DISASTER AND THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM • DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT THE FIJI APPROACH DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT- TRNSITION • 1970-1990 Emphasis on emergency response. • 1990-International Decade for natural disaster. • United Nation IDNDR resolution rectified by Fiji . Transfer of responsibility from Ministry of Home affairs to Ministry of Regional Development in 1990 cont • Establishment of National Disaster office • Development of a National Disaster Management Plan in 1995. • Development of Hazard Support Plan. • Enactment of the 1998 Natural Disaster Management Act. • 2001- NDMO established as a full fledged Department with a necessary staff establishment & Budget cont • Paradigm shift- Comprehensive Hazard and Risk Management ( CHARM) • Adoption of Pacific framework for action 2005-2015. • Review of the Natural Disaster Management Act,1998 & National Disaster Management Plan 1995 Strategic Development Plan policy Objectives • To mainstream disaster risk management into national development decision making process. • To improve Hazards and Risk Management. • To improve community awareness of risk preparedness and response. • Assist communities to be self reliant in the face of a disaster. • To invest in infrastructure to mitigate the impact of disaster. FIJI NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT OFFICE • VISION- sustainable development and risk reduction through partnership and community empowerment. Mission • To provide effective measures of preparedness, mitigation and response needed to reduce the vulnerability of societies at risk and increase their resilience Emergency and Disaster Management. • A collective term encompassing all aspects of planning for and responding to emergencies and disaster, including both pre and post- event activities. It refers to the management of both the risk and the consequences of an event. Emergency and Disaster management (pro-active) • More than response and relief. • It is a systemic process • To reduce negative consequences • System with many components. Emergency and Disaster Management System • Hazards, Vulnerability and Risk. • Public and Government. • Legislation, Plans and programme • People, Organisation and resources. • Results: Preventative/Mitigation measures, effective preparedness, planned response, Durable recovery • Evaluation • Feedback IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS • HARZARDS The potential for a natural or human- caused event to occur with negative consequences. • EMERGENCY • A situation generated by the real or imminent occurrence of an event that require immediate attention. DISASTER • Natural or Human caused event which causes intense negative impacts on people, goods, services and/or the environment, exceeding the affected community's capability to respond DISASTER CLASSIFICATION • Naturally caused • Human caused • Sudden onset • Slow onset Relationship between Emergencies and Disaster • Emergencies are considered to be routine adverse events that do not have community (nation) wide impact or do not require extraordinary use of resources or procedures to bring people to obtain back to normal. • BUT When a country or community is required to obtain resources from outside of their normal authority, the term DISASTER applies Defining the disaster Threat: Hazards, Vulnerability& Risk • Hazards x Vulnerability = Risk • An assumption has been made that there are elements at risk If there were not, we would not be concerned with risk. • Example: h x 0 =0 or v x 0=0 h x v = hv HAZARD ASSESSMENT • Hazard-which hazard (s) is a threat or potential threat to Fiji? • Frequency- How often does it occur? How big is the event • Severity-What is the intensity? • Location/area- what areas have been or are likely to be affected • Time period/duration- when does it occur and how long does it last • Speed of Onset- Is it predictable? How much warning time is there? Slow or fast? • Key Factors that affect coping are: • Experience • Preparedness • Resources • Scale • Duration Vulnerability • Definition: • The extent to which a community's structure, services or environment is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of a hazard. • KINDS OF VULNERABILITY IN FIJI • Tangible /material • people • Property • Economy • Environment • Intangible/abstract • Social structure • Cultural practices • Cohesion • Motivation. Vulnerability Contributing Factor • Poverty • Population growth • Rapid urbanisation • Transition in cultural practices • Environmental degradation • Lack of awareness and information • Civil strike/unrest • Geographic isolation • High disaster impact • Political uncertainty/ instability. Vulnerability Assessment • People • Property • Economy • Environment • Society RISK DEFINITION: The probability that loss will occur as the result of an adverse event, given the hazard and the vulnerability Risk Determination: Identify the hazard and prepare a map. What is the type and they cause of the hazard? What is its history? Hat is the potential for the hazard to result in an adverse event. cont • Determine the elements at risk • Eg people, property, economy, environment, and the society. • Primary and secondary effect. • Determine the vulnerability of the element at risk • Describe the vulnerability • Map the area of RISK ANALYSIS • Determining the expected losses due to a particular hazard for a given area and the time period and the vulnerability of the community to be affected. • People • Property • Economy • Environment • Society. Hazard, Vulnerability, Risk, Threat. • Example from each of this Term: • The volcano is an hazard • There is a THREAT RISK of the volcano erupting • Our village is VULNERABLE because we live close to the volcano HAZARD and therefore there is a high RISK of a DISASTER loss RISK REDUCTION • Modify the hazard • Reduce Vulnerability The disaster management cycle DEVELOPMENT • The cumulative and lasting increase, tied to social changes. In the quantity and quality of community's goods, services and resources, with the propose of maintaining and improving the security and quality of human life without compromising future generation. EMERGENCY and DISASTER MANAGEMENT. • A collective term encompassing all aspects of planning for and responding to emergencies and disasters, including both pre-and post- event activities. It refers to the management of both the risk and the consequences of an event. DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE. • The cycle is divided into three phases and six stages: • Before: During: After • Prevention Response Rehabilitation • Mitigation Reconstruction • Preparedness • Development is integrated to all stages of the Disaster Cycle. DISASTER MANAGEMENT • IS more than just response and relief activities. • Involves all the activities of management through series of stages that form a cycle. • Must be intergraded with development • Emphasis being on pro-active.