Docstoc

DISASTER

Document Sample
DISASTER Powered By Docstoc
					   DISASTER

AND THE HEALTH CARE
      SYSTEM
  THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM

• DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT THE
  FIJI APPROACH
DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT-
        TRNSITION
• 1970-1990 Emphasis on emergency
  response.
• 1990-International Decade for natural
  disaster.
• United Nation IDNDR resolution rectified
  by Fiji . Transfer of responsibility from
  Ministry of Home affairs to Ministry of
  Regional Development in 1990
                   cont
• Establishment of National Disaster office
• Development of a National Disaster
  Management Plan in 1995.
• Development of Hazard Support Plan.
• Enactment of the 1998 Natural Disaster
  Management Act.
• 2001- NDMO established as a full fledged
  Department with a necessary staff
  establishment & Budget
                  cont
• Paradigm shift- Comprehensive Hazard
  and Risk Management ( CHARM)
• Adoption of Pacific framework for action
  2005-2015.
• Review of the Natural Disaster
  Management Act,1998 & National Disaster
  Management Plan 1995
 Strategic Development Plan policy
             Objectives
• To mainstream disaster risk management into
  national development decision making process.
• To improve Hazards and Risk Management.
• To improve community awareness of risk
  preparedness and response.
• Assist communities to be self reliant in the face
  of a disaster.
• To invest in infrastructure to mitigate the impact
  of disaster.
   FIJI NATIONAL DISASTER
    MANAGEMENT OFFICE
• VISION- sustainable development and
                 risk reduction through
       partnership and community
              empowerment.
                Mission
• To provide effective measures of
  preparedness, mitigation and response
  needed to reduce the vulnerability of
  societies at risk and increase their
  resilience
       Emergency and Disaster
           Management.
• A collective term encompassing all
  aspects of planning for and responding to
  emergencies and disaster, including both
  pre and post- event activities. It refers to
  the management of both the risk and the
  consequences of an event.
        Emergency and Disaster
        management (pro-active)
•   More than response and relief.
•   It is a systemic process
•   To reduce negative consequences
•   System with many components.
       Emergency and Disaster
        Management System
• Hazards, Vulnerability and Risk.
• Public and Government.
• Legislation, Plans and programme
• People, Organisation and resources.
• Results: Preventative/Mitigation measures,
  effective preparedness, planned response,
  Durable recovery
• Evaluation
• Feedback
  IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS
• HARZARDS
  The potential for a natural or human-
  caused event to occur with negative
  consequences.
• EMERGENCY
• A situation generated by the real or
  imminent occurrence of an event that
  require immediate attention.
             DISASTER
• Natural or Human caused event which
  causes intense negative impacts on
  people, goods, services and/or the
  environment, exceeding the affected
  community's capability to respond
    DISASTER CLASSIFICATION
•   Naturally caused
•   Human caused
•   Sudden onset
•   Slow onset
  Relationship between Emergencies
             and Disaster
• Emergencies are considered to be routine
  adverse events that do not have community
  (nation) wide impact or do not require
  extraordinary use of resources or procedures to
  bring people to obtain back to normal.
• BUT When a country or community is required
  to obtain resources from outside of their normal
  authority, the term DISASTER applies
         Defining the disaster Threat:
         Hazards, Vulnerability& Risk

• Hazards x Vulnerability = Risk
• An assumption has been made that there are
  elements at risk If there were not, we would not
  be concerned with risk.
• Example: h x 0 =0 or v x 0=0 h x v = hv
          HAZARD ASSESSMENT


• Hazard-which hazard (s) is a threat or potential
  threat to Fiji?
• Frequency- How often does it occur? How big is the
  event
• Severity-What is the intensity?
• Location/area- what areas have been or are likely
  to be affected
• Time period/duration- when does it occur and how
  long does it last
• Speed of Onset- Is it predictable? How much
  warning time is there? Slow or fast?
•   Key Factors that affect coping are:
•   Experience
•   Preparedness
•   Resources
•   Scale
•   Duration
              Vulnerability
• Definition:
• The extent to which a community's
  structure, services or environment is likely
  to be damaged or disrupted by the impact
  of a hazard.
•   KINDS OF VULNERABILITY IN FIJI
•   Tangible /material
•   people
•   Property
•   Economy
•   Environment
•   Intangible/abstract
•   Social structure
•   Cultural practices
•   Cohesion
•   Motivation.
Vulnerability Contributing Factor
•   Poverty
•   Population growth
•   Rapid urbanisation
•   Transition in cultural practices
•   Environmental degradation
•   Lack of awareness and information
•   Civil strike/unrest
•   Geographic isolation
•   High disaster impact
•   Political uncertainty/ instability.
      Vulnerability Assessment
•   People
•   Property
•   Economy
•   Environment
•   Society
                     RISK
DEFINITION: The probability that loss will occur as
  the result of an adverse event, given the hazard
  and the vulnerability
Risk Determination:
Identify the hazard and prepare a map.
What is the type and they cause of the hazard?
What is its history?
Hat is the potential for the hazard to result in an
  adverse event.
                   cont
• Determine the elements at risk
• Eg people, property, economy,
  environment, and the society.
• Primary and secondary effect.
• Determine the vulnerability of the element
  at risk
• Describe the vulnerability
• Map the area of
            RISK ANALYSIS
• Determining the expected losses due to a
  particular hazard for a given area and the time
  period and the vulnerability of the community to
  be affected.
• People
• Property
• Economy
• Environment
• Society.
Hazard, Vulnerability, Risk, Threat.

• Example from each of this Term:
• The volcano is an hazard
• There is a THREAT RISK of the volcano
  erupting
• Our village is VULNERABLE because we
  live close to the volcano HAZARD and
  therefore there is a high RISK of a
  DISASTER loss
        RISK REDUCTION
• Modify the hazard
• Reduce Vulnerability
The disaster management cycle
          DEVELOPMENT
• The cumulative and lasting increase, tied
  to social changes. In the quantity and
  quality of community's goods, services and
  resources, with the propose of maintaining
  and improving the security and quality of
  human life without compromising future
  generation.
   EMERGENCY and DISASTER
       MANAGEMENT.
• A collective term encompassing all
  aspects of planning for and responding to
  emergencies and disasters, including both
  pre-and post- event activities. It refers to
  the management of both the risk and the
  consequences of an event.
    DISASTER MANAGEMENT
           CYCLE.
• The cycle is divided into three phases and
  six stages:
• Before:       During:         After
• Prevention Response Rehabilitation
• Mitigation                  Reconstruction
• Preparedness
• Development is integrated to all stages of
  the Disaster Cycle.
   DISASTER MANAGEMENT
• IS more than just response and relief
  activities.
• Involves all the activities of management
  through series of stages that form a cycle.
• Must be intergraded with development
• Emphasis being on pro-active.