lesson - Learning Together
♦ Photos of Santa Ana Register newspaper
  reproduction of1938 flood                         ♦    Explain to students that a variety of
♦ Student Worksheet: “Orange County                      natural disasters—flood, freezes and
  earthquakes—were catastrophic to the            Beyond The Lesson – Extension
  agricultural livelihood of Orange County        Activity
  in the early 20th century. Discuss how
  the communities took steps to minimize          ♦ Have students pretend they are
  or prevent damage from future forces of           reporters for a local newspaper in the
  nature.                                           early 20th century and must report on
♦ Show and pass around the Santa Ana                one of the natural disasters that has hit
  Register newspaper reproduction to stu-           Orange County. Each student writes a
  dents. Either individually or as a class,         newspaper article about one of the
  have students read about the flood of             disasters and “draws” a photo to
  1938 and its effect on the cities of Ana-         accompany the article.
  heim, Buena Park and beyond.                    ♦ Students add their article to their “My
♦ Class Discussion:                                 Orange County” history book.
    ◊ Of the natural disasters that hit
        Orange County, which one do you
        think hurt agricultural growth the
    ◊ What else could the farmers and                 Teacher Background
        other community members have
        done to minimize the damage                        Like any area, Orange County and its
        caused by the disasters?                      agricultural livelihood were susceptible to
    ◊ Pretend you are an orange/citrus                natural disasters, including floods,
        farmer and a freeze was predicted.            droughts (previously learned vocabulary
        What are some things you might do             word), earthquakes and fires. During the
        to protect your crops? Pretend a              early years when Orange County’s pros-
        flood is predicted and explain what           perity depended on agriculture, the
        you might do to protect your crops.           weather wasn’t just something everybody
    ◊ If you were a farmer and                        talked about – it was a matter of life and
        experienced some or all of these              death.
        freezes, floods or earthquakes, do                 Among the major natural disasters in
        you think you would have re-                  the first half of the 20th Century here were
        mained in Orange County and                   the freezes of 1913 and 1937, and the
        continued farming? Would you                  floods of 1916 and 1938. Another major
        have tried another type of crop or            natural disaster during that time was the
        industry? Would you have wanted               1933 Long Beach Earthquake.
        to move to another county or state?                The 1913 freeze (a bitter, consistent
    ◊ Do you think natural disasters can              cold snap that can damage or destroy
        be predicted?                                 crops) was the worst in Orange County’s
                                                      history. The bitter cold – reported as low as
Check for Understanding/Assessment:                   18 degrees in some areas – lasted several
                                                      days, and damaged or destroyed virtually
My Orange County history book page:                   every crop growing at the time.
♦   Distribute this lesson’s page to each                  Citrus ranchers were particularly hard
    student. Either alone, in small groups or         hit; freezing temperatures could not only
    as a class, students will complete the sen-       destroy the fruit, but the trees themselves
    tences using target vocabulary words              could actually burst open from the cold.
    from the lesson. Review with students             Valleys and low lying areas, where cold
    and have them self-correct.                       could settle, were hardest hit.
♦   Students add this page to their My                     To fight the freeze, growers burned oil
    Orange County history book.                        in smudge pots placed throughout the
                                                       groves as heaters to keep citrus from
freezing. An estimated 60 percent of the         Your Notes Here
county citrus crop was damaged by the                Use this space to make notes about the
freeze of 1913, and fully 40 percent was         lesson, additional resources used, teaching
unmarketable as a result. The 1937 freeze        reminders for next time, etc.
caused heavy crop damage as well.
       Another great natural disaster was the    ______________________________________
1933 Long Beach Earthquake, which caused
heavy damage in parts of Orange County,          ______________________________________
and caused at least four deaths. Estimated at
6.3 on the Richter Scale, the quake was          ______________________________________
especially strong in the areas around Garden     ______________________________________
Grove, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach.
       In addition to freezes and earthquakes,   ______________________________________
floods also took their toll. The 1916 flood
destroyed a significant amount of crops,         ______________________________________
fields, roads and bridges. Besides destroying
crops and homes, the 1938 flood was also         ______________________________________
responsible for about two dozen deaths in        ______________________________________
Orange County. On March 3, 1938, the
Santa Ana River left its bed and water           ______________________________________
poured through downtown Anaheim, then
to Buena Park and beyond. Fields and             ______________________________________
orchards were buried under silt. Just three
years later, Prado Dam was completed to          ______________________________________
help control flooding on the Santa Ana           ______________________________________
       But in Southern California, droughts      ______________________________________
are more common than floods, and can
sometimes last for years at a time. The          ______________________________________
drought of 1863-64 caused a number of the
old Mexican rancheros to lose their land.        ______________________________________
The drought of 1876-77 led to the battles        ______________________________________
over the waters of the Santa Ana River. To
prepare for droughts, local ranchers drilled     ______________________________________
wells, built dams and irrigation ditches, and
eventually began to look outside of Orange       ______________________________________
County for additional water sources.
Colorado River water reached Orange              ______________________________________
County in the 1940s through the                  ______________________________________
Metropolitan Water District (MWD)
aqueduct. Later, water from Northern             ______________________________________
California arrived via the State Water
Project. Today, much of South Orange             ______________________________________
County is supplied by imported water.
    Worksheet - Natural Disasters (Lesson 8)
       Work with students in your group to fill in each square
       with information about natural disasters you learned about
       in the lesson.

                    Earthquake          Freeze            Flood
—what is it?

—what is it like?

Impact on Com-
—what are its

Possible Prepara-
tion Steps
—what can a
farmer do to re-
duce damage?
1938 Flood, Buena Park (Lesson 8)
1938 Flood, Anaheim (Lesson 8)
Winter Freeze, Orange (Lesson 8)
Earthquake Damage, Santa Ana (Lesson 8)
Santa Ana Register, 1938 (Lesson 8)
Santa Ana Register, 1938 (Lesson 8)
           My Orange County History Book
                     Lesson 8: Natural Disasters

Directions: Using the vocabulary words from this lesson, fill in the sentences below.
Use each word only once.

                   natural disasters • floods • earthquake • freeze

1.       Two major ______________________ washed away crops, fields, roads
         and bridges in Orange County in 1916 and 1938.
2.       Floods and earthquakes are examples of __________________
3.       In 1933, an ________________________ centered in Long Beach
         caused a lot of damage in several parts of Orange County.
4.       During a major crop    ____________ in Orange County in 1913,
         farmers reported temperatures as low as 18 degrees.

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